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רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות

קהילת יהודי ברן

ברן

בירת שווייץ.

ב-1969 השתייכו לקהילה המקומית 230 משפחות, ויש להניח שמספר היהודים הכללי בברן גדול מזה. יהודים מלווי-כספים נזכרים בתעודה מקומית מן המחצית השנייה של המאה ה-13; בסוף המאה מתו אחדים על קידוש השם בשל עלילת-דם, והאחרים גורשו. הם הורשו לחזור תמורת תשלום ושמיטת חובות. ב- 1348 הואשמו בהרעלת בארות וכמה מהם הועלו על המוקד. הם גורשו סופית ב-1392, לאחר שהותר לנוצרים לעסוק בהלוואות בריבית. היישוב התחדש אחרי הכיבוש הצרפתי ב-1798, על-ידי מהגרים מאלזאס ומקומות אחרים. הקהילה התארגנה ב-1848 ובית-כנסת נחנך כעבור שבע שנים. אוניברסיטת ברן הייתה הראשונה באוניברסיטאות הגרמניות שקלטה מרצים לא-משומדים (1836); לפני מלחמת- העולם הראשונה למדו בה צעירים רבים מרוסיה ומהונגאריה, ביניהם חיים וייצמן. ב-1934 נתבררה בבית משפט בברן התביעה שהגישה הקהילה היהודית נגד מפיצי "הפרוטוקולים של זקני ציון". המשפט הכה גלים בעולם כולו.
סוג מקום:
עיר
מספר פריט:
173204
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:
מוסיקולוג. נולד בווינה, אוסטריה, למד בעיר הולדתו, ומ-1912 לימד באוניברסיטה של ברן, שוויץ. הוא מחברו של הספר "יסודות בקונטרפונט הליניארי: הפוליפוניה המלודית של באך" (1917) אשר שילב את חקר המוסיקה של באך עם לימוד הקונטרפונקט. כתב גם את הספר "ההרמוניה הרומנטית והמשבר שלה בטריסטן של ואגנר" (1920) אשר סקר את ההרמוניה הרומנטית עד דביסי. עוד חיבר את המחקר הביוגרפי "ברוקנר" (1925) ואת הספר "פסיכולוגיה ומוסיקה" (1931). נפטר בברן, שוויץ.
סלמה ברונשוויג גוגנהיים (1885-1977) ובנה ג'ורג',
ברן, שוויץ, 1913 בקירוב
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות סוזי גוגנהיים, ציריך)
זלמה ברונשוויג לבית גוגנהיים (1885-1977),
קוראת ספר, ברן, שוויץ, 1913 בקירוב
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות סוזי גוגנהיים, ציריך)

זלמה, בתם של נטלי ווילהלם גוגנהיים-ווייל
פסל של משה,
ברן, שוויץ, 1976
צילום: אוקטב מוסקונה,ישראל
המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות, אוסף אוקטב מוסקונה)
Baschwitz, Hermann (1811-1867), physician, born in Frankfurt on the Oder, Germany (then part of Prussia), great grandson of printer Meyer Hirsch Baschwitz (1715-1784). Hermann was determined to become a doctor. He graduated from the university of Halle, Germany, in 1834 and went on to specialize in aspects of surgery and gynecology in Berlin. It appears that some of his university friends had radical ideas, much to the dislike of the conservative authorities of the country; his friends and he together with them were noticed by the police. To avoid arrest, Baschwitz was obliged to flee Prussia.

He went to Switzerland and, in order to practice medicine there was obliged to requalify by passing medical examinations in Berne in 1838. He started to work as a doctor in the village of Villeret in Berne Canton. He was clearly a well-liked and devoted doctor. When a local woodcutter was injured and accused Dr Baschwitz of indifference to his wounds, 33 villagers came to his defence and signed a letter denying the allegations as vicious calumnies. In 1841 he was officially admitted to the medical association of Berne, Switzerland. In 1844 he accepted an appointment in the village of St Immer near Biel in the Canton of Neuchatel. He devoted himself to his new homeland. In 1845 he was elected to be a full member of the Swiss medical association and he volunteered to serve as a reserve doctor in the Swiss army.

