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קהילת יהודי בוקרשט

בוקרשט Bucuresti

בירת רומניה. בחבל ואלאכיה, הרגאט, דרום מרכז רומניה.

יהודים יוצאי טורקיה וארצות הבלקן ישבו בבוקרשט באמצע המאה ה-16 ובמרד 1593 הושמדה הקהילה עם שאר אזרחי טורקיה תושבי העיר. כעבור מאה שנה התגבש יישוב חדש, אשכנזי ברובו. מטעמים כלכליים גילו העירוניים יחס עויין לקהילה המתפתחת ובאחת ההתפרצויות (ב-1801) בשל עלילת-דם נהרגו ונפצעו 128 יהודים.

הרדיפות נשנו בשנות הכיבוש הרוסי (1812-1806) והחריפו ב-1821, כאשר הטורקים דיכאו את המרד היווני בהנהגת אלכסנדר איפסילאנטי. היהודים נהנו אז מאוטונומיה ניכרת במסגרת "החברה היהודית" וראש הקהילה בבוקרשט שימש כסגן החכם-באשי (הרב הראשי) במדינת מולדאביה. במאה ה-19 נהרו לבוקרשט יהודים רבים וב-1899 מנו יותר מ-40,500 נפש (14.7 אחוזים מכלל האוכלוסיה). יותר מ-2,700 עסקו במלאכה; האחרים עסקו במסחר והיו גם בנקאים אחדים, בפרט ביישוב הספרדי. בתוקף משטר הקפיטולאציות היו המהגרים החדשים פטורים מתשלום מסים ברומניה והם סירבו גם לשלם את המס על בשר כשר, מקור ההכנסה היחיד של "החברה היהודית". כתוצאה מן הסכסוך קצצו השלטונות את האוטונומיה היהודית ועל ה"חברה" הוטלה מרות העיריה. המחלוקת גרמה לפירוד באוכלוסיה היהודית ו-300 משפחות של נתיני פרוסיה ואוסטריה ייסדו קהילה משלהם (ב- 1851). אותו זמן ישבה גם קהילה ספרדית של כ- 150 משפחות בעיר. כל אותו זמן התנהל בעדה האשכנזית מאבק חריף בין החרדים והפרוגרסיבים, שהגיע לשיאו בפתיחת בית- הספר החדש ב- 1852 ובתכנית להקים בית-כנסת רפורמי ולהנהיג תיקונים בסדר- התפילה. בראש החרדים התייצב ר' לייב בן יחיאל מיכל (המלבי"ם), שעלה על כס הרבנות בעיר ב-1858. כעבור ארבע שנים הדיחה אותו הממשלה מכהונתו וב-1867 הושלם ההיכל הרפורמי ונעשה מוקד לפעולות תרבות וחינוך לציבור האמיד, אנשי האגף הפרוגרסיבי. המשך המחלוקת בקהילה האשכנזית הביא לביטול מעמדה הרשמי וב- 1874 חדלה הקהילה להתקיים כיחידה מאורגנת ולא נתחדשה אלא ב- 1919. פעולות צדקה וחינוך ביישוב היהודי התנהלו על-ידי חברות פרטיות וציבוריות, מהן בתמיכת הלשכה המקומית של "בני ברית" שהקים בעיר הקונסול האמריקאני היהודי ב.פ. פישוטו (1872). עם ראשי הציבור הדתי לפני מלחמת-העולם הראשונה נמנו הרבנים הרפורמים אנטואן לוי ומוריץ בק, והרב יצחק אייזיק טאובס, רב הקהילה האורתודוכסית בשנים 1921-1894. בראש הציבור החילוני עמד אדולף שטרן (1931-1848), נשיא הנציגות המדינית הראשונה של יהדות רומניה וחבר הפרלמנט הרומני.

בין שתי מלחמות-העולם גדל בהתמדה מספר התושבים היהודיים בבוקרשט; ב-1930 התגוררו בה 74,480 וב-1940 - יותר מ-95,000 יהודים. שני שלישים מהם עסקו במלאכה ובפקידות, השאר היו בעלי מקצועות חופשיים, בעיקר רופאים ועורכי דין. ב-1920 אושרה הקהילה האשכנזית וב-1931 הוכרה כנציגות החוקית של האוכלוסיה היהודית בעיר. מוסדות הקהילה הקיפו 40 בתי-כנסת, שני בתי- עלמין, 19 בתי-ספר, ספריה ומוזיאון היסטורי, שני בתי-חולים ומרפאה, שני מושבי-זקנים ושני בתי-יתומות. עם ראשי הקהילה בתקופה האמורה נמנו הרב י. נמירובר והמנהיג החילוני ו. פילדרמן. מהומות אנטי-יהודיות, בעיקר בהשראת סטודנטים, פקדו את העיר מפעם לפעם. הטרור החריף בספטמבר 1940, עם הקמת הקואליציה של אנטונסקו ו"משמר הברזל", והגיע לשיאו במרידת אנשי ה"משמר" בימים 24-21 בינואר 1941; בפוגרום נרצחו 120 יהודים, אלפים נאסרו, בתים ומוסדות יהודיים נהרסו ונשדדו ביניהם בתי-כנסת רבים. עד לנפילתו של אנטונסקו באוגוסט 1944 סבלו יהודי הבירה, כשאר יהודי רומניה, מרדיפות קשות ושיעור המועסקים באוכלוסיה היהודית ירד ב-1942 לכדי 27.2 אחוזים לעומת 54.3 אחוזים באוכלוסייה הכללית. בספטמבר אותה שנה גורשו מאות יהודים לטרנסניסטריה, אלפי בתים ודירות של יהודים הופקעו וילדי היהודים הורחקו מבתי-הספר הכלליים. ב-1943 קיימה הקהילה 27 בתי-ספר משלה; בוקרשט נעשתה המרכז לפעולות סיוע למדינה כולה, בפרט למגורשים לטרנסניסטריה.

אחרי הקמת השלטון הקומוניסטי (1947) נסגרו בהדרגה כל המוסדות הלאומיים, מוסדות הצדקה היהודיים הולאמו והתלמידיים היהודיים נקלטו ברשת החינוך הכללית. בית-ספר ביידיש נפתח ב-1949 ונסגר כעבור שנים אחדות; שני עיתונים יהודיים, אחד ברומנית ואחד ביידיש נפתחו ונסגרו באופן דומה.

הפעילות הקהילתית התנהלה בחסות איחוד הקהילות ברומניה, האיחוד טיפל גם בצרכים הדתיים. בעיר 14 בתי-כנסת קבועים, "תלמוד-תורה" וחברת ש"ס. מטעם האיחוד הופיע בטאון תלת-לשוני (ברומנית, בעברית וביידיש). הפעולה התרבותית התרכזה סביב התיאטרון היידי שהמדינה סייעה לקיומו מאז שנת 1948. בית-ספר יהודי לאמנות הבמה נפתח בעיר ב- 1957.

ב-1976 התגוררו בבוקרשט 40,000 יהודים בערך. כמאה יהודים ניספו ברעש-האדמה שפקד את בוקרשט בפברואר 1977.

בשנת 1997 חיו ברומניה כולה 14,000 יהודים. בבוקרשט נימנו באותה השנה 6,000 יהודים.
סוג מקום:
עיר
מספר פריט:
237354
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:

Rafael Radu Dragan (1909-1986), composer, pianist and teacher, born in Bucharest, Romania. He immigrated to Israel and during the 1950s he was the founder of the music conservatorium in Nahariya. He was a piano and voice training teacher. The Israeli composer, musician, singer, arranger, and lyricist Matti Caspi is one of his students. Dragan appeared on stage as an accompanying pianist of vocal music recitals. He died in Tel Aviv. 

Filderman, Wilhelm (1882–1963), leader of the Romanian Jews, born in Bucharest, Romania. Filderman studied law in Paris, France. He returned to Romania and after teaching for two years at the Jewish high school in Bucharest, started his law practice in 1912. In 1913 he was elected to the central committee of the Union of Romanian Jews. During World War I Filderman was an officer in the Romanian army. At the Versailles Peace Conference he was chosen to be a member of the Comité des Délégations Juives. He demanded the total emancipation of the Jews and the inclusion of this principle in the peace treaty with Romania.

In 1920 Filderman became the representative of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) in Romania and in 1923 was elected president of the Union of Romanian Jews. Between the two world wars, he fought antisemitism, and worked for the effective realization of full citizenship for the Jews. He published a number of books against antisemitism. He was opposed to a separate Jewish party. In 1927 Filderman was elected a member of the Romanian parliament on the Liberal Party list. From 1931 to 1933 he was the president of the Jewish Community of Bucharest, and in the same period he became president of the Federation of Jewish Communities. When the enlarged Jewish Agency was constituted in 1929, he was elected as a non-Zionist delegate to its founding congress in Zurich.

After 1940, when the anti-Semitic fascist symparthiser Ion Antonescu took over the leadership of the country, Filderman intervened with him as a representative of the Federation, several times obtaining the revocation of serious measures, such as the wearing of the yellow badge, the deportation of Romanian Jews to Nazi death camps in Poland, etc. At the beginning of 1942, when the Federation of Communities was dissolved, Filderman continued to write to authorities to denounce the racial measures. He was a member of the underground Jewish Council, formed of representatives of the principal Jewish trends. When he expressed his opposition to the special tax of four billion lei imposed on the Jews he was sent to Transnistria (March 1943), returning after three months through the intervention of the papal nuncio and the Swiss and Swedish ambassadors. Back in Bucharest, he immediately reported to the Romanian government on the terrible situation of the deportees in Transnistria and asked for their return, which was obtained at the end of the same year.

After the war, he again became president of the Federation of Communities and of the Union of Romanian Jews and representative of the JDC. He was however persecuted by the Communists, In 1948 he secretly left Romania and settled in Paris.

Liviu Rotman (b. 1947), researcher of the history of the Jews of Romania, born in Bucharest, Romania. He graduated from the Mihai Viteazul High School and then attended the Faculty of History at the University of Bucharest earning a PhD. He immigrated to Israel in 1985. Between 1990 - 2003 he worked as a researcher and lecturer at Tel Aviv University, especially within the framework of the Romanian Jewish History Center Goldstein-Goren, a department of the Diaspora Research Institute of the University.  Rotman is an associate professor at the University of Bucharest and member of the Academic Council of the Institute of Jewish Studies at the University of Bucharest. Rotman edited a five-volume series on the history of Romanian Jewry. His works include Şcoala israelito-română: Învăţămantul evreiesc modern din România (“Education as a mirror of society: Jewish-Romanian school, 1851-1914”, 1999), Memory of the Holocaust in Communist Romania: from Minimization to Oblivion (2003); Evreii din România în perioada comunistă 1944-1965 ("Jews in Romania during the Communist regime", 2004); The Kehillah in Romania: The Pulse, Character and History of the Jewish Community of Romania (2015).

מנצח. נולד בבוקרשט, רומניה. למד באקדמיה למוסיקה בעיר הולדתו. הופעתו הראשונה כמנצח נערכה ב-1948. ניצח על האנסמבל הרומני הממלכתי ועל התזמורת הסימפונית של בוקרשט. ב-1961 עלה לישראל, וניצח על התזמורת הסימפונית של חיפה ועל התזמורת הקאמרית הישראלית. אחר כך השתקע בארצות-הברית וניצח על בתי האופרה של אלסטר ובלטימור. מעונת 1991/92 קומיסיונה הוא המנהל המוסיקלי של תזמורת ונקובר.
Popper, Julius (1857–1893), an engineer, adventurer and explorer, born in Bucharest, Romania.

He started his education at his father's private school and at the age of 17 moved to Paris, France, where he attended the Politechnique and then the École des Ponts et Chaussées graduating as a mines engineer. He also attended various courses on chemistry, physics, meteorology, ethnography, geology and geography at Sorbonne.

He started his travels around the world in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Istanbul, Turkey), from there he moved to Egypt where he worked for some time at the maintanance of the Suez Channel. He continued to India, China, and Japan, and from there he returned to Romania to visit his family in 1881, never to come back. He restarted his travels first to Siberia, Russia, and then to Alaska, Canada, and the USA, where he stayed for sometime in New Orleans, LA. Popper then moved to Cuba, at the time a Spanish colony, where he contributed to the urban planing of the city of Havana being the main responsible for its modern develoment. From Cuba Popper traveled to Mexico, where he started a journalistic career, then to Brazil, and finally in 1885 he arrived in Argentina followig rumors of gold rush.

In Argentina he organized the "Popper Expedition" in 1886. Leading a team of eighteen people, Popper discovered gold dust on the beach of El Páramo, a Patagonian peninsula. He lead his team much as a private army and step by step, following the discovery of significant amounts of gold, his company Compania de Lavaderos de Oro del Sud succeeeded in making large capital gains at the Argentine stock exchange. Popper started issuing his own coins and stamps and when the Argentinian currency lost its much of its value in the crash of 1890, his gold coins were widely accepted as trusted alternative currency.

Popper's activities in Tierra del Fuego have been quite controversial with accusations of involvement into the exploitation and even mass murder of the local native population. However, he received the support of the Argentinian goverment who was interested in the development of province of Tierra del Fuego, and Popper even started the preparations for an expedition to enforce the Argentine claim for parts of Antarctica.

Popper died in Buenos Aires in unclear circumstances: he was found dead in his room, some rumors suggested that he was assasinated, others that he commited suicide or died of a heart attack.
Iser, Iosif (1881-1958), painter and graphic artist, born in Bucharest, Romania. He studied in Munich, Germany, and Paris, France.

Iser, who harbored Socialist opinions, worked for the socialist publications Facla and Adevărul where he published numerous caricatures, of them many satirising the Romanian monarchy.

His early style was strongly influenced by the expressionist movement, but he later created his own artistic language. His travels to Spain and then the discovery of the landscape and people of the south-eastern region of Dobruja (Dobrogea) were decissive for adopting exotic themes. Iser painted many portraits of the Tartar inhabitants of Dobruja; this series were followed by works that dealt with the life of harlequins and circus artists. Following the instauration of the Communist regime in Romania, Iser returned to his socialist inspired themes painting especially portraits of working people. Iser was elected a full member of the Romanian Academy in 1955.
Lichtblau, Leon (1901-1938), socialist and communist activist, the son of an architect, born in Bucharest, Romania. Lichtblau political activities started in his school years when he met a number of socialist militants and helped to organize anti-estsablishment demonstrations. In 1918 he and some other militants were arrested in the course of large workers' demonstration in Bucharest and sent to trial for "rebellion and unrest".

In 1920, having graduated from high school, he enrolled in the Faculty of Mathematics of Bucharest University. In 1921 he went to Iasi (Jassy) to support the local workers' movement, but soon returned to Bucharest, narrowly escaping arrest. He participated in the May 1921 Congress of the Socialist Party of Romania where he supported the party's affiliation with the Cominterm. In the summer of that year he was part of the Romanian delegation to the the Young Communist International Congress in Moscow, Soviet Russia. On his return to Romania he found out that the authorities were offering a large reward for his and others communists' capture, and went into hiding. Pressure was put on his family to reveal his location, eventually Lichtblau eventually left Romania moving to Vienna and, after being expelled from Austria, he settled in Berlin, Germany. Meanwhile in Romania he was sentenced to lifetime forced labour and another arrest warrant was issued for him in 1922.

Lichtblau moved to Moscow. There he graduated in economics from the Institute of Red Professors. In 1926 he became Head of the Industry Department of the Central Office of Economic Accounting of the USSR. At the request of the communists in Romania, he translated a part of Lenin's works into Romanian. For a short time in 1928 he was a member in Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Romania, along with two fellow exiles.

While in the USSR, Lichtblau was arrested on April 5, 1937, during the Stalinist purges and was later indicted with "spying and provocative activities and membership in a right-wing counter-revolutionary organisation", and consequently was executed for these offences.

Leon Lichtblau was posthumously rehabilitated by a decision of the Soviet Supreme Court in 1956, as well as by a commission of the Romanian Communist Party in 1968.
Rabbi and scholar

Born in Bucharest, he studied at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau and the University of Leipzig. From 1881 he was lecturer at the University of Bucharest until 1885 when he was expelled on account of his protests at the persecution of Jews. He then settled in England where he taught at Oxford University until 1887 when he was chosen as Haham (chief rabbi) of the London Sephardi community, serving until his retirement in 1917. An authority on Romanian philology, literature and folklore as well as in many branches of Jewish knowledge , he wrote numerous studies in all these fields. A leader of Hovevei Zion in his native Romania, he joined the political Zionist movement at its outset. In 1898 Gaster was one of the founders of the English Zionist Federation and during World War I took a leading role in talks with British statesmen that culminated in the Balfour Declaration.
Cerbu , Eva (1924-2008), painter, born as Eva Siegler in Bucharest, Romania. She studied at the Academy of Fine Arts (Scoala de Arte Frumoase) in Bucharest where she was a student of the painters M.H. Maxy and Al. Ciucurencu. She traveled extensively to Bulgaria, Soviet Union, Germany, France, Italy, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Israel, and Greece.

