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The Jewish Community of London, UK

London

The capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. 

21ST CENTURY

Behind Israel, the United States, France, and Canada, the United Kingdom boasts the fifth-largest Jewish population worldwide and the second-largest in Europe. Nearly two-thirds of Britain’s Jews live in Greater London, which is three out of every five Jews living in the United Kingdom. The Jewish population is principally concentrated in the northern boroughs of Barnet and Hackney. According to the 2011 UK census, approximately 172,000 Jews live in London, with more than 54,000 living in Barnet alone.

By the end of the 20th century, sizeable Jewish communities had developed in the areas of Golders Green and Stamford Hill. Located in the London Borough of Barnet, Golders Green is an area noted especially for its large Jewish community and for having the largest kosher hub in the entire United Kingdom. The Jews of Barnet account for one in five of all the Jews in England and Wales.

The district of Stamford Hill in Hackney is best known for its population of Hasidic Jews. At approximately 30,000 people, it is the largest concentration of Hasidic Jews in Europe. A once-small religious community that had lived in the area at the end of the 19th century was largely augmented by the influx of pre-war refugees and Holocaust survivors. Since then, the Haredi community has experienced continued growth with arrivals from Israel and North America. Due to the ultra-Orthodox nature of the area, Stamford Hill is often referred to as the “square mile of piety.” In this small geographical area are over 70 synagogues, many of which are associated with congregations which originated in Eastern Europe, including the Satmar and Belz dynasties, two of the largest Jewish sects represented in the community.

Stamford Hill is also home to a sizeable community of Yemenite Jews, specifically Adeni Jews from the former British protectorate of Aden. Between 1947 and 1967, nearly the entire population emigrated from Aden, settling primarily in Israel and the United Kingdom.

The London Jewish community is served by a wide range of social welfare organizations, including several local councils and international charities. Among them are the Board of Deputies of British Jews, Community Security Trust, the Jewish Learning Exchange, the Jewish Leadership Council, Jewish Women’s Aid, the Jewish Historical Society of England, the London Jewish Forum, the Center for Jewish Life, and the Anglo Jewish Association.

The primary focus of many of these organizations is to organize and fund cultural events and educational programs for families and young adults. Others, like the London Jewish Forum, promote active engagement of the Jewish community with civic life. Since the 1970s, there have been more than sixty Zionist organizations which supported various institutions in Israel.

Philanthropic organizations include the World Jewish Relief, the JNF Charitable Trust and Norwood. World Jewish Relief was established in 1933 as a fund for German Jews which rescued over 100,000 Jews prior to World War II; Norwood is one of the oldest charities in the United Kingdom and is well known for its support of children and people with disabilities. The organization has many celebrity patrons and supporters, including Chief Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, Sir Elton John, and Simon Cowell.

In terms of health and social services, Jewish Care is the largest provider of healthcare for the communities of London and the South East. This organization operates more than seventy centers throughout the United Kingdom.

There are more than 150 active synagogues located throughout Greater London. Several Jewish movements are represented, including Orthodox, Chabad, Masorti, Reform, Liberal, and independent. The number of strictly Orthodox or Haredi synagogues has more than doubled since the 1990s, chiefly due to the growth of Hasidic groups in the district of Stamford Hill. By 2014, the ultra-Orthodox community of London accounted for 18% of the Jewish population. The Belvis Marks Synagogue, built in 1701 by Sephardic Jews from Spain and Portugal, is the oldest synagogue still in use in the United Kingdom.

London is home to about 37 Jewish primary schools, 54 nursery schools, and as many as 14 secondary schools. The majority of Jewish children in the United Kingdom live in Greater London; those from non-Haredi families make up 50% of the children enrolled in Jewish primary schools. According to a 2015 government report, London’s Jewish schools are among the best in England. Many of London’s synagogues provide Jewish education. Outside of the Haredi community, the majority of London’s Jewish students attend schools which are separate from congregations but may be associated with the major streams of Judaism.

One of the most famous Jewish schools in Britain is located in London, the Jews’ Free School (JFS); it was established in 1732 and was at one time the largest Jewish school in Europe. Another well-known Jewish school is the Jewish Community Secondary School; established in 2010 in New Barnet, London; it is state-funded and cross-denominational. A notable institution which provides Jewish educational programs for adults is the London School of Jewish Studies. The roots of the college go back to 1855 when Chief Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler opened the Jews’ College in Finsbury Square. After a rebrand in 1999, the London School of Jewish Studies (LSJS) shifted its focus and become a hub of academic study.

In Greater London are several social associations and community programs dedicated to promoting a Jewish life and advancing Jewish causes. One in particular is Spiro Ark, a charitable organization that organizes Jewish cultural events and educational programs. Another is the Center for Jewish Life, which provides a wide array of social programs, educational events, and activities for Jews to connect with each other. Located at the University College London Union is the JSC, one of the largest Jewish societies for Jewish students in the United Kingdom. There are also fifteen Chabad centers found in central London.

As the nucleus of Jewish cohesion and culture in Britain, the city of London hosts a number of museums and memorials. One of its most famous is the Hyde Park Holocaust Memorial; unveiled in 1983, it was the first Holocaust memorial in Great Britain.

Ben Uri –The London Jewish Museum of Art is a public art gallery that was founded in 1915 and remains Europe’s only Jewish art museum. The Jewish Military Museum commemorates the Jewish contribution to British forces going back three hundred years. Providing an insight into British Jewish history is the Jewish Museum of London. Among its permanent exhibitions is the Holocaust Gallery, Judaism: A Living Faith, The Mikveh, and History: A British Story.

The first Jewish Community Center in London is the London Cultural Center (JW3), which has become the leading center for adult education and for the arts.

The Weiner Library is home to one of the world’s most extensive Holocaust archives. Established in 1933, it includes over one million items, including eyewitness testimony, photos, and published and unpublished works.

Other Jewish landmarks in London include the Rothschild Archive in St. Swithin’s lane, the Freud Museum, the Bevis Marks Synagogue, the statue of Benjamin Disraeli at Parliament Square, and the Jewish East End, site of the historical Jewish Socialist Club. There are also more than twenty kosher restaurants, four kosher hotels, and many Judaica shops found throughout the north of the city.

The largest amount of publications on Jewish topics emanate from London. These include newspapers, magazines, books and other media. Circulating throughout Greater London is The Jewish Chronicle; founded in 1841, it is the oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the world. In 1896, it published Theodor Herzl’s historic article “Solution of the Jewish Question”.

Another weekly published newspaper is The Jewish News. Named Free Newspaper of the Year in 2003 by Press Gazette, it provides local, national and international news and entertainment for the Jewish communities of Greater London, Middlesex, Hertfordshire and Essex.

The Jewish Tribune is a privately owned Haredi weekly newspaper based in Stamford Hill. It is the fourth largest Jewish publication in England.

Broadcasted by the Spectrum Radio Network is Sunday Jewish Radio, a weekly program on Jewish themes.

 

HISTORY

After the Norman conquest of 1066, a few Jews arrived in London from the nearby areas of Europe (chiefly the Duchy of Normandy, including Rouen), attracted mainly by the economic opportunities that the city offered. The earliest recorded mention of the London community dates from the reign of William Rufus (1087-1100), who appears to have favored the Jews to a certain extent.

In 1130, in what was possibly a blood libel, the Jews of London were accused of killing a sick man and were forced to pay an enormous fine. Other outbreaks of antisemitism took place during the coronation of Richard I (September 3,1189) and during the reign of John (1199-1216); John’s reign, and that of his son Henry III (1216-1272) saw the opposition of the barons to the Jews, and there was a baronial attack on London Jewry in 1215. Nonetheless, Jewish intellectual during this period flourished; among other accomplishments, it attracted the Biblical commentator Abraham ibn Ezra, who wrote his Iggeret Ha-Shabbat and his Yesod Mora in London in 1158.

During the reign of Henry III the Jews of London, along with those of the rest of the country, were oppressed. The climax came in 1224 when it was alleged that some gashes found on the body of a dead child were Hebrew letters and the Jews were accused of ritual murder. This resulted in a punitive fine on the Jewish community. In 1232 Henry III confiscated the main London synagogue on the pretext that the chanting could be heard in a neighboring church. In 1278 a number of London Jews were among the 680 who were imprisoned in the tower of London on forgery charges. Nearly 300 are said to have been hanged. Shortly thereafter, in 1283 the Bishop of London ordered that all synagogues in the diocese to be closed (one was later reopened).
In 1290, the Jews were expelled from England and the Jewish community of London ceased to exist.
In 1509, after the expulsions from Spain and Portugal, a few crypto-Jewish refugees settled in London; by the end of Henry VIII’s reign in 1547, there were approximately 37 crypto-Jewish families living in London. However, in 1609 the Portuguese merchants living in London, who were suspected of Judaizing, were expelled. Nevertheless, when the crypto-Jewish community of Ruen was (temporarily) dissolved in 1632, a number of fugitives, including Antonio Fernandez Carvajal, found a home in London. Thus, when Manasseh ben Israel went to England in 1655, there was already an established secret Jewish community in London that became increasingly visible. In March of 1657 a petition was presented to Cromwell asking for protection, and the following December a house was rented and used as a synagogue. A few months later the community purchased land for a cemetery.

After Cromwell's death in 1658 numerous attempts were made to persecute and stem the grown of the community. Charles II, however, intervened in its favor, and bestowed de facto recognition on the community. A synagogue on Cree Church Lane was enlarged and remodeled in 1674, and in 1701 a new place of worship was built in Bevis Marks. As the community was reestablishing itself, considerable numbers of Spanish and Portuguese Jews began arriving from Holland. Ashkenazim soon followed, most of whom arrived via Amsterdam or Hamburg. They organized their own congregation around 1690, and eventually became the more influential and populous Jewish community in London.
The Sephardic and Ashkenazi communities proved able to work together in establishing and running a number of community institutions. The board for kosher slaughter, in which Sephardim and Ashkenazim cooperated, was organized through the advocacy of Baron Lyon de Symons between 1792 and 1804. As early as 1760 the Sephardi community admitted Ashkenazi representatives to their governing committee, which was appointed to deal with the government on behalf of the Jewish community. This ultimately developed into the Board of Deputies of British Jews, which represented the Jewish communities of London until 1838, after which it began to represent Jewish communities outside of London, in addition to the ones within the city.

The Ashkenazi community’s Talmud Torah, which was established in 1732, was reorganized in 1817 as the Jews' Free School. This school eventually developed into one of the largest schools in Europe.

 

19TH CENTURY

The struggle for Jewish emancipation in England centered in London, and was a process that developed in stages throughout the years. Beginning in 1830 the city of London had shown its support of parliamentary emancipation, most notably by electing Baron Lionel de Rothschild, in spite of the fact that he could not take his seat because of the statutory oath. Nonetheless, this became very influential when it came to the ultimate admission of Jews to the Parliament in 1858. In 1831 Jews were granted the privilege of being able to engage in retail trade, from which they had hitherto been barred. In 1835, David Salomons was elected a sheriff of the city, the first Jewish person to serve in that office. In 1847 Salomons became the first Jewish alderman, and in 1855 the first Jewish Lord Mayor of London.
The growing Anglicization of London Jewry led to a number of community developments. A Reform congregation was established in 1840. Sephardi and Ashkenazi congregations established branch synagogues in the West End. A modern theological seminary, Jews' College, was founded in 1855, and a charitable organization, the Board of Guardians for the Relief of the Jewish Poor, was established in 1859. The United Synagogue, an umbrella organization for the major Ashkenazi congregations in London, was established in 1870. In 1887 Sir Samuel Montagu (later Lord Swaythling) created the Federation of Synagogues in order to coordinate the various religious activities that took place in the different synagogues.
The mass emigration from Russia that began in 1881 led to a mass influx of Eastern European Jews to London. As a result, the next 25 years saw London’s Jewish population rise from about 47,000 to approximately 150,000. Most of the new immigrants worked as tailors, shoemakers, and cabinetmakers. A Yiddish press and an active trade union movement were established to meet the needs of this growing immigrant population.

 

20TH CENTURY

The Aliens Act of 1905 limited immigration, though smaller numbers of Jewish immigrants continued to arrive until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Later, a considerable number of refugees arrived from Germany after the Nazi rise to power in 1933.

As Jews became more established in London, they tended to move. East End Jews who managed to work their way up the socioeconomic ladder tended to move to the newer suburbs, particularly those in the northeast of the city, to Stamford Hill, and the northwest, to Golders Green). The interwar period saw significant numbers of London’s Jews moving from the East End to the northern suburbs, as many within the community became well-established and successful. This movement led to the establishment of a number of Jewish institutions in the suburbs. A Jewish museum and a community center for the major Jewish institutions of London were established at Woburn House in the Bloomsbury area.
The total Jewish population of greater London in 1970 was estimated at 280,000. In 1997 it was estimated at 300,000.

 

Place Type:
City
ID Number:
129847
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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In 1899 Bentwich was one of the founders of the British Zionist Federation and served as its vice chairman for some time. He was legal adviser to the Jewish Colonial Trust and from 1916 to 1918 he was a member of the political advisory committee set up by Chaim Weizmann. Bentwich was a regular visitor to Palestine after 1921 and settled in Jerusalem in late 1929. Of his eleven children, eight settled in Palestine.

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Gollancz rejected his family's religious orthodoxy. After graduating from Oxford University, Gollancz was commissioned into the Northumberland Fusiliers in October 1915, although he did not see active service. In 1917 he became involved in the Reconstruction Committee, an organisation that made plans for post-World War I Britain.

He was hired to work in a publishing business. Starting with magazines, Gollancz then brought out a series of art books, after which he started recruiting novelists. Gollancz formed his own publishing company in 1927, publishing works by writers such as George Orwell. Gollancz was one of the founders of the Left Book Club whose aim was to stop Nazism and prevent the outbreak of war. When he published "The Red Army Moves" by Geoffrey Cox on the Winter War in 1941, he omitted criticisms of the USSR.

In addition to his successful publishing business, Gollancz was a prolific writer on a variety of subjects. His 1943 pamphlet "Let My People Go", which called for the Allied powers to rescue Jews under threat of extermination in occupied Europe, reached a mass audience in 1943, following widespread coverage in the British media in December 1942 of the Nazi's extermination policy. A subsequent pamphlet on the same subject, published by Gollancz two years later, did not succeed. By then the British media had almost entirely ceased writing of the Nazi attempt to exterminate European Jewry, after it had become clear that the western powers were unwilling to rescue Jews in occupied Europe on the grounds that it would divert precious resources from the war effort.

From 1945 he opposed Britain's pro-Arab policy in Palestine, but then proceeded to head an organization devoted to relief work for the Arabs during Israel's War of Independence. He advocated reconciliation between Jews and Germans and between Arabs and Jews. From 1952 to 1964 he was a member of the board of governors of the Hebrew University.

In 1945 Gollancz turned his attention to crimes against the defeated Germans. He started a campaign for the humane treatment of German civilians and organised an airlift to provide Germany and other war torn European countries with books, food and clothing from a Britain still subject to rationing. In his book, "Our Threatened Values" (London, 1946), Gollancz described the conditions Sudeten German prisoners faced in a Czech prison camp. In Britain he also worked on a campaign to abolish capital punishment in the 1950s. In February 1951 Victor Gollancz wrote a letter to "The Guardian" asking people to join an international struggle against poverty. This directly led to the founding of the international anti-poverty charity "War on Want". In 1960, he received the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade, being the first British person to receive this award. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1965.

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Levey, Barnett (1797-1837), first free Jewish settler in Australia, born in London, England.

Levey immigrated to Australia in 1821, settling in Sydney. His business in Australia included a windmill that he built on the top of his grain store and flour mill. During the 1820s this was the tallest building in Sydney. Later his interests moved to the cultural domain: towards the end of the 1820s Levey opened a lending library and then attempted to establish a theater. It was only in 1832 that a newly appointed governor permitted Levey to open the Theater Royal which, until Levey's death five years later, offered its audience a variety of melodramas, operas and other dramatic productions.
Hess, Myra (1890-1956) , pianist. Born in London, Hess won a scholarship at the age of twelve to study at the Royal Academy of Music in London. She made her debut in 1907 with Sir Thomas Beecham playing Beethoven's Fourth Piano Concerto. She subsequently toured Europe, the Unites States and Canada. Primarily, she became famous for her interpretations of works by Scarlatti, Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier, and the piano concertos of Mozart and Beethoven. During World War II and the blitz in London she organized daily lunchtime concerts at the National Gallery. For this contribution to the morale of the city she was awarded the title of Dame Commander of the British Empire (D.B.E.) in 1941. She died in London.
Mendoza, Daniel (1764-1836), Boxer. Born in the Aldgate district of London, England, he was educated in a Jewish school. Anti-Semitic incidents led to numerous street fights in which he distinguished himself. Then he had a series of victories in the ring earning him such titles as 'Star of the East' and 'Light of Israel'. One of his contests was attended by the future king George IV of England who handed him the purse. Between 1788 and 1790 he fought three fights with the reigning champion, won two and was acclaimed the champion of England. His ring style revolutionized the sport, introducing a more rapid and elegant style of boxing. Mendoza was received by the king and the Jewish community looked on him as a hero. With his earnings he opened a London boxing school and some of his Jewish pupils became outstanding boxers. He toured extensively and always billed himself as 'Mendoza the Jew'. He lost his championship in 1795 and thereafter his generosity left him usually in debt. Two of his descendants were the English statesman Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquees of Reading (1860-1935), and the actor, Peter Sellers (1925-1980).
Vogel, Julius (1835–1899), the eighth prime minister of New Zealand and the only practising Jewish prime minister of that country, born and educated in London, England. Vogel immigrated to Australia in 1852 becoming editor of several newspapers on the goldfields. In 1861 he moved to Otago, New Zealand, where he become a journalist for the "Otago Witness". The same year he founded the "Otago Daily Times" and became its first editor.

In Vogel's vision New Zealand was a potential 'Britain of the South Seas', strong both in agriculture and in industry, and inhabited by a large and flourishing population.

Vogel first became involved in politics in 1862, winning election to the provincial council of Otago. Four years later became the head of the provincial government, a post which he held until 1869. In 1863 he was elected a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, and on retiring from the provincial government in 1869 he joined the government as Colonial Treasurer, afterward becoming successively Postmaster-General, Commissioner of Customs, and Telegraph Commissioner.

Vogel was premier from 1873 to 1875 and again in 1876. From 1876 to 1881, he was Agent-General for New Zealand in London, and in 1884 he was again a member of the government of the colony. His administration is best remembered for the issuing of bonds to fund railway construction and other public works.

During his political career, Vogel worked generally successfully for reconciliation with the Maori people. In 1887, he introduced the first women's suffrage Bill to Parliament, but suffrage was not granted until 1893. He was knighted in 1875. He finally gave up colonial office in 1887, from which date he lived in England.

Vogel is best remembered for is his "Great Public Works” scheme of the 1870s. Before 1870, New Zealand was a country largely dominated by provincial interests. After Vogel, as colonial treasurer, proposed borrowing the massive sum of 10 million pounds, New Zealand developed significant infrastructure of roads, railways and communications networks, all administered by a central government.

Vogel was also the first New Zealander to write a science-fiction novel: "Anno Domino 2000" published in 1889. It anticipated a utopian world where women held many positions of authority. On his death in 1899 Vogen was buried in London.
Cohen, Harriet (1895-1967) , pianist. Born in London, England, she studied at the Royal Academy of Music and made her debut at Queen’s Hall, London, in 1914. By the age of 20 she was considered a virtuoso. Noted English composers, including Edward Elgar, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Arnold Bax and William Walton, composed works for her. In 1934 she participated in a concert to aid refugee scientists (playing together with Alfred Einstein on the violin). She was an ardent supporter of Jewish, later Israeli, causes. In 1954 she was granted the freedom of the City of London. In 1948 she injured her right hand and didn’t appear in public for two years. Then she played Bax’s Concerto for the Left Hand, which he wrote for her. In 1960 she was forced to retire. Harriet Cohen wrote Music Handmaid (1936) on piano playing and her memoirs, entitled A Bundle of Time (1968). She died in London.
Rabbi

Born in London, he studied at Jews' College and University College, London. After serving for a time as minister in Hanley (Staffordshire), he became minsiter of the Newcastle community, serving until 1905 when he was appointed minister of London's Borough Synagogue. His broad interests included mathematics and he was an expert on the Jewish calendar. Rosenbaum also researched Jewish genealogy and was co-translator into English of Rashi's commentary on the Pentateuch.
Goldsmid, Francis (1808-1878), English philanthropist and politician born in London, England, and educated by private tutors. He was the eldest son of Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, was called to the bar in 1833, and became a queen's counsel in 1858. In 1859 he succeeded to his father's honors, which included a barony of Portugal. He entered Parliament in 1860 as member for Reading through a by-election, and represented that constituency for the the Liberal party until his death.

While still a young man he actively cooperated with his father to secure to the Jews full emancipation from civil and political disabilities. In 1839 he wrote "Remarks on the Civil Disabilities of the Jews," and in 1848 "A Reply to the Arguments Against the Removal of the Remaining Disabilities of the Jews". He was one of the chief supporters of University College London, and gave substantial aid to University College Hospital. He was associated with various Jewish religious and charitable organizations. He was the founder of the Jews Free School. Goldsmid was connected with the Reform movement from its commencement, and Sir Francis Goldsmid was elected president of the Council of Founders of the West London Reform Synagogue. He was vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish Association from its establishment in 1871, and was president of the Romanian Committee which originated in the association. His greatest services to his community were, however, in the direction of improving the social condition of the Jews in those countries in which they were oppressed. The condition of the Poles in 1863 moved him to organize meetings for the purpose of securing some alleviation of their sufferings, and he also forcibly protested on several occasions in Parliament against the oppression of the Jews, notably that in Serbia and Romania.