In 1846, having left Frankfurt over ten years before, he discovered that his Prussian nationality had been forfeit. His request to have his nationality reinstated to enable him to return home in order to visit his ageing parents was rejected. For the next three years the now stateless Baschwitz tried to acquire Swiss nationality or at least permission to live there on a permanent basis. He found himself caught in a bureaucratic nightmare; his requests were constantly rejected. He was rejected because his Prussian visa had expired and the Prussian authorities (who had cancelled his citizenship) were not ready to assist in its renewal. He was rejected because his Swiss residence permit had expired. In 1850 he was rejected because he was Jewish and the residents of Locle where he now lived didn’t want a Jew in their village. Finally Baschwitz’s luck changed. In December 1851 he was given a temporary right of residence in Locle for nine months on condition that he guaranteed his good behavior by a signing over a substantial bank deposit. This temporary permit was renewable. Baschwitz renewed his voluntary service with the Swiss military. In 1854, regarded as a very respectable citizen with influential friends, he was elected member of the Swiss Freemasons Lodge of Alpina. Then in 1855 the Prussian government decided to reinstate his citizenship. He returned home, was reunited with his family and married a distant cousin, Ida Baswitz, 24 years young than himself. The couple had no children.
Hisin, Haim (1865-1932), Eretz Israel pioneer, born in Mir, Belarus (then part of the Russian Empire). After the 1881 pogroms and the 1882 anti-Semitic laws he decided to join the Bilu movement, the foreunner of the kibbutz movement, to establish agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel. He worked in Mikveh Yisrael and Rishon le Zion and helped to establish the settlement at Gederah. For some time he worked as a coachman carrying passengers between Jaffa and Jerusalem. In 1887 he returned to Russia where he studied pharmacology. In 1898 he went to Berne in Swizterland where he studied medicine.

Hisin helped to propagate Zionism amongst Russian Jewish students in Europe and took part in the first Zionist congresses. In 1905 he returned to Eretz Israel as a medical doctor and became the representative of the Odessa committee of Hovevei Zion in Jaffa. He helped to found the settlements of Beer Yaacov an Kfar Malal. In 1909 he was one of the founders of Achuzat Bait, the first area of the settlement which was to become Tel Aviv. He died in Tel Aviv.
Philosopher

Born in Erdobenye, he studied philosophy at Halle and was ordained rabbi at the Berlin Rabbinical Seminary. He taught at Zurich from 1886 to 1891 and was then professor at Berne, where he edited a number of leading philosophical journals. Stein wrote on philosophy and sociology; he was a cultural and political optimist, opposing the pessimism of Spengler and Nietzsche. One of his last books, based on lectures given in the US, was entitled Evolution and Optimism.
מוסיקולוג. נולד בווינה, אוסטריה, למד בעיר הולדתו, ומ-1912 לימד באוניברסיטה של ברן, שוויץ. הוא מחברו של הספר "יסודות בקונטרפונט הליניארי: הפוליפוניה המלודית של באך" (1917) אשר שילב את חקר המוסיקה של באך עם לימוד הקונטרפונקט. כתב גם את הספר "ההרמוניה הרומנטית והמשבר שלה בטריסטן של ואגנר" (1920) אשר סקר את ההרמוניה הרומנטית עד דביסי. עוד חיבר את המחקר הביוגרפי "ברוקנר" (1925) ואת הספר "פסיכולוגיה ומוסיקה" (1931). נפטר בברן, שוויץ.

Josef Jadassohn (1963-1936) Dermatologist. Born in Liegnitz, he studied in Breslau and from 1896 was professor and director of the dermatological clinic at the University of Berne, Switzerland. From 1917 to 1931 Jadassohn was professor of dermatology at the University of Breslau. He was famous for his work on skin and venereal diseases. A skin disease that he was the first to identify is known as "Jadassohn's disease".