In addition to fiftyeen personal exhibition in Bucharest and another cities in Romania, from 1956 to 1996, she also participated in numerous collective exhibitions in Romania and abroad, including Prague, Czech Republic (1947, 1953, 1961, 1966); Budapest, Hungary (1948, 1953, 1960); Sophia, Bulgaria (1955, 1962, 1966); Warsaw, Poland (1958); Moscow, Russia (1959, 1975); Belgrad, Serbia (1960); Riga, Latvia (1960); Vienna, Austria (1961, 1969); Bratislava, Slovakia (1960); Venice, Italy (1961); Damascus, Syria (1961); Leipzig, Germany (1960); Cairo, Egypt (1962); Ljubljana, Slovenia (1961); Athens, Greece (1962); Habana, Cuba (1962); Bruxelles, Belgium (1964); Tel Aviv, Israel (1968, 1994); Beirut, Lebanon (1969); Lisbon, Portugal (1975); Oslo, Norway (1975); Perth, Australia (1976); Caracas, Venezuela (1978, 1980); Lyngby, Denmark (1985); Buenos Aires, Argentina (1991); Beijing, China (1994).

Her works are displayed in museums in Romania, USA, Switzerlan, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Israel, Mexico, France.
Koffler, Remus (1902-1954), Communist activist, born in Bucharest, Romania. His father owned a factory and became wealthy during the German occupation of Romania 1916-1918 by selling alcoholic drinks. Koffler was baptized by his parents and attended Christian schools. He finished his schooling in Switzerland. Towards the end of World War I he became a Zionist and the same year he announced that he had become a communist. In Bucharest, he joined the Socialist Party of Romania. He then traveled for studies in Germany, where he attended communist meetings, took part in demonstrations and agitated on Soviet Russia's behalf and eventually joined the German Communist Party taking part in demonstrations and campaigns.

Koffler returned to Romania in 1932 and worked for a short time in his father's business. He was an occasional courier to Prague, where the political office of the Romanian Communist Party was located. He was member of the editing committee of the clandestine Communist newspaper "Scanteia" to which he was a frequent contributor.

After the Communists came to power in Romania, Koffler was arrested in December 1949. He was accused of "crimes against peace", of support of Romania's war against the Soviet Union during WW2, of treason by providing information to the British and American intelligence agencies, and of having collaborated with the Romanian Secret Service during the Fascist regime in the early 1940s. Koffler was tortured for years despite his cardiac disease eventually developing a psychic condition. However, it seems that the real reason was the fact that having been head of the Financial Central Committee of the Communist Party he knew the sources of party funds and their destination, which included some of the most senior leader of Communist Romania.

Koffler was tried and sentenced to death in 1954. He refused to apply for a pardon, and was executed in April 1954. Unlike other Communist leaders executed in the Stalinist purges of the early 1950s, Koffler had never been rehabilitated by the Communist regime of Romania.
מלחין ומנצח. נולד בבוקרשט, רומניה, היגר ב-1936 לאנגליה, וייסד וניהל בה את הוועדה – אחר-כך: החברה – לקידום מוסיקה חדשה (1972-1943). שגרן הלחין קטעים רבים של מוסיקה קלה. עם יצירותיו לאולמות הקונצרטים נמנות שתי סימפוניות (1959, 1970). הוא נפטר בלונדון, אנגליה.
Film actor

Born in Bucharest, Romania, he was taken to the US in 1903 and made his New York debut in 1913. He first made his name on the stage in Theatre Guild productions. On the screen he became prominent with his role in Little Caesar (1931), the first of many gangster, racketeer and tough guy roles he portrayed. When the classic period of gangster films ended, he played a wide range of roles including a portrayal of the scientist, Dr. Paul Ehrlich, and two dramas directed by Fritz Lang - "The Woman in the Window" and "Scarlet Street".Robinson was very active in Jewish and pro-Israel causes and was a noted art collector.
מלחין. נולד בבוקרשט, רומניה, למד בקונסבטוריון של בוקרשט וניגן קלרנית. ב-1959 עלה לישראל, התיישב באשקלון, והקים שם קונסרבטוריון בניהולו. ב-1978 היגר לצרפת ולימד קומפוזיציה בקונסרבטוריון של פריס, לימד מוסיקה קאמרית בקונסרבטוריון של נאיי סיר סיין (Neuilly-sur-Seine) וקלרנית בשני הקונסרבטוריונים.
רשימת יצירותיו כוללת מרובעים לטנור ולתזמורת כלי-קשת (1956), חמישה שירים לסופרן ולפסנתר (1958), סינפוניה ברווה לתזמורת (1960), שיר קצר לאבוב ולתזמורת (1964), סימפוניה דה קאמרה לוויולה ולתזמורת קאמרית (1964), קונצ'רטו לכינור ולתזמורת סימפונית (1964), קונצ'רטו לפסנתר ולתזמורת (1965), חמישיית כלי-נשיפה (1967), שלישיית פסנתר מס' 1 (1972), שלישיית פסנתר מס' 2 (1976), דיאפוניות לכינור חשמלי, לוויולה ולתזמורת סימפונית (1976) וקטעים לקלרנית ולפסנתר (1978).
הסקיל, קלרה , פסנתרנית. נולדה בבוקרשט, רומניה, למשפחה ממוצא ספרדי. למדה אצל ריצ'רד רוברט ואלפרד קורטו (בקונסרבטוריון של פריס). הופעת הבכורה שלה נערכה בווינה, ב-1902. בשנים 1940-1927 התגוררה בפריס. מצרפת הכבושה עברה לשווייץ וקיבלה אזרחות שווייצרית ב-1949. לאורך כל הקריירה שלה סבלה ממחלת שרירים. במהלך השנים הופיעה רבות עם הכנרים אז'ן ייסאי (Eugen Ysaye), ז'ורז' אנסקו וארתור גרומיו (Arthur Grumiaux), ועם פבלו קזאלס (Pablo Casals). הסקיל נחשבה למבצעת מצוינת של יצירותיהם של מוצרט, שוברט ושומאן. נפטרה בבריסל, בלגיה.
Painter

A native of Bucharest, he studied architecture at Zurich Polytechnic during World War I and helped found the Dada art movement, being a signatory to its first manifesto. He worked in Paris in1920-22 before returning to Romania where he promoted modern art and founded Contimporanul, Romania's first modernist movement. In 1941 he escaped to Palestine and the following year held his first one-man show at Tel Aviv Museum. In 1948 Janco was among the founders of the New Horizons movement. In 1953 he established the artists' village of Ein Hod, south of Haifa. He represented Israel at various Biennales and in 1967 was awarded the Israel Prize. A museum was founded in his honor in Ein Hod after his death.

Emil Dorian (born Emil Lustig)(1891-1956), poet, novelist and translator, the son of a teacher of German, born in Bucharest, Romania. Educated at Jewish schools in Bucharest he went on to graduate from medical school and served as a physician during World War I despite the fact that as a Jew he was not a Romanian citizen. After the war he went to France where he specialized. Dorian returned to Romania and practiced medicine until the end of his life. He published several works of popular medicine. After World War II he became involved in Jewish community life serving as a secretary general and afterward as director of the documentary library and archives of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania.

Despite his full time medical career, Dorian was a prolific writer. His works, initially published under various pseudonyms, appeared initially in several literary journals. He wrote poetry and novels, and translated several books incךuding the works of Henrich Heine and Eliezer Shteynbarg from German and Yiddish to Romanian. His poems generally focused on intimate and peaceful family settings; some described his wartime experience in pacifist tones. Dorian developed a keen interest in Yiddish poetry. In Antologie de poezie idis (:Anthology of Yiddish Poetry") he translated and collected more than 400 poems.

Dorian’s novels depict the social and ideological conflicts of the interwar years in Romania, focusing on Jewish life. The hero of Profeti si paiate ("Prophets and Clowns", published in 1930), Avram Gut, is a young man growing acquainted with both materialism and idealism. The story describes the struggles of Romania’s Jewish community at the end of World War I, and the political options available to its members.

From 1937 until the end of his life, Dorian maintained a remarkable diary. The journal presents the daily life of the author, revealing his literary struggles, the situation in Romania during the period of right-wing extremism, and the hardships of living in the Jewish community. The diary was first published in English in 1982 as Quality of Witness: A Romanian Diary, 1937–1944. The Communist regime in Romania banned his books after he attacked the permanence of anti-Semitism in Romanian society.

Harsgor, Michael (1924-2011), historian, born as Michel Goldberg in Bucharest, Romania, into a family of refugees from Russia. He grew up in France, but the family returned to Romania in 1933. In Romania, at a time of growing nationalism and anti-Semitism, he joined the "Hashomer Hatzair" Zionist youth movement which resulted in his sentenced to twenty years in prison. In prison he taught himself Hebrew. In 1944 he was transferred to a concentration camp in the west of Romania.

After his release, he trained 3,000 young Jews to emigrate to Palestine. The British, however, refused to allow them to land and sent them to Cyprus. Harsgor finally arrived in Israel in 1949. Harsegor was a member of Kibbutz Zikim, being the person who gave the kibbutz its name. He was a member of the Israeli Communist Party (Maki) and worked as a reporter for the Moscow Hebrew newspaper "Kol HaAm".

Some ten years later he began to teach history at Tel Aviv’s Ironi Daled secondary school. In 1966 he went to Paris to study at the Sorbonne, obtaining a doctorate in history. The French government published his thesis about the councils of medieval French kings. Back in Israel, he became a very popular lecturer in history. He became professor of history at Tel Aviv University. In 1974 Harsegor was in Lisbon during the "Carnation Revolution", and as a result, the history of Portugal became one of his major topics of interest.

His books include: "Portugal in Revolution" (1976); "Un tres petit nombre: Des oligarchies dans l'histoire de l'Occident" (1994), "Israel/Palestine: L'histoire au-dela des mythes: essai" (1996).

In 1983 he started a weekly “History Hour” programme on "Galey Zahal" (the army radio station), which made him a household name for many Israelis.
Brandes, Silviu "Nancy" (b. 1946), composer, musician, and comic actor, born in Bucharest, Romania.

In Romania he was known as the founding memb er of the "Rosu si Negru" ("Red and Black") pop group, one of the first and most popular in Romania.

Brandes immifgrated to Israel in 1975 wher he continued his musical career in collaboration with outstanding Israeli artists: Ofra Haza, Zohar Argov, Avi Toledano, Dudu Topaz, Yair Nitzani, Mirel Reznik and others.
Mundy, Josef (1935-1994), author and playwright, born in Bucharest, Romania. He immigrated to Israel in 1951, and later he moved to France where he spent some years during the 1960s. Mundy achieved fame with his play "Ha-Mashber" ("The Crisis), published in 1970, that very quickly turned into a big hit running for over 1,000 performances. His plays have been performed by leading Israeli theatre companies, including the Cameri and Habimah, and at the Acco Festival of Alternative Israeli Theatre.
Graur, Alexandru (1900–1988), linguist, born Alter Brauer in Botoşani, Romania. Graur studied at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Bucharest and then at École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris, France, from 1924 to 1929, earning a Ph.D. from the Sorbonne with a study of Indo-european linguistics. He returned to Romania where he started his scientific research in the 1930s.

Graur was the founder and the principal of the "Liceul particular evreiesc" (Jewish Private High School) established in 1941, when Jewish students were forbidden to attend Romanian schools. In 1946 Grauer joined the staff of the University of Bucharest. His academic successes were recognized in 1955, when he was elected permanent member of the Romanian Academy. Grauer was the Dean of the Faculty of Letters at the University of Bucharest from 1954 to 1956, President of the Society of Classical Studies, from 1958 to 1988, and Director of the Editura Academiei ("The Academy Publishing House"), from 1958 to his death.

He published many papers and articles on classical philology and etymology that contributed to the field of linguistics, phonetics and grammar of the Romanic and Romanian languages. He also contributed regularly to Revista Cultului Mosaic, the periodical of the Jewish Communities of Romania .
Sebastian, Mihail (1907-1945), playwright, essayist, journalist and novelist, born Iosif Hechter in Braila, Romania. His other less known pen name is Victor Mincu.

Having attended the secondary school in his native city, he moved to Bucharest where he studied law. In Bucharest he joined various literary circles, especially the Criterion group that included Emil Cioran, Mircea Eliade and Nae Ionescu. However, as this group came under the influence of nationalistic, anti-Semitic and fascist ideas very fashionable in Romania during the 1930s, Sebastian started to be regarded as an outsider. In his book De două mii de ani... ("It's been two thousand years...") Sebastian deals with the meaning of being a Jew in Romania. The book was published in 1934 with a preface written by Nae Ionescu, at Sebastian's request, although it included clear anti-Semitic passages. This way Sebastain tried to emphasize the controversy. The book and Sebastian himself became the target of strong criticism from the Jewish community and parts of the Jewish public opinion as well as of attacks by the Romanian ultra-nationalists and fascists. Sebastian's reaction to these attacks was published in his anthology of essays and articles Cum am devenit huligan ("How I Became a Hooligan"), that deals with the way his "It's been two thousand years..." was received by the Romanian public and the country's cultural establishment. His "Journal, 1935-1944: The Fascist Years" was published for the first time in 1996 bringing about a strong controversy about the role of prominent Romanian intellectuals and public figures during the years when the country came under the influence of fascist ideas and eventually became an ally of Nazi Germany.

Sebastian's other known novels include Accidentul ("The Accident") and Oraşul cu salcâmi ("The Acacia Tree City"). However, Sebastian is remembered mainly for his his plays, such as Steaua fără nume ("The Star Without a Name"), Jocul de-a vacanţa ("Holiday Games"), Ultima oră ("Breaking News").

Sebastian died in a street accident on May 29, 1945.
Cerbu , Eva (1924-2008), painter, born as Eva Siegler in Bucharest, Romania. She studied at the Academy of Fine Arts (Scoala de Arte Frumoase) in Bucharest where she was a student of the painters M.H. Maxy and Al. Ciucurencu. She traveled extensively to Bulgaria, Soviet Union, Germany, France, Italy, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Israel, and Greece.

In addition to fiftyeen personal exhibition in Bucharest and another cities in Romania, from 1956 to 1996, she also participated in numerous collective exhibitions in Romania and abroad, including Prague, Czech Republic (1947, 1953, 1961, 1966); Budapest, Hungary (1948, 1953, 1960); Sophia, Bulgaria (1955, 1962, 1966); Warsaw, Poland (1958); Moscow, Russia (1959, 1975); Belgrad, Serbia (1960); Riga, Latvia (1960); Vienna, Austria (1961, 1969); Bratislava, Slovakia (1960); Venice, Italy (1961); Damascus, Syria (1961); Leipzig, Germany (1960); Cairo, Egypt (1962); Ljubljana, Slovenia (1961); Athens, Greece (1962); Habana, Cuba (1962); Bruxelles, Belgium (1964); Tel Aviv, Israel (1968, 1994); Beirut, Lebanon (1969); Lisbon, Portugal (1975); Oslo, Norway (1975); Perth, Australia (1976); Caracas, Venezuela (1978, 1980); Lyngby, Denmark (1985); Buenos Aires, Argentina (1991); Beijing, China (1994).

Her works are displayed in museums in Romania, USA, Switzerlan, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Israel, Mexico, France.
Kugel, Leopard (1838-1915), ophthalmologist. Born in Vorbo, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire), he studied medicine in Vienna, Paris and London, and was called to Romania in 1862 by Carol Davila. the organizer of the medical services of the Romanian army. Kugel was made chief of the eye and ear department at the leading hospital in Bucharest as well as at the military hospital. His work in Bucharest led to his being summoned to Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, and and later to Sofia, Bulgaria, where he also was put in charge of the organization of ophthalmologic services. He later returned to Bucharest, where he remained until his death.

Kugel was one of the Jewish scientists responsible for the introduction of Western culture and science in the relatively backward Balkan countries during the 19th century. His research was concerned mostly with ophthalmology, as was his published work, but he was also the inventor of some items of equipment for the ear.
Dobrogeanu-Gherea, Constantin (1855-1920), Literary critic, sociologist and Marxist theorist, born as Solomon Katz in Slavianka, Ukraine (then part of the Russian Empire). He became involved in revolutionary politics while studying at the University of Kharkov (now Kharkiv, in Ukraine). Wanted by the Russian police, he moved to Romania settling in Iasi (Jassy) in 1875, but was kidnapped, taken back to Russia and imprisoned for a year. He made his way back to Romania, was baptized and took a Romanian name. He obtained the restaurant concession at Ploiesti railway station and this became a meeting place for writers and for refugee socialists.