Goldsmid was deputy lieutenant for Berkshire and a justice of the peace for Berkshire and Gloucestershiure. Having no children, the baronetcy devolved upon his nephew, Julian Goldsmid. His writings include: "Two Letters in Answer to the Objections Urged Against Mr. Grant's Bill for the Relief of the Jews" (1830); "A Few Words Respecting the Enfranchisement of British Jews Addressed to the New Parliament" (1833); "A Scheme of Peerage Reform, with Reasons for the Scheme" (1835).
Braham, John 1774-1856) , tenor singer and composer. Born in London, England, Braham started his career as a choir boy at the Great Synagogue of London and later became a rather famous tenor. Although he abandoned Judaism, Braham collaborated with Isaac Nathan in the performance of his HEBREW MELODIES in 1815. In 1835 he built the St. James Theatre in London, an enterprise which soon failed economically. Braham tried to recover his losses by giving concerts in America. His last appearance in London took place on March 1852 when he was seventy-eight. Braham composed, among other things, the song THE DEATH OF NELSON. He died in London, England.
Landau, David (1947-2015), journalist and newspaper editor, born in London, England. In the 1960s, he studied at a yeshiva in B'nai Brak, Israel. During the Six-Day War, he was an overseas student at the Hebron Yeshiva in Jerusalem In 1970, after completing a degree in law at University College London, he settled permanently in Jerusalem.

Landau worked as a volunteer for "The Jerusalem Post" in 1967 after refusing to return home during the Six-Day War. He was the first Israeli journalist to interview Anwar Sadat, the Egyptian president. Landau was the diplomatic correspondent of "The Jerusalem Post" for 12 years, and its managing editor for four years. Landau was one of the organizers of a walkout of "The Jerusalem Post" journalists in 1990, following editorial disputes with thee paper's new owner. He joined the Israeli newspaper Haaretz and was its editor-in-chief of from 2004 to 2008, and also the founder and editor-in-chief of the English edition of Haaretz, from 1997 to 2004. After leaving Haaretz Landau was the Israel correspondent for "The Economist" magazine.

Landau is the author of "Piety and Power: The World of Jewish Fundamentalism" (1993) and of "The Life of Ariel Sharon", a biography of the Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon (2014). In 1996, Landau collaborated with Israeli prime minister Shimon Peres on his memoirs "Battling for Peace".

Landau, an Orthodox Jew, was married to Jackie, a rehabilitation teacher of visually impaired children. They had three children together.
Conductor. Born in London, England, son of the composer Henry Russell, he conducted at the Covent Garden Opera House in 1894. After a period of conducting musical comedies he became primarily a symphony conductor, specializing in Elgar’s music. He also composed songs and incidental music. Ronald taught at the Guildhall School of Music between 1910-1937. In 1922 he was knighted. He died in London.
Lewis, Bernard (1916- ), historian, scholar and political commentator, specialized in the history of Islam and the interaction between Islam and the West, especially well known for his works on the history of the Ottoman Empire, born to middle-class Jewish parents in Stoke Newington, London, England.

He graduated in 1936 from the School of Oriental Studies at the University of London with a B.A. in history with special reference to the Near and Middle East; and earned his Ph.D. three years later, also from SOAS, specializing in the history of Islam. He undertook post-graduate studies at the University of Paris, where he studied with the orientalist Louis Massignon and earned the "Diplôme des Études Sémitiques" in 1937. He returned to SOAS in 1938 as an assistant lecturer in Islamic History.

During World War II Lewis served in the British Army in the Royal Armoured Corps and Intelligence Corps before being seconded to the Foreign Office. After the war, he returned to the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London and was appointed to a chair in Near and Middle Eastern History. Lewis is regarded as one of the West’s leading scholars of the Middle East and his advice has been frequently sought by policymakers, including the George W. Bush administration. He is considered by many as "the most influential postwar historian of Islam and the Middle East." Lewis is known for his Armenian genocide denial and is also famous for his public debates with Edward Said concerning the latter's book "Orientalism" (1978), which criticized Lewis.

In 1974, aged 57, Lewis accepted a joint position at Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study, also located in Princeton, New Jersey. Lewis's arrival at Princeton marked the beginning of the most prolific period in his research career during which he published numerous books and articles based on the previously accumulated materials. In addition, it was in the U.S. that Lewis became a public intellectual. Upon his retirement from Princeton in 1986, Lewis served at Cornell University until 1990.

Lewis has been a naturalized citizen of the United States since 1982. He married Ruth Hélène Oppenhejm in 1947 with whom he had a daughter and a son before the marriage was dissolved in 1974. In 1990 the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Lewis for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. His lecture, entitled "Western Civilization: A View from the East", was revised and reprinted in "The Atlantic Monthly" under the title "The Roots of Muslim Rage". His 2007 Irving Kristol Lecture, given to the American Enterprise Institute, was published as "Europe and Islam".

Lewis' influence extends beyond the academia to the general public. He is a pioneer of the social and economic history of the Middle East and is famous for his extensive research of the Ottoman archives. He began his research career with the study of medieval Arab, especially Syrian, history. His first article, dedicated to professional guilds of medieval Islam, had been widely regarded as the most authoritative work on the subject for about thirty years. However, after the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, scholars of Jewish origin found it more and more difficult to conduct archival and field research in the Arab countries, where they were suspected of espionage. Therefore, Lewis switched to the study of the Ottoman Empire, while continuing to research Arab history through the Ottoman archives, which had only recently been opened to Western researchers. A series of articles that Lewis published over the next several years revolutionized the history of the Middle East by giving a broad picture of Islamic society, including its government, economy, and demographics.

Lewis argues that the Middle East is currently backward and its decline was a largely self-inflicted condition resulting from both culture and religion, as opposed to the post-colonialist view which posits the problems of the region as economic and political maldevelopment mainly due to the 19th century European colonization. In his 1982 work "Muslim Discovery of Europe", Lewis argues that Muslim societies could not keep pace with the West and that "Crusader successes were due in no small part to Muslim weakness". Further, he suggested that as early as the 11th century Islamic societies were decaying, primarily the byproduct of internal problems like "cultural arrogance", which was a barrier to creative borrowing, rather than external pressures like the Crusades. In the wake of Soviet and Arab attempts to delegitimize Israel as a racist country, Lewis wrote a study of anti-Semitism, "Semites and Anti-Semites" (1986). In other works he argued Arab rage against Israel was disproportionate to other tragedies or injustices in the Muslim world: the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and control of Muslim-majority land in Central Asia, the bloody and destructive fighting during the Hama uprising in Syria (1982), the Algerian civil war (1992–98), and the Iran-Iraq War (1980–88).

In addition to his scholarly works, Lewis wrote several influential books accessible to the general public: "The Arabs in History" (1950), "The Middle East and the West" (1964), and "The Middle East" (1995). In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the interest in Lewis's work surged, especially his 1990 essay "The Roots of Muslim Rage". Three of his books were published after 9/11: "What Went Wrong?" (written before the attacks), which explored the reasons of the Muslim world's apprehension and often outright hostility to modernization, and "The Crisis of Islam", and "Islam: The Religion and the People" (published in 2009).

The first two editions of Lewis' "The Emergence of Modern Turkey" (1961 and 1968) describe the Armenian massacres of World War I as "the terrible holocaust of 1915, when a million and a half Armenians perished". In later editions, this text is altered to: "the terrible slaughter of 1915, when, according to estimates, more than a million Armenians perished, as well as an unknown number of Turks". Lewis was later one of 69 scholars to co-sign a 1985 petition asking the US Congress to avoid a resolution condemning the events as "genocide". The change in Lewis' textual description of the Armenian massacres, and his signing of the petition against the Congressional resolution, was controversial among some historians and journalists, who suggested that Lewis was engaging in historical revisionism to serve his own political and personal interests. The original text had already drawn criticism for what some historians believe to be its exaggeration of unity and strength among Armenians: "[Lewis] implies that both had equal military and political force at their disposal to defend their interests. The fact is that the Armenians had neither a police force nor an army".

Lewis later called the label "genocide" the "Armenian version of this history" in a November 1993 Le Monde article, for which he faced a civil proceeding in a French court. He was ordered to pay one franc as damages for his statements on the Armenian Genocide in Ottoman Turkey. Lewis has stated that while mass murders did occur, he did not believe there was sufficient evidence to conclude it was government-sponsored, ordered or controlled and therefore did not constitute genocide. The court stated that "by concealing elements contrary to his opinion, he neglected his duties of objectivity and prudence". Three other court cases against Bernard Lewis failed in Paris tribunal, including one filed by the Armenian National Committee of France and two filed by Jacques Trémollet de Villers. When Lewis received the National Humanities Medal from US President George W. Bush in November 2006, the Armenian National Committee of America objected: "The President's decision to honor the work of a known genocide denier — an academic mercenary whose politically motivated efforts to cover up the truth run counter to the very principles this award was established to honor — represents a true betrayal of the public trust."

In response, Lewis argued that there is no evidence of a decision to massacre. On the contrary, there is considerable evidence of attempts to prevent it, which were not very successful. Yes there were tremendous massacres, the numbers are very uncertain but a million may well be likely, ...[and] the issue is not whether the massacres happened or not, but rather if these massacres were as a result of a deliberate preconceived decision of the Turkish government... there is no evidence for such a decision.

Lewis stated that he believed "to make [the Armenian Genocide], a parallel with the Holocaust in Germany" was "rather absurd". In an interview with "Ha'aretz" he stated:
"The deniers of Holocaust have a purpose: to prolong Nazism and to return to Nazi legislation. Nobody wants the 'Young Turks' back, and nobody wants to have back the Ottoman Law. What do the Armenians want? The Armenians want to benefit from both worlds. On the one hand, they speak with pride of their struggle against the Ottoman despotism, while on the other hand, they compare their tragedy to the Jewish Holocaust. I do not accept this. I do not say that the Armenians did not suffer terribly. But I find enough cause for me to contain their attempts to use the Armenian massacres to diminish the worth of the Jewish Holocaust and to relate to it instead as an ethnic dispute".

In the mid-1960s, Lewis emerged as a commentator on the issues of the modern Middle East, and his analysis of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the rise of militant Islam brought him publicity and aroused significant controversy. American historian Joel Beinin has called him "perhaps the most articulate and learned Zionist advocate in the North American Middle East academic community ..."

A harsh critic of the Soviet Union, Lewis continues the liberal tradition in Islamic historical studies. Although his early Marxist views had a bearing on his first book The Origins of Ismailism, Lewis subsequently discarded Marxism. His later works are a reaction against the left-wing current of Third-worldism, which came to be a significant current in Middle Eastern studies. Lewis advocates closer Western ties with Israel and Turkey, which he saw as especially important in light of the extension of the Soviet influence in the Middle East. Modern Turkey holds a special place in Lewis's view of the region due to the country's efforts to become a part of the West. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Turkish Studies, an honor which is given "on the basis of generally recognized scholarly distinction and... long and devoted service to the field of Turkish Studies."

Lewis views Christendom and Islam as civilizations that have been in perpetual collision since the advent of Islam in the 7th century. In his essay The Roots of Muslim Rage (1990), he argued that the struggle between the West and Islam was gathering strength. According to one source, this essay (and Lewis' 1990 Jefferson Lecture on which the article was based) first introduced the term "Islamic fundamentalism" to North America. This essay has been credited with coining the phrase "clash of civilizations", which received prominence in the eponymous book by Samuel Huntington.However, another source indicates that Lewis first used the phrase "clash of civilizations" at a meeting in Washington in 1957 where it is recorded in the transcript.

In 1998, Lewis read in a London-based newspaper Al-Quds Al-Arabi a declaration of war on the United States by Osama bin Laden. In his essay "A License to Kill", Lewis indicated he considered bin Laden's language as the "ideology of jihad" and warned that bin Laden would be a danger to the West. The essay was published after the Clinton administration and the US intelligence community had begun its hunt for bin Laden in Sudan and then in Afghanistan.

Lewis presents some of his conclusions about Islamic culture, Shari'a Law, jihad, and the modern day phenomenon of terrorism in his text, Islam: The Religion and the People. He writes of jihad as a distinct "religious obligation", but suggests that "it is a pity" that people engaging in terrorist activities are not more aware of their own religion:
Muslim fighters are commanded not to kill women, children, or the aged unless they attack first; not to torture or otherwise ill-treat prisoners; to give fair warning of the opening of hostilities or their resumption after a truce; and to honor agreements... At no time did the classical jurists offer any approval or legitimacy to what we nowadays call terrorism. Nor indeed is there any evidence of the use of terrorism as it is practiced nowadays." In Lewis' view, the "by now widespread terrorism practice of suicide bombing is a development of the 20th century" with "no antecedents in Islamic history, and no justification in terms of Islamic theology, law, or tradition."He further comments that "the fanatical warrior offering his victims the choice of the Koran or the sword is not only untrue, it is impossible" and that "generally speaking, Muslim tolerance of unbelievers was far better than anything available in Christendom, until the rise of secularism in the 17th century."
Harman, Avraham (1914-1992) diplomat and academic, born in London, England. In 1935 he received a law degree from Wadham College, Oxford University, following which he served on the staff of the Zionist Federation in London.

In 1938 he immigrated to Palestine. In 1939 he served as an emissary to the Zionist Federation in South Africa, returning in 1940 to head the English section of the Agency’s Youth Department and later as head of the English section of its Information Department. Following the founding of the State of Israel in 1948, he was appointed deputy director of the Press and Information Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1949 he was appointed Israel’s first consul-general in Montreal. In 1950 he joined the Israeli delegation to the United Nations in New York as counselor and also headed Israel’s Office of Information in the U.S., a post he held for three years. From 1953 to 1955 he was Israel’s consul-general in New York. Harman then returned to Jerusalem to become assistant director-general of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A year later he was elected to the Jewish Agency Executive.

From 1959 to 1968 Harman was Israel’s ambassador to Washington. In that position he argued successfully that since the Soviets were pouring arms into Arab countries, the United States should give Israel the opportunity to obtain arms "to maintain a minimum level of deterrent strength". As early as 1960, Harman declared that peace between Israel and its Arab neighbors was "historically inevitable." Addressing the American Zionist Council, the Israeli diplomat said, "There is only one road to peace in the Middle East and that is through direct discussion and negotiation." He also worked to secure financial and moral support from American Jews.

Harman was the founding president of the Israel Public Council for Soviet Jewry, a post he held until his death. He devoted much of his time and effort to the cause of Soviet Jewry and to the absorption of Soviet Jewish scientists at the Hebrew University and elsewhere in Israel. From 1968 to 1973 he was President and Chancellor of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and was responsible for the rebuilding and expansion of the original campus of the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus.
Hart, Aaron (1724-1800), businessman and early settler of Canada, born in London, England, of Bavarian parents. He emigrated to New York,USA, via Jamaica in about 1752 and may have been an officer serving with the British forces and on Amherst’s general staff during the conquest of Canada. Other sources claim that he was a purveyor of goods who followed the troops. A receipt dated 28 March 1761 indicates that he and Eleazar Levy had supplied merchandise to Samuel Jacobs. On 21 October1761 Jacobs wrote to Hart, and thereafter a regular correspondence confirms Aaron Hart’s presence in Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada.

On 4 July 1762 a fire broke out in the town and it seems that “Hart, an English Jew suffered losses of [£]400 or 500.” On 23 August1763 the authorities opened a post office at Trois-Rivières “in the house of Mr.Hart, merchant” that was to remain there for seven years. In the summer of 1764 the governor wrote that “the group of British merchants in Trois-Rivières” was “composed of a Jew and of a sergeant and an Irish soldier on half pay.” Hart soon became interested in the fur trade. He engaged the best-known voyageurs in the region and the venture proved lucrative. On 7 February 1764, Aaron Hart acquired his first plot of land, “buying 48 acres from the Fafard de La Framboise estate for the attractive price of £350 in cash. Seven months later he purchased a large section of the seigneury of Bécancour.” As time went by many additional properties were acquired by him.

In 1767, determined not to marry outside the Jewish faith, he went to London to take a wife. On 2 February1768 he married his distant cousin Dorothy Judah. One of Aaron’s brothers, Moses, had already joined him in his ventures; another, Henry, had settled at Albany, New York, and a third, Lemon, was launching the London Red Heart Rum distillery in London. At least two of Dorothy Judah’s brothers, Uriah and Samuel, had gone to Canada ahead of her. Their correspondence indicates that “Mama Judah” lived in New York around 1795. The same letters give information about the close links which joined the couple to the large interrelated circle of Jews in New York. Upon his return from London in the spring of 1768, Aaron rejoined his brother Moses, who had kept watch over his business affairs in Canada. In 1792, after Hart's sons joined the family businesses, they opened a brewery and became active in running the town. By assigning large properties to his sons he forced them to establish themselves at Trois-Rivières. He was reputed to be the wealthiest man in the British colonies. The family remained in Trois Rivieres for some one hundred years.
Levin, Nathaniel William (1819-1903), Jewish businessman and community leader in New Zealand born in London, England, the son of a Jewish merchant. He arrived at Port Nicholson in New Zealand and in 1841 and commenced trading in Wellington on 2 August in the same year under the style of “Levin & Co.” His store was destroyed by an earthquake in 1869. He took an active part in the early social life of the colony, was prominent in the Jewish community, and was a founding member of many important public institutions. In1869 Levin was appointed to the New Zealand Legislative Council, although two years later he decided to return to London. There he became a partner of Redfern, Alexander, and Co. He retired from business in January 1882, and remained in London until his death on 30 April 1903. He as the father of William Hort Levin and the town of Levin in New Zealand was named after his family. The town is in the southern part of the north island, 90km north of Wellington.
Rabbi

Born in London, England, he started his career as a teacher at the Jews’ Free School in London, and then he was principal of the Hebrew National School in Birmingham, England, from 1860 to 1866. He was minister to the Hebrew congregation in Melbourne, Australia, from 1866 to 1875 and then he served as principal of the Aria College for training Jewish ministers in Portsmouth, England. In 1882 Ornstein went to Cape Town, South Africa, and headed its Hebrew Congregation (est. 1841) until his death. He sought unsuccessfully to found a Jewish public school but he started and ran a private 'Collegiate School' for Jewish boys which gave both a Jewish and a general education; its boarding house also accepted girls.
Karminski, Seymour Edward Sir, (1902–1974), judge, born in London, England. Karminski was admitted to the bar in 1925 and specialized in divorce cases. During World War II he served in the Royal Navy, becoming lieutenant commander in 1943. In 1945 he was made a king's counsel and in 1951 was appointed judge of the divorce division of the High Court of Justice. He was senior judge of the divorce division for several years until his promotion to lord justice of appeal in 1969.

Karminski was an active figure in the Jewish community as chairman of the London Jewish Board of Guardians (later the Jewish Welfare Board). He was a prominent member of the West London Reform Synagogue. In 1967 Karminski became a member of the privy council, the final Court of Appeal for the the UK overseas territories and Crown dependencies, and for those Commonwealth countries that have retained the appeal to the British monarch.
Musicologist. Born in London, England, his writings include the biographies of Mozart (1966), Beethoven (1967) and Handel (1968). Sadie is also the editor of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980) and The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (1984).
Fishman-Kloos, Jean (1927-2016), medical doctor, pediatrician, born in London, England, to Rachel Marks and Ferdinand Fishman. Her mother, Rachel Marks, was born in the old city of Jerusalem, one of the seven children of Rav Gaon Moshe Tzvi. Due to hard times in Jerusalem the family made their way to England, stopping for a time in Paris, France, where one of the brothers, Joseph, eventually became a doctor at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. The family later settled in the East End of London. Jean's father, Ferdinand Fishman was born in Belgium. He was a teacher and married her mother in London. He died when Jean was a young schoolgirl and she was brought up by her mother.

During WW2 Jean was evacuated to the country. After the War it was very difficult to get accepted at medical school, especially for women, as most of the places were given to returning soldiers. Jean however was determined to study medicine and won a place at the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin, Ireland. She paid for her tuition and supported herself during her studies by working as a waitress during her holidays. She worked in various departments in hospitals in England and was senior house physician.

Jean was a very keen Zionist and always wanted to immigrate to Israel, but the problem was that she needed a job before she came on Aliya. She came to Beer-Sheva by chance. She was spending some leave in London when she noticed that a meeting was to be held one evening on the subject of "Ten years of medicine in Israel". The main speaker was the distinguished orthopedic surgeon Prof. Makin. She sat in the audience next to Dr. Lehman, then Head of the Hadassah Hospital in Beer-Sheva, who at the time was a researcher at the school of Tropical Medicine in London. They engaged in conversation and he told her that they badly needed doctors in Beer-Sheva in the Hadassah Hospital. The idea of going to Beer-Sheva in the Negev appealed to Jean enormously. As she wanted to at least try to be a pioneer she accepted the offer immediately and within a month she was in Israel working in the old Hadassah Hospital, working as a pediatricians already on her third day of arrival in Israel without her having any knowledge of spoken Hebrew – she could read and "daven" from the prayer book being a very religious person. The shortage of doctors was so acute that she couldn't have time off to go to an Ulpan. Fortunately she spoke French which was useful as many of the residents of Beer-Sheva were of North African origin and spoke French.

In the Hadassah hospital in Beer-Sheva there were very few doctors spread out to cover all departments, so that everyone did two or three jobs. Apart from her regular work in the children's dept, she would be on duty in the casualty dept., at least once a week. She would also assist in the operating theatre when necessaryand occasionally deputized in the "Pnimit". Apart from all this she was always on call. The hospital was very crowded as it served the whole Negev.

The living conditions were not good. The unmarried doctors and a number of nurses lived in the compound of Hadassah Hospital. They had rooms in the courtyard. Six or seven doctors and nurses shared one bathroom and toilet which were situated in the garden. The rooms were sparsely furnished. Her first room contained a "sochnut" bed, table and a chair – nothing else. A friend found her a discarded wooden orange box and this became her first cupboard. Quite a change from what she had known in England. It was another world for Dr. Fishman and she found it fascinating – a hospital in the desert and Beer-Sheva was something of a "wild West" town in those days.

In 1960 Dr. Fishman moved to the new Soroka Hospital, together with the transfer of the Pediatric Ward. She worked there until the end of 1961 and then moved to the Misrad Habriut as the assistant to Dr. Ben-Assa. Dr. Ben-Assa was a dedicated doctor working in an unusual field of medicine and she thought it would be very interesting and that she could do some pioneering and challenging work. Dr. Ben-Assa developed the service to the Bedouin. He was the Founding Father and they called him Abu Assa. In addition, Dr. Fishman worked in clinics outside Beer-Sheva including two days a week in Dimona at Tipat Halav. She was the first pediatrician in Arad, which she visited regularly for about ten years, and she also worked many years in Yeruham and later in the moshavim.

She was an employee at the Ministry of Health from 1961 until her retirement. She worked with the Bedouin for about 25 years. She also worked in all the "special" schools in Beer-Sheva, schools for handicapped children and schools for deaf children, the Niv School.

Dr. Fishman has written many papers on deaf children which have been published in many prestigious medical journals. Her mother was deaf and that is why this subject was so dear to her.