Frankfurter, David (1909–1982), student of medicine who shot a Nazi official in protest against the persecution of Jews under the Nazi regime. Frankfurter was born in Daruvar, Croatia (then part of the Austria-Hungary). His father was rabbi in Daruvar and later the chief rabbi in Vinkovci. The Frankfurter family moved to Vinkovci in 1914. He graduated from elementary and secondary school, and in 1929 began to study medicine. His father sent him to Germany to study dentistry, first in Leipzig and then, in 1931, to Frankfurt am Main. In the course of his studies he witnessed the Nazi advent to power and the initiation of anti-Jewish measures. He was obliged to leave Germany and so continued his studies in Switzerland, settling in Bern in 1934.

The Nazi movement began to gain ground among the Germans and German speaking Swiss. Convinced of the danger, Frankfurter kept an eye on Wilhelm Gustloff, who as head of the Foreign Section of the Swiss Nazi party (NSDAP), had ordered the Protocols of the Elders of Zion to be published in Switzerland. In 1936, unable to endure further the torrent of insults, humiliations and attacks on the Jewish people even in neutral Switzerland, Frankfurter bought a gun. On 4th February 1936 he went to Gustloff's home, now head of the Nazi party in Switzerland. When Gustloff, who was in the adjoining room, entered his office where Frankfurter was sitting opposite a picture of Hitler, Frankfurter presented himself as a Jew and then shot him five times in the head, neck and chest; he left the premises, went into the next house and asked to use the telephone. He rang the police and confessed to the murder. He then went to the police station and calmly told the police what had happened.

Gustloff was made a Blutzeuge/Martyr of the Nazi cause and his assassination later became part of the official propaganda.Although the assassination was well-received by the largely anti-Nazi population of the country, the Swiss government prosecuted the case strictly owing to concerns about its status of neutrality. Frankfurter was convicted and sentenced to an eighteen-year prison term. At the end of World War II, having served 9 years of his sentence, he applied for a pardon on February 27, 1945 which was granted on June 1, on condition that he left the country and paid court costs.

He settled in Israel and published a book about his experience, Nakam ("Vengeance", 1948). In 1969 the banishment order was rescinded and Frankfurter visited Switzerland. In Israel he worked for the Ministry of Defence and later as an officer in the Israeli army.

איינשטיין, אלברט (1879-1955), מתמטיקאי ופיזיקאי שנולד באולם, גרמניה. איינשטיין גדל במינכן, שם היה לאביו ולדודו מפעל אלקטרוכימיים. העניין שלו במדעים התעורר בגיל מוקדם והוא החל ללמוד פיסיקה ומתמטיקה בטכניון של ציריך. ב-1901 הוא התמנה לתפקיד זוטר במשרד הפטנטים בברן, שם גם הניח את היסודות לפיסיקה של המאה ה-20.

ב-1905 פרסם איינשטיין שלוש תגליות חשובות, כולל תורת היחסות הפרטית ומ- 1914 ניהל את מכון קייזר וילהלם לפיסיקה בברלין.
ב-1916 פיתח איינשטיין את תורת היחסות הכללית שמסקנותיה היו נתונות בהתחלה במחלוקת. את פרס נובל קיבל ב -1922 אודות לגילוי של חוק האפקט הפוטואלקטרי.

איינשטיין היה מעורב בסוגיות הומניות, בעיקר בציונות ובפציפיזם ולקח חלק פעיל באוניברסיטת העברית. נתון להתקפות אנטישמיות, הוא עזב את גרמניה עם עליית היטלר לשלטון ואז גם זנח את העמדה הפציפיסטית שלו.

באמריקה עבר איינשטיין למכון ללימודים מתקדמים בפרינסטון, ניו ג'רזי, שם נשאר עד סוף חייו. איינשטיין עזר לחנוך את התכנית האמריקנית לנשק אטומי שהגיעה לשיאה בפצצת אטום. הוא עשה זאת מפני שחשש שגרמניה תגיע ליכולת ראשונה. אולם אחרי המלחמה היה גלוי לב מספיק והתבטא בצורך להימנע ממלחמה.
כשחיים ויצמן נפטר ב-1952, הציע דוד בן גוריון לאיינשטיין להתמנות לנשיא מדינת ישראל, אך איינשטיין דחה את משרת הכבוד.
איינשטיין זכה בהכרה כאחד האינטלקטואלים הבולטים והמשפיעים ביותר של העולם המודרני.

