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קהילת יהודי בואנוס איירס

בואנוס איירס

בירת ארגנטינה.

מספר תושביה 3,447,000 (אומדן 1968). ב-1976 התגוררו בה כ-300-250 אלף יהודים, רובה המכריע של יהדות ארגנטינה. היישוב האשכנזי מיוצג על-ידי "חברת עזרה הדדית" (בספרדית אמי"א); לספרדים עדות נפרדות לפי ארצות מוצאם - צפון- אפריקה, טורקיה ויוון, חלב ודמשק. פרט לתנועה קונסרבאטיבית ותנועה רפורמית שנוסדה ב-1964, האוכלוסיה היהודית נמנית עם הזרם האורתודוכסי ביהדות; אבל הדת אינה תופסת מקום מרכזי בחיי רוב היהודים. ההזדהות עם העם היהודי היא יותר על בסיס לאומי והשפעת המפלגות הציוניות בולטת בחיי הציבור. מוסדות החינוך היהודיים הם קהילתיים ומפלגתיים, רובם בהשגחת ועד החינוך המשותף לאשכנזים ולספרדים. מאז 1967 הפכו המוסדות לחינוך משלים לבתי-ספר יומיים, אבל שיעור המבקרים בהם מקרב גילאי בית- הספר היהודיים בעיר קטן למדי. פעולות תרבות נרחבות מנהלות בעיר האגודות "הבראיקה" ו"הכוח". מופיעים שני עיתונים יומיים באידיש וכתבי-עת לרוב. בואנוס איירס נשארה אחד המרכזים הבודדים לתרבות אידיש וספרותה.

פרט לאנוסים, ראשוני המהגרים היהודיים הגיעו לעיר ממערב- אירופה באמצע המאה ה-19 וב-1862 התארגנה הקהילה הראשונה.

לקראת סוף המאה התחילו להגיע יהודים מצפון-אפריקה וממזרח- אירופה, בפרט לאחר הקמת חברת יק"א שהשקיעה מאמצעים רבים כדי להפוך את ארגנטינה לארץ הגירה ולהתיישבות חקלאית להמוני יהודים מרוסיה. ב-1909 כבר מנה היישוב היהודי כ-40,000 נפש עם ארגונים ומוסדות משלהם. עם עליית הנאצים גברה ההגירה ממרכז- אירופה. במלחמת- העולם השנייה ואחריה הטילה ממשלת ארגנטינה איסור על כניסת יהודים. פרט למספר קטן שנקלט בשנות 1957-1956 גדל היישוב היהודי בבואנוס איירס רק מריבוי טבעי ובעיקר מהגירה פנימית מערי-השדה.

ב- 1992 תקפו מחבלים את שגרירות ישראל בבואנוס איירס. ב- 18 ביולי 1994 פוצץ הבניין שבו שוכן מרכז הקהילות היהודיות בארגנטינה. בפיצוץ נהרגו מאה בני אדם, רבים נפצעו והושמד ארכיון הקהילה בת מאה שנים.

בשנת 1997 חיו 250,000 יהודים בארגנטינה כולה 180,000 מתוכם בבואנוס איירס.
סוג מקום:
עיר
מספר פריט:
212600
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:
Costantini, Humberto “Cacho” (1924-1987), writer and poet born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, whose parents had immigrated from Italy. By profession he was a veterinarian surgeon, but all his spare time was spent writing. In 1958 he published his first book of short stories, but he also wrote poetry, plays for the theatre and novels. The theme in many of his works is the desire to do the “right thing to resolve a problematic situation”. It was this desire which led to a repeated confrontation with the authorities. Throughout his life he was politically active. At university he joined the Communist party and opposed the fascists until he left the movement in disgust with its blind attachment to the Soviet line. He admired Che Gevara and in the 1970s was involved with the revolutionary left and became associated with many of the figures who 'disappeared' during the period of the military regime. The novel "De Dioses, hombrecitos y policías" ("The Gods, The Little Guys and the Police") was written between scary escapes, in clandestine houses and at unthinkable hours. It was first published in Mexico. Between1976 ands 1983 Costantini lived in exile in Mexico where he continued to write. His works have been translated into many languages.
Sehter, Aaron (1934- ), racquetball player, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. During his caree,r which lasted from 1952 to 1982, he won 13 gold medals at the world championships of the sport. He also won 2 silver medals at the 1968 Mexico Olympic games and inn 1979 he was awarded a special Fair Play award by UNESCO.
Joselovich, Alfredo (1907-1974), architect born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, builder of Argentine's first reinforced concrete skyscraper. The building, known as the Comega, was completed in 1933. It has 21 floors and is 88 metres high. The building's interior is lined with stainless steel. Joselovich was also one of the designers of Buenos Aires' Dorrego Tower, which was completed in 1972. The floor of the building is circular and the shape of the building cylindrical.