Dr. Fishman had an aversion to private medicine. She never considered monetary gain as one of the aspects of being a doctor. During the Six-Day War there was a shortage of doctors in Dimona and she went there working almost 24hrs a day.

On Independence Day, 26 April 1993, Dr. Fishman was presented with the Freedom (Key) of the City of Beer-Sheva (יקירת באר-שבע יום העצמאות, ה' באייר התשנ"ג).

In recognition of her work and contribution to the town and her voluntary work, the mayor of Beer-Sheva decided to name a street after her in the upcoming Calanit project in the town.

She was married the Dutch-born Max Kloos, who was amongst the first volunteers who came from abroad to fight in Israel War of Independence 1948, and then was one the very first people to settle in Beer-Sheva, where he worked as a teacher in the high school.
Cantor and composer. Born in London in 1839, Samuel de Sola was the youngest son of David Aharon de Sola. In 1863 he was elected to succeed his father as minister of the Bevis Marks Spanish and Portuguese Congregation. He composed a large number of melodies for the synagogue and home. His settings of YIGDAL and EN KELOHENU are currently in use. He died in London in 1866.
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Schlesinger, Miksa Max(imilian) (1822 -1881), physician, journalist and author, born in Kismarton (now Eisenstadt), Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Austria). He studied in the medical schools of the Universities of Prague and Vienna. Because of his participation in the revolutionary movement of 1848 when he propounded his ideas in a newspaper of his own and in several books, he was summoned before a court-martial at Vienna.

After the revolution he emigrated to Berlin and then moved to London, England. His book "Aus Ungarn" (1850, Leipzig) was published in two editions within one year; its English version, written by himself, aroused wide interest; in Italian it was published under the title of "Storia della Guerra in Ungheria" (Torino). Other books published by Schlesinger include: "Ein politisches ABC fuers Volk"; "Ein unentberlicher Fuehrer im constitutionellen Staat" (1848), and "Wanderungen durch London" (2 vol., 1852-53). His political satire, "Ein Ausgleich mit Ungarn", a one-act play, was performed in 1867 in Vienna, where he once stood before the military court.
Buechler (Büchler), Adolf (Adolph) (1867-1939), Talmudist, historian and theologian, born in Prjekopa, county of Turocz, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now in Slovakia). He received his early training from Rabbi I. Levy of Turocz Szent Marton, and afterwards at the rabbinical seminary of Budapest, where Wilhelm Bacher, David Kaufmann and Moritz Kayserling were his teachers at the same time studied in the department of philosophy of the university of Budapest under Ignác Goldziher and Moritz Kármán. He then studied for one year at the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, in Poland) under Heinrich Graetz and Israel Levy. He received his Ph.D. at Leipzig, Germany, for his dissertation "Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung der hebraischen Accente" [Research in the development of Hebrew accents] which was published (1891) by the Vienna Academy for Science.

In 1891 he was awarded his rabbinical diploma at the Budapest seminary, and the following year, 1892, he studied at Oxford, England, under his uncle, Adolf Neubauer. Here he published "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triannial Circle" (Jewish Quarterly Review, vols. 5, 1893, and 6, 1894). For a short time (1892-93) he officiated as assistant rabbi to Rabbi Meyer Kayserling, and Rabbi Samuel Kohn in the Dohany utca synagogue in Budapest, before he was appointed professor of Talmud and history at the newly founded Jewish Theological Seminary in Vienna (1893). While in Vienna he wrote his most important works demonstrating his vast knowledge and erudition in many branches of Jewish literature.

Buechler's most famous work is probably "Der galilaische Am-ha-Arez" (1906) [The simple man of Galillee], in which he demonstrated the extent of his Talmudic learning. Among other works Buechler wrote were: "Die Priester und Kultus im letzten Jahrzent des jerusalemischen Tempels" ,1895 [The priests and religious practices during the last years of the second Temple]. His "Das grosse Synhedrion in Jerusalem und das grosse Beth-din in der Quaderkammer des jerusalemischen Tempels" (ibid., 1902) [The Great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem and the great Rabbinical Court in the Jerusalem Temple] contained his theory of the two Sanhedrins. These works made him famous in the world of Jewish learning. His main theological work was "Studies in Sin and Atonement In the Rabbinic Literature of the First Century" (1928).

1906 he was appointed assistant principal of Jews' College, London. When the aged principal Dr. Michael Friedlander resigned the following year, Buechler succeeded him, continuing as principal until his death. He was never completely reconciled to the fact that at Jew's College men were being prepared for the ministry of the Anglo-Jewish Community and The British Jewish community did not always understand him.

Buechler knew Talmudic literature as thoroughly as any Eastern European Talmudist, and was at the same time a modern grammarian and Bible student to whom Christian scholars turned for guidance and information.
Music editor and writer. Born in Vienna, Austria, he studied in 1906-1910 with Arnold Schoenberg and worked as an opera conductor. In 1924-1938 he was the editor of the Universal Edition in Vienna. In 1938 he settled in London and joined the publishing house Boosey & Hawkes. Stein edited Schoenberg’s letters (German edition, 1958, English edition, 1964). He is the author of the books Orpheus in New Guises (1953) and Form and Performance (1962) and wrote numerous articles on music. He died in London, England.
Moiseiwitsch, Benno (1890-1963) , pianist. Born in Odessa, Ukraine, he won the Anton Rubinstein Prize at the Odessa Academy at the age of nine. Later he studied with Theodor Leschetizky in Vienna. Moiseiwitsch went to England with his family when he was a boy and in 1908, he made his debut there. From 1919 he was a frequent guest pianist with major European and American orchestras. He mastered a wide repertoire and was considered a noted interpreter of romantic music, especially of Chopin. He died in London, England.
Frankel, Leo (1844-1896), socialist, born into a wealthy German orientated family in Obuda (now part of Budapest), Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire), where his father was a doctor in the city’s shipyard. In 1861his family sent him to Germany to train as a goldsmith. However, Frankel became involved in the labour movement and in 1867 settled in Paris, France, as a reporter for the Viennese newspaper "Volkstimme".

In Paris he became an active socialist and was the leader of the German section of the First International. He was imprisoned by the French Imperial government for his political activities but was released on the outbreak of the 1870 revolution and helped to organize the uprising of the Paris Commune. In March 1871 Frankel was made minister of labor and commerce of the Commune, and on its overthrow two months later, fled to Switzerland and then London, England, where he became a member of the council of the Socialist International with responsibility for correspondence with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. In 1875 Frankel left for Austria, where he participated in the worker's conference at Wiener-Neustadt. He was arrested by the Austrian authorities in 1876 and was extradited to Hungary. There he helped to organize the workers’ movement in Hungary. He edited the German language "Arbeiter Wochen Chronik" and in 1880 founded the Hungarian General Labour Party. He was sent to prison in 1881 for infringing the press laws. On his release in 1882 he went back to Paris as Friedrich Engel's assistant in the Socialist International and in 1889 he represented the Hungarian Social Democrats at the inaugural conference of the Second Socialist International.

Frankel was in constant correspondence with Karl Marx, whom he much admired, but also became interested in Zionism as a result of meeting Theodor Herzl. After his death in London in 1896, French workers organized a campaign to raise funds for a memorial in his name which was subsequently erected in the Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris. In 1968 his remains were transferred to Budapest for reburial in the Workers' Pantheon.
Barnett, John Francis (1837-1916) , composer. Barnett was born in London and was the nephew of composer John Barnett. At the age of 12 he won the Queen’s award for his piano playing at the Royal Academy of Music. He completed his studies in Leipzig, Germany, and returned to England. In 1883, Barnett was appointed professor at the Royal College of Music in London.
Barnett wrote piano pieces, chamber music, orchestral works and choral cantatas. Most famous among his compositions are ANCIENT MARINER (1867, text: Coleridge) and EVE OF ST.AGNES (1913, text: Keats). He died in London, England.
Tabori, Paul (pen name Paul Tabor) (1908-1974), author and translator, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), the son of Kornel Tabori. He earned a Ph.D. from Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm University and graduated as a Doctor of Economic and Political Science at Pazmany Peter University. In 1937 he emigrated to England.

Tabori was the author of "Real Hungary" (2nd ed., 1941); "Nazi Myth; the Real Face of Third Reich" (1939); "A Wreath for Europe" (1942; published in England under the title "Epitaph for Europe"); "A Sneeze on a Monday" (1941); "Ragged Guard" (1942).

Tabori was also a translator of Zsolt Harsanyi's "Star-Gaser" (1939) and "Lover of Life" (with Willa and Edwin Muir, 1942). He translated from Norwegian Edvard Welle-Strand's "Fledgling Gull" (1941). He translated into Hungarian works of Theodore Dreiser, J. B. Priestley and Aldous Huxly. In 1943 he was living in London, where he edited an anthology of free Hungarian authors.

Tabori became a lecturer at several universities in the United States and received a medal from the municipality of Paris.
Braham, John 1774-1856) , tenor singer and composer. Born in London, England, Braham started his career as a choir boy at the Great Synagogue of London and later became a rather famous tenor. Although he abandoned Judaism, Braham collaborated with Isaac Nathan in the performance of his HEBREW MELODIES in 1815. In 1835 he built the St. James Theatre in London, an enterprise which soon failed economically. Braham tried to recover his losses by giving concerts in America. His last appearance in London took place on March 1852 when he was seventy-eight. Braham composed, among other things, the song THE DEATH OF NELSON. He died in London, England.
Hajek, Marcus (1861-1941), physician, born in Versecz, then part of Hungary (in the Austrian Empire, later in Yugoslavia, now Vrsac, in Serbia). He served in Vienna, Austria, as assistant in the Rudolf Hospital and the University Polyclinic. In 1898 he began to teach at the University of Vienna, and from 1919 to 1933 he was head of its famous Laryngological clinic.

Hajek developed a systematic and scientific approach in the diagnosis and treatment of sinus ailments based on anatomical and pathological studies. He devised many practical instruments, suggested a new method of operation on frontal sinusitis, and improved the technique of extralaryngeal operations for cancer of the larynx.

His works on the subject were translated into many languages. He was also for a time president of the Vienna Rhinolaryngological Society. In addition to numerous papers in learned periodicals, he published: "Die Tuberkulose der Naseschleimhaut" (Vienna, 1889); "Pathologie und Therapie der entzundlichen Erkrankungen der Nebenhohlen der Nase" (Leipzig and Vienna, 1899; 5th ed., 1926); "Siebbeinzellen und Keilbeinhohle" (Berlin, 1926); "Syphilis der Nase und der Nebenhohlen" (Berlin, 1928); "Syphilis der Mundhohle, des Rachens und des Nasenrachenraumes" (Berlin, 1928); "Pathologie und Therapie des Kehlkopfs, der Luftrohre und der Bronchien" (Vienna, 1932).

In 1939, after the annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany, he emigrated to London, England. Hajek married Gisela, the sister of the noted Viennese novelist, Arthur Schnitzler.
He died as a destitute refugee in London.
Pianist. Born in San Francisco, California, sister of pianist Yalta and violinist Yehudi Menuhin, she studied in San Francisco and later in Paris with Marcel Ciampi. She first performed in public in San Francisco in 1928. In 1934 she first appeared with her brother Yehudi in Paris, as she would in many recitals during the following years. In 1938 she settled in Australia. She died in London, England.
Cantor and composer. Born in Sieradz, Poland, he was cantor in Konin (1840), Nowy Dwor (1841-1854), Lomna (1854-1859) and Vilna (1859-1867). He introduced choral music to the Jewish synagogue service and in 1858 published SEFER SHIREI KODESH, which included his own compositions. In 1868 he began a long career as cantor of the North London Synagogue which ended in 1882. His voice was so good that he was offered a position to sing in the opera but refused on religious grounds. He died in London, England.
Pianist. Born in London, England, he studied at the Royal College of Music and made his debut in London in 1894. Until 1921 he appeared solely as an accompanist. His career began following a Bach recital he gave in London in 1921. Samuel became known as a Bach specialist for his new interpretations. He died in London.
Composer, conductor and pianist. Born in Kingston, Jamaica. As a child he was taken to England and studied music in Leipzig and Berlin. He first worked for a time as a pianist and composer, and then (1888-1892) took the position of conductor of the London Philharmonic. His compositions of light orchestral pieces include IN THE OLDEN TIME (1883) and THE BUTTERFLY’S BALL (1901). Cowen wrote biographies of Haydn, Mendelssohn and Mozart (1912), his memoirs My Art and My Friends (1913) and a book about musical terms entitled Music As She Is Wrote (1915). He died in London, England.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), psychoanalyst, born in Freiberg, Moravia (now Pribor, in the Czech Republic) as the third son of Jakob Freud, a Jewish wool merchant, and the first child of his second wife, Amalie Nathansohn. In 1859, the Freud family moved to Leipzig, Germany, but a year after, they settled in Vienna, the city where Sigmund Freud was to live for the next 78 years.

Freud graduated from the Sperl Gymnasium in 1873 and turned to medicine as a career studying at the University of Vienna. There he was in contact with Ernst von Brucke (1819-1892), a leading physiologist of his time. In 1882, Freud entered the General Hospital in Vienna as a clinical assistant and three years later was appointed lecturer in neuropathology.

Freud continued his studies of neuropathology at the Salpetriere clinic in Paris in 1885 under the guidance of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893). Freud's acquaintance with Charcot's theories and practice had a significant influence on his career helping him to concentrate his research on the mind as source of neurotic conditions rather than the brain. A short time after his return from Paris, Freud married Martha Bernays, a descendant of a famous Jewish family whose ancestors included Heinrich Heine and a chief rabbi of Hamburg.

Having settled at 19 Bergasse in Vienna, his home for more than fifty years, Freud began his collaboration with Josef Breuer (1842-1925). One of Breuer's patients, Bertha Pappenheim, or Anna O., as she is known in the psychoanalytical literature, was later instrumental in developing Freud's method of free association.

Freud's fame came with the publication in 1899 of The Interpretation of Dreams who proved to turn into one of the most influential works not only in the field of psychoanalysis, but also in many other scientific, cultural and artistic disciplines. His prolific career is illustrated by a long list of publications, among them the best known are "The Psychopathology of Everyday Life" (1904); "Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious"(1905); "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality"(1905); "The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis"(1910); "Beyond the Pleasure Principle" (1920); "The Ego and the Id" (1923). However, Freud also disclosed a keen interest in the field of sociology and social psychology, as proven by a number of significant essays: "Totem und Tabu"(1913); "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego"(1921); "The Future of an Illusion" (1927); "Civilization and Its Discontents"(1930); "Moses and Monotheism"(1938).

Freud was not a practicing Jew, but he never rejected his religion. In an interview with George Sylvester Viereck in 1926 and published a year later, Freud clearly stated his identity: "My language is German. My culture, my attainments are German. I considered myself German intellectually, until I noticed the growth of anti-Semitic prejudice in Germany and German Austria. Since that time I prefer to call myself a Jew."

Freud encountered many anti-Semitic incidents during his lifetime, but the worst occurred after the Nazis' seizure of power in Germany. Freud's books were denounced as "expressions of Jewish science" and were publicly burned as early as 1933. When Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938, Freud was forced to flee the country and with the help of friends settled in England. He died of cancer on September 23, 1939, three weeks after the outbreak of the World War II.

D'Aguilar, Diego (Moses/Moshe Lopez Pereira) (c.1699-1759), financier, community leader, born in Spain, descendant to a family of crypto-Jews. His father had a tobacco monopoly. Diego D’Aguilar was separated from his parents and sister during the childhood and baptised. He subsequently was ordained a Catholic priest and was employed as a financial expert by the Inquisition. One day his sister was caught practising Judaism, and sentenced to be burned at the stake. Her mother went to her son Bishop Diego D’Aguilar to beg for her daughter’s life. After she called him Moshe Lopez Pereira he recalled his childhood and left the palace. He did not succeed in helping his sister, and his mother died on their way to Vienna, Austria, where he had good connections with the Empress Maria Theresia.

At the age of 23 Diego d'Aguilar left for Vienna and returned to Judaism. In Austria he reorganized the monopoly of the tobacco business and headed it for sixteen years during which time he paid the state seven million florins per year. He was enobled as Baron d’Aguilar (1726),and named councilor to the throne. D'Aguilar and others raised large amounts of loans for the treasury (10 million florins, for 1732 alone) and helped the Empress Maria Theresia in rebuilding the Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna. D’Aguilar was very influential in the court and helped in Jewish problems: together with others he was instrumental in preventing the expulsion of Jews from Moravia and Prague in 1744. He also helped the Jews of Mantua, Italy, and Belgrade, in 1752, and collected funds for Eretz Israel. D’Aguilar was founding member of the Sephardi congregations in Vienna and Timisoara (now in Romania). After the Spanish government tried to put him on trial for returning to Judaism, he left with his large family (14 children) to London in 1757, where he was active in the local Sephardi community. He died two years later.
Kohn, Pinchas (1867-1941), orthodox rabbi born in Kleinerdlingen, Germany. He studied in the yeshiva of Rabbi Selig Auerbach. Kohn came from a rabbinical family from southern Germany. He was an admirer of Shimshon Raphael Hirsch, but was critical of his “neo-orthodoxy” and he was afraid that it would damage traditional orthodox Judaism. He became the rabbi of Mannheim, Germany, and in 1893 was appointed rabbi of Ansbach, Germany, and became editor of the "Juedische Monatshefte" magazine together with Dr. Salomon Breuer. In 1916 Kohn became the rabbinical advisor to the German occupying forces of Poland where he helped to organize the Hasidic Jews. He established for them a Rabbinical Association and a daily newspaper ("Doss Yiddische Vort"). This made the Hassidism a “religious” grouping in Poland and set them apart from the Zionists who wished to wished to have their nationalist identity recognized.

Kohn was instrumental in forming the Union of Orthodox Jews. This was renamed to Shlomei Emunei Yisroel (The faithful of Israel). At the third national congress of the party, in October 1928, the name of the party was changed to Agudat Israel. Kohn became executive president of the world Aguda movement and travelled throughout Europe persuading communities to open local branches of the organization. In 1939 he was rescued from Germany by his son-in-law, Ephraim Stefansky. He travelled to Palestine via London, where he died.
Gross, Alexander (1879-?), geographer, born as Alexander Grosz in Csurag, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). After studying at Budapest University, he went to London, England, in 1906 and became a British subject. In 1903 he took up map making. In 1910 he established Geographia, Ltd. in London and subsequently the Geographia Map Company in New York City in 1932. He was responsible for the preparation of many thousands of maps and was a pioneer in aviators' maps. In 1920 Gross edited and published the "Daily Telegraph Victory Atlas of the World" set new standards for atlas production. In 1920 Gross was made a freeman of the city of London, and became a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and of other scientific societies in England. He contributed maps (1940-1941) to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia.

In 1916 he published a beautiful Haggadah, the English translation for which was written by English poet Maurice Myers and illustrated in color by J. H. Amschewitz.
Herz-Sommer, Alice (1903-2014), pianist and music teacher, born in Prague, Czech Republic (then part of Austria-Hungary). A survivor of the Nazi Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, at the age of 110 was the world's oldest known Holocaust survivor and pianist.

Her parents, Friedrich Herz, a merchant, and Sofie, who was highly educated and moved in circles of well-known writers ran a cultural salon, and as a child Herz met writers, philosophers, and composers including Gustav Mahler and Franz Kafka.

Herz had a twin sister, Mariana, and two brothers. Herz's older sister Irma taught her how to play piano, which she studied diligently, and the pianist Artur Schnabel, a friend of the family, encouraged her to pursue a career as a classical musician; a choice she decided to make.She went on to study under Václav Štěpán, at the Prague German Music Conservatory where she was the youngest pupil. Herz married the businessman and amateur musician Leopold Sommer in 1931; the couple had a son, Stephan (later known as Raphael,1937–2001).

She began giving concerts and making a name for herself across Europe until the Nazis took over Prague, as they did not allow Jews to perform in public, join music competitions or teach non-Jewish pupils. After the Nazi invasion of Czechoslovaskia, most of Herz-Sommer's family and friends emigrated to Palestine, but Herz-Sommer stayed in Prague to care for her ill mother, Sophie, aged 72, who was arrested and killed. In July 1943 Herz was sent to Theresienstadt where she played in more than 100 concerts along with other musicians, for prisoners and guards. She commented that
“We had to play because the Red Cross came three times a year. The Germans wanted to show its representatives that the situation of the Jews in Theresienstadt was good. Whenever I knew that I had a concert, I was happy. Music is magic. We performed in the council hall before an audience of 150 old, hopeless, sick and hungry people. They lived for the music. It was like food to them. If they hadn’t come [to hear us], they would have died long before. As we would also have died."

Herz-Sommer was billeted with her son during their time at the camp, he was one of only a few children to survive Theresienstadt. Her husband died of typhus in Dachau in 1944, six weeks before the camp was liberated. After the Soviet liberation of Theresienstadt in 1945, Herz and Raphael returned to Prague and in March 1949 emigrated to Israel to be reunited with some of her family, including her twin sister, Mariana. Herz lived in Israel for nearly 40 years, working as a music teacher at the Jerusalem Academy of Music until moving to London in 1986. Her son Raphael, an accomplished cellist and conductor, died in 2001, aged 64, in Israel at the end of a concert tour. He was survived by his widow and two sons.

In London, Herz-Sommer lived close to her family in a one-room flat in London visited almost daily by her closest friends, her grandson Ariel Sommer, and daughter-in-law Genevieve Sommer. She practised playing the piano three hours a day until the end of her life. She stated that optimism was the key to her life.

A film about Herz-Sommer's life,"The Lady in Number 6" won the 2014 Academy Award for the Best Short Documenrary.
Reich, Emil (1854-1910), author and historian, born in Eperjes, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now Presov in Slovakia). He studied at the Universities of Prague, Budapest and Vienna, receiving a LL.D. degree from the latter. Up to the age of thirty he studied in various libraries. He spent five years in the United States, four years in France and several years in England (where he finally settled), studying in the institutions of those countries.

He lectured on philosophy and history at the Universities of London, Cambridge and Oxford. He was employed by the British government in the preparation of the British case in the Venezuela boundary affair.