Gherea-Dobrogeanu was a noted Romanian literary critic and was also one of the leading popularizers of Marxism in Romania. He was among the founders of the Romanian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (1893).
Halasz, Sandor (1892-1976), journalist, born in Satmar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Satu Mare, in Romania). Halasz atudied journalism in Budapest and in Berlin, Germany. He returned to Satu Mare, where he collaborated to the periodical "Szamos", and was director of "Szabadsajtó Könyvnyomda és Lapkiadó Rt." (1922-1929). Halasz served as editor of the economics section of Brassoi Lapok (1932-1940). After 1945 he moved to Bucharest, Romania.
Fenyes, Samu (1863-1938), journalist, lawyer and playwright, born in Tallya, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire). While practicing as a lawyer he was also a talented writer. In 1907 he moved to Budapest and proceeded to found the weekly "Uttoro" ("Trail-Breaker") a journal of modern thought, which attracted a growing readership of modern thinking and enlightened people. The society thus formed became an effective educational agency, which sponsoring more than 1,000 public lectures where literature of the same tendency was distributed. Fenyes was an eloquent orator who sought to arouse public interest in social ills.

Fenyes was did not adhere to any political party, but his view and activities antagonized the clergy. As a result he was seized during the White Terror in Budapest between 1919-1921, a period of repressive violence by counter-revolutionary soldiers, intent on crushing any vestige of Hungary’s brief Communist revolution. He managed to escape to Vienna, Austria, where he remained for over a decade. There he edited "Das Wort" and, later, a Hungarian periodical known as "Diogenes" (1923-27). This periodical was aimed at fighting anti-Semitism and other contemporary evils.

As a dramatist Fenyes made an enduring impression in his native land, particularly with plays based on historical events. "Kurucz Feja David" (1902) was first of these, followed by "Bacsanyi" (1903); "Messias" (1903), the hero of which is Bar Kochba; "Csebi Tatar" (1904); "Csoppseg" (1905); "Pereszlenyi juss" (1906); "Artatlanok" (1907); "Almodozok" (1909); "Matyas" (1919). In 1909 he also wrote "Balvany", describing the relationship between Judaism and Christianity. A fanciful portrait of the eternal Jew is beautifully portrayed in "Jidli valtozasai", a novel published in 1922, which was translated into German (1927). Among his sociological works are: "Jogfejlodes" (1892) and "Morbus socialis" (1893).

In his final years, which he spent in Romania, Fenyes was embittered by the plight of his fellow Jews and despaired of the possibility of a progressive revolution. Fenyes died in Bucharest, Romania.
Vermont, Nicolae (1866-1932), painter and engraver born as Gruenberg in Bacau (or Moinesti), Romania.

He attended the Academy of Fine Arts School in Bucharest, the first Jew to study at this institution, graduating in 1886. He continued his studies at the Akademie der Bildenen Kuenste ("Academy of Fine Arts") in Munich, Germany, and in Paris, France. Vermont joined various artistic circles who were opposed to the academism style that dominated the Romanian painting of the first half of the 19th century. He was one of the founding members of the groups "Ileana” and "Tinerimea artistică” ("The Artistic Youth") while still in Munich. Vermont's works typically depict scenes from the daily life of common people as well as landscapes from various rural areas of Romania. Vermont was a friend of the Romanian post-impressionists painters Stefan Luchian and Constantin Artachino. In 1896, Vermont was one of the founders of Salonul Independentilor, the Romanian version of te French Societe des Artistes Independants. In 1906, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the ascension to throne of the Romanian king Carol I, his works were part of a major exhibition in Bucharest along with those of other important Romanian painters. Later in his life, Vermont converted to Orthodox Christianity.
Iser, Iosif (1881-1958), painter and graphic artist, born in Bucharest, Romania. He studied in Munich, Germany, and Paris, France.

Iser, who harbored Socialist opinions, worked for the socialist publications Facla and Adevărul where he published numerous caricatures, of them many satirising the Romanian monarchy.

His early style was strongly influenced by the expressionist movement, but he later created his own artistic language. His travels to Spain and then the discovery of the landscape and people of the south-eastern region of Dobruja (Dobrogea) were decissive for adopting exotic themes. Iser painted many portraits of the Tartar inhabitants of Dobruja; this series were followed by works that dealt with the life of harlequins and circus artists. Following the instauration of the Communist regime in Romania, Iser returned to his socialist inspired themes painting especially portraits of working people. Iser was elected a full member of the Romanian Academy in 1955.
Marin, Gheorghe Gaston (1918-2010), Communist activist and politician, born Gheorghe Grossmann, in Chisinau-Cris. Transylvania (then part of Austria-Hungary, now in Romania). He attended high school in Petrosani and Deva, Romania. In his youth, he was a member of Poalei Zion movement. He studied electrical engineering in Grenoble, France, between 1936 and 1941.

Marin joined the French Resistance during World War II and took part in a number of attacks against the German occupiers. In August 1944, his group liberated the French town of Carmaux in the Tarn department in south-western France capturing 120 German soldiers, and a few days later, they also liberated the city of Albi, the department capital of Tarn. His parents and sister, who lived in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were deported to Auschwitz and murdered there.

When the Communists came to power in Romania, Marin became Councillor of the Romanian Council of Ministers in during 1945–1949 and then Minister of the Economy in 1948–1949. He was a member of the Romanian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1947. From 1949 to 1954, Gaston Marin was Minister of Electrical Energy and Electrical Industry, and then, until 1965, President of the Government Planning Committee. In 1955–1966, he served as President of State Committee for Nuclear Energy. Marin was Vice-president of the Ministerial council, as well as Minister of Metallurgy, Mining, Chemistry, Transport and Telecommunications, Building, Chemical Industry, and National Trading during 1962–1969. He was member of the Communist parliament of Romania (1952-1985) and member of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (1960-1984).

In 1963, after attending the funeral of John F. Kennedy, he was instrumental in establishing diplomatic relations between Romania and several Western countries, including the United States.

From 1969 to 1982, Marin was President of the Pricing Committee. He was removed from official positions by Nicolae Ceausescu, being the last supporter of the Gheorghiu-Dej, the previous leader of Communist Romania, to be eliminated from the Romanian government.

In the 1989, he immigrated to Israel, but later returned to Romania.

Ana Pauker ( born as Hanna Rabinsohn) (1893-1960), Communist leader and Foreign minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Romania in the late 1940s and early 1950s, born in Codaesti, Moldavia, Romania. Pauker was the first woman to hold these positions in any government in the world.

Pauker attended Jewish schools in Bucharest, then studied for some medicine in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1919-1920. She worked as a Hebrew language teacher at Frăția Sionului, a Jewish school in Bucharest. While in France, she met Marcel Pauker, a Commujnist activist. Following her husband she joined the Romanian Communist Party. She was arrested a number a times because of her political activity, spent some time in Switzerland and in 1926 fled to USSR where she attended the Comintern's International Lenin School which trained leading members of the Communist movement.

She returned to Romania, but was arrested in 1935, was put on trial and was sentenced to ten years in prison. In May 1941, the Romanian government sent her into exile to the Soviet Union in exchange for a Romanian politician arrested by the Soviets. Despite the fact that har husband was arrested and executed during the Stalinist purges in 1938, Pauker maintained her beliefs and loyalty to the Communist party. During WW2 she became the leader of the Romanian communists in the USSR.

In 1944 she returned to Romania after the Soviet Army entered that country. Pauker became Secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party and was instrumental during the Communist take over of the power in Romania in late 1940s. In November 1947, the non-Communist Foreign Minister was ousted and Pauker was named Foreign Minister in his place, the first woman ever to have achieved such a senior position in the world. However, it was her position in the Communist Party leadership that was the most important: as a member of the 4-person Secretariat of the Central Committee and formally second in the leadership, Pauker was widely believed to be the actual leader of the Romanian Communists in all but name during the immediate post-war period.

In 1948 Time magazine featured her portrait on its cover and described her as "the most powerful woman alive". Infamous as the "Iron Lady" of Romanian Communist politics, she was universally seen as unreservedly Stalinist and as Moscow's main agent in Romania.

Pauker supported, and helped facilitate, the emigration of roughly 100,000 Jews to Israel from the spring of 1950 to the spring of 1952, when all other Soviet satellites had shut their gates to Jewish emigration in line with Stalin's anti-Zionist campaign.

Despite her role in the imposition of Communism on Romania, Ana Pauker was soon accused of pursuing what she later described as "a type of Social Democratic policy" of mass recruitment of as many as 500,000 new Communist Party members without verification. She was also accused of her positions on her positions on Zionism and Israel. In 1952 she was expelled from the leadership of the Communist party and in early 1953 arrested, however, following Stalin's death, she was released from prison in April 1953, but kept on house arrest for many years. In 1954 she was expelled from the Communist party.

During her last years of life, Pauker was allowed to work as a translator from French and German for the a publishing house. In the spring in 1959, Pauker was diagnosed with a terminal recurrence of cancer. She died on June 3, 1960 of a cardiac arrest.

She was officially exonerated post-mortem in 1968. Her ashes were transferred to the mausoleum of the Romanian Communist leaders, however, in 1991, after the fall of the Communist regime in Romania, at the request of her family her ashes were transferred to Israel.

Camil Baltazar (born Leibu Goldenstein or Leopold Goldstein) (1902-1977), poet and translator, born in Focsani, Romania, son of Herman Fischer Goldstein from Targu-Neamts. He studied in Focsani, Braila, and Bucharest, Romania, and was the first editor of the Romania libera daily. He also published in Zburătorul, Reporter and Gazeta literară. His first volume, Vecernii, was published in 1923, followed by Flaute de matase (1924); Reculegeri in memoria mea (1925); Biblice"(1926). After the Holocaust, during which his works were forbidden by the Fascist regime in Romania, he published another eight volumes of poetry from 1947 through 1976. His translations into Romanian include works by Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel, Heinrich Mann, Ludwig Renn, Iakob Wassermann, D. H. Lawrence, Pearl Buck, Frank Baum, Bernard Shaw, Erich Maria Remarque, and John Knittel.

Koffler, Remus (1902-1954), Communist activist, born in Bucharest, Romania. His father owned a factory and became wealthy during the German occupation of Romania 1916-1918 by selling alcoholic drinks. Koffler was baptized by his parents and attended Christian schools. He finished his schooling in Switzerland. Towards the end of World War I he became a Zionist and the same year he announced that he had become a communist. In Bucharest, he joined the Socialist Party of Romania. He then traveled for studies in Germany, where he attended communist meetings, took part in demonstrations and agitated on Soviet Russia's behalf and eventually joined the German Communist Party taking part in demonstrations and campaigns.

Koffler returned to Romania in 1932 and worked for a short time in his father's business. He was an occasional courier to Prague, where the political office of the Romanian Communist Party was located. He was member of the editing committee of the clandestine Communist newspaper "Scanteia" to which he was a frequent contributor.

After the Communists came to power in Romania, Koffler was arrested in December 1949. He was accused of "crimes against peace", of support of Romania's war against the Soviet Union during WW2, of treason by providing information to the British and American intelligence agencies, and of having collaborated with the Romanian Secret Service during the Fascist regime in the early 1940s. Koffler was tortured for years despite his cardiac disease eventually developing a psychic condition. However, it seems that the real reason was the fact that having been head of the Financial Central Committee of the Communist Party he knew the sources of party funds and their destination, which included some of the most senior leader of Communist Romania.

Koffler was tried and sentenced to death in 1954. He refused to apply for a pardon, and was executed in April 1954. Unlike other Communist leaders executed in the Stalinist purges of the early 1950s, Koffler had never been rehabilitated by the Communist regime of Romania.
Maxy, Maximilian Herman (1895-1971), painter and illustrator, born in Braila, Romania, generally known as M.H. Maxy. His family moved to Bucharest, Romania, where Maxy attended the School of Fine Arts between 1913-1916. He was drafted to the Romanian army and saw action during WW1. His impressions from the front served as subject to paintings that he showed along with other Romanian artists in Iasi, Romania, in 1918. Maxy completed his studies in Berlin between 192-1923 and in 1925 exhibited with the 'November Group'. In the 1930s he exhibited in Rome, Paris, the Hague, and Brussels. Maxy returned to Romania in 1929 and was an active member of the Contimporanul group until 1938. He also designed sets and costumes for the Polish Yiddish theater company. From 1939 he started to work for the Jewish theater Baraseum in Bucharest, and in 1941, following the introduction of the anti-Jewish legislation in Romania, he became its director. In 1949 Maxy became director of the National Art Museum of the Socialist Romanian Republic. His style was strongly influenced by the Constructivist and the Cubist movements.
משך:
00:03:29

חד גדיא ("גדי אחד" - בארמית)

הקלטה מקורית מדיסק "יחזקאל בראון יצירות למקהלה: מקהלת האיחוד". פורסם על ידי בית התפוצות בשנת 1996.

שיר פסח שמושר עם סוף הסדר בנוסח יהודי בוקרשט. יחזקאל בראון עיבד את נוסח זה למקהלה כחלק מיצירתו "חמישה עשר שירי פסח".

משך:
00:01:15

הקלטה מקורית מדיסק "יחזקאל בראון יצירות למקהלה: מקהלת האיחוד". פורסם על ידי בית התפוצות בשנת 1996.

שיר פסח זה, אחד מפיוטי פסח, מספר על גדולתו של האל וגאולה, ומסודר סדר אלפבתי. כל אחד משמונה הבתים מייצג שלושה אותיות, פרט לבחת הראשון שמייצג רק את "א". יחזקאל באון עיבד את נוסח יהודי בוקרשט למקהלה כחלק מיצירתו "חמישה עשר שירי פסח".

מראה פנים בית הכנסת קוראל, בוקרשט, רומניה
בית הכנסת נבנה ב-1866
גלויה
צילום: קלרה שפיצר, בוקרשט
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות קלרה שפיצר)
מנחם בגין, ראש ממשלת ישראל, נושא ספר תורה,
וד"ר משה רוזן, הרב הראשי ליהודי רומניה, בבית הכנסת
הקוראלי, בוקרשט, רומניה, 1977
(בוקרשט, מוזיאון פדרציית הקהילות היהודיות ברומניה)
מסיבת סילבסטר של סטודנטים יהודים.
בוקרשט, רומניה, 1930 בקירוב.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות אדלה ויינטראוב, ישראל)
גן הילדים העברי של ויצ"ו,
בוקרשט, רומניה, 1930 בקירוב
גן הילדים נפתח ב-1929 ברחוב דודשט
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות י. כהן, תל אביב)
שיעור במכללה היהודית בראשות ד"ר מ. אונסקו,
בוקרשט, רומניה, 1940-1945
המכללה נוסדה בבוקרשט בשנת 1940 ופעלה במהלך
כל שנות מלחמת העולם השנייה
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות דן אישאני, תל אביב)
איציק גולדנברג בהצגה "בר כוכבא"
מאת אברהם גולדפארן בתאטרון ז'יגניצה,
בוקרשט, רומניה, 1914
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות)
משפחה יהודית מבוקרשט,
רומניה, 1920בקירוב.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות)
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Zauber, Samuel (1901-1956), football player, born in Temesvar, Austria-Hungary (now Timisoara, Romania). Zauber started his carreer at Maccabi Bucharest in 1925, although at the time the Jewish club was not allowed to participate in official competitions. He played for "Isvorul Sportul Bucharest" football club (1925-1928), but returned to Maccabi Bucharest (1928-1936). Zauber was member of the national football team of Romania as a backup goalkeeper at the first ever FIFA World Cup held in Uruguay in 1930. He played again for the national football team of Romania at the First Balkan Cup Games in 1931, and was the goal keeper of Maccabi Bucharest when they won the football tourney of the Second Maccabiah Games in Tel Aviv in 1935.
Halasz, Sandor (1892-1976), journalist, born in Satmar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Satu Mare, in Romania). Halasz atudied journalism in Budapest and in Berlin, Germany. He returned to Satu Mare, where he collaborated to the periodical "Szamos", and was director of "Szabadsajtó Könyvnyomda és Lapkiadó Rt." (1922-1929). Halasz served as editor of the economics section of Brassoi Lapok (1932-1940). After 1945 he moved to Bucharest, Romania.
Film actor

Born in Bucharest, Romania, he was taken to the US in 1903 and made his New York debut in 1913. He first made his name on the stage in Theatre Guild productions. On the screen he became prominent with his role in Little Caesar (1931), the first of many gangster, racketeer and tough guy roles he portrayed. When the classic period of gangster films ended, he played a wide range of roles including a portrayal of the scientist, Dr. Paul Ehrlich, and two dramas directed by Fritz Lang - "The Woman in the Window" and "Scarlet Street".Robinson was very active in Jewish and pro-Israel causes and was a noted art collector.
Kugel, Leopard (1838-1915), ophthalmologist. Born in Vorbo, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire), he studied medicine in Vienna, Paris and London, and was called to Romania in 1862 by Carol Davila. the organizer of the medical services of the Romanian army. Kugel was made chief of the eye and ear department at the leading hospital in Bucharest as well as at the military hospital. His work in Bucharest led to his being summoned to Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, and and later to Sofia, Bulgaria, where he also was put in charge of the organization of ophthalmologic services. He later returned to Bucharest, where he remained until his death.