Alberto Soifer (1907-1977), pianist, conductor and composer of tango music, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, as Abraham Moses Soifer. As a youth he studied classical music, but was fascinated with the tango and his entire professional career was devoted to the tango. He joined several bands as a pianist and took part in some recordings. In 1941 he formed his own band, but it was not successful. To seek new opportunities he went to live in Spain; he stayed there for some 23 years. In the mid 1960s he returned to Argentina where the illusive success which he had sought was finally achieved. His songs and music became very popular.

Richard Cohen (b. 1940), known under the pseudonym of Rocambole, Argentine designer and illustrator born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Between 1961 and 1963 he studied serigraphy (screen-printing onto fabrics, ceramics, paper or wood), and its uses for posters. In 1964 he joined the School of Fine Arts, University of La Plata. In 1967 he exhibited his works for the first time in Buenos Aires. He graduated in 1975 and then went to work in Brazil as an illustrator and cartoon artist.

Since that time he designed album covers, posters, and stage sets. In 1984 he joined the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Buenos Aires University as a teacher of drawing in the areas of Design, Fine Arts and Film Animation. In 1996 he founded the Studio Cybergraph for digital art and animated design. The studio received the ACE Award for "Best album cover design" in 1997.

Roth, Cecilia (1956- ), actress, born Cecilia Rotenberg in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Her father was an immigrant from the Ukraine while her mother was a singer born in Argentina. She appeared in many television series. In 1976 she moved to Spain with her father and appeared in a number of films made there. In 1997 and again in 1999 she was recipient of Spain's Goya Best Actress award. Roth's brother is a musician, a member of a popular band in Argentina.
Spivacow, Boris (1915-1994), editor and publisher, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to immigrants from Russia. His parents were poor, had socialist leanings and were convinced atheists despite their Jewish background. Spivacow was general manager of Eudeba (The University of Buenos Aires Press), which under his management became one of the largest publishers in Latin America. Later he founded, along with other collaborators, the Center for Latin American Culture, an editorial project has been of central importance to cultural development in Argentina. His activity in the publishing world earned him many awards and honors, including the Sudamericana Award for Social Sciences (1989) and the title of Honorary Professor at the University of Buenos Aires.

As youth Spivacow was an avid reader. In 1934 he began to study civil engineering at the University of Buenos Aires, but quickly abandoned the course. In 1936 he again began to study, this time it was mathematics. While at University he joined the Communist Youth Federation, and during Peron's first presidency was arrested several times for his political activities. After graduating he supported himself by teaching but slowly became involved in editing and checking books and academic papers. During his career he promoted the publishing of many works from young authors and many books which expressed the socialist ideal. His views and political activities caused him many difficulties during the periods of military dictatorship in the country.

Bores Tato (1927-1996), comedian and TV presentator, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, as Mauricio Rajmin Borensztein. He appeared frequently on television where he specialized on ironic and political humour. His career started in 1957, when he began to make his humourous monologues during which he pretended to telephone the president and ask him awkward questions. Hewas nicknamed "The comic actor of the Nation".

Pashkus, Ricky (1955- ), choreographer, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After putting aside a desire to become a dancer, Pashkus discovered a talent for teaching and choreography. He has directed and planned the choreography for a number of films, theatrical productions and television. A natural teacher, in the 2000s he was teacher at the Arts Movements Institute at the Argentine National University Institute for the Arts.
מולר, בן (1915-) סופר, מלחין, ומפיק מוסיקלי. נולד כמשה סמולרצ'יק ברנר בבואנוס איירס, ארגנטינה. כראש חברת התקליטים Femata, הוא היה אחד מדמויות המפתח בתהליך הדיפוזיה של מוסיקת הטנגו בין השנים 1950-1970. הוא גם היה אחראי לנסיקה של הרבה כוכבי מוסיקה פופולריים בינלאומיים בארגנטינה.
מולר זכה לתואר אזרח כבוד של בואנוס איירס והיה חבר האקדמיה הלאומית לטנגו בארגנטינה והאקדמיה "לונפארדו פורטניה". מולר הוא היוזם של "יום הטנגו הלאומי", שנחגג כל שנה ב-11 בדצמבר.
במאגרי המידע הפתוחים
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קהילות יהודיות
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רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות
קהילת יהודי בואנוס איירס
בואנוס איירס

בירת ארגנטינה.