Reich's numerous published books include: "History of Civilizations; Graeco-Roman Institutions" (Oxford lectures); "Hungarian Literature"; "Atlas of English History"; "Foundations of Modern Europe"; "Select Documents Illustrating Mediaeval and Modern History"; "Imperialism"; "The Failure of the Higher Criticism of the Bible"; "General History of Western Nations" (part 1, 3 vols., Antiquity); "Nights with the Gods" (1909). He was among the first to popularize the works of Henrik Ibsen in England.

E. Reich died in London where he had settled.
Russel, Henry (1812-1900) , singer and composer. Born in Sheerness, England, he studied singing in Italy and took a few lessons from Rossini in Naples. In 1833 he went to Canada and was for several years an organist for the First Presbyterian Church of Rochester, New York. In 1841 he was back in England, where he was demanded as a composer and singer of popular music. Among his many songs were the very popular Woodman, Spare That Tree, Old Arm Chair, Oh, Weep Not and A Life On The Ocean Wave. He died in London, England. He was the father of Henry Russel, the impressario, and Sir Landon Ronald, the composer and conductor.
Neubauer, Adolf Abraham (1831-1907), orientalist and bibliographer born in Nagybiccse, Hungary (then part of he Austrian Empire, now Bytča, Slovakia). In 1857 he went to Paris, France, and remained there until 1864, except for a period when he served in the Austrian consulate at Jerusalem and at the same time carried on his researches. In Paris he had the opportunity of examining the Imperial Library and of meeting such scholars as Salomon Munk and Ernest Renan.

In 1861 he began to publish scholarly articles in the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums" and in the "Journal Asiatique", including extracts from the works of David ben Abraham of Fez (10th cent.) which he had discovered in a Karaite synagogue in Jerusalem. In 1864 he was summoned to the Asiatic Museum at St. Petersburg, Russia, to examine the Karaite manuscripts collected by Fitkovich; the results of this investigations were published in his "Aus der Petersburger Bibliothek, Beitraege und Dokumente zur Geschichte des Karaeithums und der karaischen Literatur" (1866). He presented his prize-winning essay "La Geographie des Talmuds", (1868) to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres which in spite of some criticism (J. Morgenstern, Die Franzoesische Akademie und die "Geographie des Talmuds," 1870) has remained an important reference book. His "Notice sur la lexicographie hebraique" (1863), foreshadowing his edition of Jonah ibn Janah's "Sefer ha-Dikduk" (1875, 1968), with additions and corrections by W. Bacher, and "Melekhet ha-Shir" (1865), a collection of extracts from manuscripts concerning Hebrew poetry, belong to the same period.

In 1865 Neubauer settled in England, becoming librarian at the Bodleian Library, Oxford (1868), which he enriched by judicious purchases, particularly from the Cairo Genizah; in 1884 he was appointed reader in rabbinic Hebrew at the university. There he produced some of his finest work, cut short in 1899 by failing eyesight. His works there include "Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library" (3 vol., 1886-1906; the second was finished by A. E. Cowly), with over 2,500 entries; the third volume contains 40 facsimiles that illustrate Hebrew paleography of different countries and periods. He also prepared a "Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Jews' College" (1886). His "The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish interpreters" (vol. 1, texts, 1876; vol. 2, translations with S. R. Driver, 1877; repr. 1969) provided biblical scholarship with an anthology of Jewish reactions to Christological interpretations. He was the first to publish original Hebrew portions of Ben Sira as they were found in the Cairo Genizah together with the text of early versions, quotations of Ben Sira in rabbinical literature, and an English translation (with A. E. Cowly, 1897). His two volumes of "Medieval Jewish Chronicles" ("Seder ha-Hakhamim ve-Korot ha-Yamim", preface and notes in English, 1887-95, repr. 1967) collected texts of a number of Talmudic, geonic, and medieval historiographical writings.

The fruits of Neubauer's collaboration with Renan were two remarkable works of literary history: "Les rabbins francais du commencement du quatorzieme siecle" (1877) and "Les ecrivains juifs francais du XIVe siecle" (1893). Other editions of his include: "Vocabulaire hebraico-francais" (in: Romanische Studien, 2 (1975)), and "Petite Grammaire hebraique provenant de Yemen" (Arabic, 1891), as well as Talmudical and Rabbinical Literarure (in: Transaction of the philological Society, 1875-76).

Neubauer contributed many articles, notes, and book reviews to most of the learned Jewish (and many non-Jewish) periodicals of his time.

In 1901 he moved to Vienna to live with his nephew A, Buechler, and when the latter became principal of Jews' College, London, in 1906, he returned to London where he died shortly afterward.
Jacobs, Louis (1920-2006), rabbi, the first leader of “Masorati” or Conservative Judaism in the United Kingdom, and an important writer and thinker on Jewish philosophy. He was known as the focus of events in the early 1960s referred to as "The Jacobs Affair".

Jacobs studied at Manchester Yeshivah, and later at the kolel in Gateshead. Jacobs was ordained as an Orthodox rabbi at Manchester Yeshivah. Jacobs was appointed rabbi at Manchester Central Synagogue in 1948. In 1954 he was appointed to the New West End Synagogue in London. He became Moral Tutor at Jews' College, London, where he taught Talmud and homiletics. By this time Jacobs had distanced himself from traditional Jewish theology and tried to find a synthesis between Orthodox Jewish theology and modern day biblical criticism. He attempted to reconcile traditional Jewish concepts with modern thinking. His ideas about the subject were published in “We Have Reason to Believe”, published in 1957. It had been generally assumed that he would be appointed principal of Jews' College, but the then Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom, Israel Brodie, vetoed the appointment "because of his published views". The community newspaper, "The Jewish Chronicle", took up the issue and turned it into a cause célèbre. When Jacobs wished to return to his pulpit at the New West End Synagogue, Rabbi Israel Brodie also vetoed this appointment. A number of members then left the New West End Synagogue to found the New London Synagogue, which became the "parent" synagogue of the Masorti movement in the United Kingdom. While holding the position of rabbi at the New London Synagogue, Jacobs was also for many years Lecturer in Talmud and Zohar at the Leo Baeck College, a rabbinical college preparing students to serve as Masorti, Reform and Liberal rabbis in the UK and Europe. Jacobs served as Chairman of the Academic Committee for some years.
Benedict, Sir Julius (1804-1885) , composer, conductor and writer. Born in Stuttgart, Germany, he studied with, among others, Hummel and Weber. Benedict began his career as a conductor in Vienna (1823-1825) and in Naples. In 1835 he settled in London and became music director of the Opera Buffa at the Lyceum Theater. Although he converted to Protestantism in 1826 he composed music for the inauguration of the first British Reform Synagogue (Psalm 84, 1840). Benedict was music diretor of the Norwisch Festivals in 1845-1878 and the Liverpool Philharmonic Society in 1876-1880. He was knighted in 1871.
Benedict’s works include cantatas, 2 symphonies and 2 piano concertos. Among the operas he composed is THE LILY OF KILLARNEY (premiered at Covent Garden, 1862). He wrote biographies of Felix Mendelssohn (1853) and Carl Maria von Weber (1881). He died in London, England.
Laszlo, Philip Alexus de Lombos (born Fülöp Elek Laub) (1869-1937), painter, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He was awarded a five year scholarship to the Graphic School of Budapest which enabled him to study in Budapest under the guidance of Bertalan Szekely and Karoly Lotz. He also studied at the Academy of Munich, Germany, under Alexander Liezen-Mayer, and at Julian's of Paris, France, under Lafebre and Benjamin Constant.

While a student in Budapest, Laszlo exhibited his first picture, the portrait of a child (1888). In Munich he won two silver medals, and in Paris, in 1891, his genre picture, "The Tale", won the award of the Friends of Art, Budapest. His first major exhibit took place in Budapest in 1896. However, his career had received a decisive turn already in 1894, when a firm of Budapest art publishers obtained a commission for him to paint the portraits of the king, queen and Patriarch of Bulgaria. The skill he demonstrated in this assignment won him similar orders from many other princes and rulers. He won a gold medal and the favor of William II of Germany for his portrait of Prince Hohenloh-Schillingsfuerst, exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1899. An exhibit in Berlin in 1900 established him as the portrait painter of German aristocracy and ruling princes. Gold medals were awarded to him in Budapest (two ladies' portraits, 1897 and 1900), Venice (portrait of Pope Leo XIII, 1900) and Vienna (portrait of Cardinal Rampolla, 1902). In 1903, the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I sat for him for a portrait.

Laszlo settled in London, England, in 1907. He painted portraits of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra (1907), of the US President Theodore Roosevelt (1908) and of Wilhelm II of Germany (1908 and 1910). On the occasion of his exhibit at Berlin in 1909, the critics pointed out that his easy way of painting avoided grappling with problems. These same qualities endeared him to the public, and he continued to be the portrayer of international aristocracy. His later portraits included those of the king and queen of Spain and of the Italian Fascist Dictator Benitto Mussolini.

Laszlo continued to be awarded honors and distinctions until the end of his life. In 1909 the Uffizi Galleries of Florence, Italy, solicited his self portrait for their collection. In 1910 he was made a member of the Victorian Order. In 1912 Hungarian nobility was conferred upon him. Two years later, at the outbreak of World War I, he was naturalized in Great Britain. Laszlo was the recipient of gold medals at exhibits in Munich, Duesseldorf, St. Louis and Barcelona in 1911, and in Budapest in 1912. In 1912 he was awarded a diplome d'honneur in Amsterdam and in 1930 a Grand Prix in Barcelona, Spain. Decorations were bestowed upon him by most of the ruling houses of Europe. He was an honorary member of the Royal Society of British Artists and professor of the Royal Art School.

In 1925 Laszlo exhibited a large collection of works at Knoedler Galleries, New York. Several European museums possess paintings by Laszlo, including the Museum of Fine Arts at Budapest, the picture gallery of the University of Oxford, the Institute of Fine Arts at Glasgow, the Musee du Luxembourg at Paris and the Modern Gallery at Rome. At some point in his career Laszlo converted to Christianity.
Rabbi, communal leader and theologian

He was born in Leszno (May 23, 1873), where his father, Samuel Baeck, a noted scholar, was rabbi. He received his rabbinical diploma from the Liberal seminary in Berlin (1897) and then served as rabbi in Oppeln and Duesseldorf. Returning to Berlin in 1912, he was rabbi and lecturer in the Liberal seminary. During World War I Baeck served as chaplain in the German army and after the war became chairman of the national association of German rabbis. He courageously represented the community before the authorities despite being arrested on two occasions. He wrote The Essence of Judaism, a polemical reaction to Harnack's Essence of Christianity. He saw the core of Judaism as morality and upheld its superiority over Christianity. In the inter-War years he was chairman of the national association of rabbis and of B'nai B'rith. When Hitler came to power, Baeck was appointed to represent the community before the authorities. He turned down invitations to emigrate, insisting that his position was to remain at the head of the community, which he served with dignity and courage. In 1943 he was deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto and, as one of the leaders of its council, helped to bolster the morale of the inmates. After liberation he moved to London, where he was chairman of the World Union of Progressive Judaism. He was revered as a saintly symbol of spiritual resistance to the Holocaust.
Leo Baeck passed away in London on November 2, 1956.
Conductor. Born in London, England, son of the composer Henry Russell, he conducted at the Covent Garden Opera House in 1894. After a period of conducting musical comedies he became primarily a symphony conductor, specializing in Elgar’s music. He also composed songs and incidental music. Ronald taught at the Guildhall School of Music between 1910-1937. In 1922 he was knighted. He died in London.
Tauber, Richard (1892-1948), tenor, born in Linz, Austria, as Ernst Seiffert. He studied at the Frankfurt Conservatory. Following his successful debut in Chemnitz, Germany, he worked in 1913 at the Dresden Opera. In 1915 he appeared in Salzburg with the Berlin State Opera, and on other distinguished stages in Berlin, Vienna and Munich. From around 1925 he abandoned classical opera and turned to operettas (mainly by Franz Lehar) and musical films. His debut in America took place in 1931. In 1933 Tauber settled in England and appeared at Covent Garden. He composed the operetta "Old Chelsea" (1942) which was first performed at Covent Garden in 1947 with Tauber as producer and soloist. He died in London, England.

לאופולד פיליכובסקי (1869 - 1933), צייר יהודי, נולד ליד שייראדז', פולין. למד אמנות בוורשה, באקדמיה לאמנויות במינכן והמשיך באקדמיה יוליאן בפריס. לאחר סיום לימודיו התגורר בלודז'. ב-1904 עבר להתגורר בפריס וב-1914 התיישב בלונדון.
פיליכובסקי צייר בעיקר ציורי שמן. צייר דיוקנאות ריאליסטיים, נופי כפר ותמונות על נושאים יהודיים. תמך בתנועה הציונית. אחד מציוריו מתאר את טקס פתיחת האוניברסיטה העברית על הר הצופים בירושלים ב - 1925.

Korda, Alexander Sir (1893-1956), film producer, born in Kisujszallas, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He studied at schools in Budapest and worked for Hungarian newspapers. In 1915, he became a stagehand in a Budapest film studio and started to write and direct films. He was the founder and director in chief of Corvin, a Hungarian film production company. After World War I, he went to Vienna, Rome, and Berlin, and then in 1926, to Hollywood, USA. He shared the fame of the name Korda with his first wife, Maria Farkas, whom he married in 1919, and who, as Maria Korda, was a star of many pictures produced by Alexander Korda. He converted to Christianity.

On his return to Europe, Korda was engaged in production in the sound film studios of Paramount, in France. In 1929, he settled in London, England, and sprang to fame when he made "The Private Life of Henry VIII" in 1933, an enormously successful film that introduced Charles Laughton and Merle Oberon (who became Korda's second wife). He founded London Film Productions Ltd. in 1932, became a director of United Artists in 1933, and founded Alexander Korda Film Productions in 1939. He restored the British film industry to a position of excellence. The stage settings for his pictures were arranged by his brother, the painter Vincent Korda. During the 1930s, Korda produced a number of memorable movies including "Catherine the Great" (1934), "The Scarlet Pimpernel" (1935), and "Rembrandt" (1936). In 1942 he sold his interest in United Artists and became manager of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's London operations. Later films include: "The Third Man" (1950) and "Richard III" (1955). Korda produced 112 films. He received British citizenship and was knighted for his services to the British film industry in 1942.
Milstein, Nathan (1904-1992) , violinist. Born in Odessa, Ukraine, he studied with Auer (in St. Petersburg) and Ysaye (in Brussels). He made his debut in 1914. After the revolution he toured Russia with Vladimir Horowitz and Gregor Piatigorsky. From 1925 he lived in Berlin and in 1929 he settled in the USA. Milstein undertook numerous concert tours. He also composed variations for solo violin and cadenzas for concertos he played. He died in London, England.
Canetti, Elias (1905-1994), author, essayist, dramatist, Nobel Prize laureate, born in Russe (Rustschuk), Bulgaria, into a Sephardi Jewish family. His mother tongue was Ladino.

In 1911 the family immigrated to Manchester, England. Following the untimely death of his father in 1912, his mother moved with her three small sons to Vienna, Austria. Canetti attended the Realgymnasium in Zurich, Switzerland, from 1916 to 1921. His first literary work, "Junius Brutus", was produced in Zurich. In 1921 the family settled in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, where Canetti graduated the upper secondary school in 1924. In the same year he returned to Vienna and started to study chemistry at the University of Vienna earning a Ph.D. in chemistry in 1929.

In Vienna Canetti was strongly influenced by various literary circles, especially by the writer and critic Karl Kraus. Consequently his primary interest turned to literature, and his first outline for a book was about crowd psychology (1925). The burning down of the Palace of Justice of Vienna by angry protesters in 1927, had a major impact on his future works. Most of them focus on problems of the masses, power, death, and human madness.

In 1928-1929 Elias traveled to Berlin, where he met various influential artists and intellectuals, including Isaak Babel, Bertold Brecht and George Grosz. In 1930, Canetti started to work on his novel "Die Blendung" that was published in 1935, in 1932 he published his play "Hochzeit" ("The Marriage") and in 1934 "Komodie der Eitelkeit" (‘The Comedy of Vanity"). In the 1930s Canetti translated works by the American writer Upton Sinclair into German.

Following the Anschluss in 1938, Canetti fled with his wife Venetia (Veza) Taubner-Calderon (1897-1963) to Paris, France, and a year later they immigrated to England. Elias Canetti lived most of his life in London, nevertheless he continued to write in German and did not actively associate with English writers, or with other German language colleagues.

In 1941 Canetti was a co-signer of Declaration of Austrian Organization in the UK. In 1946 C. V. Wedgwood published his "Auto-da-Fe", the English translation of "Die Blendung".
In 1956 the premiere of his play "Die Befristeten" (‘Their Days are Numbered’) took place in Oxford. His "Aufzeichnungen 1942-1948" ("Sketches") were published in 1965. As a writer, Canetti did not draw much attention until his best-known work "Masse und Macht" was published in Hamburg in 1960, and appeared in English as "Crowds and Power" in 1962.

Canetti was a member of Academy of Arts, Berlin, and the Bavarian Academy of fine Arts; he received "Prix International"; Literary Prize from the City of Vienna (1966); "Grosser Oesterreichisher Staatspreis" (1968); "Georg Buechner Prize" (1977), and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1981.

Canetti's literary production include "Die Stimmen von Marrakesch" (1968) (‘The Voices from Marrakesh’, English tr. 1978); "Der Andere Process. Kafkas Briefe an Felice" (1969) ("Kafka’s Other Trial", tr. 1974); "Die Provinz des Menschen. Aufzeichnungen 1942-1972" (1973) ("The Human Province", 1978); "Der Ohrenzeuge, Funfzig Charaktere" (1974) ("Ear Witness: Fifty Characters", tr. 1979); "Das Gewissen der Wort. Essays" (1975) ("The Conscience of Words"); "Die Gerettete Zunge. Geschichte einer Jugend" ("The Tongue Set Free" tr. 1979); "Die Fackel in Ohr. Lebensgeschichte 1921-1931" (1980) ("The Torch in my Ear", tr. 1982); "Das Augenspiel. Lebensgeschichte 1931-1937" (1985) (‘The Plat of the Eyes", 1990); "Das Geheimhen der Uhr. Aufzeichnungen" 1973-1985 (1987) ("The Secret Heart of the Clock", tr. 1989); "Die Fliegenpein, Aufzeichnungen" (1992) ("Pain of Flies: Notes").
Traveler

He was born in Falticeni where he engaged in the lumber trade, losing a fortune when he was still only 25. He then fell under the influence of the medieval traveler, Binyamin of Tudela, and styling himself Binyamin II set out in 1845 to seek the Lost Ten Tribes. He journeyed widely through the Middle East, Asia (as far as China) and North Africa. Like his predecessor, wherever he went he assembled information on the Jewish communities. Binyamin described his experiences in a volume written in Hebrew but first published in French in 1856. In 1859 he started a three years journey through the United States which he also described in a book. He died in poverty in London while preparing another journey to the Far East.
Weiss, Bernhard (1880-1951), jurist and vice-president of Berlin police until the establishment of the German Nazi state, born in Berlin, Germany. Weiss studied law at the University of Berlin, University of Freiburg i.B., Germany, University of Wuerzburg, Germany, earning a doctorate in law. In 1908 he was commissioned as an officer in the Royal Bavarian Army, in WW1 he was promoted captain and was awarded the Iron Cross First Class. His three brothers and cousin also fought in the war, one was killed and another seriously injured.

Weiss made a name as an exceptionally efficient lawyer and judge before being the first Jew to enter the Home Service of pre-Weimar Gemany. He was appointed Deputy Chief of the Berlin Criminal Police in 1918, and became its head in 1925, then he was appointed Vice President of the Berlin police force in 1927. Dr Drews, the minister who appointed him said in 1932, when Weiss’s government career was ending, that “when we decided to appoint for the Home Service a Jew who was not baptized, we knew that the first had to be the best. It was you I chose and I am glad to say that you lived up to our expectations”. Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and then Vice-Chancellor when Adolf Hitler came to power, had Weiss and his superior arrested, albeit for one day only.

While in office, Weiss was the target of a constant campaign of vilification organized by Joseph Goebbels who nicknamed Weiss “Isidore” and the Weimar Republic as “The Jews Republic”. Weiss sued Goebbels for libel and won his case. Goebbels did not refrain and Weiss was not intimidated so in the end Weiss sued Goebbels over 40 times. The name of Dr. Weiss is clearly associated with the history of the Weimar Republic. From the days when he produced evidence of the subversive activities of the Russian trade delegation in Berlin to the hunt for the murderers of Walter Rathenau, the Jewish industrialist and politician who served the Weimar governments in several capacities including that of Foreign Minister in 1922, or in the struggles against the Communists and the Nazis alike Weiss was in the forefront of the efforts to preserve democracy in Germany.

Weiss finally decided to flee Germany a just few days before Hitler was made Chancellor. When his police force was ordered to arrest Weiss and Hermann Goering had offered to pay a reward for anyone who assisted in his capture, a friend drove him out of the country to Czechoslovakia. He then went to England where he opened a printing and stationery business and lived out the remainder of his life. After World War II he applied for his German nationality, of which he had been stripped in 1933, to be restored, he planned to go back and live in Berlin. On the way to a London hospital, a few days before he died of cancer, he was informed that his request for the restoration of his Germany nationality had been granted . Weiss died at the age of 71 in London.