Kugel was one of the Jewish scientists responsible for the introduction of Western culture and science in the relatively backward Balkan countries during the 19th century. His research was concerned mostly with ophthalmology, as was his published work, but he was also the inventor of some items of equipment for the ear.
Graur, Alexandru (1900–1988), linguist, born Alter Brauer in Botoşani, Romania. Graur studied at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Bucharest and then at École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris, France, from 1924 to 1929, earning a Ph.D. from the Sorbonne with a study of Indo-european linguistics. He returned to Romania where he started his scientific research in the 1930s.

Graur was the founder and the principal of the "Liceul particular evreiesc" (Jewish Private High School) established in 1941, when Jewish students were forbidden to attend Romanian schools. In 1946 Grauer joined the staff of the University of Bucharest. His academic successes were recognized in 1955, when he was elected permanent member of the Romanian Academy. Grauer was the Dean of the Faculty of Letters at the University of Bucharest from 1954 to 1956, President of the Society of Classical Studies, from 1958 to 1988, and Director of the Editura Academiei ("The Academy Publishing House"), from 1958 to his death.

He published many papers and articles on classical philology and etymology that contributed to the field of linguistics, phonetics and grammar of the Romanic and Romanian languages. He also contributed regularly to Revista Cultului Mosaic, the periodical of the Jewish Communities of Romania .
Lichtblau, Leon (1901-1938), socialist and communist activist, the son of an architect, born in Bucharest, Romania. Lichtblau political activities started in his school years when he met a number of socialist militants and helped to organize anti-estsablishment demonstrations. In 1918 he and some other militants were arrested in the course of large workers' demonstration in Bucharest and sent to trial for "rebellion and unrest".

In 1920, having graduated from high school, he enrolled in the Faculty of Mathematics of Bucharest University. In 1921 he went to Iasi (Jassy) to support the local workers' movement, but soon returned to Bucharest, narrowly escaping arrest. He participated in the May 1921 Congress of the Socialist Party of Romania where he supported the party's affiliation with the Cominterm. In the summer of that year he was part of the Romanian delegation to the the Young Communist International Congress in Moscow, Soviet Russia. On his return to Romania he found out that the authorities were offering a large reward for his and others communists' capture, and went into hiding. Pressure was put on his family to reveal his location, eventually Lichtblau eventually left Romania moving to Vienna and, after being expelled from Austria, he settled in Berlin, Germany. Meanwhile in Romania he was sentenced to lifetime forced labour and another arrest warrant was issued for him in 1922.

Lichtblau moved to Moscow. There he graduated in economics from the Institute of Red Professors. In 1926 he became Head of the Industry Department of the Central Office of Economic Accounting of the USSR. At the request of the communists in Romania, he translated a part of Lenin's works into Romanian. For a short time in 1928 he was a member in Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Romania, along with two fellow exiles.

While in the USSR, Lichtblau was arrested on April 5, 1937, during the Stalinist purges and was later indicted with "spying and provocative activities and membership in a right-wing counter-revolutionary organisation", and consequently was executed for these offences.

Leon Lichtblau was posthumously rehabilitated by a decision of the Soviet Supreme Court in 1956, as well as by a commission of the Romanian Communist Party in 1968.
Painter

A native of Bucharest, he studied architecture at Zurich Polytechnic during World War I and helped found the Dada art movement, being a signatory to its first manifesto. He worked in Paris in1920-22 before returning to Romania where he promoted modern art and founded Contimporanul, Romania's first modernist movement. In 1941 he escaped to Palestine and the following year held his first one-man show at Tel Aviv Museum. In 1948 Janco was among the founders of the New Horizons movement. In 1953 he established the artists' village of Ein Hod, south of Haifa. He represented Israel at various Biennales and in 1967 was awarded the Israel Prize. A museum was founded in his honor in Ein Hod after his death.
Braudes, Reuben Asher (1851-1902), Hebrew novelist and journalist, an advocated of reform in religious and social affairs, born in Vilna, Lithuania (then part of the Russian Empire). He strted his studies in Vilna, wher he was a brilliant Talmud student, caming under the influence of the Maskilim at an early age. He studied in Zhitomer, now in the Ukraine, for three years, and at the age of twenty he left for Odessa, the centre of the Haskalah movement. Braudes wrote many articles defending the Haskhalah viewpoint and of the need to modernize the religious and social life of the Jews in Russia. Braudes led a wandering life.

After five years in Odessa, he spent one year in Warsaw, Poland, and then three years in Lemberg (Lvov, now Lviv, in Ukraine) where he edited the "Ha-Boker Or" magazine (1876-1879). In Lemberg he also wrote a great part of his novel "Religion and Life", which describes Jewish life in Lithuania and the efforts to bring Jews into the modern world. In Vilna (1879-1881) he published an article on the revival of the Hebrew language. After the 1881 pogroms he joined Hibbat Zion movement, and then left for St Petersburg, Russia. The years 1882-4 found him in Bucharest, Romania, where he edited a Yiddish weekly newspaper and advocated settlement activity in Erez Israel for which he was expelled from Romania. Between 1884 and 1891 he was again in Lemberg where he wrote a part of his second novel "The Two Extremes" (in Hebrew), which describes the clash between the different attitudes of modern and traditional Jewish life. He lived in Krakow, Poland, for two years from 1891 and was the editor of two weekly periodicals. Once again in Lemberg (1893-1896) he became editor of the weekly "Juedisches Wochenblatt" - the official Zionist paper in eastern Galicia. In the period 1896-1902 he was the Viennese correspondent for "Hamagid ha-Hadash". He participated in the first Zionist Congress in Basle (1897). Herzl proposed him to be the editor of the Yiddish edition of "Die Welt”.

Rafael Radu Dragan (1909-1986), composer, pianist and teacher, born in Bucharest, Romania. He immigrated to Israel and during the 1950s he was the founder of the music conservatorium in Nahariya. He was a piano and voice training teacher. The Israeli composer, musician, singer, arranger, and lyricist Matti Caspi is one of his students. Dragan appeared on stage as an accompanying pianist of vocal music recitals. He died in Tel Aviv. 

Radu Cosaşu, (b. 1930), author and journalist, born as Oscar Rohrlich, in Bacau, Romania. 
Following the establishment of the Communist regime in Romania, Cosasu became an admirer of the Soviet inspired Socialist-Realism style. However, after the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956, he changed his opinion in favor of what he called "the whole truth". As a result, he was fired from his workplace at a periodical and remained unemployed for more than ten years. Only in late 1960 he was permitted to publish again in a number of periodicals eventually becoming an editor at Sportul popular ("Popular Sport"), Romania's main sports newspaper, and at Cinema ("Movie Theater"), from 1967 to 1987. His novel Un august pe un bloc de gheaţă ("August on an Iceberg"), 1971, was awarded the Prize of the Romanian Writers Union. He continued his literary activity publishing over 3,000 articles and 15 books, among them Logica ("Logic"), in 1985; Supravietuiri ("Survivals"), 1973­1974; O viata cu Stan si Bran ("A Life with Laurel and Hardy"), 1981; Matusile din Tel ­Aviv ("My Aunts from Tel Aviv"), 1993; O supravietuire cu Oscar ("Surviving with Oscar"), 1997. After the fall of the Communist regime in 1989, he was one of the founders of the periodical Dilema (1993-2004) and then he became an editor at Dilema veche ("Old Dilema").

Vermont, Nicolae (1866-1932), painter and engraver born as Gruenberg in Bacau (or Moinesti), Romania.

He attended the Academy of Fine Arts School in Bucharest, the first Jew to study at this institution, graduating in 1886. He continued his studies at the Akademie der Bildenen Kuenste ("Academy of Fine Arts") in Munich, Germany, and in Paris, France. Vermont joined various artistic circles who were opposed to the academism style that dominated the Romanian painting of the first half of the 19th century. He was one of the founding members of the groups "Ileana” and "Tinerimea artistică” ("The Artistic Youth") while still in Munich. Vermont's works typically depict scenes from the daily life of common people as well as landscapes from various rural areas of Romania. Vermont was a friend of the Romanian post-impressionists painters Stefan Luchian and Constantin Artachino. In 1896, Vermont was one of the founders of Salonul Independentilor, the Romanian version of te French Societe des Artistes Independants. In 1906, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the ascension to throne of the Romanian king Carol I, his works were part of a major exhibition in Bucharest along with those of other important Romanian painters. Later in his life, Vermont converted to Orthodox Christianity.
Safran, Alexander (1910-2005), rabbi, born in Bacau, Romania, son of Rabbi Betsalel Zeev Safran. He studied at the Vienna Rabbinical Seminary earning a Ph.D., and then became rabbi of Bacau. At the age of 30 he was elected Chief Rabbi of Romania with his seat in Bucharest. By virtue of this office he was the sole representative of the Jewish community in the Romanian Senate from April to August 1940. His home was a center of the underground Jewish anti-Fascist movement. During World War II Safran worked to maintain Jewish morale and intervened repeatedly with the authorities in attempts to prevent anti-Jewish laws and actions. After liberation, he was not prepared to cooperate with the communist authorities and was dismissed. He moved to Geneva, Switzerland, where he became chief rabbi.
Rubin, Moses Josef (1892-1980), Hasidic rabbi, born in Wola Michowa, Galicia (then part of Austria-Hungary, now in Ukraine), descendand of the Kosov-Seret Hassidic dynasty of rabbis.

While a child, his family moved to Siret (Seret), Romania (then in Bukovina, Austria), where his father serves as the town's rabbi. Following his ordination by such prominent rabbis as Rabbi Chaim Tzvi Teitelbaum of Sighet, Romania, and Rabbi Yehudah Leib Tzirelsohn of Kishinev (now Chisinau, in Moldova), Rubin became 1922-1940 Chief Rabbi of the bukovinian Jewish community of Campulung Moldovenesc, Romania, from 1922 to 1940. He fled the town after he and his family were attacked by members of the Fascist Romanian organization Garda de Fier (Iron Guard) on Yom Kippur 1940. In the atack his library was destroyed, his sons and himself were beaten and humilated. Following this attack he settled in Bucharest, Romania, wher he served as President of the Rabbinical Council of Romania and Chairman of Agudath Israel in Romania from 1941 to 1946. During the Holocaust, Rubin founded the first Vaad Hatzalah (emergency committee) in Bucharest, in order to aid Jews deported to the Transnistria concentration camps.

Rubin immigrated to the United States at the end of WW 2. He was instrumental in founding the Center for European Rabbis, an organization that helped European rabbis who had lost their communities and source for income, as well as preventing the destruction of Jewish cemeteries in Europe.
Mundy, Josef (1935-1994), author and playwright, born in Bucharest, Romania. He immigrated to Israel in 1951, and later he moved to France where he spent some years during the 1960s. Mundy achieved fame with his play "Ha-Mashber" ("The Crisis), published in 1970, that very quickly turned into a big hit running for over 1,000 performances. His plays have been performed by leading Israeli theatre companies, including the Cameri and Habimah, and at the Acco Festival of Alternative Israeli Theatre.
הסקיל, קלרה , פסנתרנית. נולדה בבוקרשט, רומניה, למשפחה ממוצא ספרדי. למדה אצל ריצ'רד רוברט ואלפרד קורטו (בקונסרבטוריון של פריס). הופעת הבכורה שלה נערכה בווינה, ב-1902. בשנים 1940-1927 התגוררה בפריס. מצרפת הכבושה עברה לשווייץ וקיבלה אזרחות שווייצרית ב-1949. לאורך כל הקריירה שלה סבלה ממחלת שרירים. במהלך השנים הופיעה רבות עם הכנרים אז'ן ייסאי (Eugen Ysaye), ז'ורז' אנסקו וארתור גרומיו (Arthur Grumiaux), ועם פבלו קזאלס (Pablo Casals). הסקיל נחשבה למבצעת מצוינת של יצירותיהם של מוצרט, שוברט ושומאן. נפטרה בבריסל, בלגיה.
Moscovici, Gelber (Gelbert) (1889-1937), also known as Ghita Moscu or Alexandru Badulescu), socialist and communist activist, born in Baiceni in the north-east of Romania. His father was a veteran of the Romanian War of Independence (1877-1878) and his brother a socialist sympathiser. Moscovici was a student of commerce until 1910. In the years before World War I he wrote articles for socialist youth magazines. In 1915 he was elected a member of the Social Democratic Party control commission and in the same year he was also elected in the Committee of the newly created commercial employees’ trade union.

During WW 1, Moscu gradually moved toward communism, being engaged with the socialist group that chose to continue its activity secretly in German occupied Romania. In 1918 he was arrested in Bucharest by the German military administration and sentenced to four and a half years in prison for supporting the Communist Revolution in Russia. In December 1918, after the reinstalled Romanian authorities opened fire on demonstrating workers during a general strike, he was arrested again and jailed for "attack on public security".

In 1921 Moscovici left Romania along with his wife Clara, also known as Ana Badulescu, and moved to Soviet Russia settling in Moscow. In the USSR he was named deputy rapporteur of the Executive Committee of the Communist International (Comintern) (ECCI) for the Balkan countries, and in 1927 he was appointed a member in the Balkan Secretariat of the Comintern. In 1924 he joined the Communist Party in USSR and later that year participated in Romanian Communist Party's Youth International.

During the 1930s he served as a consulting editor for the Co-operative Publishing Society of Foreign Workers in the USSR. Expelled from the Communist Party in 1935, he was eventually executed in 1937, during the Stalinist Purge, having been accused of creating a spy ring inside the ECCI.

Moscovici was rehabilitated Posthumously, first in the USSR and later in Romania, during the de-Stalinization campaigns in Eastern Europe.
מלחין ומנצח. נולד בבוקרשט, רומניה, היגר ב-1936 לאנגליה, וייסד וניהל בה את הוועדה – אחר-כך: החברה – לקידום מוסיקה חדשה (1972-1943). שגרן הלחין קטעים רבים של מוסיקה קלה. עם יצירותיו לאולמות הקונצרטים נמנות שתי סימפוניות (1959, 1970). הוא נפטר בלונדון, אנגליה.
Benedek, Tiberiu (b. 1922), architect, born in Oradea, Romania, in 1922. He attended the Kecskeméti high school in Oradea and then graduated the Faculty of Architecture in Bucharest, Romania. He earned a Ph.D. in architecture from the Institute of Archirecture in Moscow, Russia. He lectured for many years at the Institute of Architecture in Bucharest and served as its dean. He also publishe numerous articles and studies on architecture. Among his works a special mention should be made of the town halls of Baia Mare and Bistrita Nasaud. For this former project he was awarded the Prize of the Union of the Romanian Architects. Benedek has been active in the Jewish community and served as the head of its real estate department.
Dobrogeanu-Gherea, Constantin (1855-1920), Literary critic, sociologist and Marxist theorist, born as Solomon Katz in Slavianka, Ukraine (then part of the Russian Empire). He became involved in revolutionary politics while studying at the University of Kharkov (now Kharkiv, in Ukraine). Wanted by the Russian police, he moved to Romania settling in Iasi (Jassy) in 1875, but was kidnapped, taken back to Russia and imprisoned for a year. He made his way back to Romania, was baptized and took a Romanian name. He obtained the restaurant concession at Ploiesti railway station and this became a meeting place for writers and for refugee socialists.

Gherea-Dobrogeanu was a noted Romanian literary critic and was also one of the leading popularizers of Marxism in Romania. He was among the founders of the Romanian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (1893).
Filderman, Wilhelm (1882–1963), leader of the Romanian Jews, born in Bucharest, Romania. Filderman studied law in Paris, France. He returned to Romania and after teaching for two years at the Jewish high school in Bucharest, started his law practice in 1912. In 1913 he was elected to the central committee of the Union of Romanian Jews. During World War I Filderman was an officer in the Romanian army. At the Versailles Peace Conference he was chosen to be a member of the Comité des Délégations Juives. He demanded the total emancipation of the Jews and the inclusion of this principle in the peace treaty with Romania.

In 1920 Filderman became the representative of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) in Romania and in 1923 was elected president of the Union of Romanian Jews. Between the two world wars, he fought antisemitism, and worked for the effective realization of full citizenship for the Jews. He published a number of books against antisemitism. He was opposed to a separate Jewish party. In 1927 Filderman was elected a member of the Romanian parliament on the Liberal Party list. From 1931 to 1933 he was the president of the Jewish Community of Bucharest, and in the same period he became president of the Federation of Jewish Communities. When the enlarged Jewish Agency was constituted in 1929, he was elected as a non-Zionist delegate to its founding congress in Zurich.