מספר תושביה 3,447,000 (אומדן 1968). ב-1976 התגוררו בה כ-300-250 אלף יהודים, רובה המכריע של יהדות ארגנטינה. היישוב האשכנזי מיוצג על-ידי "חברת עזרה הדדית" (בספרדית אמי"א); לספרדים עדות נפרדות לפי ארצות מוצאם - צפון- אפריקה, טורקיה ויוון, חלב ודמשק. פרט לתנועה קונסרבאטיבית ותנועה רפורמית שנוסדה ב-1964, האוכלוסיה היהודית נמנית עם הזרם האורתודוכסי ביהדות; אבל הדת אינה תופסת מקום מרכזי בחיי רוב היהודים. ההזדהות עם העם היהודי היא יותר על בסיס לאומי והשפעת המפלגות הציוניות בולטת בחיי הציבור. מוסדות החינוך היהודיים הם קהילתיים ומפלגתיים, רובם בהשגחת ועד החינוך המשותף לאשכנזים ולספרדים. מאז 1967 הפכו המוסדות לחינוך משלים לבתי-ספר יומיים, אבל שיעור המבקרים בהם מקרב גילאי בית- הספר היהודיים בעיר קטן למדי. פעולות תרבות נרחבות מנהלות בעיר האגודות "הבראיקה" ו"הכוח". מופיעים שני עיתונים יומיים באידיש וכתבי-עת לרוב. בואנוס איירס נשארה אחד המרכזים הבודדים לתרבות אידיש וספרותה.

פרט לאנוסים, ראשוני המהגרים היהודיים הגיעו לעיר ממערב- אירופה באמצע המאה ה-19 וב-1862 התארגנה הקהילה הראשונה.

לקראת סוף המאה התחילו להגיע יהודים מצפון-אפריקה וממזרח- אירופה, בפרט לאחר הקמת חברת יק"א שהשקיעה מאמצעים רבים כדי להפוך את ארגנטינה לארץ הגירה ולהתיישבות חקלאית להמוני יהודים מרוסיה. ב-1909 כבר מנה היישוב היהודי כ-40,000 נפש עם ארגונים ומוסדות משלהם. עם עליית הנאצים גברה ההגירה ממרכז- אירופה. במלחמת- העולם השנייה ואחריה הטילה ממשלת ארגנטינה איסור על כניסת יהודים. פרט למספר קטן שנקלט בשנות 1957-1956 גדל היישוב היהודי בבואנוס איירס רק מריבוי טבעי ובעיקר מהגירה פנימית מערי-השדה.

ב- 1992 תקפו מחבלים את שגרירות ישראל בבואנוס איירס. ב- 18 ביולי 1994 פוצץ הבניין שבו שוכן מרכז הקהילות היהודיות בארגנטינה. בפיצוץ נהרגו מאה בני אדם, רבים נפצעו והושמד ארכיון הקהילה בת מאה שנים.

בשנת 1997 חיו 250,000 יהודים בארגנטינה כולה 180,000 מתוכם בבואנוס איירס.
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
וסטנטיני, ומברטו "קאצ'ו"
Costantini, Humberto “Cacho” (1924-1987), writer and poet born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, whose parents had immigrated from Italy. By profession he was a veterinarian surgeon, but all his spare time was spent writing. In 1958 he published his first book of short stories, but he also wrote poetry, plays for the theatre and novels. The theme in many of his works is the desire to do the “right thing to resolve a problematic situation”. It was this desire which led to a repeated confrontation with the authorities. Throughout his life he was politically active. At university he joined the Communist party and opposed the fascists until he left the movement in disgust with its blind attachment to the Soviet line. He admired Che Gevara and in the 1970s was involved with the revolutionary left and became associated with many of the figures who 'disappeared' during the period of the military regime. The novel "De Dioses, hombrecitos y policías" ("The Gods, The Little Guys and the Police") was written between scary escapes, in clandestine houses and at unthinkable hours. It was first published in Mexico. Between1976 ands 1983 Costantini lived in exile in Mexico where he continued to write. His works have been translated into many languages.
סהטר, אהרון
Sehter, Aaron (1934- ), racquetball player, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. During his caree,r which lasted from 1952 to 1982, he won 13 gold medals at the world championships of the sport. He also won 2 silver medals at the 1968 Mexico Olympic games and inn 1979 he was awarded a special Fair Play award by UNESCO.
יוסלוביץ', אלפרדו
Joselovich, Alfredo (1907-1974), architect born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, builder of Argentine's first reinforced concrete skyscraper. The building, known as the Comega, was completed in 1933. It has 21 floors and is 88 metres high. The building's interior is lined with stainless steel. Joselovich was also one of the designers of Buenos Aires' Dorrego Tower, which was completed in 1972. The floor of the building is circular and the shape of the building cylindrical.
אלברטו סויפר