במאגרי המידע הפתוחים
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קהילות יהודיות
תיעוד חזותי
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מקום
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רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות
קהילת יהודי ברן
ברן

בירת שווייץ.

ב-1969 השתייכו לקהילה המקומית 230 משפחות, ויש להניח שמספר היהודים הכללי בברן גדול מזה. יהודים מלווי-כספים נזכרים בתעודה מקומית מן המחצית השנייה של המאה ה-13; בסוף המאה מתו אחדים על קידוש השם בשל עלילת-דם, והאחרים גורשו. הם הורשו לחזור תמורת תשלום ושמיטת חובות. ב- 1348 הואשמו בהרעלת בארות וכמה מהם הועלו על המוקד. הם גורשו סופית ב-1392, לאחר שהותר לנוצרים לעסוק בהלוואות בריבית. היישוב התחדש אחרי הכיבוש הצרפתי ב-1798, על-ידי מהגרים מאלזאס ומקומות אחרים. הקהילה התארגנה ב-1848 ובית-כנסת נחנך כעבור שבע שנים. אוניברסיטת ברן הייתה הראשונה באוניברסיטאות הגרמניות שקלטה מרצים לא-משומדים (1836); לפני מלחמת- העולם הראשונה למדו בה צעירים רבים מרוסיה ומהונגאריה, ביניהם חיים וייצמן. ב-1934 נתבררה בבית משפט בברן התביעה שהגישה הקהילה היהודית נגד מפיצי "הפרוטוקולים של זקני ציון". המשפט הכה גלים בעולם כולו.
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
אלברט אינשטיין
פרנקפורטר, דויד
Jadassohn, Josef
Stein, Ludwig
חישין, חיים
בשוויץ, הרמן
קורט, ארנסט

איינשטיין, אלברט (1879-1955), מתמטיקאי ופיזיקאי שנולד באולם, גרמניה. איינשטיין גדל במינכן, שם היה לאביו ולדודו מפעל אלקטרוכימיים. העניין שלו במדעים התעורר בגיל מוקדם והוא החל ללמוד פיסיקה ומתמטיקה בטכניון של ציריך. ב-1901 הוא התמנה לתפקיד זוטר במשרד הפטנטים בברן, שם גם הניח את היסודות לפיסיקה של המאה ה-20.

ב-1905 פרסם איינשטיין שלוש תגליות חשובות, כולל תורת היחסות הפרטית ומ- 1914 ניהל את מכון קייזר וילהלם לפיסיקה בברלין.
ב-1916 פיתח איינשטיין את תורת היחסות הכללית שמסקנותיה היו נתונות בהתחלה במחלוקת. את פרס נובל קיבל ב -1922 אודות לגילוי של חוק האפקט הפוטואלקטרי.

איינשטיין היה מעורב בסוגיות הומניות, בעיקר בציונות ובפציפיזם ולקח חלק פעיל באוניברסיטת העברית. נתון להתקפות אנטישמיות, הוא עזב את גרמניה עם עליית היטלר לשלטון ואז גם זנח את העמדה הפציפיסטית שלו.

באמריקה עבר איינשטיין למכון ללימודים מתקדמים בפרינסטון, ניו ג'רזי, שם נשאר עד סוף חייו. איינשטיין עזר לחנוך את התכנית האמריקנית לנשק אטומי שהגיעה לשיאה בפצצת אטום. הוא עשה זאת מפני שחשש שגרמניה תגיע ליכולת ראשונה. אולם אחרי המלחמה היה גלוי לב מספיק והתבטא בצורך להימנע ממלחמה.
כשחיים ויצמן נפטר ב-1952, הציע דוד בן גוריון לאיינשטיין להתמנות לנשיא מדינת ישראל, אך איינשטיין דחה את משרת הכבוד.
איינשטיין זכה בהכרה כאחד האינטלקטואלים הבולטים והמשפיעים ביותר של העולם המודרני.