After 1940, when the anti-Semitic fascist symparthiser Ion Antonescu took over the leadership of the country, Filderman intervened with him as a representative of the Federation, several times obtaining the revocation of serious measures, such as the wearing of the yellow badge, the deportation of Romanian Jews to Nazi death camps in Poland, etc. At the beginning of 1942, when the Federation of Communities was dissolved, Filderman continued to write to authorities to denounce the racial measures. He was a member of the underground Jewish Council, formed of representatives of the principal Jewish trends. When he expressed his opposition to the special tax of four billion lei imposed on the Jews he was sent to Transnistria (March 1943), returning after three months through the intervention of the papal nuncio and the Swiss and Swedish ambassadors. Back in Bucharest, he immediately reported to the Romanian government on the terrible situation of the deportees in Transnistria and asked for their return, which was obtained at the end of the same year.

After the war, he again became president of the Federation of Communities and of the Union of Romanian Jews and representative of the JDC. He was however persecuted by the Communists, In 1948 he secretly left Romania and settled in Paris.
Iser, Iosif (1881-1958), painter and graphic artist, born in Bucharest, Romania. He studied in Munich, Germany, and Paris, France.

Iser, who harbored Socialist opinions, worked for the socialist publications Facla and Adevărul where he published numerous caricatures, of them many satirising the Romanian monarchy.

His early style was strongly influenced by the expressionist movement, but he later created his own artistic language. His travels to Spain and then the discovery of the landscape and people of the south-eastern region of Dobruja (Dobrogea) were decissive for adopting exotic themes. Iser painted many portraits of the Tartar inhabitants of Dobruja; this series were followed by works that dealt with the life of harlequins and circus artists. Following the instauration of the Communist regime in Romania, Iser returned to his socialist inspired themes painting especially portraits of working people. Iser was elected a full member of the Romanian Academy in 1955.
Harsgor, Michael (1924-2011), historian, born as Michel Goldberg in Bucharest, Romania, into a family of refugees from Russia. He grew up in France, but the family returned to Romania in 1933. In Romania, at a time of growing nationalism and anti-Semitism, he joined the "Hashomer Hatzair" Zionist youth movement which resulted in his sentenced to twenty years in prison. In prison he taught himself Hebrew. In 1944 he was transferred to a concentration camp in the west of Romania.

After his release, he trained 3,000 young Jews to emigrate to Palestine. The British, however, refused to allow them to land and sent them to Cyprus. Harsgor finally arrived in Israel in 1949. Harsegor was a member of Kibbutz Zikim, being the person who gave the kibbutz its name. He was a member of the Israeli Communist Party (Maki) and worked as a reporter for the Moscow Hebrew newspaper "Kol HaAm".

Some ten years later he began to teach history at Tel Aviv’s Ironi Daled secondary school. In 1966 he went to Paris to study at the Sorbonne, obtaining a doctorate in history. The French government published his thesis about the councils of medieval French kings. Back in Israel, he became a very popular lecturer in history. He became professor of history at Tel Aviv University. In 1974 Harsegor was in Lisbon during the "Carnation Revolution", and as a result, the history of Portugal became one of his major topics of interest.

His books include: "Portugal in Revolution" (1976); "Un tres petit nombre: Des oligarchies dans l'histoire de l'Occident" (1994), "Israel/Palestine: L'histoire au-dela des mythes: essai" (1996).

In 1983 he started a weekly “History Hour” programme on "Galey Zahal" (the army radio station), which made him a household name for many Israelis.
Rabbi and scholar

Born in Bucharest, he studied at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau and the University of Leipzig. From 1881 he was lecturer at the University of Bucharest until 1885 when he was expelled on account of his protests at the persecution of Jews. He then settled in England where he taught at Oxford University until 1887 when he was chosen as Haham (chief rabbi) of the London Sephardi community, serving until his retirement in 1917. An authority on Romanian philology, literature and folklore as well as in many branches of Jewish knowledge , he wrote numerous studies in all these fields. A leader of Hovevei Zion in his native Romania, he joined the political Zionist movement at its outset. In 1898 Gaster was one of the founders of the English Zionist Federation and during World War I took a leading role in talks with British statesmen that culminated in the Balfour Declaration.
Kaufman, Oskar (1873-1956), designer of theatres, born in Újszentanna, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Santana, Romania). He studied music in Budapest and architecture, first at the Budapest Technical School, and later in Karlsruhe, Germany. In 1900 he settled in Berlin, where he became well known as a designer of theatre buildings.

In 1907 Kaufmann built the Hebbel theatre in Berlin and the Staadttheater and Museum in Bremerhaven, Germany (1909). Breaking with traditional styles, he endeavored to design his theaters to suit the type of person who would patronize them. Accordingly, in the Volksbuehne (1914), a theatre intended for working class audiences, he used wood paneling instead of gold leaf and stucco, in order to achieve both simplicity and dignity. The Komoedie on the Berlin Kurfuerstendamm (1924), a theatre intended for the rich, was decorated with frescoes in delicate colors in order to produce an intimate and playful effect. Kaufmann rebuilt the Kroll Oper (1923), where after 1933 the Reichstag of the Third Reich gathered, and decorated it in wooden paneling and white metal. Among other theatres which he built was the Renaissance Theater, Berlin (1927).

In 1933, after the Nazis came to power, Kaufmann emigrated to Palestine and designed the Habimah Theatre in Tel Aviv. Kaufman returned to Europe in 1939 without being able to enter England because the outbreak of WW2. He spent sometime in Bucharest, Romania, and after 1942 settled in Hungary managing to survive the mass depotations of Hungarian Jews in 1944. He remained in Hungary after the rise of the Communist regime in that country and designed two theaters in Budapest during the 1950s.
מנצח. נולד בבוקרשט, רומניה. למד באקדמיה למוסיקה בעיר הולדתו. הופעתו הראשונה כמנצח נערכה ב-1948. ניצח על האנסמבל הרומני הממלכתי ועל התזמורת הסימפונית של בוקרשט. ב-1961 עלה לישראל, וניצח על התזמורת הסימפונית של חיפה ועל התזמורת הקאמרית הישראלית. אחר כך השתקע בארצות-הברית וניצח על בתי האופרה של אלסטר ובלטימור. מעונת 1991/92 קומיסיונה הוא המנהל המוסיקלי של תזמורת ונקובר.
Eliad, Harry (b.1927), author and director, born in Craiova, Romania. He attended the Cornetti Conservatorium in Craiova before moving to Ploiesti, Romania, where he was stage director and managing director of the local theater from 1953 to 1988. After 1988 he became managing director of the Jewish State Theater in Bucharest, Romania. Eliad is a vice-president of the Avram Goldfaden Cultural Foundation and a member of management of the Federation of the Jewish Communities of Romania. He is author of numerous musical shows, lead over 30 international tours of the Jewish theater, and a lecturer in the history of the history of the theater.

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Kara Svart, Itik (1906-2001), scholar, communal worker and lover of Yiddish culture, born into a talented family in Podu Iloaiei, a small town in Romania. One of his brothers was a sculptor, another a writer. Yiddish was the language spoken in his parent's traditional Jewish home. He changed his family name from Svart (a Romanian spelling of Schwarz, "black", in German) into Kara (which means "black" in Turkish).

Kara graduated from university in French and spoke also Russian and English, but Yiddish culture remained his first love and he struggled hard to prevent its decline. In 1948 he published a Yiddish language grammar textbook. As the literary secretary of the Jewish State Theatre in Iasi, Romania, he translated several plays into Yiddish in order to improve the company's repertoire and to make it more attractive to the public. He also worked hard to improve the quality of the Yiddish spoken by the actors. As a journalist for the local community journal he brought to the public facts and events taken from the Yiddish papers in Vilna, Warsaw, New York, etc. Some articles were reprinted from the "Bucarester Shriftn" Yiddish newspaper. He received several awards from Israeli Yiddish specialists.

In an effort to preserve the history and memories of the culture of the communities for future generations he collected and saved communal documents, and he wrote testimonies of individuals setting out their life experiences. He wrote monographs and short biographies of some of the memorable characters whom he had met up with. Many of these monographs were published in German in his work “Contributions to the History of the Jewish Community of Iasi”. He also published a compilation of some 300 “Medieval Hebrew Inscriptions in Iasi” - a work which was highly commended by the Romanian Academy. His book “The Jewish Community in Podu Iloaiei", originally published in 1925 was reprinted in 1990 and then translated into English.

Kara was an unostentatious believer, but possessing extensive Jewish knowledge acquired from his father during his childhood and adolescence years. The result was that he was inevitably one of the main counselors of the Iasi community which, as time went on, became more and more distant from Jewish culture and religion. He discretely guided cultural activities, he possessed the skill, the patience and the understanding needed to be a "malamed" [teacher] and to prepare the young boys who learned to wear teffilin. He also conducted the communal Seder on Passover. As a professor, literary secretary, librarian, community activist and, above all, a writer and a historian, he was he personal embodiment of everything which was valuable and memorable in the Jewish community of Iasi. His travels all over the Soviet Union and Europe also provided him with unrivalled experiences which enriched his knowledge of Jewish communities of the world and of life in general.

Kara wrote also a number of fictional works in the Romanian language including “The Rabbi of Podu Iloaiei” which was published in 1976 together with "A Moldevish Inghl" ("A Boy from Moldavia"). He is also the author of the delightful "Hotchpotch and Podeloier Times", dated 1920.
סופר, מלחין ואספן של שירי עם ביידיש. נולד בבוטושן (Botosani), רומניה. לא זכה לקבל חינוך מוסיקלי פורמלי, אך למד לנגן ממוסיקאים נודדים. ב-1932 התחיל לאסוף מוסיקת פולקלור וב-1948 פרסם חוברת שירים. הלחין מוסיקה לשירים ביידיש וברומנית וב-1949 ראתה אור באחד מעיתוני התרבות של בוקרשט (Kultur Wegweisser) סדרה של מאמרים פרי עטו על פולקלור. ב-1959 פרסם ספר בשם "שירי עם ביידיש" והביא בו את גרסתם המלאה. ב-1961 עלה לישראל והחל במחקר של שירים ביידיש ושירים ממקורות רומניים. מחקרו התפרסם ב-1971 ונקרא "שירי עם ביידיש מרומניה". נפטר בישראל.
משורר, מחזאי ועורך. נולד בליפקני, בסרביה (רומניה) היה עורך ועיתונאי ברומניה במלחמת העולם הראשונה. ב-1917/18 כתב והפיק תשע הופעות של תיאטרון סאטירי בתיאטרון היידי. בשנים 1926-1924 ניהל את ה"להקת וילנה" בבוקרשט, ועבורה עיבד מחזות מאת י"ל פרץ, שלום עליכם, גוגול ואחרים. בין שתי מלחמות העולם היה דמות מרכזית בחיי הספרות היידית ברומניה. שטרנברג ברח מהנאצים לאוזבקיסטאן ב-1941 ושהה שם ארבע שנים. אחרי המלחמה ניהל את התיאטרון היידי בקישינב והיה חבר באגודה היהודית האנטי-פשיסטית במוסקבה. בעקבות החיסולים של 1948 הוחזק חמש שנים במחנות עבודה בסיביר. עם מותו של סטלין הושב לו מעמדו. בין שיריו הקובץ "שטאט אין פרופיל" (1935).

Liviu Rotman (b. 1947), researcher of the history of the Jews of Romania, born in Bucharest, Romania. He graduated from the Mihai Viteazul High School and then attended the Faculty of History at the University of Bucharest earning a PhD. He immigrated to Israel in 1985. Between 1990 - 2003 he worked as a researcher and lecturer at Tel Aviv University, especially within the framework of the Romanian Jewish History Center Goldstein-Goren, a department of the Diaspora Research Institute of the University.  Rotman is an associate professor at the University of Bucharest and member of the Academic Council of the Institute of Jewish Studies at the University of Bucharest. Rotman edited a five-volume series on the history of Romanian Jewry. His works include Şcoala israelito-română: Învăţămantul evreiesc modern din România (“Education as a mirror of society: Jewish-Romanian school, 1851-1914”, 1999), Memory of the Holocaust in Communist Romania: from Minimization to Oblivion (2003); Evreii din România în perioada comunistă 1944-1965 ("Jews in Romania during the Communist regime", 2004); The Kehillah in Romania: The Pulse, Character and History of the Jewish Community of Romania (2015).

Fenyes, Samu (1863-1938), journalist, lawyer and playwright, born in Tallya, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire). While practicing as a lawyer he was also a talented writer. In 1907 he moved to Budapest and proceeded to found the weekly "Uttoro" ("Trail-Breaker") a journal of modern thought, which attracted a growing readership of modern thinking and enlightened people. The society thus formed became an effective educational agency, which sponsoring more than 1,000 public lectures where literature of the same tendency was distributed. Fenyes was an eloquent orator who sought to arouse public interest in social ills.

Fenyes was did not adhere to any political party, but his view and activities antagonized the clergy. As a result he was seized during the White Terror in Budapest between 1919-1921, a period of repressive violence by counter-revolutionary soldiers, intent on crushing any vestige of Hungary’s brief Communist revolution. He managed to escape to Vienna, Austria, where he remained for over a decade. There he edited "Das Wort" and, later, a Hungarian periodical known as "Diogenes" (1923-27). This periodical was aimed at fighting anti-Semitism and other contemporary evils.

As a dramatist Fenyes made an enduring impression in his native land, particularly with plays based on historical events. "Kurucz Feja David" (1902) was first of these, followed by "Bacsanyi" (1903); "Messias" (1903), the hero of which is Bar Kochba; "Csebi Tatar" (1904); "Csoppseg" (1905); "Pereszlenyi juss" (1906); "Artatlanok" (1907); "Almodozok" (1909); "Matyas" (1919). In 1909 he also wrote "Balvany", describing the relationship between Judaism and Christianity. A fanciful portrait of the eternal Jew is beautifully portrayed in "Jidli valtozasai", a novel published in 1922, which was translated into German (1927). Among his sociological works are: "Jogfejlodes" (1892) and "Morbus socialis" (1893).

In his final years, which he spent in Romania, Fenyes was embittered by the plight of his fellow Jews and despaired of the possibility of a progressive revolution. Fenyes died in Bucharest, Romania.

Ana Pauker ( born as Hanna Rabinsohn) (1893-1960), Communist leader and Foreign minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Romania in the late 1940s and early 1950s, born in Codaesti, Moldavia, Romania. Pauker was the first woman to hold these positions in any government in the world.

Pauker attended Jewish schools in Bucharest, then studied for some medicine in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1919-1920. She worked as a Hebrew language teacher at Frăția Sionului, a Jewish school in Bucharest. While in France, she met Marcel Pauker, a Commujnist activist. Following her husband she joined the Romanian Communist Party. She was arrested a number a times because of her political activity, spent some time in Switzerland and in 1926 fled to USSR where she attended the Comintern's International Lenin School which trained leading members of the Communist movement.

She returned to Romania, but was arrested in 1935, was put on trial and was sentenced to ten years in prison. In May 1941, the Romanian government sent her into exile to the Soviet Union in exchange for a Romanian politician arrested by the Soviets. Despite the fact that har husband was arrested and executed during the Stalinist purges in 1938, Pauker maintained her beliefs and loyalty to the Communist party. During WW2 she became the leader of the Romanian communists in the USSR.

In 1944 she returned to Romania after the Soviet Army entered that country. Pauker became Secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party and was instrumental during the Communist take over of the power in Romania in late 1940s. In November 1947, the non-Communist Foreign Minister was ousted and Pauker was named Foreign Minister in his place, the first woman ever to have achieved such a senior position in the world. However, it was her position in the Communist Party leadership that was the most important: as a member of the 4-person Secretariat of the Central Committee and formally second in the leadership, Pauker was widely believed to be the actual leader of the Romanian Communists in all but name during the immediate post-war period.

In 1948 Time magazine featured her portrait on its cover and described her as "the most powerful woman alive". Infamous as the "Iron Lady" of Romanian Communist politics, she was universally seen as unreservedly Stalinist and as Moscow's main agent in Romania.

Pauker supported, and helped facilitate, the emigration of roughly 100,000 Jews to Israel from the spring of 1950 to the spring of 1952, when all other Soviet satellites had shut their gates to Jewish emigration in line with Stalin's anti-Zionist campaign.

Despite her role in the imposition of Communism on Romania, Ana Pauker was soon accused of pursuing what she later described as "a type of Social Democratic policy" of mass recruitment of as many as 500,000 new Communist Party members without verification. She was also accused of her positions on her positions on Zionism and Israel. In 1952 she was expelled from the leadership of the Communist party and in early 1953 arrested, however, following Stalin's death, she was released from prison in April 1953, but kept on house arrest for many years. In 1954 she was expelled from the Communist party.

During her last years of life, Pauker was allowed to work as a translator from French and German for the a publishing house. In the spring in 1959, Pauker was diagnosed with a terminal recurrence of cancer. She died on June 3, 1960 of a cardiac arrest.

She was officially exonerated post-mortem in 1968. Her ashes were transferred to the mausoleum of the Romanian Communist leaders, however, in 1991, after the fall of the Communist regime in Romania, at the request of her family her ashes were transferred to Israel.