"He was a man of extremes, a Jew imbibed with Prussian virtues, small of stature, large in responsible behavior and a staunch Democrat," wrote Uwe Dannenbaum in the "Die Welt" newspaper to mark the naming of the forecourt at the Friedrichstrasse Station in Berlin after the former police chief . The movie picture "The Man who Drove Goebbels" (2005) by Reiner Mathias Brueckner portrays Weiss as a resolute defender of the republican order. In 2007 the German Federation of Jewish soldiers started to award in his honour a medal for fellow Germans who had worked for understanding and tolerance.
Pianist. Born in Odessa, Ukraine. In 1922 his family immigrated to the United States and he began his studies at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia. Cherkassy made his first public appearance when he was eleven years old. Five years later, he performed in Australia, Europe and South Africa. In 1939 he settled in Paris. Cherkassky mastered a wide repertoire of music ranging from the 18th to the 20th century and was especially successful with works by Liszt and Rachmaninoff.
Bergson, Michael (1820-1893) , composer and pianist. Born in Warsaw, Poland, he is the father of the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Michael Bergson studied piano in Dessau and in Berlin. In 1863 he became teacher at the Geneva Conservatory which he then directed until 1873, when he settled in London. There he compiled and edited synagogue music.
Bergson composed, among other works, the opera LUISA DI MONFORT (1847), the operetta QUI VA A LA CHASSE, PERD SA PLACE (1859) and the popular SCENA ED ARIA, still frequently performed by military bands. He also composed numerous piano pieces (POLONAISE HEROIQUE, 12 GRANDES ETUDES CARACTERISTIQUES) and a manual. He died in London.
Cellist and composer. Born in Verona, Italy. He spent the 1740s in England, performing in London, and was among the group of Italians who introduced the cello as a solo instrument. Cervetto composed many chamber pieces for the cello. He died in London, England, when he was over a hundred years old. His son, James, was also a cellist and composer.
While still a young man, he was invited by Rabbi Israel Salanter to be his successor in teaching the younger students in Kovno. In 1874 he was appointed rabbi and yeshiva head at Kelme and won a reputation as one of the outstanding scholars in Lithuania. In 1884 he became rabbi of Tels (Telsiai) and head of its yeshiva which, after the closing of Volozhin, had become the leading institution of its kind in Lithuania. Gordon was one of the first rabbis in Lithuania to introduce the study of musar (ethics) into the yeshiva curriculum, following the initiative of Salanter. He was also deeeply involved in the Russian community, participating in assemblies and active in defending Jewish rights. He was a founder of the Keneset Israel organization, a forerunner of Agudat Israel. In 1910 his yeshiva was destroyed ina fire and Gordon died and was buried in London where he had gone on a fundraising mission.
Blau, Joel (1878-1927), rabbi and essayist, born in Abaujszanto, Hungary (then part of Austro-Hungary). He studied at yeshivot in his hometown and in Pozsony (Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia), as well as universities in the USA. Blau, a descendant of a long line of rabbis, was an outstanding student and was awarded the title of Morenu (equivalent to D.D.) at the age of eighteen.

After a brief sojourn in England, he immigrated to the United States in 1905 and was appointed rabbi in Charleston, SC. Shortly afterwards he enrolled at the University of Cincinnati and then at the Hebrew Union College, graduating from both institutions in 1908.

Blau held the positions of rabbi in Temple Emanuel, Brooklyn, B'nai Yeshurun, New York, and later in Rochester, NY, and in Trenton, NJ. From 1920 to 1925 he was rabbi of Temple Peni El in New York, and at the same time he was instructor for Midrashic Literature and Homiletics at the Jewish Institute of Religion. In 1925 he was elected Senior Minister of the West London Synagogue, England, where he served till the end of his life.

Blau was considered a fervent preacher, his article "Cry of the Modern Pharisee" (Atlantic Monthly, 1921) aroused widespread comment.
Koestler, Arthur (1905-1983), author born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), and educated in Austria and Germany. He was probably the most cosmopolitan of 20th century European writers, changing his language from Hungarian to German at the age of 17, and from German to English at the age of 35. In 1926, Koestler went to Palestine where for three years he was correspondent for a German publisher and a foreign correspondent for German newspapers. He then returned to Europe and in 1931 was the only journalist on board the "Graf Zeppelin" during its Arctic expedition. He joined the Communist party in the same year and visited the U.S.S.R. during 1932-1933, but abandoned the party at the height of the Stalinist purges of 1936-1938. This disillusionment was described in a contribution to "The God that Failed" (1949).

Koestler's revulsion against the inhuman judicial processes of the age was expressed in the novel "Darkness at Noon" (1940), generally regarded as his best work and as one of the great political novels of the 20th century. It was later adapted for the stage. It tells the story of an old Bolshevik, Rubashov, arrested by the Soviet secret police and forced to confess to crimes which he did not commit. The story describes a strange psychological inversion which leads him to accept and acknowledge the justice of the charges leveled against him, knowing that the evidence produced is false. During the Spanish Civil War Koestler was in Spain, and in 1837, while reporting the war for the "London News Chronicle", he was captured and his "Spanish Testament" (1938) describes his hundred days in Fraco's jails and the commutation of his death sentence to a term of imprisonment. In 1940 he volunteered for the French army and edited the weekly "Zukunft". Aftrer the French defeat he moved to England. He was interned for some time and held as a suspect, but after his release he fought with the British and became correspondent of "News Chronicle".

More of his works include "The Gladiators" (1939); "Darkness at Noon" (1940); "Arrival and Departure" and "Yogi and the Commissar" (1945). An interest in the problem of the Jews in Mandatory Palestine was a natural outcome of Koestler's years there during the 1920s. His novel "Thieves in the Night" (1946) documents the Arab-Jewish conflict during the period before British withdrawal, when the Jewish underground movements incurred official wreath for their involvement in "illegal immigration" and "terrorism". Though obviously sympathetic to the Zionist cause, Koestler directs a streak of irony at the mixture of religious mysticism and practical socialism which to his mind, animated the settlers in the kibbutzim, Koestler returned to Eretz Israel for a brief visit during the War of Independence in 1948, and his "The God that Failed" (1949) and "Promise and Fulfillment; 1917-49" (1949) surveys the era of the Mandate and the emergence of the State of Israel. After the establishment of the State, Koestler maintained that the Jews in the Diaspora were left with two choices: emigration to Israel, or total assimilation. He himself opted for the latter.

Koestler's works range from novels on political and ethical problems to polemical essays and autobiography. His rejection of various ideologies, the outcome of a disappointed idealism led him to probe the workings of modern society and the rise of totalitarian movements, which enslaved men, repressed their individualism, and threatened to destroy the striving for a nobler social and metaphysical order. His books include: a volume of essays: "The Age of Longing" (1951), a political novel; two volumes of autobiography entitled "Arrow in the Blue" (1952) and "The Invisible Writing" (1954); "Reflection on Hangings" (1956); "The Sleepwalkers" (1959), a history of man's changing vision of the universe; "The Lotus and the Robot" (1960); "Hanged by the Neck" (1961), "The Act of Creation" (1964); a philosophical work, "The Ghost in the Machine" (1967); "Scum of the Earth" (1868); "The roots of Coincidence" (1972), and "Life After Death" (1976). Arthur Koestler committed suicide with his third wife in 1983.
Musicologist. Born in Apolda, Germany, he became assistant to August Kretzschmar at the Berlin Institute of Musicology and, from 1918 until 1933, critic of a daily in Leipzig. Aber settled in London in 1936 and joined the publishing house Novello.
Among Aber’s writings are studies to J.S.Bach’s piano concertos (1913), Handbook of Music Literature (1922), Music Instruments and their Language (1924), Music at the Theater – History and Aesthetics (1926), short biographies of Bach, Beethoven and Brahms and numerous articles. Died in London, England.
Bornfriend, Jacob (born Jakub Bauernfreund) (1904-1976), painter, born in Zborov, Slovakia (then part of the Austria-Hungary, later in Czechoslovakia), one of seven children of a poor Jewish family. He spent his early years in Ostrava, Czech Republic, and Bratislava, Slovakia, where he worked as a retoucher of pictures.

He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague in 1929. In 1939 he immigrated to England and changed his name from Bauernfreund to Bornfriend. He spent four years working in factories before he could return to painting.

Bornfriend painted in oils, pastel, gouache, collage and worked in the graphic arts. He was a well respected artist within the Jewish Community. His style was basically expressionist, influenced to some extent by cubism. His first Solo Exhibition in London took place in 1950. He also exhibited at Prague, and Gothenbeg, Sweden.
Violinist. Born in Iassi, Romania, he studied at the Vienna Conservatory and made his debut at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig in 1879. In 1881 Rose was appointed concertmaster of the Vienna Opera and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, a position he held until 1938 when he was forced to leave Austria for England. He also taught at the Vienna State Academy until 1924. In 1882 he founded the Rose String Quartet whose cellist was his brother, Eduard Rose, who later perished in the Holocaust. The Rose String Quartet gained fame and enjoyed great success both in Europe and the United States. Rose was married to Gustav Mahler’s sister, Justine. He died in London, England.
Vogel, Julius (1835–1899), the eighth prime minister of New Zealand and the only practising Jewish prime minister of that country, born and educated in London, England. Vogel immigrated to Australia in 1852 becoming editor of several newspapers on the goldfields. In 1861 he moved to Otago, New Zealand, where he become a journalist for the "Otago Witness". The same year he founded the "Otago Daily Times" and became its first editor.

In Vogel's vision New Zealand was a potential 'Britain of the South Seas', strong both in agriculture and in industry, and inhabited by a large and flourishing population.

Vogel first became involved in politics in 1862, winning election to the provincial council of Otago. Four years later became the head of the provincial government, a post which he held until 1869. In 1863 he was elected a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, and on retiring from the provincial government in 1869 he joined the government as Colonial Treasurer, afterward becoming successively Postmaster-General, Commissioner of Customs, and Telegraph Commissioner.

Vogel was premier from 1873 to 1875 and again in 1876. From 1876 to 1881, he was Agent-General for New Zealand in London, and in 1884 he was again a member of the government of the colony. His administration is best remembered for the issuing of bonds to fund railway construction and other public works.

During his political career, Vogel worked generally successfully for reconciliation with the Maori people. In 1887, he introduced the first women's suffrage Bill to Parliament, but suffrage was not granted until 1893. He was knighted in 1875. He finally gave up colonial office in 1887, from which date he lived in England.

Vogel is best remembered for is his "Great Public Works” scheme of the 1870s. Before 1870, New Zealand was a country largely dominated by provincial interests. After Vogel, as colonial treasurer, proposed borrowing the massive sum of 10 million pounds, New Zealand developed significant infrastructure of roads, railways and communications networks, all administered by a central government.

Vogel was also the first New Zealander to write a science-fiction novel: "Anno Domino 2000" published in 1889. It anticipated a utopian world where women held many positions of authority. On his death in 1899 Vogen was buried in London.
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LONDNER, LONDONER

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. Londner, in which the German/Yiddish suffix "-er" means "of/from", could be associated with the city of London. London, the capital of England and Great Britain, had a Jewish community since the 11th century. In some cases London as a Jewish family name is a transformation of the Hebrew title Lamdan, which means "scholar". Londoner is a German variant, and Londynski a Slavic form, in which the suffix "-ski" means "of/from" or "son of". London is recorded as a Jewish family name with the Lithuanian-born author, translator and bookseller, Solomon Zalman Ben Moses London (1661-1748). In the 20th century, Londner is documented as a Jewish family name with Wilhelm Londner of Hannover, northern Germany, who was deported to the Nazi death camp at Majdanek in 1941.
LONDON, LONDONER, LONDNER

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. In some cases London is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. This surname is associated with London, capital of England and Great Britain, a city which had a Jewish community since the 11th century. As a Jewish family name, London is in some cases a variant of Lamdan, the Hebrew for "scholar". Londner is a German/Yiddish variant, and Londynski a Slavic form. London is recorded as a Jewish family name with the Lithuanian-born author, translator and bookseller, Solomon Zalman ben Moses London (1661-1748). Other distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name London include the Polish-born American lawyer, socialist leader and congressman Meyer London (1871-1926), the Czech Communist statesman, Artur London (1915-1986), and the 20th century Norwegian organization executive, Ben Robert London.
Duration:
00:01:48

 Kaddish ("Consecration" - Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

The half kaddish preceding Barechu in the evening and morning services for Shabbat and festivals provides the hazzan with an opportunity to step outside the characteristic recitative style. In former centuries he would have been expected to compose his own setting for the text. Today that custom has given way to having him select two melodies (one for Yitgadal and the other for Yehe Shemeh Raba and Barechu) appropriate to the occasion from a large and varied repertoire of tunes, many of which date back to the early eighteenth century or before.

Yitgadal ("Magnified" - in Hebrew)
This melody was brought to the London community from Amsterdam by hazzan Joseph Gomes de Mesquita (born 1878), hazzan of the Bevis Marks Synagogue in London between 1914 and 1948. It is sung in the evening or morning service on Shabbat Rosh Chodesh (new moon) or Shabbat Chol HaMo'ed (intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot). In the evening service, the hazzan begins by repeating the closing words of psalm 93, which precedes the Kaddish. The version here is based on hazzan Mesquita's own rendition, transcribed in 1957 by Jacob Hadida, the choirmaster of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation in London (1933-1937 and 1945-1954). It offers a good illustration of the fluidity of an oral tradition, in that there are clear deviations both from the style of Amsterdam (where it is also the setting for the Sabbath table song Tom Ze LeYisrael) and from the current practice in London roughly a half-century later. In New York it is used as a setting for a table song but not for the Kaddish.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:00:58

Yimloch Adonay Le'Olam ("The Lord Shall Reign for Ever" - in Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

This verse (psalm 146:10) is sung responsively by the hazzan and the congregation before the start of the procession to return the Sefer Torah to the ark after the Shabbat morning reading. Variants are known throughout Spanish and Portuguese tradition. The version here is based on that of the London community.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:03:16

Mizmor LeDavid ("A Psalm for David" - in Hebrew, Book of Psalms 29)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

This setting of Psalm 29 is by Rabbi Benjamin Artom (1835-1879) Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation in London. It is one of two pieces by him that are currently in use, the other is a melody for Adon Olam. The two pieces have a similar structure and reflect trends in early 19th century Italian opera. This melody is known only in the London community, where it is sung on festive Sabbaths and holidays while the Sefer Torah is being returned from the reading desk to the ark. The procession is meticulously timed to ensure that the scroll arrives at its destination just as the closing words of the psalm are sung.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:04:45

Adon Olam ("Lord of the Universe" - in Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

In the Spanish and Portuguese tradition this well known piyyut concludes the service on sabbath and festival mornings, its author is unknown this recording presents a medley of five melodies from the repertoires of the communities of Amsterdam, London, and New York.

Adon Olam / Le'et Na'asa - this couplet is sung to a melody composed by David A. De Sola (1796-1860) the "Learned hazzan" of the Bevis Marks synagogue in London. One of the most widely known musical settings of this piyyut, it is sung in all Spanish and Portuguese Jewish communities as well as in many other synagogues. This recording incorporates the coda that appears in the original score but is omitted from most borrowed versions of the melody.

Ve'Acharey Kichlot HaKol / VeHu Haya - this melody, from congregation Shearith Israel, New York is a variant of a traditional Yigdal melody.

Vehu Echad / Beli Reshit - this is another melody from congregation Shearith Israel, New York. It has no counterpart in the other communities.

Beli Erech / Beli Chibur - this traditional melody from the Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam is often used on festivals. It is also used in that congregation for the Bakkashah Avarech et Shem Adonay (I will bless the name of the lord). The melody is unknown in London but has a close variant in the New York repertoire. (The Beli Chibur couplet is not found in the version of this piyyut used in the Ashkenazi rite.)

Vehu Eli / Vehu Nisi - this Amsterdam melody is the original setting for Todot El (Thanks to God). A piyyut sung as a sabbath table song and a pizmon for Simchat Torah in both New York and Amsterdam. A variant of this melody was known in London in D. A. De Sola's time, but has fallen into disuse.

Beyado / Ve'Im Ruchi - the final couplet returns to the De Sola melody used for the first couplet.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:01:28

Uva LeTsiyon Go'el ("And a Redeemer Shall Come to Zion" - in Hebrew, Isaiah 59:20-21)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

This melody is sung in the afternoon service on Shabbat and festivals. Although its origins can be traced to the Sabbatean messianic frenzy in mid-seventeenth century Amsterdam, there are conflicting accounts of its genesis. One claim, based on the declarative setting of the opening phrase, "And a redeemer will come to Zion," is that it was introduced by the supporters of Shabbetai Zevi (1626-1676) in the Netherlands. The counter-claim is that it was introduced after Shabbetai's apostasy, as an emphatic statement that the redeemer has yet to come. This recording is based on the version of the Spanish and Portuguese community of London.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:02:09

Yedey Rashim ("Too Feeble and Poor" - in Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

This piyyut, like its sister composition Yah Shimcha Aromimcha (both by Judah Halevi), consists of five stanzas forming the acrostic Yehudah. It is sung on the first morning of Rosh HaShanah as an introduction to the Kaddish preceding Barekhu (the formal opening of the service). The theme of the Kaddish is, in fact, alluded to in the refrain: Lehakdish et kedosh Ya'akov veet elohey Israel.

The Spanish and Portuguese rite is unusual in maintaining the tradition of singing this piyyut at the precise juncture in the liturgy for which it was intended. The view of Sephardi Rabbinical authorities from the sixteenth century on, influenced by kabbalistic considerations, is that such poetical insertions constitute a forbidden Hefsek (interruption) in the order of prayers. Eastern and North African Sephardic communities have accepted this ruling and consequently displace these piyyutim to either the beginning or end of the morning service.

This recording of Yedey Rashim, which includes the first and fifth (final) stanzas, is based on the London tradition. On the high holidays this melody is also used for a number of other texts, notably the Kaddish, Keloheinu, and Adon Olam.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:03:06

Et Sha’arei Ratson LeHipateach (“At the time that the gates of favor” – in Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

This is an Akedah piyyut (a genre based on the binding of Isaac), composed in the twelfth century by Andalusian liturgical poet Yehuda Ben Shmuel Abbas, whose full name forms an acrostic.

Although this beloved piyyut is sung in all Sephardi communities before the Shofar is blown on Rosh Hashanah, its earliest extant version appears in an anthology of Pizmonim for Yom Kippur (Abudharam, fourteenth century). Moreover, the text itself raises the question of whether the piyyut was intended for Rosh Hashanah at all. The declaration in the penultimate stanza, yom ze zechut livney yerushalayim bo chet beney ya'akov ani soleach (on this day of merit for the children of Jerusalem when I pardon the sin of the children of Jacob.), is a clear allusion to Yom Kippur. Also, the words of the final stanza, ushma teki'a toke a uterus, may not refer to the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah but rather to the Shofar that will herald the divine redemption, which will be proclaimed on Yom Kippur. Because of this ambivalence, in Amsterdam this poem is still sung both on Rosh Hashanah and, as far as penultimate stanza, at the close of the evening service of Yom Kippur.

This traditional melody has variants throughout the Spanish and Portuguese tradition, as well as counterparts in the Moroccan tradition. In the London and New York communities it is also used for Yigdal on both Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.

The poem comprises 14 stanzas in the Muwashshah like structure common in medieval Sephardi poetry. The rhyme scheme is: AAAA, BBBBA, CCCCA, DDDDA, etc. (the first stanza has four lines, the rest have five). Each stanza is followed by a refrain that refers to the "Binder" (Abraham), the "Bound" (Isaac), and the altar on which the latter was to be sacrificed.

On this recording the first, second, and thirteenth stanzas are sung, based on the variant of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation of London.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:02:49

Livritecha ("You Who Dwell on High" - in Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

One of the most emotionally charged moments of the Rosh Hashanah service is the hazzan's cadenza of Livritecha, the final stanza of Et Sha’arei Ratson. Which is sung just before the Shofar is blown. "Ynon" in the last line, is one of the names of the messiah (psalm 72:17). Variants of this melody are sung in each different Spanish and Portuguese communities. The version on this recording is based on that of London.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:02:39

Birkat Kohanim ("Priestly Blessing" - in Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

Variants of this melody are sung by the hazzan in New York and London during the additional service on Rosh Hashanah, when, unlike the practice amongst eastern Sephardim, the Kohanim do not recite the priestly blessing. It also serves as the setting for the congregational chanting of Hashkiveinu in the evening service for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Due to its popularity in the Spanish and Portuguese community of New York, it was adopted for Hashkiveinu in Friday night services throughout the year. In London it is also used for Ashrey Ha'Am Yode'ey Teru'a (psalm 89:16-19), recited immediately after the first sounding of the Shofar on Rosh Hashanah morning.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:01:09

Lech LeShalom Geshem ("Go in peace, O rain" in Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

This ancient piyyut forms part of the Prayer for Dew recited on the first day of Pesach. Variants of this melody are known in all communities of the Spanish and Portuguese tradition.
It has been claimed, somewhat fancifully, that this melody served as the inspiration for Hatikvah, the Israeli national anthem. In fact, Hatikvah and the folk tunes on which it is based derive from a centuries-old family of melodies, of which Lech LeShalom Geshem is one variant.

The version performed here is based on that of the Spanish and Portuguese community of London.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

Duration:
00:02:05

Shema Koli ("Hear My Voice" - in Hebrew)

Original recording from Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise. Produced by Beit Hatfutsot in 2007.

Composed by R. Hai Gaon (939-1038) in the eleventh century this piyyut is best known as the prelude to the evening service for Yom Kippur.

The basic melody is common to the Spanish and Portuguese communities of Amsterdam, New York, and London. A feature of the Amsterdam variant, presented on this recording (stanzas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 29), is the slower tempo at the beginning of each stanza.
This melody is also used for the Bakkashot by Judah Halevi (Elohay Al Tedineni Kema'ali, Adonay Yom Lekha A'arokh Techina; Adonay Negdekha Kol Ta'avati), which are recited in the Spanish and Portuguese tradition before Nishmat Kol Chay on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. It resembles the melodic pattern for those piyyutim as sung in the Moroccan tradition.

Text by Daniel Halfon, originally published by Beit Hatfutsot in Kamti Lehallel: I Rise in Praise CD booklet.

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Dessler, Eliyahu Eliezer (1892-1953), rabbi, talmudic scholar and philosophe, born in Libau, Latvia (then part of the Russian Empire, now Liepāja, Latvia). Until his death he was the spiritual counselor of the Ponevezh yeshiva in Israel.

\His father was a disciple of Rabbi Simcha Zissel Ziv, one of the leaders of the Mussar movement. At the age of 14 Dessler became one of the youngest pupils at the yeshiva of Kelme (Kelm), Lithuania, which provided its students with both a good secular and religious education in order to permit its graduates to earn a livelihood if they wished. Heavily influenced by the ethical Mussar movement, but proficient in Kabbalah and works of Hasidic Judaism and Jewish philosophy, Dessler received his rabbinical ordination (semicha) from his uncle Rabbi Chaim Ozer Grodzinski, but then, rather than enter the rabbinate he went into business with his father. Dessler went to England in 1928 when his father needed medical treatment.

In London Rabbi Dessler served in the rabbinate but his family joined him only in 1931. In the Dalston area of London Dessler started tutoring a number of young people, and for a while he was the private tutor of the children of the wealthy Sassoon family. Dessler's son left London in the early 1930s to study in the yeshiva of Kelm and was unable to rejoin his family when World War 2 broke out. He escaped to the Far East, and eventually settled in the United States.