Frankfurter, David (1909–1982), student of medicine who shot a Nazi official in protest against the persecution of Jews under the Nazi regime. Frankfurter was born in Daruvar, Croatia (then part of the Austria-Hungary). His father was rabbi in Daruvar and later the chief rabbi in Vinkovci. The Frankfurter family moved to Vinkovci in 1914. He graduated from elementary and secondary school, and in 1929 began to study medicine. His father sent him to Germany to study dentistry, first in Leipzig and then, in 1931, to Frankfurt am Main. In the course of his studies he witnessed the Nazi advent to power and the initiation of anti-Jewish measures. He was obliged to leave Germany and so continued his studies in Switzerland, settling in Bern in 1934.

The Nazi movement began to gain ground among the Germans and German speaking Swiss. Convinced of the danger, Frankfurter kept an eye on Wilhelm Gustloff, who as head of the Foreign Section of the Swiss Nazi party (NSDAP), had ordered the Protocols of the Elders of Zion to be published in Switzerland. In 1936, unable to endure further the torrent of insults, humiliations and attacks on the Jewish people even in neutral Switzerland, Frankfurter bought a gun. On 4th February 1936 he went to Gustloff's home, now head of the Nazi party in Switzerland. When Gustloff, who was in the adjoining room, entered his office where Frankfurter was sitting opposite a picture of Hitler, Frankfurter presented himself as a Jew and then shot him five times in the head, neck and chest; he left the premises, went into the next house and asked to use the telephone. He rang the police and confessed to the murder. He then went to the police station and calmly told the police what had happened.

Gustloff was made a Blutzeuge/Martyr of the Nazi cause and his assassination later became part of the official propaganda.Although the assassination was well-received by the largely anti-Nazi population of the country, the Swiss government prosecuted the case strictly owing to concerns about its status of neutrality. Frankfurter was convicted and sentenced to an eighteen-year prison term. At the end of World War II, having served 9 years of his sentence, he applied for a pardon on February 27, 1945 which was granted on June 1, on condition that he left the country and paid court costs.

He settled in Israel and published a book about his experience, Nakam ("Vengeance", 1948). In 1969 the banishment order was rescinded and Frankfurter visited Switzerland. In Israel he worked for the Ministry of Defence and later as an officer in the Israeli army.

Josef Jadassohn (1963-1936) Dermatologist. Born in Liegnitz, he studied in Breslau and from 1896 was professor and director of the dermatological clinic at the University of Berne, Switzerland. From 1917 to 1931 Jadassohn was professor of dermatology at the University of Breslau. He was famous for his work on skin and venereal diseases. A skin disease that he was the first to identify is known as "Jadassohn's disease".

Philosopher

Born in Erdobenye, he studied philosophy at Halle and was ordained rabbi at the Berlin Rabbinical Seminary. He taught at Zurich from 1886 to 1891 and was then professor at Berne, where he edited a number of leading philosophical journals. Stein wrote on philosophy and sociology; he was a cultural and political optimist, opposing the pessimism of Spengler and Nietzsche. One of his last books, based on lectures given in the US, was entitled Evolution and Optimism.
Hisin, Haim (1865-1932), Eretz Israel pioneer, born in Mir, Belarus (then part of the Russian Empire). After the 1881 pogroms and the 1882 anti-Semitic laws he decided to join the Bilu movement, the foreunner of the kibbutz movement, to establish agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel. He worked in Mikveh Yisrael and Rishon le Zion and helped to establish the settlement at Gederah. For some time he worked as a coachman carrying passengers between Jaffa and Jerusalem. In 1887 he returned to Russia where he studied pharmacology. In 1898 he went to Berne in Swizterland where he studied medicine.

Hisin helped to propagate Zionism amongst Russian Jewish students in Europe and took part in the first Zionist congresses. In 1905 he returned to Eretz Israel as a medical doctor and became the representative of the Odessa committee of Hovevei Zion in Jaffa. He helped to found the settlements of Beer Yaacov an Kfar Malal. In 1909 he was one of the founders of Achuzat Bait, the first area of the settlement which was to become Tel Aviv. He died in Tel Aviv.
Baschwitz, Hermann (1811-1867), physician, born in Frankfurt on the Oder, Germany (then part of Prussia), great grandson of printer Meyer Hirsch Baschwitz (1715-1784). Hermann was determined to become a doctor. He graduated from the university of Halle, Germany, in 1834 and went on to specialize in aspects of surgery and gynecology in Berlin. It appears that some of his university friends had radical ideas, much to the dislike of the conservative authorities of the country; his friends and he together with them were noticed by the police. To avoid arrest, Baschwitz was obliged to flee Prussia.