Goldstein, Max (1898–1924), was a communist and anarchist born in Barlad, Romania. Goldstein, also known as Coca, moved to Bucharest and became a Communist sympathizer. He was arrested and sentenced to prison for ten years. He managed to escape from prison and fled to Odessa, Ukraine (then part of the Russian Empire) where he became close to Anarchist cercles. Goldstein lost one hand, apparently while preparing explosives. He replaced it with a hook, hence his nickname "The Man with the Hook".

Having returned to Romania, he tried to assassinate the Minister of the Interior in 1920, but did not succeed. The same year, along with Gelber Moscovici, Leon Lichtblau, and Saul Ozias, another Jewish Communist activists, he planted a bomb which killed the Romanian Minister of Justice, two members of the Romanian Senate and wounded the President of the Senate. This bombing eventually led to the banning of the Communist Party. Goldstein then fled to Bulgaria but was again arrested when he tried to get back to Romania in 1921. He was sentenced to life imprisonment but died in prison after a 32 day hunger strike.
Cerbu , Eva (1924-2008), painter, born as Eva Siegler in Bucharest, Romania. She studied at the Academy of Fine Arts (Scoala de Arte Frumoase) in Bucharest where she was a student of the painters M.H. Maxy and Al. Ciucurencu. She traveled extensively to Bulgaria, Soviet Union, Germany, France, Italy, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Israel, and Greece.

In addition to fiftyeen personal exhibition in Bucharest and another cities in Romania, from 1956 to 1996, she also participated in numerous collective exhibitions in Romania and abroad, including Prague, Czech Republic (1947, 1953, 1961, 1966); Budapest, Hungary (1948, 1953, 1960); Sophia, Bulgaria (1955, 1962, 1966); Warsaw, Poland (1958); Moscow, Russia (1959, 1975); Belgrad, Serbia (1960); Riga, Latvia (1960); Vienna, Austria (1961, 1969); Bratislava, Slovakia (1960); Venice, Italy (1961); Damascus, Syria (1961); Leipzig, Germany (1960); Cairo, Egypt (1962); Ljubljana, Slovenia (1961); Athens, Greece (1962); Habana, Cuba (1962); Bruxelles, Belgium (1964); Tel Aviv, Israel (1968, 1994); Beirut, Lebanon (1969); Lisbon, Portugal (1975); Oslo, Norway (1975); Perth, Australia (1976); Caracas, Venezuela (1978, 1980); Lyngby, Denmark (1985); Buenos Aires, Argentina (1991); Beijing, China (1994).

Her works are displayed in museums in Romania, USA, Switzerlan, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Israel, Mexico, France.
Maxy, Maximilian Herman (1895-1971), painter and illustrator, born in Braila, Romania, generally known as M.H. Maxy. His family moved to Bucharest, Romania, where Maxy attended the School of Fine Arts between 1913-1916. He was drafted to the Romanian army and saw action during WW1. His impressions from the front served as subject to paintings that he showed along with other Romanian artists in Iasi, Romania, in 1918. Maxy completed his studies in Berlin between 192-1923 and in 1925 exhibited with the 'November Group'. In the 1930s he exhibited in Rome, Paris, the Hague, and Brussels. Maxy returned to Romania in 1929 and was an active member of the Contimporanul group until 1938. He also designed sets and costumes for the Polish Yiddish theater company. From 1939 he started to work for the Jewish theater Baraseum in Bucharest, and in 1941, following the introduction of the anti-Jewish legislation in Romania, he became its director. In 1949 Maxy became director of the National Art Museum of the Socialist Romanian Republic. His style was strongly influenced by the Constructivist and the Cubist movements.
מלחין. נולד בבוקרשט, רומניה, למד בקונסבטוריון של בוקרשט וניגן קלרנית. ב-1959 עלה לישראל, התיישב באשקלון, והקים שם קונסרבטוריון בניהולו. ב-1978 היגר לצרפת ולימד קומפוזיציה בקונסרבטוריון של פריס, לימד מוסיקה קאמרית בקונסרבטוריון של נאיי סיר סיין (Neuilly-sur-Seine) וקלרנית בשני הקונסרבטוריונים.
רשימת יצירותיו כוללת מרובעים לטנור ולתזמורת כלי-קשת (1956), חמישה שירים לסופרן ולפסנתר (1958), סינפוניה ברווה לתזמורת (1960), שיר קצר לאבוב ולתזמורת (1964), סימפוניה דה קאמרה לוויולה ולתזמורת קאמרית (1964), קונצ'רטו לכינור ולתזמורת סימפונית (1964), קונצ'רטו לפסנתר ולתזמורת (1965), חמישיית כלי-נשיפה (1967), שלישיית פסנתר מס' 1 (1972), שלישיית פסנתר מס' 2 (1976), דיאפוניות לכינור חשמלי, לוויולה ולתזמורת סימפונית (1976) וקטעים לקלרנית ולפסנתר (1978).
Koffler, Remus (1902-1954), Communist activist, born in Bucharest, Romania. His father owned a factory and became wealthy during the German occupation of Romania 1916-1918 by selling alcoholic drinks. Koffler was baptized by his parents and attended Christian schools. He finished his schooling in Switzerland. Towards the end of World War I he became a Zionist and the same year he announced that he had become a communist. In Bucharest, he joined the Socialist Party of Romania. He then traveled for studies in Germany, where he attended communist meetings, took part in demonstrations and agitated on Soviet Russia's behalf and eventually joined the German Communist Party taking part in demonstrations and campaigns.

Koffler returned to Romania in 1932 and worked for a short time in his father's business. He was an occasional courier to Prague, where the political office of the Romanian Communist Party was located. He was member of the editing committee of the clandestine Communist newspaper "Scanteia" to which he was a frequent contributor.

After the Communists came to power in Romania, Koffler was arrested in December 1949. He was accused of "crimes against peace", of support of Romania's war against the Soviet Union during WW2, of treason by providing information to the British and American intelligence agencies, and of having collaborated with the Romanian Secret Service during the Fascist regime in the early 1940s. Koffler was tortured for years despite his cardiac disease eventually developing a psychic condition. However, it seems that the real reason was the fact that having been head of the Financial Central Committee of the Communist Party he knew the sources of party funds and their destination, which included some of the most senior leader of Communist Romania.

Koffler was tried and sentenced to death in 1954. He refused to apply for a pardon, and was executed in April 1954. Unlike other Communist leaders executed in the Stalinist purges of the early 1950s, Koffler had never been rehabilitated by the Communist regime of Romania.
Rosenthal, Constantin Daniel (1820-1851), painter, sculptor and a 1848 revolutionary, born in Pest (now Budapest), Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire).

Rosenthal graduated from the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts in 1839, having studied archaeological drawing . While in Vienna he made his first Romanian friend, the painter Ioan D. Negulici. He traveled to Bucharest in 1842, where he made a living by painting portraits. In Bucharest he started to attend the local liberal circles and became a close friend of C. A. Rosetti, a future leader of the 1848 Revolution.

In 1844 Rosenthal settled in Paris where he continued his art studies and the friendship with Romanian students and exilees. From Paris he traveled to England and eventually returned to Bucharest where he became involved in the 1948 Revolution. Rosenthal aplied for Romanian citizenship; on the other hand the revolutionary goverment commissioned from him various works, including the designing of a triumphal arch in Bucharest. The intervention of the Ottoman troops in September 1848 forced Rosenthal and many other revolutionaries into exile. Following a short sejourn in Budapest where he witnessed the Hungarian revolution, Rosenthal returned to Paris. In France he continued his contacts with Romanian revolutionaries. It was during those years that he painted his most famous works: Romania revolutionara ("Revolutionary Romania"), which actually is a portrait of Maria Rosetti, the wife of his friend, and Romania rupandu-si catusele pe Campia Libertatii ("Romania Breaking off Her Chains on the Field of Liberty").

After spending some time in Switzerland, Rosenthal was sent to Transylvania with a mission from the Romanian revolutionary committee in exile. While in Budapest, he was arrested by the Austrian authorities and acussed of revolutionary activities. Rosenthal refused to disclose the names of his friends and consequently was tortured to death. His body was never been returned to his family.

Camil Baltazar (born Leibu Goldenstein or Leopold Goldstein) (1902-1977), poet and translator, born in Focsani, Romania, son of Herman Fischer Goldstein from Targu-Neamts. He studied in Focsani, Braila, and Bucharest, Romania, and was the first editor of the Romania libera daily. He also published in Zburătorul, Reporter and Gazeta literară. His first volume, Vecernii, was published in 1923, followed by Flaute de matase (1924); Reculegeri in memoria mea (1925); Biblice"(1926). After the Holocaust, during which his works were forbidden by the Fascist regime in Romania, he published another eight volumes of poetry from 1947 through 1976. His translations into Romanian include works by Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel, Heinrich Mann, Ludwig Renn, Iakob Wassermann, D. H. Lawrence, Pearl Buck, Frank Baum, Bernard Shaw, Erich Maria Remarque, and John Knittel.

Sebastian, Mihail (1907-1945), playwright, essayist, journalist and novelist, born Iosif Hechter in Braila, Romania. His other less known pen name is Victor Mincu.

Having attended the secondary school in his native city, he moved to Bucharest where he studied law. In Bucharest he joined various literary circles, especially the Criterion group that included Emil Cioran, Mircea Eliade and Nae Ionescu. However, as this group came under the influence of nationalistic, anti-Semitic and fascist ideas very fashionable in Romania during the 1930s, Sebastian started to be regarded as an outsider. In his book De două mii de ani... ("It's been two thousand years...") Sebastian deals with the meaning of being a Jew in Romania. The book was published in 1934 with a preface written by Nae Ionescu, at Sebastian's request, although it included clear anti-Semitic passages. This way Sebastain tried to emphasize the controversy. The book and Sebastian himself became the target of strong criticism from the Jewish community and parts of the Jewish public opinion as well as of attacks by the Romanian ultra-nationalists and fascists. Sebastian's reaction to these attacks was published in his anthology of essays and articles Cum am devenit huligan ("How I Became a Hooligan"), that deals with the way his "It's been two thousand years..." was received by the Romanian public and the country's cultural establishment. His "Journal, 1935-1944: The Fascist Years" was published for the first time in 1996 bringing about a strong controversy about the role of prominent Romanian intellectuals and public figures during the years when the country came under the influence of fascist ideas and eventually became an ally of Nazi Germany.

Sebastian's other known novels include Accidentul ("The Accident") and Oraşul cu salcâmi ("The Acacia Tree City"). However, Sebastian is remembered mainly for his his plays, such as Steaua fără nume ("The Star Without a Name"), Jocul de-a vacanţa ("Holiday Games"), Ultima oră ("Breaking News").

Sebastian died in a street accident on May 29, 1945.
Ebner, Meir (1872-1955), Zionist leader in Bukovina and Romania, born and educated in Czernowitz, Austrian (now in the Ukraine) where he received a traditional Jewish education and completed law school at the University of Czernowitz.

In 1891 he participated in the establishment of the Jewish national student association called 'Hasmonea'. He was influenced by Herzl, joined the Zionist Organization, and in 1897 attended the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.

Active in Jewish affairs in Bukovina he worked to obtain Jewish representation in the Vienna parliament. In 1910 he helped found the the national Jewish People's Council (Judischer Volksrat). When in 1915 the area was occupied by Russia Ebner was exiled to Siberia. He was released in 1917 and proceeded to join the socialist Jacob Pistiner (1882-1930) in setting up the Jewish National Council (Judischer Nationalrat) in 1918. At the end of World War I Bukovina was annexed to Romania in 1918 and soon afterwards Ebner led the struggle for Jewish rights in Romania.

Between the world wars Ebner directed the national leadership of Bukovinian Jewry and for many years was chairman of the local Zionist Organization. Ebner devoted his energies not only to defending the individual and civil rights of the Jews but to securing their rights as a national minority. In 1919 he founded the "Ostjudische Zeitung" newspaper in which he advocated both Zionism and a Jewish national identity in the Diaspora. In 1926 he was elected head of the Czernowitz Jewish community. In the same year he was elected to the Romanian parliament (House of Deputies) in Bucharest. He retained his seat until 1934. In 1928, with the help of four other members of parliament, Ebner was elected to the Romanian Senate.

In 1931 he participated in the foundation of the 'Jewish National Party' of Romania. Ebner attended the international Congresses of National Minorities in Geneva and served as Vice–president of the International Zionist Organization. In 1934 he attended the trial in Switzerland against "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" as a witness against all the anti-Semitic accusations. In 1939 Ebner attended the 21st Zionist Congress in Zurich and from there travelled to Israel to settle there. In Palestine Ebner remained active in public life and for some years wrote articles in the local "Haaretz", "Hayom" and "Haboker" newspapers. Ebner was present at the David Ben Gurion's public declaration of the creation of the Jewish state in Tel Aviv on 14th May1948.
Popper, Julius (1857–1893), an engineer, adventurer and explorer, born in Bucharest, Romania.

He started his education at his father's private school and at the age of 17 moved to Paris, France, where he attended the Politechnique and then the École des Ponts et Chaussées graduating as a mines engineer. He also attended various courses on chemistry, physics, meteorology, ethnography, geology and geography at Sorbonne.

He started his travels around the world in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Istanbul, Turkey), from there he moved to Egypt where he worked for some time at the maintanance of the Suez Channel. He continued to India, China, and Japan, and from there he returned to Romania to visit his family in 1881, never to come back. He restarted his travels first to Siberia, Russia, and then to Alaska, Canada, and the USA, where he stayed for sometime in New Orleans, LA. Popper then moved to Cuba, at the time a Spanish colony, where he contributed to the urban planing of the city of Havana being the main responsible for its modern develoment. From Cuba Popper traveled to Mexico, where he started a journalistic career, then to Brazil, and finally in 1885 he arrived in Argentina followig rumors of gold rush.

In Argentina he organized the "Popper Expedition" in 1886. Leading a team of eighteen people, Popper discovered gold dust on the beach of El Páramo, a Patagonian peninsula. He lead his team much as a private army and step by step, following the discovery of significant amounts of gold, his company Compania de Lavaderos de Oro del Sud succeeeded in making large capital gains at the Argentine stock exchange. Popper started issuing his own coins and stamps and when the Argentinian currency lost its much of its value in the crash of 1890, his gold coins were widely accepted as trusted alternative currency.

Popper's activities in Tierra del Fuego have been quite controversial with accusations of involvement into the exploitation and even mass murder of the local native population. However, he received the support of the Argentinian goverment who was interested in the development of province of Tierra del Fuego, and Popper even started the preparations for an expedition to enforce the Argentine claim for parts of Antarctica.

Popper died in Buenos Aires in unclear circumstances: he was found dead in his room, some rumors suggested that he was assasinated, others that he commited suicide or died of a heart attack.
Brandes, Silviu "Nancy" (b. 1946), composer, musician, and comic actor, born in Bucharest, Romania.

In Romania he was known as the founding memb er of the "Rosu si Negru" ("Red and Black") pop group, one of the first and most popular in Romania.

Brandes immifgrated to Israel in 1975 wher he continued his musical career in collaboration with outstanding Israeli artists: Ofra Haza, Zohar Argov, Avi Toledano, Dudu Topaz, Yair Nitzani, Mirel Reznik and others.

Emil Dorian (born Emil Lustig)(1891-1956), poet, novelist and translator, the son of a teacher of German, born in Bucharest, Romania. Educated at Jewish schools in Bucharest he went on to graduate from medical school and served as a physician during World War I despite the fact that as a Jew he was not a Romanian citizen. After the war he went to France where he specialized. Dorian returned to Romania and practiced medicine until the end of his life. He published several works of popular medicine. After World War II he became involved in Jewish community life serving as a secretary general and afterward as director of the documentary library and archives of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania.

Despite his full time medical career, Dorian was a prolific writer. His works, initially published under various pseudonyms, appeared initially in several literary journals. He wrote poetry and novels, and translated several books incךuding the works of Henrich Heine and Eliezer Shteynbarg from German and Yiddish to Romanian. His poems generally focused on intimate and peaceful family settings; some described his wartime experience in pacifist tones. Dorian developed a keen interest in Yiddish poetry. In Antologie de poezie idis (:Anthology of Yiddish Poetry") he translated and collected more than 400 poems.

Dorian’s novels depict the social and ideological conflicts of the interwar years in Romania, focusing on Jewish life. The hero of Profeti si paiate ("Prophets and Clowns", published in 1930), Avram Gut, is a young man growing acquainted with both materialism and idealism. The story describes the struggles of Romania’s Jewish community at the end of World War I, and the political options available to its members.

From 1937 until the end of his life, Dorian maintained a remarkable diary. The journal presents the daily life of the author, revealing his literary struggles, the situation in Romania during the period of right-wing extremism, and the hardships of living in the Jewish community. The diary was first published in English in 1982 as Quality of Witness: A Romanian Diary, 1937–1944. The Communist regime in Romania banned his books after he attacked the permanence of anti-Semitism in Romanian society.