In the early 1940s, Rabbi Dessler was appointed to head the newly formed Gateshead kollel, an institute of religious study for married men. During the ensuing years he led the kollel, raised funds for its maintenance, and tutor small groups of young people. The kollel added to the prestige and develoment of the Gateshead yeshiva.

In the late 1940s, the leadership of the Ponevezh yeshiva in Bnei Berak< Israel, convinced him to assume the role of "mashgiach ruchani" (spiritual counsellor and lecturer on ethics). He relocated to Israel, and again gathered a small circle of students around him. His teaching were considered to be a combination of the doctrine of Mussar (Moral behaviour) and the Jewish religious philosophy of Kabalah and Hassidism together with the Jewish philosophy of love. He frequently spoke out against the preoccupation with materialism and technology.

Most of Dessler's work reached the public through the pupils he reared in England and Israel. Together, they edited his collected correspondence and ethical writings posthumously in the six-volume "Michtav me-Eliyahu" ("Letter from Elijah"), which alludes to the letter that the prophet Elijah sent to the King of Judah. The book was later translated into English and published as "Strive for Truth". This work is now widely studied and quoted in Orthodox Jewish circles.

Pianist. Born in San Francisco, California, sister of pianist Yalta and violinist Yehudi Menuhin, she studied in San Francisco and later in Paris with Marcel Ciampi. She first performed in public in San Francisco in 1928. In 1934 she first appeared with her brother Yehudi in Paris, as she would in many recitals during the following years. In 1938 she settled in Australia. She died in London, England.
Orientalist

Born in Zuelz, Germany, he studied in yeshivot and universities and in 1833 moved to London. In 1837 he undertook an expedition to Egypt and deciphered many ancient inscriptions. From 1839 Loewe accompanied Sir Moses Montefiore on all his travels as interpeter and secretary in oriental languages. He published an account of their visit to the Middle East in the wake of the Damascus Affair in 1840. After directing the oriental section of the library of the Duke of Sussex in London, Loewe became principal of Jews' College (1856-58) and then was in Brighton where he founded a school for Jewish boys in 1861. Then from 1869 to his death he headed the theological seminary for Sephardi students founded by Montefiore at Ramsgate.

Enrico Guastalla (1828-1903), Italian soldier born at Guastalla, Italy. Although his parents intended him for a life as a businessman, he volunteered to join the Italian army in 1848. He took part in the defense of Rome in the war against Austria, and for his bravery in the battle of Vascello was appointed lieutenant. The following year he participated in the abortive capture of Rome from the pope. He afterward went to Piedmont and for several years he edited the "Liberta e Associazione" but, suspected of revolutionary tendencies by the government, he fled to London, England, where he met the radical Italian patriot Guiseppe Mazzini.

In 1859 he returned to Italy and joined G. Garibaldi at Como. He was wounded in the leg at Volturno (Oct. 1, 1860). After a month's inaction he became a member of Garibaldi's staff. At Aspromonte he was captured and imprisoned.

Guastalla again saw active service in 1866, and fought under Garibaldi at Como, Brescia, Lonoto, Salo, and Desenzano. He retired from the army with the rank of major and the insignia of Knight Commandant of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. He was elected member of the Italian Parliament for Varese in 1865 and sat here for many years.

Kaczer, Illes (originally Katz Illes) (1887-1980), author and journalist, born in Szatmar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Satu Mare in Romania). He began his career in provincial journalism before starting to write for Budapest daily newspapers. He made his name as a novelist and playwright, and his dramas enjoyed considerable success in Hungary during the 1920s. By this time, however,he had left Hungary as a result of the revolution of 1918-19 and gone to live first in Vienna, Austria, and later in Berlin, Germany, Transylvania, Romania and Czechoslovakia. In 1938 he moved to London, England. In 1959, by which time he had become a regular contributor of stories and essays to the Hungarian-language newspaper "Uj Kelet", he made his home in Israel.

Kaczer was noted for his powerful treatment of Jewish themes, ranging from Biblical times to the social and religious family conflicts of the 19th and 20th centuries. His works include the novels "Khafrit, az egyiptomi asszony" (1916), "A fekete kakas" ("The Black Rooster"), "Sarkanyolo" ("The Dragon Killer"); "A vak ember tukre" ("The Blind Man's Mirror"); "Zsuzsanna es a venek" ("Susanna and the Elders") which was also translated into German, and Az alomtelepen [In the Land of Dream]. Kaczer's comedy in verse, Tuz [The Fire], was produced on several theatres in Transylvania. His plays include Megjott a Messias (1921), Ikongo nem hal meg (1936), Fear Not. My Servant Jacob (1947), and The Siege of Jericho (1949) which was originally published in London as The Siege.
Painter

Born in Birmingham, he was brought up in Whitechapel in London's East End. He was apprenticed to a lithographer and studied in evening classes and at the Slade School. In 1914 Bomberg was a founder-member of the London Group and organized a Jewish section in the influential exhibition 'Twentieth Century Art' - the first display of Jewish art in Britian. In 1923 he went to Palestine, falling out with the Zionists in his refusal to paint what he regarded as propaganda art and spent six months painting at Petra. Bomberg traveled widely, painting especially in Spain. His early work was influenced by cubism but later his work was more representational. In later years he returned to the Jewish themes of his youth. In 1967 he was honored by a comprehensive exhibition at the Tate Gallery which established his reputation as a preeminent modern British artist.

Kook, Avraham Yitzhak Hacohen (1865-1935), rabbi, born in Griva, Latvia, and was an outstanding student, noted as a child prodigy. He studied at the yeshiva of Volozhin and in 1887 was appointed rabbi in Zeimelis, where the community had been bitterly divided (including physical violence) over the choice of a new rabbi. Kook in his stay restored peace in the community. He expanded the town's Jewish library and improved social welfare services. In 1895 he became rabbi of Bauska and in 1904 immigrated to Eretz Israel, becoming rabbi of Jaffa and the new Zionist settlements. In 1914 he went to a rabbinical conference in Europe and was unable to return. During the War he lived first in Switzerland and then was rabbi of London's Mahzikei Hadas synagogue. While in London, Kook played an important role in the negotiations leading to the Balfour Declaration. In 1919 he returned to Palestine as chief Ashkenazi rabbi for Jerusalem where he founded the Merkaz ha-Rav yeshiva, where he taught his ideas of religious nationalism. With the establishment by the British of a chief rabbinate for Palestine in 1921, Kook became the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi. He saw in this institution a key element in Jewish self-government, hoping it would eventually lead to the reconstitution of a Sanhedrin. He was bitterly opposed by the ultra-Orthodox. Kook was a leader of the religious Zionist movement and an outstanding thinker whose philosophy had a strong mystical element.

Canetti, Elias (1905-1994), author, essayist, dramatist, Nobel Prize laureate, born in Russe (Rustschuk), Bulgaria, into a Sephardi Jewish family. His mother tongue was Ladino.

In 1911 the family immigrated to Manchester, England. Following the untimely death of his father in 1912, his mother moved with her three small sons to Vienna, Austria. Canetti attended the Realgymnasium in Zurich, Switzerland, from 1916 to 1921. His first literary work, "Junius Brutus", was produced in Zurich. In 1921 the family settled in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, where Canetti graduated the upper secondary school in 1924. In the same year he returned to Vienna and started to study chemistry at the University of Vienna earning a Ph.D. in chemistry in 1929.

In Vienna Canetti was strongly influenced by various literary circles, especially by the writer and critic Karl Kraus. Consequently his primary interest turned to literature, and his first outline for a book was about crowd psychology (1925). The burning down of the Palace of Justice of Vienna by angry protesters in 1927, had a major impact on his future works. Most of them focus on problems of the masses, power, death, and human madness.

In 1928-1929 Elias traveled to Berlin, where he met various influential artists and intellectuals, including Isaak Babel, Bertold Brecht and George Grosz. In 1930, Canetti started to work on his novel "Die Blendung" that was published in 1935, in 1932 he published his play "Hochzeit" ("The Marriage") and in 1934 "Komodie der Eitelkeit" (‘The Comedy of Vanity"). In the 1930s Canetti translated works by the American writer Upton Sinclair into German.

Following the Anschluss in 1938, Canetti fled with his wife Venetia (Veza) Taubner-Calderon (1897-1963) to Paris, France, and a year later they immigrated to England. Elias Canetti lived most of his life in London, nevertheless he continued to write in German and did not actively associate with English writers, or with other German language colleagues.

In 1941 Canetti was a co-signer of Declaration of Austrian Organization in the UK. In 1946 C. V. Wedgwood published his "Auto-da-Fe", the English translation of "Die Blendung".
In 1956 the premiere of his play "Die Befristeten" (‘Their Days are Numbered’) took place in Oxford. His "Aufzeichnungen 1942-1948" ("Sketches") were published in 1965. As a writer, Canetti did not draw much attention until his best-known work "Masse und Macht" was published in Hamburg in 1960, and appeared in English as "Crowds and Power" in 1962.

Canetti was a member of Academy of Arts, Berlin, and the Bavarian Academy of fine Arts; he received "Prix International"; Literary Prize from the City of Vienna (1966); "Grosser Oesterreichisher Staatspreis" (1968); "Georg Buechner Prize" (1977), and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1981.

Canetti's literary production include "Die Stimmen von Marrakesch" (1968) (‘The Voices from Marrakesh’, English tr. 1978); "Der Andere Process. Kafkas Briefe an Felice" (1969) ("Kafka’s Other Trial", tr. 1974); "Die Provinz des Menschen. Aufzeichnungen 1942-1972" (1973) ("The Human Province", 1978); "Der Ohrenzeuge, Funfzig Charaktere" (1974) ("Ear Witness: Fifty Characters", tr. 1979); "Das Gewissen der Wort. Essays" (1975) ("The Conscience of Words"); "Die Gerettete Zunge. Geschichte einer Jugend" ("The Tongue Set Free" tr. 1979); "Die Fackel in Ohr. Lebensgeschichte 1921-1931" (1980) ("The Torch in my Ear", tr. 1982); "Das Augenspiel. Lebensgeschichte 1931-1937" (1985) (‘The Plat of the Eyes", 1990); "Das Geheimhen der Uhr. Aufzeichnungen" 1973-1985 (1987) ("The Secret Heart of the Clock", tr. 1989); "Die Fliegenpein, Aufzeichnungen" (1992) ("Pain of Flies: Notes").
Jacobovits, Immanuel (1921-1999), Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Commonwealth from 1967 to 1991, born in Königsberg, East Prussia, Germany (now Kaliningrad, Russia), where his father Julius was a community rabbi. The family moved to Berlin in the 1920s, where his father became dayan on the Beth Din of the orthodox community, but fled the country in 1938 and went to England. In the United Kingdom he completed his higher education, and studied at the Etz Chaim Yeshiva in London after which he was ordained as a rabbi. He also studied in Jews' College and the University of London.

His first position was as rabbi of the Brondesbury synagogue. In 1949 he was appointed Chief Rabbi of the small Jewish community of Ireland. In 1958 he was elected rabbi of the Fifth Avenue Synagogue in New York, USA, a position he held until 1966, when he was elected to become Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregation of the British Commonwealth. He held this position until his retirement in 1991.

Created a life peer in 1988, Jacobovits was the first rabbi to receive this honour. He was a firm adherent of the "German-Jewish" Torah im Derech Eretz philosophy, having a broad knowledge of religious subjects as well as secular culture and philosophy. This made him a unique spokesperson for Orthodox Judaism, as he was able to transmit ideas to a much wider audience than other traditional orthodox rabbis.

In the House of Lords he became known as a campaigner for traditional morality. Lord Jakobovits aroused considerable controversy when, after the discovery of a possible genetic explanation for homosexuality, he suggested that he saw no "moral objection for using genetic engineering to limit this particular trend". He described homosexuality as "a grave departure from the natural norm which we are charged to overcome like any other affliction"; if there were genetic explanations for homosexuality, "the errant gene" should be "removed or repaired" in order to prevent the "disability". He called for a massive re-alignment of communal priorities towards Jewish religious education. With this on mind in 1971 he launched the Jewish Educational Development Trust (JEDT), arguing that British Jewry needed to invest heavily in Jewish education and, in particular, that it should double the capacity of Jewish schools. Jakobovits was also the president of the Conference of European Rabbis, in which capacity he worked on standardizing and regulating religious conversion to Judaism.

Rabbi Jakobovits was the most prominent figure in 20th century Jewish medical ethics, a subdiscipline in applied ethics which he virtually created, and a pioneer in religious bioethics. His speciality was the interaction between medical ethics and halakha. Thanks to his academic training, he set out his views on the matter in his comprehensive work, Jewish Medical Ethics, in which he often compared Jewish ethics with those of the Roman Catholics. Many later Jewish bioethicists often referred to his work on abortion, euthanasia, the history of Jewish medical ethics, palliative care, treatment of the sick, and professional duties. He held mildly Zionistic views. He maintained that sooner or later Israel would need to negotiate the territory it conquered during the Six Day War.
Gardosh, Karl (Kariel) (pen name Dosh) (1921-2000), cartoonist, born in Budapest, Hungary. He was sent to forced labor camp in World War II while his parents and most of his family were murdered by the Nazis in 1944. In 1946 he moved to France where he studied comparative literature at the Sorbonne University.

In 1948 Gardosh emigrated to Palestine shortly before the declaration of independence and changed his first name from Karl to Kariel. He soon found work drawing cartoons for the underground newspapers of the Jewish underground organization Lehi. Later he found permanent employment as a political cartoonist in the Hebrew press.

In 1953 he joined the staff of the daily newspaper Ma'ariv. Gardosh created "Srulik", who became the popular symbol of the State of Israel and its people. Srulik was a small boy in shorts, sandals and a traditional "tembel" hat. Gardosh's character, always intended by the caricaturist to act as a symbol for Israel, reflected the changing national moods in the 1960s and 1970s as a small nation surrounded by hostile aggressors. The small boy facing down representatives from a hostile Arab world left an indelible impression upon several generations of Israelis allowing the character to remain popular through several changes in the political climate.

His drawings were marked by comic irony which won him a wide following. They were often reprinted in the "Jerusalem Post", in the Tel Aviv Hungarian daily "Uj Kelet", and in many newspapers abroad. He also wrote the occasional column for Ma’ariv which showed his conservative opinions. Gardosh illustrated books, wrote short stories and one-act plays, and held exhibitions in Israel and other countries. He published several collections of cartoons, including "Selikhah she-Nizzakhnu!" (So Sorry We Won!) 1967, and "Oi la- Menatskhim" (Woe to the Victors) 1969, with text by Ephraim Kishon. Both books dealt with the Six-Day War and its aftermath.

For recognition of his work Gardosh was over the years awarded the Herzl Prize, the Nordau Prize, the Jabotinsky Award and the Sokolow Prize. A street in Tel Aviv was named after him. In a tribute published in Israel and quoted in The New York Times, Israeli legislator Yosef "Tommy" Lapid, a former editor of Ma’ariv, described Gardosh as one of the 20th century's great caricaturists. "Dosh's Srulik”, he wrote, "was the symbol of Israel, like Marianne is the symbol of France, John Bull is the symbol of Great Britain and Uncle Sam is the symbol of the United States." Lapid was.

Gardosh served as cultural attaché in the Israeli Embassy in London from 1981 to 1983.
Gross, Alexander (1879-?), geographer, born as Alexander Grosz in Csurag, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). After studying at Budapest University, he went to London, England, in 1906 and became a British subject. In 1903 he took up map making. In 1910 he established Geographia, Ltd. in London and subsequently the Geographia Map Company in New York City in 1932. He was responsible for the preparation of many thousands of maps and was a pioneer in aviators' maps. In 1920 Gross edited and published the "Daily Telegraph Victory Atlas of the World" set new standards for atlas production. In 1920 Gross was made a freeman of the city of London, and became a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and of other scientific societies in England. He contributed maps (1940-1941) to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia.

In 1916 he published a beautiful Haggadah, the English translation for which was written by English poet Maurice Myers and illustrated in color by J. H. Amschewitz.
Ehrenberg, Victor Leopold (1891-1976), historian born in Altona, Germany. He was professor of ancient history at the German University in Prague, Czech Republic, between 1929 and 1939, when he fled to England. In the UK he became visiting lecturer in several universities.

From 1949 to 1957 he was reader and lecturer in ancient history at the University of London. His main interest was in Greek history and he wrote a number of books on the subject. He helped to found the London Classical Society an was a founder and editor of the journal "Historia". His works included "Neugrunder des Staates" (1925), "Alexander und Aegypten" (1926), "Alexander and the Greeks" (1938), "The People of Aristophanes" (1943), "Sophocles and Pericles" (1954). Some of his published articles were collected and republished in "Aspects of the Ancient World" (1946) and "Polis and Imperium" (1965).
Polak, Julia Margaret (1939- ), professor of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine at Imperial College London, England, where she established a research centre to develop cells and tissues for transplantation into humans. Polak was born in Argentina. She graduated in pathology from the University of Buenos Aires after which she moved to London.

In 1995, as Professor of Endocrine Pathology at the Royal Postgraduate Medical School (now Imperial College London) she was found to be suffering from one of the conditions she was researching, life-threatening pulmonary hypertension. Her life was saved by a heart and lung transplant and as a result of the success of this operation she decided to change her specialization to tissue engineering. The Centre which she founded made huge advances in tissue engineering research which made transplant surgery much safer. She was for many years editor of the journal "Tissue Engineering" as well as a member of the UK Stem Cell Bank Clinical and User Liaison Committee and an advisor to the British Science and Parliament Committees. She is recognized as one of the most influential researchers in her field. Her work was recognized by the Society for Endocrinology, the International Academy of Pathology and the Association of Clinical Pathologists. She was named in Queen Elizabeth's Birthday Honours List 2003 for her services to medicine.
De Jong, Louis (1914-2005), historian and writer who spent much of the latter part of his life writing about the Netherlands under the Nazi occupation during World War II. The son of a diamond worker he was born in Amsterdam and became foreign editor of the anti-Nazi weekly "De Groener Amsterdammer". His magnum opus, :Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog" ("The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II")was published in fourteen volumes and 18,000 pages. First published in 1967, it is the standard reference work on the history of the Netherlands during World War II. The Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (Dutch Institute for War Documentation) produced an electronic edition of the the entire work available in 2011.

De Jong contributed to many other histories on the Netherlands and was a speaker at symposia on the European resistance. In 1988 De Jong was awarded the Gouden Ganzenveer for his contributions to Dutch written and printed culture.

De Jong managed to escape the Holocaust by fleeing to England together with his wife when the Germans invaded the Netherlands. During that time he worked for Radio Oranje broadcasting out of London to the occupied Netherlands. In 1945 he was appointed director of the Dutch Institute for War Documentation and in 1953 he was awarded a doctorate with a study of the German Fifth column. From 1967 he was professor of contemporary history at the School of Economics at Rotterdam. De Jong lost the greater part of his family, including his parents and his twin brother during the Second World War.
Berlin, Isaiah (1909-1997), British social and political philosopher, one of the most brilliant thinkers of the 20th century, born in Riga, Latvia (then part of the Russian Empire). Berlin's work on liberal theory and on pluralism has had a great influence on social thought. Born the son of a wealthy timber company owner, he was a direct descendant of Rabbi Shneur Zalman, the founder of Chabad Hasidism.

The family lived in St. Petersburg, Russia, but left in 1920 after feeling the oppression of Bolshevism and anti-Semitism. They came to Britain in 1921. Berlin was educated at St Paul's School in London, then at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he studied classics. He then took another degree, this time at Oxford, in Philosophy, Politics and Economics. He was appointed a tutor in philosophy at New College, Oxford, and in 1932 at the age of 23, was elected to a prize fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford. He was the first Jewish fellow at All Souls College. Berlin was to remain at Oxford for the rest of his life, apart from a period working for British Information Services in New York, USA, from 1940 to 1942, and for the British embassies in Washington, DC, and Moscow from then until 1946.

Berlin was fluent in Russian and English, spoke French, German and Italian, and knew Latin and Ancient Greek. From 1957 to 1967, he was Professor of Social and Political Theory at the University of Oxford and in 1966 he was elected to be the first president of the newly founded Wolfson College in Oxford. He was knighted in 1957, and was awarded the Order of Merit in 1971. He was President of the British Academy from 1974 to 1978. He also received the 1979 Jerusalem Prize for his writings on individual freedom. The annual Isaiah Berlin Lectures are held at the Hampstead Synagogue and both Wolfson College and the British Academy each summer.

The London based "Independent" newspaper once wrote that "Isaiah Berlin was often described, especially in his old age, by means of superlatives: the world's greatest talker, the century's most inspired reader, one of the finest minds of our time ... there is no doubt that he showed in more than one direction the unexpectedly large possibilities open to us at the top end of the range of human potential"

In 1956, Berlin married Aline Halban, née de Gunzbourg, who was from an exiled half Russian-aristocratic and half ennobled-Jewish banking and petroleum family He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959.

His work was characterized by a very liberal attitude to social and political questions. In his “Karl Marx”, published in 1939, he examines Marxism in the context of the times when it was written. In the “August Conte Memorial Lectures” he opposed the notion that events are inevitable and therefore predictable. His essay "Two Concepts of Liberty", delivered in 1958 as his inaugural lecture as Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory at Oxford argued for a nuanced and subtle understanding of political terminology, where what was superficially understood as a single concept could mask a plurality of different uses and therefore meanings. He distinguished between thinkers who tried to find liberty within a framework of restraints while recognizing the diversity of human needs and those who are dogmatic and try to “force men to be free`' and so end up by enslaving them.

For Berlin, values are creations of mankind, rather than products of nature waiting to be discovered. He argued that the nature of mankind is such that certain values – for example, the importance of individual liberty – will hold true across cultures, and this is what he meant when he called his position "objective pluralism". When values clash, it may not be that one is more important than the other. Keeping a promise may conflict with the pursuit of truth; liberty may clash with social justice. Moral conflicts are "an intrinsic, irremovable element in human life". "These collisions of values are of the essence of what they are and what we are." For Berlin, this incommensurate clashing of values within, no less than between, individuals, constitutes the tragedy of human life.

Berlin had many close ties to Zionism and Israel having close friendships with Chaim Weizmann and other Zionist leaders. He was a governor of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.