He went to Switzerland and, in order to practice medicine there was obliged to requalify by passing medical examinations in Berne in 1838. He started to work as a doctor in the village of Villeret in Berne Canton. He was clearly a well-liked and devoted doctor. When a local woodcutter was injured and accused Dr Baschwitz of indifference to his wounds, 33 villagers came to his defence and signed a letter denying the allegations as vicious calumnies. In 1841 he was officially admitted to the medical association of Berne, Switzerland. In 1844 he accepted an appointment in the village of St Immer near Biel in the Canton of Neuchatel. He devoted himself to his new homeland. In 1845 he was elected to be a full member of the Swiss medical association and he volunteered to serve as a reserve doctor in the Swiss army.

In 1846, having left Frankfurt over ten years before, he discovered that his Prussian nationality had been forfeit. His request to have his nationality reinstated to enable him to return home in order to visit his ageing parents was rejected. For the next three years the now stateless Baschwitz tried to acquire Swiss nationality or at least permission to live there on a permanent basis. He found himself caught in a bureaucratic nightmare; his requests were constantly rejected. He was rejected because his Prussian visa had expired and the Prussian authorities (who had cancelled his citizenship) were not ready to assist in its renewal. He was rejected because his Swiss residence permit had expired. In 1850 he was rejected because he was Jewish and the residents of Locle where he now lived didn’t want a Jew in their village. Finally Baschwitz’s luck changed. In December 1851 he was given a temporary right of residence in Locle for nine months on condition that he guaranteed his good behavior by a signing over a substantial bank deposit. This temporary permit was renewable. Baschwitz renewed his voluntary service with the Swiss military. In 1854, regarded as a very respectable citizen with influential friends, he was elected member of the Swiss Freemasons Lodge of Alpina. Then in 1855 the Prussian government decided to reinstate his citizenship. He returned home, was reunited with his family and married a distant cousin, Ida Baswitz, 24 years young than himself. The couple had no children.
מוסיקולוג. נולד בווינה, אוסטריה, למד בעיר הולדתו, ומ-1912 לימד באוניברסיטה של ברן, שוויץ. הוא מחברו של הספר "יסודות בקונטרפונט הליניארי: הפוליפוניה המלודית של באך" (1917) אשר שילב את חקר המוסיקה של באך עם לימוד הקונטרפונקט. כתב גם את הספר "ההרמוניה הרומנטית והמשבר שלה בטריסטן של ואגנר" (1920) אשר סקר את ההרמוניה הרומנטית עד דביסי. עוד חיבר את המחקר הביוגרפי "ברוקנר" (1925) ואת הספר "פסיכולוגיה ומוסיקה" (1931). נפטר בברן, שוויץ.
פרנקפורטר, דויד
Frankfurter, David (1909–1982), student of medicine who shot a Nazi official in protest against the persecution of Jews under the Nazi regime. Frankfurter was born in Daruvar, Croatia (then part of the Austria-Hungary). His father was rabbi in Daruvar and later the chief rabbi in Vinkovci. The Frankfurter family moved to Vinkovci in 1914. He graduated from elementary and secondary school, and in 1929 began to study medicine. His father sent him to Germany to study dentistry, first in Leipzig and then, in 1931, to Frankfurt am Main. In the course of his studies he witnessed the Nazi advent to power and the initiation of anti-Jewish measures. He was obliged to leave Germany and so continued his studies in Switzerland, settling in Bern in 1934.