מנצח. נולד ביאסי, רומניה. למד באקדמיה למוסיקה בוקרשט, וקיבל מטעמה תואר ראשון ותואר שני. ב-1961 עלה לישראל ובשנים 1972-1963 היה מנצח ראשי של התזמורת הסימפונית רשות השידור ירושלים. ייסד וניהל את התזמורת הקאמרית הירושלמית (1967-1965), ועד 1992 ניצח גם על הסימפונייטה הישראלית באר-שבע. מאז 1963 הוא מלמד באקדמיה למוסיקה ולמחול על שם רובין בירושלים ובשנים 1995-1982 היה מנהלה. היה מנצח אורח של אנסמבלים אירופיים רבים וניצח על הופעות בכורה רבות של יצירות מאת מלחינים ישראלים. ב-2006 הוענק לו פרס ישראל.
Marin, Gheorghe Gaston (1918-2010), Communist activist and politician, born Gheorghe Grossmann, in Chisinau-Cris. Transylvania (then part of Austria-Hungary, now in Romania). He attended high school in Petrosani and Deva, Romania. In his youth, he was a member of Poalei Zion movement. He studied electrical engineering in Grenoble, France, between 1936 and 1941.

Marin joined the French Resistance during World War II and took part in a number of attacks against the German occupiers. In August 1944, his group liberated the French town of Carmaux in the Tarn department in south-western France capturing 120 German soldiers, and a few days later, they also liberated the city of Albi, the department capital of Tarn. His parents and sister, who lived in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were deported to Auschwitz and murdered there.

When the Communists came to power in Romania, Marin became Councillor of the Romanian Council of Ministers in during 1945–1949 and then Minister of the Economy in 1948–1949. He was a member of the Romanian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1947. From 1949 to 1954, Gaston Marin was Minister of Electrical Energy and Electrical Industry, and then, until 1965, President of the Government Planning Committee. In 1955–1966, he served as President of State Committee for Nuclear Energy. Marin was Vice-president of the Ministerial council, as well as Minister of Metallurgy, Mining, Chemistry, Transport and Telecommunications, Building, Chemical Industry, and National Trading during 1962–1969. He was member of the Communist parliament of Romania (1952-1985) and member of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (1960-1984).

In 1963, after attending the funeral of John F. Kennedy, he was instrumental in establishing diplomatic relations between Romania and several Western countries, including the United States.

From 1969 to 1982, Marin was President of the Pricing Committee. He was removed from official positions by Nicolae Ceausescu, being the last supporter of the Gheorghiu-Dej, the previous leader of Communist Romania, to be eliminated from the Romanian government.

In the 1989, he immigrated to Israel, but later returned to Romania.
Auschnitt, Max (1888-1959), (also known as Auschnit and Ausnit) industrialist, born in Galati, Romania. He was educated at the Commercial Academy of Vienna, Austria.

Auschnitt was the owner of the Uzinele de Fier si Domeniile Resita (UDR), the largest public company in Romania before WW2 that had 16,669 employees in 1938 and 22,892 in 1948. Along with his brother Edgar, he also owned the Titan-Nădrag-Călan company that in 1938 had over 4,900 employees. Auschnitt was Vice-President of the Union of the Romanian Industrialists, President of the Union of Industrialists of Banat - a region in south-west Romania, and Senator of Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Galati. He also was a director of numerous Romanian and foreign companies, including the Societatea Romana de Telefoane ("The Romanian Phone Company") and Banca Chrissoveloni ("Chrissoloveni Bank"). He also was a close friend of the Romanian King Carol II, until he was forced to flee Romania in 1940. During the Holocaust, Auschnitt took refuge in the US where he remained until his death. All his properties were confiscated by the Communist regime of Romania in 1948.

Ovid S. Crohmalniceanu (born Moise Cohn) (1921-2000), literary critic and science fiction writer born in Galati, Romania. He attended high school in Galati, then in 1939 he began to study construction engineering at the Politechnica University of Bucharest, but had to interrupt his studies on account of WW2. He was able to graduate only in 1947.

He found work in several socialist magazines before resuming his studies in literature. He proceeded to become a professor in the department of Romanian language and literature at the University of Bucharest. He was an active communist who promoted “socialist realism” and encouraged many young writers. He authored over 15 books of literary criticism and despite his communist beliefs, was instrumental in promoting the works of the modernist poets Tudor Arghezi and Lucian Blaga. His study Evreii în mișcarea de avangarda românească ("The Jews in the Romanian Avantgarde") was published posthumously in 2002.

Crohmalniceanu immigrated to Germany in 1992 and settled in Berlin.

משה דוד רוזן (1912 - 1994), רב ראשי של רומניה, נולד במוינשטי, רומניה, שם אביו היה רב הקהילה. משה דוד רוזן הוסמך לרבנות בשנת 1939 ומשנת 1948 היה הרב הראשי של יהודי רומניה. משנת 1957 היה חבר בפרלמנט הרומני, כנציג איזור בבוקרשט, שרובו היה מאוכלס ביהודים. בשנת 1964 התמנה לנשיא הפדרציה של הקהילות היהודיות של הרפובליקה הסוציאליסטית הרומנית. כמנהיגה הבלתי מעורער של יהדות רומניה, הוא הוביל אותה בשנות המשטר הקומוניסטי, תוך קיום יחסי עבודה עם השלטונות מחד, ופעילות נמרצת להגירת יהודי רומניה לישראל, ויצירת תנאים לקיום חיי הדת תחת המשטר הקומוניסטי. הוא היה עורך הבטאון של היהדות הדתית ברומניה.

אוג'ין גולדנברג (1959-1912), מנהיג ציוני, נולד בפלוישטי, רומניה, בן יחיד למשפחה יהודית אשר היגרה לרומניה מאוסטריה. בתום לימודיו בבית הספר התיכון בעיר הולדתו, עבר ביחד עם משפחתו לבוקרשט בשנת 1931, שם למד משפטים באוניברסיטת בוקרשט. שירת בצבא הרומני בין השנים 1934-1935 והשתחרר בדרגת סמל. בתקופת השואה נאלץ לצאת לעבודות כפיה בין השנים 1942-1944. 

גולדנברג שימש כסגן מנהל המכון לאומנות בבוקרשט עד שנת 1950, מונה למנכ"ל חברת "טכנוכימיה" והחל מספטמבר 1951 היה נשיא חברת הכימיה "קופרוכים".

פעילותו הציונית החלה עוד בצעירותו. בין היתר, הוא רכש קרקעות בארץ ישראל בשנים של טרום הקמת המדינה (גאולת אדמות). לאחר עלייתו של המשטר הקומוניסטי ברומניה בסוף שנות ה-1940, הפעילות הציונית נאסרה וכל מי שהמשיך להיות פעיל בתנועה הציונית נמצא בסכנת חיים.

גולדנברג נעצר ע"י השלטונות הקומוניסטים של רומניה ב-5 באוקטובר 1957 באשמת היותו "ציוני" ו"אויב המדינה". בשנים שהיה כלוא לא הועמד לדין ולא נידון למאסר, אלא היה נתון לחקירות חוזרות ונשנות תוך עינויי גוף ונפש. מאמציה של רעייתו מרטה להביא לשחרורו, כולל פניה אל הרב משה רוזן אשר כיהן באותן שנים כרב הראשי של רומניה, נכשלו. ב-3 בספטמבר 1959 נמסרה הודעה למשפחתו על כך שגולדנברג נפטר בכלא. גופתו לא נמסרה למשפחה וגם לא פרטים על מקום קבורתו.

משפחתו עלתה לישראל בשנת 1960. בארץ שם המשפחה שונה להרפז. שנים לאחר מכן, בעת ביקורה של אלמנתו בבוקרשט נודע לה שגולדנברג נקבר בבית הקברות היהודי בבוקרשט.

בשנת 2008 משפחתו של גולדנברג קיבלה לידיה את תיקו האישי אשר נשמר בארכיונים של ה"סקוריטטה", השירות החשאי של המשטר הקומוניסטי ברומניה. בתיק זה התגלה המעקב ארוך השנים של השירות החשאי אחרי פעילותו הציונית של גודלברג. התברר שגולדנברג היה חבר הנהגה בתנועות הציונית "משמר" והיה חבר בארגון "מזרחי" וב"ליגה מריטימה פלסטינה". בישראל גולדברג הוכר כאסיר ציון.

שני בניו של גולדנברג פתחו קריירות מצליחות בישראל. הבן הבכר אלכס הרפז, שהיה בן 13 בעת מותו של אביו, הוא אדריכל, והבן השני, דני הרפז, הצעיר בשלוש שנים מאחיו הבכור, שירת בצה"ל בדרגת סא"ל ומאז שחרורו הוא משמש כמנהל כ"א במספר חברות בישראל.

 

נמחקו
נוספו

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

פלויישט Ploiesti

עיר נפט בחבל מונטניה (ואלאכיה), רומניה.


ראשית היישוב היהודי במקןם במחצית השנייה של המאה ה-17. בתחילת המאה ה- 18 נהרס בית הכנסת בפקודת השלטונות, והיהודים נצטוו להעתיק את מגוריהם אל מחוץ לעיר, במרחק שני קילומטרים ממנה. על חשיבותם הכלכלית תעיד העובדה ששוק הבהמות והשוק העירוני הכללי נקבעו סמוך לרובע החדש והדרך שהובילה ממנו לעיר נקראה "רחוב היהודים" כמעט עד סוף המאה ה- 19.

במאה ה- 19 הגיעו לעיר יהודים ספרדיים מארצות הבלקן. ב-1830 הם ביקשו להקים קהילה נפרדת, החכם-באשי לא נענה לבקשתם, וכך נשארה פלויישטי הקהילה היחידה ברומניה המשותפת לשתי העדות.

בסוף המאה הגיע מספר היהודים בעיר ל-2,500 בקירוב (%5.5 מכלל האוכלוסיה).

בקהילה היו חמישה בתי-כנסת, בית-ספר לבנים על-שם לוקא מואיס (מ-1875), ובית-ספר לבנות שנפתח בשנת 1896.

יהודי פלויישטי עסקו ביצוא תוצרת חקלאית, עורות וכיוצא באלה סחורות להונגריה ולווינה, ומאמצע המאה ה-19 - בפיתוח ענף הנפט.

במרוצת הזמן השתתפו יהודים במועצת העיריה, ולמשך זמן מה כיהן יהודי כסגן ראש העירייה. הבולטים בין רבני המקום היו הרבנים בני משפחת ברזיס. הצדיק לבית רוז'ין, רבי דוד פרידמן, ישב בעיר (עד שנרצח בתקופת השואה בידי אנשי "משמר הברזל" ב-1940.)

בשנת 1930 ישבו בפלויישטי כ-4,000 יהודים.


בימי מלחמת העולם השנייה הופיעו יחידות צבא גרמניות בעיר כבר בסתיו 1940. עם עליית אנטונסקו לשלטון בספטמבר אותה השנה, נתמנה איש "משמר הברזל" כמפקד המשטרה המקומית והוא פתח מיד בהחרמת עסקים יהודיים ובמאסר סוחרים ואנשי-ציבור. בליל 28 בנובמבר הוצאו להורג ביער סמוך 11 עצורים, ביניהם הרב פרידמן. שלושה בתי-כנסת ובית הספר לבנים נהרסו עד היסוד; הריהוט הועבר לכנסיות והציוד - למוסדות חינוך רומניים. היו יהודים שנשלחו למחנה-הריכוז טירגו-ג'יו.

ביוני 1941, עם המתקפה הגרמנית על ברית- המועצות, הועברו גברים יהודים בני 60-18 למחנה הריכוז טייש; בני 17-13 נלקחו לעבודות-כפייה. בינואר 1942 הותר לגברים בני 50 ומעלה לחזור לבתיהם, שאר המגורשים פוזרו לערים אחרות וכעבור זמן נלקחו לעבודות- כפייה בבסאראביה ובמולדאביה.


בתום המלחמה חזרו רוב היהודים, כ-3,000 איש, לפלויישט. ב-1950 ירד מספרם לאלפיים.

ב-1969 נותרו בעיר כ-120 משפחות יהודיות ובית-כנסת אחד.

בית הכנסת של פלוישטי, שנבנה בשנת 1901, נפתח מחדש בשנת 2017 בעקבות שיפוצים נרחבים שבוצעו בעזרתו של תורם אמריקני, יליד פלוישטי. בטקס החנוכה נכחו הרב הראשי מנחם הכהן והרב שלמה סורין רוזן, אורל וויינר, נשיא התאחדות הקהילות היהודיות ברומניה, נשיאי הקהילות היהודיות בברשוב, פיאטרה ניאמץ ופוקשני וכן ראש עיריית פליישטי. באותה שנה התגוררו בפלוישטי. פחות מ-100 יהודים.

ג'ורג'ו

Giurgiu

עיר נמל על הדנובה ובירת המחוז ג'ורג'ו, חבל מונטניה, דרום רומניה.

העיר נוסדה במאה ה-14 ככל הנראה על ידי סוחרים איטלקים מהעיר ג'נובה ונקראה על ידיהם ג'ורג'ו הקדוש (San Giorgio). העיר התפרסמה במאה ה-16 בימי המלחמות נגד התורכים ובמאה ה-18 היתה ידועה כעיר נמל ראשונה בוואלאכיה, הנסיכות שהתקיימה בדרום שטחה של רומניה.

באמצע המאה ה-18 ישבו בה 50 יהודים בני כת הפראנקיסטים עם מנהיגם יעקב פראנק (כת שצמחה אחרי כשלון שבתאי צבי). תיעוד על ישוב קבע של יהודים ב ג'ורג'ו קיים מאז המחצית הראשונה של המאה ה-19. תעודה מ-1829 ומפקד אוכלוסין מ-1834 מציינים 26 סוחרים יהודים וביניהם מוזכר ה"סטארוסטה" שהוא ראש הגילדה - ארגון שייצג מעוט לאומי בתקופה העותומאנית.

ראשונים הגיעו למקום יהודים הספרדים. בתקנות הקהילה הספרדית של העיר שהתקבלו באוקאטובר 1932, צוין בסעיף מס' 1, שהקהילה קיימת כבר 150 שנים, כלומר ממחצית השנייה של המאה ה-18. היהודים הספרדים עסקו במסחר וחלפנות ומצבם הכלכלי היה טוב יותר משל היהודים האשכנזים אשר הגיעו בהמשך ועסקו במלאכה.

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1899 נרשמו 603 יהודים בג'ורג'ו מתוך אוכלוסיה כללית של 14,852 תושבים. הקהילה הספרדית הוותיקה כללה את משפחות של בן-הבסט, צדיק לוי, ניסים צ'יליבן, קונפינו, פרנקו, מושון אשכנזי ובוכור קאפן. בקהילה האשכנזית יש לציין את המשפחות של ינקו מרגוליס, איסאק ריכטר, נחום כהן, מויסה ווייס ומוריץ גרינברג.

בסוף המאה ה-19 גברה האנטישמיות ועל היהודים נאסר לקיים קשרי מסחר עם הגדה תושבים וסוחרים אשר גרו בגד הדרומית של הדנובה בבצד הבולגרי. בעיר קם אירגון אנטישמי ובעלי המלאכה היהודים הורחקו,   בניגוד לחוק, מהאיגודים המקצועיים.

אל הקהילה הספרדית מאורגנת הצטרף היישוב האשכנזי ובין שתי הקבוצות פרצו מדי פעם מחלוקות. בית הקברות היה משותף לשתי העדות אבל היו שתי חברות קדישא ובשני בתי הכנסת התפללו בנוסח שונה. הילדים למדו בבית הספר הממשלתי אבל המעוניינים בחינוך יהודי פנו לבית הספר היהודי שהוקם למטרה זו בסוף המאה ה- 19.

חוק הדתות מ- 1929 הכיר בדת היהודית כדת הסטורית ובעקבותיו הוכרה הקהילה ב-1932 כגוף רשמי.

מכתב מ-1867 מהווה עדות ראשונה לשאיפות ציוניות. המכתב נשלח על ידי ד"ר ורטהיימר מג'יורג'יו אל נשיא אליאנס בפריס, והוא מבקש פרטים על תכנית התיישבות בארץ. לא היה לכך המשך. 

פעילות ציונית מאורגנת התחילה בראשית שנות ה-1880. סניף של התנועה "יישוב ארץ ישראל" פעל במקום החל משנת 1881. זאת הייתה תנועה קדם ציונית שהתארגנה ופעלה ברומניה בשנים 1880 - 1884. היתה שאיפה חזקה להגירה וארגון נשים "בנות  ציון" פעל בכוון זה. התנועה התארגנה מחדש בשנות  ה-1890  בשם "חובבי  ציון", בהשפעת התנועה מרוסיה. בזכות האחדות שהתקיימה בשורותיה בין ספרדים ואשכנזים יכלה למלא גם תפקידי סעד.