Berlin's essay "Historical Inevitability" (1954) focused on a controversy in the philosophy of history. Berlin is also well known for his writings on Russian intellectual history, most of which are collected in Russian Thinkers (1978; 2nd ed. 2008),
Kohn, Pinchas (1867-1941), orthodox rabbi born in Kleinerdlingen, Germany. He studied in the yeshiva of Rabbi Selig Auerbach. Kohn came from a rabbinical family from southern Germany. He was an admirer of Shimshon Raphael Hirsch, but was critical of his “neo-orthodoxy” and he was afraid that it would damage traditional orthodox Judaism. He became the rabbi of Mannheim, Germany, and in 1893 was appointed rabbi of Ansbach, Germany, and became editor of the "Juedische Monatshefte" magazine together with Dr. Salomon Breuer. In 1916 Kohn became the rabbinical advisor to the German occupying forces of Poland where he helped to organize the Hasidic Jews. He established for them a Rabbinical Association and a daily newspaper ("Doss Yiddische Vort"). This made the Hassidism a “religious” grouping in Poland and set them apart from the Zionists who wished to wished to have their nationalist identity recognized.

Kohn was instrumental in forming the Union of Orthodox Jews. This was renamed to Shlomei Emunei Yisroel (The faithful of Israel). At the third national congress of the party, in October 1928, the name of the party was changed to Agudat Israel. Kohn became executive president of the world Aguda movement and travelled throughout Europe persuading communities to open local branches of the organization. In 1939 he was rescued from Germany by his son-in-law, Ephraim Stefansky. He travelled to Palestine via London, where he died.
Pianist and composer. Born in Hamburg, Germany, he left for England in 1848 and became court pianist to Queen Victoria. Blumenthal composed many piano pieces in the fashionable style of the era. He gained his fame as composer of some sentimental popular songs: THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE and COME NOT, WHEN I AM DEAD set to words by Tennyson. He died in London, England
Political scientist

Born in Herta, he was taken to England as a child and studied at the London School of Economics, then teaching there from 1920 to 1942. He was involved in Labor and London municipal politics and was a member of group of academics around Sydney and Beatrice Webb and Harold Laski. From 1946 to 1963 he was professor of political science at the University of Chicago. He pioneered the teaching of comparative politics and public administration as academic disciplines. His works included Theory and Practice of Modern Government, The Road to Reaction, and Dulles over Suez.
Cohen, Ronald Sir, (1945-), businessman, known as "the father of social investment”, born in Cairo, Egypt, into a family which had originated in Aleppo in Syria. After the 1956 Suez crisis, as a result of Nasser's persecution of the Jews the family was forced to flee Egypt and immigrated to to England.

After attending grammar school in north London, Cohen won a scholarship to Oxford University where he earned a degree in economics. He then went to Harvard Business School after which he worked as a management consultant. In 1972, along with two former business school colleagues as partners, he founded Apax Partners, one of Britain's first venture capital firms. The company grew slowly at first, but expanded rapidly in the 1990s, becoming Britain's largest venture capital firm, and "one of three truly global venture capital firms”. In 2002 he was the inaugural inductee into the Private Equity Hall of Fame, at the British Venture Capital Association and Real Deals' Private Equity Awards.

His organization was responsible for encouraging substantial investments in a number of Israeli companies.When he stepped down from the chairmanship thirty-three years later, Apax was the largest global private-equity firm based in Europe, with an impressive investment record, more than $40 billion under management, offices in eight countries, and more than 300 staff.

Cohen has been a pioneer in the area of social investment. In 2000, he became Chairman of the Social Investment Task Force (SITF) the purpose of which organization was "to set out how entrepreneurial practices could be applied to obtain higher social and financial returns from social investment, to harness new talents and skills, to address economic regeneration and to unleash new sources of private and institutional investment".

In 2002, Cohen co-founded and became chairman of Bridges Ventures, an innovative sustainable growth investor that delivers both financial returns and social and environmental benefits, and in 2003, Cohen co-founded the Portland Trust together with Sir Harry Solomon, co-founder and former chairman and CEO of Hillsdown Holdings. The aim of Portland Trust is to help develop the Palestinian private sector and relieve poverty through entrepreneurship in Israel. The Portland Trust has offices in London, Tel Aviv and Ramallah.
In 2005, Sir Ronald, as he was known after he had been awarded a knighthood by Queen Elizabeth, chaired the Commission on Unclaimed Assets which looked into how unclaimed funds from dormant bank accounts could be used to benefit the public. The final recommendation of the Commission was that the funds should be used by a social investment bank be created to help finance charitable and voluntary projects by providing seed capital and loan guarantees.

In 2007 Cohen co-founded and became a non-executive director of Social Finance UK, a London-based advisory that has worked to create a social investment market in the UK.

Since its official launch in July 2011, Sir Ronald Cohen has been the Chairman of Big Society Capital, Britain's first social investment bank. The role of the BSC is to help speed up the growth of the social investment market, so that socially orientated financial organizations will have greater access to affordable capital, using an estimated £400million in unclaimed assets left dormant in bank accounts for over 15 years and £200million from the UK’s largest high street banks.

In 1974 Cohen stood as the parliamentary candidate for the Liberal Party in Kensington North and in 1979 he stood as its European candidate in London West. In 1996 he switched allegiance to the Labour Party, becoming a supporter of Tony Blair, British Prime Minister. In November 2011 he was financially linked with a new "non-political" movement in Israel, the sole goal of which is to change the country’s electoral system. He is a member of the University of Oxford Investment Committee and Member of the Harvard Management Company Board.
Taylor, Peter, Lord (1930-1997), a jurist, born and educated in Newcastle, England, and then at Cambridge University. He served as a captain in the army education corps and captained Northumberland in rugby. Taylor was called to the bar in 1967 (chairman 1979-1980) and was appointed a Queen's Counsel in 1967. He served as recorder of Huddersfield. In 1980 he became a judge of the High Court of Justice and was a Lord Justice of Appeal, 1988-1992. In 1992 he was made Lord Chief Justice, only the second Jew to hold the post (the first was Lord Reading in 1921). Taylor was active in Jewish causes.
Gilbert, Martin (1936-2015), historian and author of some 80 books, born in London, England. During WW 2 he was evacuated to Canada as part of the British efforts to safeguard children. After the war he attended Highgate School, and then completed two years of National Service in the Intelligence Corps before going on to study at Magdalen College, Oxford, graduating in 1960 with a first-class BA in modern history. After two years of postgraduate work, he was approached by Randolph Churchill for help in writing a biography of his father, Sir Winston Churchill. Finally appointed Churchill's official biographer Gilbert spent twenty years on the six narrative volumes, releasing a number of other books throughout the time.

In the 1960s, Gilbert compiled some of the first historical atlases. His major works include a definitive single-volume "History of The Holocaust", as well as single-volume histories of The First World War and The Second World War. He has also written a notable three-volume series called "A History of the Twentieth Century".

Since 2002, he has been a Distinguished Fellow of Hillsdale College, Michigan, USA, and between 2006 and 2007 he was a professor in the history department at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. In October 2008, he was elected to an Honorary Fellowship at Churchill College Oxford. He continues to lecture around the world on Churchill and Jewish history. Gilbert was appointed in June 2009 as a member of the British government’s inquiry into the Iraq War (headed by Sir John Chilcot). Gilbert's most recent major work is “In Ishmael's House: A History of Jews in Muslim Lands".

In 1995 Gilbert was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
Harman, Avraham (1914-1992) diplomat and academic, born in London, England. In 1935 he received a law degree from Wadham College, Oxford University, following which he served on the staff of the Zionist Federation in London.

In 1938 he immigrated to Palestine. In 1939 he served as an emissary to the Zionist Federation in South Africa, returning in 1940 to head the English section of the Agency’s Youth Department and later as head of the English section of its Information Department. Following the founding of the State of Israel in 1948, he was appointed deputy director of the Press and Information Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1949 he was appointed Israel’s first consul-general in Montreal. In 1950 he joined the Israeli delegation to the United Nations in New York as counselor and also headed Israel’s Office of Information in the U.S., a post he held for three years. From 1953 to 1955 he was Israel’s consul-general in New York. Harman then returned to Jerusalem to become assistant director-general of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A year later he was elected to the Jewish Agency Executive.

From 1959 to 1968 Harman was Israel’s ambassador to Washington. In that position he argued successfully that since the Soviets were pouring arms into Arab countries, the United States should give Israel the opportunity to obtain arms "to maintain a minimum level of deterrent strength". As early as 1960, Harman declared that peace between Israel and its Arab neighbors was "historically inevitable." Addressing the American Zionist Council, the Israeli diplomat said, "There is only one road to peace in the Middle East and that is through direct discussion and negotiation." He also worked to secure financial and moral support from American Jews.

Harman was the founding president of the Israel Public Council for Soviet Jewry, a post he held until his death. He devoted much of his time and effort to the cause of Soviet Jewry and to the absorption of Soviet Jewish scientists at the Hebrew University and elsewhere in Israel. From 1968 to 1973 he was President and Chancellor of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and was responsible for the rebuilding and expansion of the original campus of the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus.
Vogel, Julius (1835–1899), the eighth prime minister of New Zealand and the only practising Jewish prime minister of that country, born and educated in London, England. Vogel immigrated to Australia in 1852 becoming editor of several newspapers on the goldfields. In 1861 he moved to Otago, New Zealand, where he become a journalist for the "Otago Witness". The same year he founded the "Otago Daily Times" and became its first editor.

In Vogel's vision New Zealand was a potential 'Britain of the South Seas', strong both in agriculture and in industry, and inhabited by a large and flourishing population.

Vogel first became involved in politics in 1862, winning election to the provincial council of Otago. Four years later became the head of the provincial government, a post which he held until 1869. In 1863 he was elected a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, and on retiring from the provincial government in 1869 he joined the government as Colonial Treasurer, afterward becoming successively Postmaster-General, Commissioner of Customs, and Telegraph Commissioner.

Vogel was premier from 1873 to 1875 and again in 1876. From 1876 to 1881, he was Agent-General for New Zealand in London, and in 1884 he was again a member of the government of the colony. His administration is best remembered for the issuing of bonds to fund railway construction and other public works.

During his political career, Vogel worked generally successfully for reconciliation with the Maori people. In 1887, he introduced the first women's suffrage Bill to Parliament, but suffrage was not granted until 1893. He was knighted in 1875. He finally gave up colonial office in 1887, from which date he lived in England.

Vogel is best remembered for is his "Great Public Works” scheme of the 1870s. Before 1870, New Zealand was a country largely dominated by provincial interests. After Vogel, as colonial treasurer, proposed borrowing the massive sum of 10 million pounds, New Zealand developed significant infrastructure of roads, railways and communications networks, all administered by a central government.

Vogel was also the first New Zealander to write a science-fiction novel: "Anno Domino 2000" published in 1889. It anticipated a utopian world where women held many positions of authority. On his death in 1899 Vogen was buried in London.
Music editor and writer. Born in Vienna, Austria, he studied in 1906-1910 with Arnold Schoenberg and worked as an opera conductor. In 1924-1938 he was the editor of the Universal Edition in Vienna. In 1938 he settled in London and joined the publishing house Boosey & Hawkes. Stein edited Schoenberg’s letters (German edition, 1958, English edition, 1964). He is the author of the books Orpheus in New Guises (1953) and Form and Performance (1962) and wrote numerous articles on music. He died in London, England.
Traveler

He was born in Falticeni where he engaged in the lumber trade, losing a fortune when he was still only 25. He then fell under the influence of the medieval traveler, Binyamin of Tudela, and styling himself Binyamin II set out in 1845 to seek the Lost Ten Tribes. He journeyed widely through the Middle East, Asia (as far as China) and North Africa. Like his predecessor, wherever he went he assembled information on the Jewish communities. Binyamin described his experiences in a volume written in Hebrew but first published in French in 1856. In 1859 he started a three years journey through the United States which he also described in a book. He died in poverty in London while preparing another journey to the Far East.
Benedict, Sir Julius (1804-1885) , composer, conductor and writer. Born in Stuttgart, Germany, he studied with, among others, Hummel and Weber. Benedict began his career as a conductor in Vienna (1823-1825) and in Naples. In 1835 he settled in London and became music director of the Opera Buffa at the Lyceum Theater. Although he converted to Protestantism in 1826 he composed music for the inauguration of the first British Reform Synagogue (Psalm 84, 1840). Benedict was music diretor of the Norwisch Festivals in 1845-1878 and the Liverpool Philharmonic Society in 1876-1880. He was knighted in 1871.
Benedict’s works include cantatas, 2 symphonies and 2 piano concertos. Among the operas he composed is THE LILY OF KILLARNEY (premiered at Covent Garden, 1862). He wrote biographies of Felix Mendelssohn (1853) and Carl Maria von Weber (1881). He died in London, England.
D'Aguilar, Diego (Moses/Moshe Lopez Pereira) (c.1699-1759), financier, community leader, born in Spain, descendant to a family of crypto-Jews. His father had a tobacco monopoly. Diego D’Aguilar was separated from his parents and sister during the childhood and baptised. He subsequently was ordained a Catholic priest and was employed as a financial expert by the Inquisition. One day his sister was caught practising Judaism, and sentenced to be burned at the stake. Her mother went to her son Bishop Diego D’Aguilar to beg for her daughter’s life. After she called him Moshe Lopez Pereira he recalled his childhood and left the palace. He did not succeed in helping his sister, and his mother died on their way to Vienna, Austria, where he had good connections with the Empress Maria Theresia.

At the age of 23 Diego d'Aguilar left for Vienna and returned to Judaism. In Austria he reorganized the monopoly of the tobacco business and headed it for sixteen years during which time he paid the state seven million florins per year. He was enobled as Baron d’Aguilar (1726),and named councilor to the throne. D'Aguilar and others raised large amounts of loans for the treasury (10 million florins, for 1732 alone) and helped the Empress Maria Theresia in rebuilding the Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna. D’Aguilar was very influential in the court and helped in Jewish problems: together with others he was instrumental in preventing the expulsion of Jews from Moravia and Prague in 1744. He also helped the Jews of Mantua, Italy, and Belgrade, in 1752, and collected funds for Eretz Israel. D’Aguilar was founding member of the Sephardi congregations in Vienna and Timisoara (now in Romania). After the Spanish government tried to put him on trial for returning to Judaism, he left with his large family (14 children) to London in 1757, where he was active in the local Sephardi community. He died two years later.
Lauterpacht, Hersch (1897-1960), jurist, born in Zolkiew, Galicia (then part of Austria-Hungary, now in Ukraine). He studied in Lwow, Vienna and London and in 1927 was appointed assistant lecturer at the London School of Economics and in 1932 reader in public international law at the University of London. He was also professor at The Hague Academy of International Law.

From 1938 to 1955 Lauterpacht was professor of international law at Cambridge University, England, and then from 1955 was barrister and judge of the International Court of Justice at The Hague, Netherlands. He was a member of the United Nations International Law Commission and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. He wrote extensively on international law.

Active in Jewish affairs, Lauterpacht was the first president of the World Union of Jewish Students on its formation after World War I.

Lauterpacht was awarded a knighthood for his work
Janovsky, Saul Joseph (1864–1939), Yiddish journalist, editor, and activist, born in Pinsk, Belarus (then part of the Russian Empire). As a youth Janovsky was interested in the Haskalah movement. When he arrived in the USA he settled in New York, where in 1885 he became active in the labor movement. In 1890 he went to London, England, and there was invited to edite a radical Yiddish weekly newspaper, "Der Arbeter Fraynd".

Five years later he returned to New York. There he joined the anarchist movement, helped to found the "Pionere der Frayhayt" ("Pioneers of Freedom") movement, and edited anarchist Yiddish periodicals – the weekly "Di Fraye Arbeter Shtime" (1899–1919), the daily "Di Ovnt Tsaytung" (1906), and the monthly "Di Fraye Gezelshaft" (1910–1911). Between 1919 and 1926, he edited the monthly "Gerekhtigkayt", organ of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, and also contributed to "Tsukunft" and "Forverts". He wrote under many pseudonyms, including Y.Z., Anonymous, Bas-Kol, and Yoysef Ben Gershon.

Janovsky wrote about political events and trade union problems, reviewed books and plays, and translated works by Lev Tolstoy and others. His reviews and editorial correspondence were sharp but understanding, demonstrating a flair for recognizing talent. Many Yiddish writers were discovered and first published by him.
Langer, Ruth (1921-1999), swimmer, born in Vienna, Austria. She started her swimming career at the age of eleven with the "Hakoah" Vienna Jewish sports club and at the age of 14 she already became a celebrity following her breaking of the Austrian records for the 100-meter freestyle and 400-meter freestyle. Having been selected to the Austrian national team for the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936, she decided not to compete and thus to express her protest at the anti-Jewish persecutions in Nazi Germany. As a result, the Austrian sports authorities decided to sanction her by banning her from participating in sports competitions.

After the Anscluss, Langer fled to Italy crossing the border with false documents. She eventually was permitted to enter Great Britain, where she continued her swimming achievements by setting a British record for swimming the 5 mile event on the River Thames from Kew to Putney Bridge. As an “enemy national”, she was sent to Bath at the outbreak of WW2, but later returned to London where she married John Lawrence and spent the rest of her life. In 1995, the Austrian Swimming Federation decided to restore all her titles along with apologies for the discrimation she suffered during the 1930s.
Hart, Solomon Alexander (1806–1881), painter and engraver, the son of a Portsmouth goldsmith, engraver, and Hebrew teacher who moved to London with his family in 1820 in order to enable their son to study painting.

He was the first Jewish member of the Royal Academy in London and was probably the most important Jewish artist working in England in the 19th century. He remained an observant Jew all his life.

Hart studied initially under Charles Waren and then started drawing classical sculpture which he found at the British Museum. In order to support himself and his father, he began to paint miniature copies and colouring theatrical prints. In 1823 he was admitted to the Royal Academy School. From 1826 his pictures began to be exhibited there. In 1828, he exhibited a painting in oils at the British Institution. He initially achieved a reputation by painting scenes from the Jewish synagogue services. Hart's early works include the "Interior of a Polish Synagogue" (1830), which is in the Tate Gallery, London, the interior of Plymouth Synagogue which was built in the early 1760s, The “Elevation of the Law”, “The Interior of a Synagogue at the Time of the Reading of the Law” and “Rejoicing of the Law in the Ancient Synagogue at Leghorn”. Hart then began to work on historical subjects such as scenes which illustrated the works of Scott and Shakespeare. His Royal Academy diploma work of 1838 is a late 16th-century scene showing figures listening attentively to a reading from the works of Shakespeare. He visited Italy in 1841–1842 and made a series of drawings of historical sites and building interiors, including the "Interior of a Church in Florence," the "Interior of St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice", and "The Feast of the Rejoicing of the Law".

In 1835 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and a Royal Academician in 1840, making him the first Jew to be so honoured. Hart was an active member of the institution and by 1854 he had been appointed professor of painting, holding that office until 1863. He was the Academy's librarian from 1864 until his death, and during that time over 2,000 books were added to their collection. His paintings are displayed in many galleries, including the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, Tate and the Victoria and Albert, and British Museum.
Heyd, Uriel (1913-1968), Israeli historian of Ottoman and Turkish studies, born in Koln, Germany and who came to Palestine in 1934. After working for the political department of the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem and then in London between 1943 and 1949, he was appointed first secretary at the Israel embassy in Washington and then became counsellor of the Israeli legation in Ankara. In 1951 he was appointed to be a lecturer at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and from 1956 to 1963 he was head of the university's Institute of Oriental Studies. In 1959 he was appointed professor of Islamic history.

His main interest was in the history of the Ottoman Empire from the 16th century and the revival of Turkish nationalism. He wrote a number of books on the subject in both Hebrew and English.
Bentwich, Norman (1883-1971), jurist, scholar and Zionist leader, born in London and educated at St Paul's School in London and at Cambridge University. A brilliant student, he was awarded a scholarship for International Law. In 1908 he became a barrister and four years later in the British Colonial service he worked at the Ministry of Justice in Cairo, Egypt. In 1913 he was appointed commissioner of the courts in Egypt and was also a lecturer at the Cairo Law School. During World War I he served in the British Army in Palestine and was discharged with the rank of major.

From 1918 to 1931 Bentwich was legal secretary and then the first Attorney General of Mandatory Palestine in which capacity he modernised the country's courts and introduced British law and systems to replace the Turkish system which had been in force previously. In 1930 the Mandatory Government removed him from his position on account of his Zionist opinions, although his views were more moderate than most. He constantly advocated rapprochement between Jews and Arabs. In 1932 he became Professor of International Relations at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and held the position until 1951, when he returned to England. Between 1933 and 1935 he was appointed director of the League of Nations High Commission for Refugees from Germany.
In 1951 he was appointed to the British Foreign Office committee on Restitution in the British zone of Germany.
Within the English Jewish community Bentwich was co-editor of the "Jewish Review" 1910-1913 and again 1932-34, he was President of the Jewish Historical Society in 1960–1962, Chairman of the Friends of Hebrew University and President of London North-Western Reform Synagogue from 1958 until 1971.

He wrote many books on Zionism and Israel, on the legal system in Israel, on international relations, on Hellenism and also a number of biographies. His autobiography was published in 1961. His wife, Helene, was very active in English local government being chairman of the London County Council in 1956-1957.
Bergson, Michael (1820-1893) , composer and pianist. Born in Warsaw, Poland, he is the father of the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Michael Bergson studied piano in Dessau and in Berlin. In 1863 he became teacher at the Geneva Conservatory which he then directed until 1873, when he settled in London. There he compiled and edited synagogue music.
Bergson composed, among other works, the opera LUISA DI MONFORT (1847), the operetta QUI VA A LA CHASSE, PERD SA PLACE (1859) and the popular SCENA ED ARIA, still frequently performed by military bands. He also composed numerous piano pieces (POLONAISE HEROIQUE, 12 GRANDES ETUDES CARACTERISTIQUES) and a manual. He died in London.
Russel, Henry (1812-1900) , singer and composer. Born in Sheerness, England, he studied singing in Italy and took a few lessons from Rossini in Naples. In 1833 he went to Canada and was for several years an organist for the First Presbyterian Church of Rochester, New York. In 1841 he was back in England, where he was demanded as a composer and singer of popular music. Among his many songs were the very popular Woodman, Spare That Tree, Old Arm Chair, Oh, Weep Not and A Life On The Ocean Wave. He died in London, England. He was the father of Henry Russel, the impressario, and Sir Landon Ronald, the composer and conductor.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), psychoanalyst, born in Freiberg, Moravia (now Pribor, in the Czech Republic) as the third son of Jakob Freud, a Jewish wool merchant, and the first child of his second wife, Amalie Nathansohn. In 1859, the Freud family moved to Leipzig, Germany, but a year after, they settled in Vienna, the city where Sigmund Freud was to live for the next 78 years.