The Nazi movement began to gain ground among the Germans and German speaking Swiss. Convinced of the danger, Frankfurter kept an eye on Wilhelm Gustloff, who as head of the Foreign Section of the Swiss Nazi party (NSDAP), had ordered the Protocols of the Elders of Zion to be published in Switzerland. In 1936, unable to endure further the torrent of insults, humiliations and attacks on the Jewish people even in neutral Switzerland, Frankfurter bought a gun. On 4th February 1936 he went to Gustloff's home, now head of the Nazi party in Switzerland. When Gustloff, who was in the adjoining room, entered his office where Frankfurter was sitting opposite a picture of Hitler, Frankfurter presented himself as a Jew and then shot him five times in the head, neck and chest; he left the premises, went into the next house and asked to use the telephone. He rang the police and confessed to the murder. He then went to the police station and calmly told the police what had happened.

Gustloff was made a Blutzeuge/Martyr of the Nazi cause and his assassination later became part of the official propaganda.Although the assassination was well-received by the largely anti-Nazi population of the country, the Swiss government prosecuted the case strictly owing to concerns about its status of neutrality. Frankfurter was convicted and sentenced to an eighteen-year prison term. At the end of World War II, having served 9 years of his sentence, he applied for a pardon on February 27, 1945 which was granted on June 1, on condition that he left the country and paid court costs.

He settled in Israel and published a book about his experience, Nakam ("Vengeance", 1948). In 1969 the banishment order was rescinded and Frankfurter visited Switzerland. In Israel he worked for the Ministry of Defence and later as an officer in the Israeli army.
Jadassohn, Josef

Josef Jadassohn (1963-1936) Dermatologist. Born in Liegnitz, he studied in Breslau and from 1896 was professor and director of the dermatological clinic at the University of Berne, Switzerland. From 1917 to 1931 Jadassohn was professor of dermatology at the University of Breslau. He was famous for his work on skin and venereal diseases. A skin disease that he was the first to identify is known as "Jadassohn's disease".

Stein, Ludwig
Philosopher

Born in Erdobenye, he studied philosophy at Halle and was ordained rabbi at the Berlin Rabbinical Seminary. He taught at Zurich from 1886 to 1891 and was then professor at Berne, where he edited a number of leading philosophical journals. Stein wrote on philosophy and sociology; he was a cultural and political optimist, opposing the pessimism of Spengler and Nietzsche. One of his last books, based on lectures given in the US, was entitled Evolution and Optimism.
חישין, חיים
Hisin, Haim (1865-1932), Eretz Israel pioneer, born in Mir, Belarus (then part of the Russian Empire). After the 1881 pogroms and the 1882 anti-Semitic laws he decided to join the Bilu movement, the foreunner of the kibbutz movement, to establish agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel. He worked in Mikveh Yisrael and Rishon le Zion and helped to establish the settlement at Gederah. For some time he worked as a coachman carrying passengers between Jaffa and Jerusalem. In 1887 he returned to Russia where he studied pharmacology. In 1898 he went to Berne in Swizterland where he studied medicine.

Hisin helped to propagate Zionism amongst Russian Jewish students in Europe and took part in the first Zionist congresses. In 1905 he returned to Eretz Israel as a medical doctor and became the representative of the Odessa committee of Hovevei Zion in Jaffa. He helped to found the settlements of Beer Yaacov an Kfar Malal. In 1909 he was one of the founders of Achuzat Bait, the first area of the settlement which was to become Tel Aviv. He died in Tel Aviv.
בשוויץ, הרמן
Baschwitz, Hermann (1811-1867), physician, born in Frankfurt on the Oder, Germany (then part of Prussia), great grandson of printer Meyer Hirsch Baschwitz (1715-1784). Hermann was determined to become a doctor. He graduated from the university of Halle, Germany, in 1834 and went on to specialize in aspects of surgery and gynecology in Berlin. It appears that some of his university friends had radical ideas, much to the dislike of the conservative authorities of the country; his friends and he together with them were noticed by the police. To avoid arrest, Baschwitz was obliged to flee Prussia.