Alberto Soifer (1907-1977), pianist, conductor and composer of tango music, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, as Abraham Moses Soifer. As a youth he studied classical music, but was fascinated with the tango and his entire professional career was devoted to the tango. He joined several bands as a pianist and took part in some recordings. In 1941 he formed his own band, but it was not successful. To seek new opportunities he went to live in Spain; he stayed there for some 23 years. In the mid 1960s he returned to Argentina where the illusive success which he had sought was finally achieved. His songs and music became very popular.

ריצ'רד כהן

Richard Cohen (b. 1940), known under the pseudonym of Rocambole, Argentine designer and illustrator born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Between 1961 and 1963 he studied serigraphy (screen-printing onto fabrics, ceramics, paper or wood), and its uses for posters. In 1964 he joined the School of Fine Arts, University of La Plata. In 1967 he exhibited his works for the first time in Buenos Aires. He graduated in 1975 and then went to work in Brazil as an illustrator and cartoon artist.

Since that time he designed album covers, posters, and stage sets. In 1984 he joined the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Buenos Aires University as a teacher of drawing in the areas of Design, Fine Arts and Film Animation. In 1996 he founded the Studio Cybergraph for digital art and animated design. The studio received the ACE Award for "Best album cover design" in 1997.

רוט, ססיליה
Roth, Cecilia (1956- ), actress, born Cecilia Rotenberg in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Her father was an immigrant from the Ukraine while her mother was a singer born in Argentina. She appeared in many television series. In 1976 she moved to Spain with her father and appeared in a number of films made there. In 1997 and again in 1999 she was recipient of Spain's Goya Best Actress award. Roth's brother is a musician, a member of a popular band in Argentina.
ספיבקוב, בוריס
Spivacow, Boris (1915-1994), editor and publisher, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to immigrants from Russia. His parents were poor, had socialist leanings and were convinced atheists despite their Jewish background. Spivacow was general manager of Eudeba (The University of Buenos Aires Press), which under his management became one of the largest publishers in Latin America. Later he founded, along with other collaborators, the Center for Latin American Culture, an editorial project has been of central importance to cultural development in Argentina. His activity in the publishing world earned him many awards and honors, including the Sudamericana Award for Social Sciences (1989) and the title of Honorary Professor at the University of Buenos Aires.

As youth Spivacow was an avid reader. In 1934 he began to study civil engineering at the University of Buenos Aires, but quickly abandoned the course. In 1936 he again began to study, this time it was mathematics. While at University he joined the Communist Youth Federation, and during Peron's first presidency was arrested several times for his political activities. After graduating he supported himself by teaching but slowly became involved in editing and checking books and academic papers. During his career he promoted the publishing of many works from young authors and many books which expressed the socialist ideal. His views and political activities caused him many difficulties during the periods of military dictatorship in the country.
בורס טאטו

Bores Tato (1927-1996), comedian and TV presentator, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, as Mauricio Rajmin Borensztein. He appeared frequently on television where he specialized on ironic and political humour. His career started in 1957, when he began to make his humourous monologues during which he pretended to telephone the president and ask him awkward questions. Hewas nicknamed "The comic actor of the Nation".

פשקוס, ריקי
Pashkus, Ricky (1955- ), choreographer, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After putting aside a desire to become a dancer, Pashkus discovered a talent for teaching and choreography. He has directed and planned the choreography for a number of films, theatrical productions and television. A natural teacher, in the 2000s he was teacher at the Arts Movements Institute at the Argentine National University Institute for the Arts.
מולר, בן
מולר, בן (1915-) סופר, מלחין, ומפיק מוסיקלי. נולד כמשה סמולרצ'יק ברנר בבואנוס איירס, ארגנטינה. כראש חברת התקליטים Femata, הוא היה אחד מדמויות המפתח בתהליך הדיפוזיה של מוסיקת הטנגו בין השנים 1950-1970. הוא גם היה אחראי לנסיקה של הרבה כוכבי מוסיקה פופולריים בינלאומיים בארגנטינה.
מולר זכה לתואר אזרח כבוד של בואנוס איירס והיה חבר האקדמיה הלאומית לטנגו בארגנטינה והאקדמיה "לונפארדו פורטניה". מולר הוא היוזם של "יום הטנגו הלאומי", שנחגג כל שנה ב-11 בדצמבר.