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בג'ורג'ו 268 "בני דת משה" אשר היוו 0.7%  מכלל התושבים.

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם. אנשי "משמר הברזל" המקומיים פתחו בשוד וטרור וכוונתם הייתה לנשל את הסוחרים היהודים ולהעביר את רכושם לידיהם. הם הפיצו כרוזים קומוניסטיים בחצרות של יהודים והשתמשו בהם כתואנה למעצרם של 45 יהודים אשר עונו וכל רכושם  נשדד. אחוזי פחד, מחצית היהודים נטשו מרצונם את העיר.

יהודים ממקומות אחרים, בעיקר מבוקרסט, הובאו אל נמל ג'ורג'ו לביצוע עבודות כפיה. בכפר וידה (Vida) הצמוד לג'ורג'ו פעל מחנה של עבודות כפייה.

אחרי המלחמה רק מעטים חזרו. הקהילה הספרדית הפסיקה מלהתקיים ובשנים מיד אחרי תום מלחמת העולם השנייה היו בעיר כ-40 יהודים אשכנזים, ככל הנראה לרוב היו אלה פליטים מבסארביה ומבוקובינה. ב-1947 מנתה האוכלוסייה היהודית 187 נפשות. גם יהודים אלה נטשו את העיר.

בית הקברות נמצא ברח' מיהאי ויטיאזול מס' 1. המצבות העתיקות ביותר ששרדו הן מסוף המאה ה-19 והחדשה ביותר משנת 1996.

בראשית שנות ה-2000, לא הייתה נוכחות יהודית בג'ורג'ו.

אולטניצה

Oltenița 

עיר נמל על שפך הנהר ארג'ש לדנובה מחוז קאלראש, חבל מונטניה, רומניה.

העיר נוסדה בשנת 1853 על ידי הנסיך אלכסדרו דימיטריה גיקה על אדמת אחוזתו, והתגוררו בה 753 תושבים. על מפה של העיר משנת 1856 רשומים שבעה מגרשים שהיו בבעלות כמה יהודים מבוקרסט.

בשנת 1868 הקהילה קיבלה אישור לבניית בית כנסת על מגרש שרכשה שנתיים קודם לכן ותושבים נוצרים הצטרפו אל התורמים לבנייתו. בית העלמין הוקם על מגרש שנתרם על ידי מלך רומניה קרול הראשון. הילדים למדו בבתי הספר הציבוריים.

הקהילה לא הטילה מס בשר, שהיה מקור הכנסה חשוב ברוב הקהילות. הכנסותיה נבעו ממיסי היהודים ומתרומות. הכנסות אלה הספיקו לה להחזקת דיין ולתמיכה בקבצנים, שהגיעו מהסביבה, על מנת למנוע פשיטת יד בעיר.

על רקע רדיפות ומצב כלכלי קשה, התארגנה ברומניה ב-1900 תנועת הגירה המונית המכונה "פוסגעייר" ("הצועדים ברגל") וזאת משום שעשו את הדרך אל המבורג וערי נמל אחרים במערב אירופה ברגל בגלל שלא היה ביכולתם לרכוז כרטיס רכבת. מהמבורג וערי נמל אחרים הם המשיכו אל צפון אמריקה. עשרים המשפחות יהודיות במקום תמכו בקבוצות הצועדים שעברו דרך עירם, אבל לא הצטרפו אליהם.

יהודי אולטניצה היו פעילים במגוון רחב של תחומים. היו ביניהם בעלי מקצועות חופשיים, מורים, רופאים ופקידים, אבל גם אנשי עסקים: סוחרים, יזמים, בעלי בתים ובעלי מלאכה. מספר יהודים מבני המקום נהרגו בקרבות מלחמת העולם הראשונה כחיילים בצבא רומניה.

הישוב היהודי בעיר לא התפתח ובמפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בה 52 יהודים (0.5% מכלל התושבים) לעומת 130 היהודים שחיו במקום בשנת 1919.  היחס אל יהודי העיר המעטים לא השתנה בתקופת השואה, אם כי בדומה לכל יהודי רומניה, גם יהודי אולטניצה סבלו ממשטר הטרור האנטישמי של ממשלות רומניה החל ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בשנת 1937-1938 ובעיקר לאחר עלייתה לשולטון של הממשלה בראשותו של הגרנרל יון אנטונוסקו והצטרפותה של רומניה לברית עם גרמניה הנאצית. לאחר הרדיפות של המשטר הפאשיסטי, היהודים נפגעו מעלייתו של המשטר הקומוניסטי אשר הלאים את העסקים ונרכוש שלהם. כמעט כל היהודים עזבו את העיר, רובם היגרו לישראל. היהודי האחרון באוטניצה היה אלכסנדרו מנצ'יו (נולד בשם יוסף גולדשטיין בשנת 1909), בעל חנות לכובעים ברחוב הראשי של העיר, מכאן היה מכונה "הכובען".

בראשית שנות ה-2000 לא היו תושבים יהודים במקום.  

בית הקברות היהודי ממוקם ברחוב לאפטארי 2. הוא הוקם בסוף המאה ה-19 והלוויה האחרונה התקיימה בשנת 1959.  

 

טארגובישטה

Târgoviște 

איות נוסף: Tîrgovişte

עיר ובירת המחוז דאמבוביצה, בחבל מונטניה, דרום רומניה. בין השנים 1385 - 1559 העיר היתה בירת נסיכות.

עדויות ראשונות על נוכחות יהודים בטארגובישטה רשומים בספר מסעות מאמצע המאה ה-17 ובמצבות משנת 1812 שנמצאו בבית העלמין העתיק. בראשית המאה ה-19 השתקעו בעיר יהודים שנמלטו מהעיר הסמוכה פלוישט בגלל מגפת דבר שפרצה שם.

סכנת גירוש איימה עליהם ב-1821, בימי מרד היוונים נגד התורכים. היוונים תושבי נסיכויות רומניה  הצטרפו למרד ובדרכם לתורכיה פרעו ביהודים. את יהודי טארגובישטה האשימו בסיוע לתורכים ורק בוא התורכים לעיר הסיר את אימת הגירוש מעליהם.

על פי נתונים מ-1882 עסקו רוב היהודים במלאכה ורק בודדים התפרנסו ממסחר. מצב זה השתנה בראשית  המאה ה-20 כאשר המסחר הפך למקור פרנסה עבור רוב היהודים בעיר.

בית עלמין ראשון נוסד בראשית המאה ה-19, כאשר מגפת דבר מנעה העברת הנפטרים לפלוישט, אבל  גידורו בוצע רק לאחר שנרכש מגרש לבית עלמין חדש, במחצית המאה ה-19. מחלוקות פנימיות מנעו במשך המאה ה- 19 גיבוש מוסדות קהילתיים ובהעדר חברה קדישא נאלצו בני המשפחה לדאוג לסידור הקבורה.

ב-1882 נפתחו שתי כתות של בית ספר עממי בו לימדו עברית ורומנית.

רק לקראת סוף המאה ה-19 התארגנה הקהילה והודות לרב חיים שור שהגיע לטארגובישטה ב-1900 במיוחד מבוקרסט פסקו המריבות. בית הכנסת נבנה בין השנים 1905 – 1912 בסגנון האדריכלי הרומני הלאומי טיפוסי לסוף המאה ה-19 ותחילת המאה ה-20.

בימי מלחמת העולם הראשונה יהודי מטארגובישטה בשם הרמאן קורנהאוזר שילם בחייו את נאמנותו לרומניה. בגלל הסיוע שהגיש לשבויי מלחמה רומנים להימלט מהשבי נידון הוא נעצר ע"י ידי הצבא הגרמני ששלט בעיר בדצמבר 1916, נשפט ונידון למוות. הוא הוצא להורג בתליה בכיכר השוק של העיר במרץ 1917. קורנהאוזר היה בן 37 במותו.

ערב מלחמת העולם השנייה היו בטארגובישטה בית ספר ובית כנסת מוחזקים על ידי הקהילה.

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בטארגובישטה 551 יהודים אשר היוו 2.2% מכלל התושבים.

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם.

עלית הגורמים הקיצוניים לשולטון בעיר נתנה סימניה ביחס אל היהודים. בנובמבר 1940 החלה ועדה מקומית בספירת המלאי בחנויות היהודים וב-5 בדצמבר נטבעו הסוחרים היהודים ל"מכור" את רכושם (סחורות ובתים) תמורת 20%-10% מערכו. חתימות הסוחרים הושגו בעינויים קשים. ערעור שהוגש על ידי איחוד הקהילות מבוקרסט הגביר את כעס האחראים לשוד ובתגובה הם כפו על היהודים ניקוי הרחובות ואסרו יציאתם מהעיר. בכל זאת הצליחו כ-75% מיהודי העיר להמלט מהמקום בימי המלחמה ואחרי המלחמה לא חזרו אליה.

בכפר טאיש הסמוך לטארגובישטה הוקם מחנה מעצר שבו הוחזקו גברים יהודים בגילים שבין 16 עד 60 מהערים פלויאשט, קאמפינה וסינאיה.

בראשית שנות האלפיים התגוררו בטארגובישטה פחות מ-10 יהודים. בית הכנסת נמצא ברחוב גריגורה אלכסנדרסקו מס' 37. בניין בית הכנסת שופץ בשנת 2010 ומשמש כאולם קונצרטים של בית הספר למוזיקה.

בית הקברות נמצא ברח' זורילור מס' 30. בפרבר מאטיי ויאבוד.  

קאלאראש

Călărași

עיר ובירת המחוז קאלאראש, חבל מונטניה, רומניה.

תחילתו של היישוב היהודי מתועד באמצע המאה ה-19. העיר סבלה קשות מהמלחמות שהתנהלו באזור בין רוסיה לאימפריה העותומנית עד מחצית המאה ה-19, דבר שעיכב את התפתחותה הכלכלית. יהודים ראשונים הגיעו לקאלאראש החל משנת 1843. במסמך משנת 1850 רשומים 11 יהודים שהיו בעלי בתים. על פי נתונים מ-1860 התגוררו בעיר באותה שנה 77 יהודים ועד סוף המאה, ב- 1899, עלה מספרם ל-357 נפש.

המתיישבים הראשונים היו יהודים ספרדים שבאו מארצות הבלקן ואחריהם הגיעו האשכנזים. ב-1856 נוסדה קהילה משותפת לשתי העדות. בשנת 1910 הספרדים הקימו קהילה נפרדת ולשתי הקהילות היו מקורות הכנסה נפרדים. יחד עם זאת היו מוסדות ששימשו את שתי העדות, כגון בית הכנסת. בית העלמין היה בבעלות ספרדית אבל הוא שימש גם את הקהילה האשכנזית. לא היה בית ספר של הקהילה וילדי היהודים למדו בבית הספר הממלכתי. ב-1910 היה מספרם 48.

היהודים היו פעילים בחיי העיר. ב-1852 הם בחרו למועצת העיר. המסחר שימש כמקור הפרנסה עקרי היה, לרוב סחר תבואה. בנוסף, היו גם כמה בעלי אחוזות ובעלי מלאכה. על פי רישומים מ-1910 היו בקאלאראש  29 סוחרים, חייט אחד, סנדלר אחד, 6 נגרים, ו-12 בעלי מקצועות שונים.

בסוף המאה ה-19 התחילה פעילות ציונית. ב-1898 נוסד סניף של "חיבת ציון", ע"ש מ. שוורצפלד, בו היו מאורגנים כל ראשי המשפחות היהודים בעיר.

העיר התפתחה כמרכז לסחר חיטה ובהמות וב-1933 קיבלה מעמד של עיר מחוז.

בשנת 1930 התגוררו בקאלאראש 327 יהודים אשר היוו 1.8% מכלל התושבים, וב-1941 חיו במקום 209 יהודים.

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם. חברי מפלגת "משמר הברזל" בעיר העמידו משמרות על יד חנויות היהודים, עליהן נתלו שלטים "חנות יהודית", ומנעו כניסת לקוחות. בנובמבר 1940 נעצרו כל הגברים היהודים, הוחזקו יומיים במפקדת המפלגה והוכו. יהודים אחרים עונו ברחובות. רופא יהודי, סילוויו כהן, נקשר לעמוד ברחוב ועונה עד מוות. שני ראשי קהילה לשעבר נרצחו גם הם על ידי חברי "משמר הברזל". התערבות ראש המשטרה הפסיקה את ההתעללויות.

ב-22 ביוני 1941 רומניה הצטרפה למלחמה נגד ברית המועצות. ב-29 ביוני התחולל ביאסי, עיר על הגבול, פוגרום שגבה אלפי קרבנות יהודים. היהודים הוכנסו לקרונות אטומים,"רכבות המוות" והוסעו ימים ללא אוויר, אוכל ומים. ב-6 ביולי 1941 הגיעה לקאלאראש אחת מ"רכבות המוות", בה היו כלואים כ-2,500 יהודים. כאשר הרכבת הגיעה לקאלאראש ב-6 ביולי 1941, נותרו בחיים 1,011 יהודים. על יהודי הקהילה נאסר כל המגע עם היהודים שהוצאו מהקרונות ונכלאו. הם הוחזקו בבניין של החטיבה 23 של חיל הרגלים של הצבא הרומני. 69 יהודים שהורדו מהרכבת במצב קשה מאד הועברו אל בנין בית הספר של הכפר מאגורן (היום רובע בתוך העיר), שם 40 מהם נפטרו תוך מספר ימים. 35 יהודים נוספים אושפזו בבית החולים בעיר, חלקם נפטרו.

רק לאחר השתדלותו של ינקו אברמוביץ', נציג מטעם "איחוד הקהילות" שהגיע מבוקרסט, נתן מושל המחוז רשות ליהודי הקהילה לעזור לאחיהם. 40 יהודים שנחשבו כ"דמויות חשובות בקהילת יאסי" ביחד עם 40 ילדים ובני נוער הועברו אל בת כנסת האשכנזי. ב-20 ביולי 100 יהודים נוספים, סוחרים, תעשיינים ואינטלקטואלים, הועברו אל בניין בית הכנסת הספרדי הסמוך לבית הכנסת האשכנזי. בהמשך מעל 400 יהודים הועברו אל הועברו אל המחסנים של הסוחר היהודי פינצי שהיו ממוקמים על גדת התעלה המחברת בין העיר לדנובה הסמוכה. הרופאים קיבלו רשיון לטפל בחולים, ועדת נשים מקומית אספה מזון, בגדים וכסף וחילקה לכלואים. חלק מהכלואים הוכרחו לבצע עבודות כפייה בנמל או במתקנים צבאים לטובת הצבא הרומני. המתים נקברו בקברי אחים והקהילה הקימה להם מצבה. בסוף חודש יולי 1941, 343 יהודים היו הכלואים במחנה הצבאי, 420 במחסנים של פינצי, 205 בתוך בתי הכנסת, 30 היו עדיין בבית החולים ו-7 היו במעצר בית. בסוף חודש אוגוסט 1941 הורשו הניצולים לחזור לבתיהם ביאסי. ב-30 באוגוסט הגיעה ליאסי קבוצה ראשונה בת 556 יהודים וב-4 בספטמבר קבוצה שנייה בת 455 יהודים.

בקאלאראש עצמה נלקחו גברים יהודים לעבודות כפייה והועסקו בעבודות בנייה של הצבא הרומני ובמקומות שונים ברומניה. הקהילה דאגה למחיית משפחותיהם. מצבם הכלכלי של יהודי העיר הורע ובשנה השנייה של המלחמה. בשנת 1942 עבדו רק 5 בעלי מלאכה מבין 12, 6 פקידים מבין 39, 11 סוחרים ותעשינים מבין 37. באותה שנה היה מספר היהודים 203 נפשות.

 

אחרי השואה

אחרי המלחמה עלו מחצית יהודי העיר ארצה. ב-1947 היו בה 135 יהודים.

בית הקברות נמצא ברח' אובורולוי מס' 5. בבית הקברות נמצאו מצבות מ-1848. לפני שהוקם בית עלמין מקומי, יהודי קאלאראש קברו את מתיהם בבית הקברות של קהילת בוקרסט. שני בתי הכנסת נהרסו בשנות ה-1970.

בשנים 1978-1979, חלק מקורבנות "רכבת המוות" שנקברו בקאלאראש, הובאו למנוחות בבית הקברות של חולון במבצע חשאי באישור השלטונות הקומוניסיטיים של רומניה ושל הפדרציה של הקהילות היהודיות של רומניה. בבית הקברות של חולון הוקמה אנדרטה לזכרם.

ב-29 ביוני 2019 בטקס במעמד יו"ר של הפדרציה של הקהילות היהודיות ברומניה, אורל ויינר, של ראש העיר קאלאראש דניאל שטפאן דראגולין, של שגריר ישראל ברומניה דוד סרנגה הוסר הלוט מעל לוח זכרון שהוצב בתחנת הרכבת קאלאראש-סוד.