He went to Switzerland and, in order to practice medicine there was obliged to requalify by passing medical examinations in Berne in 1838. He started to work as a doctor in the village of Villeret in Berne Canton. He was clearly a well-liked and devoted doctor. When a local woodcutter was injured and accused Dr Baschwitz of indifference to his wounds, 33 villagers came to his defence and signed a letter denying the allegations as vicious calumnies. In 1841 he was officially admitted to the medical association of Berne, Switzerland. In 1844 he accepted an appointment in the village of St Immer near Biel in the Canton of Neuchatel. He devoted himself to his new homeland. In 1845 he was elected to be a full member of the Swiss medical association and he volunteered to serve as a reserve doctor in the Swiss army.

In 1846, having left Frankfurt over ten years before, he discovered that his Prussian nationality had been forfeit. His request to have his nationality reinstated to enable him to return home in order to visit his ageing parents was rejected. For the next three years the now stateless Baschwitz tried to acquire Swiss nationality or at least permission to live there on a permanent basis. He found himself caught in a bureaucratic nightmare; his requests were constantly rejected. He was rejected because his Prussian visa had expired and the Prussian authorities (who had cancelled his citizenship) were not ready to assist in its renewal. He was rejected because his Swiss residence permit had expired. In 1850 he was rejected because he was Jewish and the residents of Locle where he now lived didn’t want a Jew in their village. Finally Baschwitz’s luck changed. In December 1851 he was given a temporary right of residence in Locle for nine months on condition that he guaranteed his good behavior by a signing over a substantial bank deposit. This temporary permit was renewable. Baschwitz renewed his voluntary service with the Swiss military. In 1854, regarded as a very respectable citizen with influential friends, he was elected member of the Swiss Freemasons Lodge of Alpina. Then in 1855 the Prussian government decided to reinstate his citizenship. He returned home, was reunited with his family and married a distant cousin, Ida Baswitz, 24 years young than himself. The couple had no children.
פסל של משה, ברן, שוויץ, 1976
זלמה ברונשוויג לבית גוגנהיים (1977-1885), קוראת ספר, ברן, שוויץ, 1913 בקירוב
סלמה ברונשוויג גוגנהיים ובנה ג'ורג', ברן, שוויץ, 1913 בקירוב
פסל של משה,
ברן, שוויץ, 1976
צילום: אוקטב מוסקונה,ישראל
המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות, אוסף אוקטב מוסקונה)
זלמה ברונשוויג לבית גוגנהיים (1885-1977),
קוראת ספר, ברן, שוויץ, 1913 בקירוב
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות סוזי גוגנהיים, ציריך)

זלמה, בתם של נטלי ווילהלם גוגנהיים-ווייל
סלמה ברונשוויג גוגנהיים (1885-1977) ובנה ג'ורג',
ברן, שוויץ, 1913 בקירוב
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות סוזי גוגנהיים, ציריך)
קורט, ארנסט
מוסיקולוג. נולד בווינה, אוסטריה, למד בעיר הולדתו, ומ-1912 לימד באוניברסיטה של ברן, שוויץ. הוא מחברו של הספר "יסודות בקונטרפונט הליניארי: הפוליפוניה המלודית של באך" (1917) אשר שילב את חקר המוסיקה של באך עם לימוד הקונטרפונקט. כתב גם את הספר "ההרמוניה הרומנטית והמשבר שלה בטריסטן של ואגנר" (1920) אשר סקר את ההרמוניה הרומנטית עד דביסי. עוד חיבר את המחקר הביוגרפי "ברוקנר" (1925) ואת הספר "פסיכולוגיה ומוסיקה" (1931). נפטר בברן, שוויץ.
קורט, ארנסט
מוסיקולוג. נולד בווינה, אוסטריה, למד בעיר הולדתו, ומ-1912 לימד באוניברסיטה של ברן, שוויץ. הוא מחברו של הספר "יסודות בקונטרפונט הליניארי: הפוליפוניה המלודית של באך" (1917) אשר שילב את חקר המוסיקה של באך עם לימוד הקונטרפונקט. כתב גם את הספר "ההרמוניה הרומנטית והמשבר שלה בטריסטן של ואגנר" (1920) אשר סקר את ההרמוניה הרומנטית עד דביסי. עוד חיבר את המחקר הביוגרפי "ברוקנר" (1925) ואת הספר "פסיכולוגיה ומוסיקה" (1931). נפטר בברן, שוויץ.