Freud graduated from the Sperl Gymnasium in 1873 and turned to medicine as a career studying at the University of Vienna. There he was in contact with Ernst von Brucke (1819-1892), a leading physiologist of his time. In 1882, Freud entered the General Hospital in Vienna as a clinical assistant and three years later was appointed lecturer in neuropathology.

Freud continued his studies of neuropathology at the Salpetriere clinic in Paris in 1885 under the guidance of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893). Freud's acquaintance with Charcot's theories and practice had a significant influence on his career helping him to concentrate his research on the mind as source of neurotic conditions rather than the brain. A short time after his return from Paris, Freud married Martha Bernays, a descendant of a famous Jewish family whose ancestors included Heinrich Heine and a chief rabbi of Hamburg.

Having settled at 19 Bergasse in Vienna, his home for more than fifty years, Freud began his collaboration with Josef Breuer (1842-1925). One of Breuer's patients, Bertha Pappenheim, or Anna O., as she is known in the psychoanalytical literature, was later instrumental in developing Freud's method of free association.

Freud's fame came with the publication in 1899 of The Interpretation of Dreams who proved to turn into one of the most influential works not only in the field of psychoanalysis, but also in many other scientific, cultural and artistic disciplines. His prolific career is illustrated by a long list of publications, among them the best known are "The Psychopathology of Everyday Life" (1904); "Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious"(1905); "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality"(1905); "The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis"(1910); "Beyond the Pleasure Principle" (1920); "The Ego and the Id" (1923). However, Freud also disclosed a keen interest in the field of sociology and social psychology, as proven by a number of significant essays: "Totem und Tabu"(1913); "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego"(1921); "The Future of an Illusion" (1927); "Civilization and Its Discontents"(1930); "Moses and Monotheism"(1938).

Freud was not a practicing Jew, but he never rejected his religion. In an interview with George Sylvester Viereck in 1926 and published a year later, Freud clearly stated his identity: "My language is German. My culture, my attainments are German. I considered myself German intellectually, until I noticed the growth of anti-Semitic prejudice in Germany and German Austria. Since that time I prefer to call myself a Jew."

Freud encountered many anti-Semitic incidents during his lifetime, but the worst occurred after the Nazis' seizure of power in Germany. Freud's books were denounced as "expressions of Jewish science" and were publicly burned as early as 1933. When Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938, Freud was forced to flee the country and with the help of friends settled in England. He died of cancer on September 23, 1939, three weeks after the outbreak of the World War II.

Conductor and composer. Jacob Hadida served as choirmaster of the Bevis Marks Synagogue between 1933 and 1937 and again from 1945 to 1954. He arranged much of the London congregation’s music and transcribed the entire choral repertoire in tonic sol-fa.
Jurist

Born in Danzig, he studied in London and went to Palestine in 1933, engaging at first in private law practice. From 1940 to 1948 he was a judge in the Haifa Magistrates Court and after 1948, a district court judge. In 1953 Landau was appointed to Israel's Supreme Court. He was the presiding judge at the 1961 Eichmann Trial, earning plaudits for his dignified and balanced conduct of the trial. He was a member of the commission of inquiry appointed by the government to look into shortcomings exposed in the Yom Kippur War. From 1980 to his retirement in 1982 he was president of the Supreme Court and received an Israel Prize in 1991. Landau was active in various public institutions including the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.
Sir and painter

Born in Bradford, he studied in London and Paris and then spent much time in Oxford. A dsitinguished impressionist, he was an official war artist in World War I and was appointed professor of civic art at the university of Sheffield. From 1920 to1935 Rothenstein was principal of London's Royal College of Art. He was again a war artist in World War II, being attached to the air force. His work included Jewish subjects and synagogue interiors. His son,Sir John Rothenstein (1901 - 1992), was director of the Tate Gallery, 1938-64.
Goldsmid, Benjamin (1755-1808), financier and philanthropist; born in Holland, eldest son of Aaron Goldsmid, a London merchant. In 1777, Benjamin and his brother Abraham established themselves in business as bill-brokers. Their means increased on the death of an uncle in Holland who bequeathed to them £15,000. The marriage of Benjamin Goldsmid to Jessie, daughter of Israel Levin Salomons with a dowry of £100,000, placed the credit of the firm on a solid footing. Large sums passed through the hands of the Goldsmids in the purchase and sale of bullion, stocks, navy and exchequer bills, and in negotiating English and foreign bills of exchange. They became the largest loan contractors of their day in England. Benjamin's great wealth brought him much social recognition, and he was intimately connected with Pitt, whose financial schemes were largely carried out through him, and with several members of the royal family, who visited him at Rochampton.

Goldsmid was the founder of the Naval Asylum, which for a time was under his management. The two brothers collected a fund for a Jewish hospital. This was never erected, but some of the money raised was used in building and endowing the Neweh Zedek, at Mile End.
Omer, Mordechai (1941-2011), internationally recognized expert in painting and Fine Art, professor at Tel Aviv University and Director of Tel Aviv Museum of Art, born in Haifa, Israel. He studied at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and Columbia University New York.

In 1964 he was apppointed director of the educational department of a Tel Aviv Art Museum and subsequently became director of the painting and sculpture section of New York's Mueum of Modern Art. At this time he prepared his master's degree under the supervision of Professor Meyer Schapiro, one of the most important scholars in the field of 20th century art history. In 1971 Omer became assistant curator of travelling exhibitions and also the prints department of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England. In 1976 Omer was appointed professor of the history of art at Tel Aviv University. The following year he became curator of the university's art galleries. From that time he was also lecturer at the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem. He was appointed chief curator and director of the Tel Aviv Museum of Art in 1995 - a post which he held until his death.

His largest and most important project was the new wing, the Herta and Paul Amir building, at the museum which was was to open in October 2011. It houses a chronological history of Israeli art. Probably his great contribution to Israeli art was the encouragement he gave to young artists by exhibiting their work alongside established and well-known artists. Omer was a pioneer in developing the idea of conceptualization of research of Israeli art as opposed to reading it merely as a historical narrative. Several of the exhibitions which he arranged such as “The column in contemporary Israeli sculpture” (1990), and “The presence of the absent: The empty chair in Israeli art” (1991) illustrate this line of thinking.

Omer was also a prolific writer. He personally wrote many of the museum's catalogues and also several books including one on Israel's famous artist Menashe Kadishman and two about British painter JMW Turner.
Aguilar, Emanuel Abraham (1824-1904) pianist and composer. Born in London, England, Aguilar studied music in Frankfurt, Germany. He enjoyed considerable success as his pieces were frequently performed. In 1848 Aguilar returned to London and devoted himself to teaching.
His compositions include two operas, three symphonies and a set of preparatory pieces for Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier. He also noted down the melodies of the Amsterdam Sephardi tradition as sung by David Aaron De Sola, and harmonized De Sola’s Ancient Melodies of the Liturgy of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. He died in London, England.
Aubrac, Raymond (1915-2012), French resistance fighter born Raymond Samuel who became a French Resistance leader during World War II and subsequently escaped Gestapo torturers with help from his pregnant wife - an episode that became one of the best known triumphs of the French underground.

Samuel was born to a Jewish family in Vesoul, in northeastern France. He studied engineering in France and also at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His parents were murdered in Auschwitz. The family lived in the city of Lyon, which was controlled by the pro-Nazi Vichy government after the German invasion in 1940. Samuel and his wife Lucie joined the Resistance movement. “Aubrac” was his alias. Together the couple helped to found the Liberation Sud. In 1943 they attended a meeting which was betrayed to the Gestapo. The men were interrogated and tortured by the infamous Barbi (the butcher of Lyons). Aubrac was sentenced to death, but before the sentence was carried out his four months pregnant wife bribed a Nazi official to enable her to see him one last time. On the way back to prison, as she had planned, his truck was ambushed by the Resistance, several Gestapo officials were killed while Aubrac and a number of his colleagues escaped.

The couple, along with their son, Jean-Pierre, was flown to London. Their daughter Catherine was born a few days after their arrival. Aubrac worked in England for de Gaulle’s government-in-exile before returning to France and becoming a high-ranking official in Marseille after the war. Involved in left wing activities Aubrac hosted Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh in 1946, when the latter visited Paris in order to seek his country’s independence from France. At least twice during the U.S.-Vietnam War Aubrac was used as a go-between for communication with Ho Chi Minh. He pushed for the establishment of closer economic ties between France and Communist nations. For a time he was an official with the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome.
Szomory (Schlesinger), Dezsdo (1869-1944), author, essayist and playwright born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He studied music and, while still a child, played before Franz Liszt.

As a young man he visited Paris. Failure to register with his consulate for military service in peacetime branded him, according to the laws of Austria-Hungary, as a deserter and banned him from his country. Thus he spent twenty years mostly in Paris, and partly also in London, earning his living as a foreign correspondent. While in Paris, he was considered a disciple of the contemporary naturalist movement, but he only developed as a writer after returning to Hungary.

Szomory evolved an elaborate and at times an over-elegant and artificial style in the decadent fin-de-siecle tradition. One of Szomory's outstanding prose work is "A parizsi regeny" ("Paris Romance", 1929). He also dealt with Jewish subjects, especially Jewish provincial life, but most of his works about Jews, such as the drama "Pentek este" ("Friday Night", 1896), were aimed at Jewish readers only. A successful dramatist, he wrote plays on social problems, themes which were also reflected in his historical plays, such as "Maria Antonia", "Emperor Joseph II", and "King Louis II". His works include the short story collection "Elbukottak" ("Those Who Failed", 1892); "Az isteni kert" ("Divine Garden", 1910); "A pekne" ("The Baker's Wife", 1916), and "Levelek egy baratnomhoz" ("Letters to a Lady Friend", 1927). His plays include "Bella" (1913), "Takats Alice" (1930), and "Szegedy Annie" (1931).

During the Nazi regime, Szomory continued to live in Hungary and died of famine during the siege of Budapest in 1944.
Abrahamsky, Yehezkel (1886-1976). He was a Talmudic scholar and considered by many to be one of the world leading Orthodox rabbis of the 20th century. Abrahamsky was born near Grodno then Lithuania (now in Belarus), the son of a local timber merchant. He studied in the yeshivot of Telz, Mir, Slobodka and Brisk under Rabbi Chaim Soloveichik. He also studied under Rabbi Haim Ozer Grodenzki of Vilna. He was ordained as a rabbi at the age of 17 and served in Smolensk and Slutsk. During World War I and the early 1920's, he went from place to place in Russia (and the Soviet Union, as it became) seeking to strengthen Jewish observance. In 1926 and again in 1928 he applied for permission to leave the Soviet Union to take up a rabbinical position in Petach Tikva, Eretz Israel – but on both occasions he was refused. In 1928, to his surprise the Soviets allowed him to start a Hebrew magazine, Yagdil Torah, but it was closed down after two issues. In 1929 he was arrested as a "counter revolutionary" (1930), and was sentenced to a term of hard labour in Siberia. Two years later, he was released with the help of his wife and friends, and went to London, England.

In London Abrahamsky was first appointed rabbi of the Machzike Hadath congregation. In 1934 he was made senior dayan of the London Beth Din, a position which he held until 1951. The appointment of an Eastern European traditional rabbi to the London Beth Din was a departure which changed the character of the organization and the leadership of Anglo-Jewry. In 1951 he moved to Israel where he became member of the Moetzet Gedolei ha-Torah, the supervisory rabbinical body of of Agudat Israel and served as Rosh Yeshiva of the Slobodka yeshiva in Bnei Brak.

He was a profuse writer and was awarded the Israel Prize for his rabbinical literature in 1955. Some of his responsa were published in London (1937). His most important work was "Hazon Yehezkel", a 24 volume commentary on the Tosefta written between 1925 and 1975.
Cassirer, Henry Heiner (1911-2004), journalist and writer, the son of art dealer Kurt Hans Cassirer (1883-1975), and his wife Eva Solmitz and grandson of industrialist Max Cassirer (1857-1943), born in Berlin, Germany.He spent his childhood with his aunt Edith, who was married to the reform teacher Paul Geheeb. He attended the Odenwald School near Frankfurt. funded by his grandfather Max Cassirer and run by his aunt.

Cassirer fled to London, England, in 1936, studied at the London School of Economics and after graduation worked at the BBC for its services in German. In 1939 it was he who broadcast to Germany that Britain had declared war to the Third Reich. In 1940 he emigrated to the U.S. and worked at CBS. After a program about the UN Charter of Human Rights, he was approached by the UN and in 1948 he became the director of the Department of Education and Broadcasting of the new cultural organization UNESCO in Paris. He became Honorary President of the French organization for the disabled GIHP as he himself was partially paralysed after a visit to India in 1956.

He considered himself a citizen of the world, and always refused to consider himself a German, or a Jew. He wrote a number of books on communications, broadcasting and education.
Goldsmid, Albert Edward Williamson (1846-1904), Colonel in the British army, born at Puna, India. He enlisted in the British army in 1866, was promoted to the rank of captain in 1878, to major in 1883, lieutenant-colonel in 1888, and finally colonel in 1894. His father and maternal grandfather were born Jewish, but had converted to Christianity in order to achieve the social and economic opportunities which were denied to Jews. As an adult, when he became attracted by Jewish culture and by Zionism, Goldsmid formally converted to Judaism and always maintained that being Jewish had not impinged upon his military career. Goldsmid's wife, Ida Stewart Hendriks, was also a convert to Judaism; she had been raised a Christian by her Protestant mother and Jewish-born father.

In 1892 Colonel Goldsmid was selected by Baron de Hirsch to supervise the colonies in Argentina, but resigned from the position when he was appointed to become colonel-in-command of the Welsh regimental district at Cardiff in 1894. In 1899, he acted as chief staff-officer at the camp at the Aldershot base near London, and was entrusted with the duties of mobilization. In 1899, when the sixth division of the South-African field force was mobilized for service in the Boer War, Goldsmid was selected to be chief staff-officer to General Kelly-Kenny with the grade of assistant adjutant-general, and in that capacity was present at the battle of Paardeberg. During the earlier stages of the war, he was commandant of the Orange River, Herbert, and Hay districts. Goldsmid was the highest ranking Jewish officer in the British Army in the 19th century.

Colonel Goldsmid became an ardent Zionist, and was head of the Hovevei Zion movement of Great Britain and Ireland. From 1896-1904 he was associated with Theodor Herzl as the head of the British Zionist movement and the key contact in the failed Zionist effort to establish a British Zionist protectorate in the Northern Sinai area of El Arish. He was one of the founders of both the Jewish Lads' Brigade and of the Maccabeans, of which he became president in 1903.
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United Kingdom

United Kingdom of of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK), also known as Britain, Great Britain.
A country in northwestern Europe.

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 290,000 out of 66,500,000. The fifth largest Jewish community in the world and the second largest in Europe. Main umbrella organization for over 300 Jewish communities and organizations:

Board of Deputies of British Jews (BOD)

Telephone: 44(0) 207 543 5400
Fax: 44(0) 207 543 0010
Email: info@bod.org.uk
Website: www.bod.org.uk

 

HISTORY

The Jews of Britain

1066 | William the Conqueror, a Bastard Risen to Greatness

The first documented presence of Jews on British soils dates to the 11th century, when the island was invaded by Duke William of Normandy, also known as “William the Bastard”.
William was the illegitimate son of Robert the Magnificent, who was said to have changed wives at the same alarming rate by which he chopped off heads.
To improve his financial situation, William brought Jews from France with him, hoping they would shore up the economic situation of his newly won kingdom. William's hope rested on the reputation Jews held at the time as skilled merchants, mostly due to the firm trade ties established through the inter-communal Jewish framework of the Middle Ages.


1135 | The Fine Test

In the medieval culture, the test for the financial strength of a community was the size of the fine it was able to withstand. The fine test was passed by the Jewish community in England with great success when in 1135, some 60 years after Jews began settling in Britain, it paid the Crown approximately 2,000 pounds, a legendary sum in those days. In addition, around that time Jews began to settle outside of London as well – testimony to the stability of their political and social status.

1144 | London Justice

The many internecine wars that raged in England significantly increased the demand for cash. And so Jewish business magnates, who were endowed with a fine sense for profit and available capital began lending large sums to knights and nobles with a desire for armaments.
At that time, the legal status of the Jews was stable: They enjoyed special privileges that granted them preferred status, which for instance exempted them from delightful judicial procedures such as “the ordeal of fire and water.” This was a common medieval punishment, in which suspects were tossed from a cliff bound hands and feet. If they drowned, they were pronounced innocent. If they managed to escape their shackles – they were executed by hanging or burning at the stake. London justice, indeed.
But ironically, it was in this relatively Jew-friendly climate that the first blood libel of the Middle Ages was made: a Christian child was found dead in the city of Norwich, and the Jews of that town were accused of using his blood for celebrating Passover.


1255 | Usury Shalt Thou Following

The blood libels against the Jews became evermore popular in England and all over Europe, finding their way into art and literature as well. In these works Jews were depicted as demonic, cursed beings, as “usurers” and “heinous money grubbers”. Examples abound in popular literature, in one folk tale the protagonist is a Jewish child who partakes in the Easter prayers and is punished by his father, who throws him into a furnace. Another example is the play “The Jew's Daughter,” which is based on a Scottish ballad written in 1255, and which was inspired in turn by a blood libel surrounding the death of a Christian child known as “Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln”. In the play, a retelling of the Garden of Eden story, Eve is a Jewish girl who seduces an innocent Christian boy with an apple and stabs him to death.

1269 | “The Jewish Problem” a-la Cecil Roth

The status of the Jews of England as holders of a special economic status was a double-edged sword, which aroused the fury of the masses. This slippery slope, which ended with the expulsion of Jews from England in 1290, began with the imposition of the tallage, which completely impoverished the Jews. Just to illustrate the scale of these measures, between 1240-1260 alone King Henry III of England received the enormous sum of 100,000 gold and silver bars from rich Jewish traders. Between 1269 and 1275 King Edward I published a series of laws which severely limited the financial activities of the Jews and eventually completely forbade them to lend money at interest. Many historians, among them Cecil Roth, believed that the root of the edicts was “The Jewish Problem”. The Jews, Roth argued, were trapped in a classic catch-22: On one hand, the Christian faith prohibits lending money at interest, and on the other hand, the Jewish community was banned from any other source of livelihood.

1290 | The First Great Expulsion

Contrary to prevalent belief, the first massive expulsion of Jews did not take place in Spain, but rather in England, 202 years earlier. Ironically, the reason Jews migrated to England in the first place was also the reason for their expulsion: money.
The story goes as follows: Edward I, King of England at the time, found himself in dire need of cash as most of his money was sunk into the defense of the territories of southwestern France, then under control of the English Crown, from the aggression of the kings of France. In those days the kings had a sort of trick to levy money from the people, known as a “voluntary tax”. The usual excuse for levying the money from the people in this manner had to do with security and defense, and when the king was at war the option of refusing to “volunteer” the tax did not exist. However, this king's problem was that at this particular time England had no serious security threats. What did Edward I do? He invented enemies; specifically, the Jews.
Therefore, under the pretense that they were enemies of the Crown, the king issued an edict of expulsion against the entire Jewish community on July 18th 1290. It is important to note that the king did not need to exert himself overmuch in persuading the English people on this issue. At the time hatred of Jews was practically legal tender – valued at 116,000 sterling pounds, to be precise, which was the tax amount received from the people in exchange for this expulsion – the single largest tax levied anywhere in the Middle Ages in Europe. The fact that the Jewish community was already impoverished anyway due to the heavy taxes laid upon on it was another reason for their expulsion.
Despite the expulsion, historians report that a small hidden Jewish community remained in England and survived for 350 years. It was so well-hidden, that King Henry V (1386-1422) had no idea that 20 Jewish musicians lived in his court.


1450 | Long Before Eliezer Ben Yehuda

In the mid-17th century the negative stereotype of the Jews began to crack, thanks to the rise of the Protestant movement and the revival in faith in the Old Testament.
The Protestants believed that in order to read the Old Testament meaningfully, one must know the book's original language, Hebrew. They believed that the Hebrew language held a code to understanding the true nature of divine reality. This view led to renewed sympathy for the Jewish people, for having preserved the Old Testament and its original language.
The Hebrew words ויהי אור – "Let there be light" – which appear in the biblical creation story were endowed with new religious significance. From now on the Jews were not only those held responsible for the death of Jesus, but also the keepers of the “Hebrew truth” - the tongue that speaks the divine reality.
Proof of the popularity of the ancient language can be found in a decision by King Henry VIII to endow two special university chairs for the study of Hebrew.


1655 | Herzl, Corner of Ben Israel

Rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel (born as Manoel Dias Soeiro), a preacher and writer of important reference books, was in a way an early version of the Visionary of the State of Israel, Theodore Herzl. Like Herzl, he too devoted his life to a solution of “The Jewish Problem” among world leaders, and like Herzl, he ended tragically as well. But unlike Herzl, who aimed eastward, to the Holy Land, Ben Israel aimed west, to the land of restrained manners and subtle humor: England.
The reason that Ben Israel - who was born on Madeira Island, in the Kingdom of Portugal, and grew up in the Netherlands - looked to England was his belief that when the Messiah comes, Jews would be everywhere in the world, and to that end that they needed to return to England, from whence they had been been expelled some 250 years earlier”
This belief coincided perfectly with history, as a popular Christian belief held that Judgment Day was to arrive ten years from that time – in 1666. Ben Israel exploited the mystical time-frame afforded to him by history in order to make history.
On September 22nd 1655 he appealed to Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Great Britain at the time, and presented him with the request to allow the Jews driven away in the great expulsion to return to Britain.
Cromwell received Ben Israel with open arms, and one can readily understand why: In those days the English people were greatly occupied with issues of human liberty and freedom of religion. This fact, alongside the revival of the Hebrew language and the partial signs of sympathy towards Jewish culture, created an opening for discussing the return of the Jews. Ben Israel's great achievement was the convening of the Whitehall Convention, which met in London and discussed the return of the Jews for the first time in centuries.


1663 | Anti-Semitic Hysteria, Taken to Extremes

The members of the Whitehall Convention, which met in London to discuss the issue of allowing the Jews to return to England, eventually rejected the idea. The reasons, as usual, were anti-Semitic: The corrupting Jewish capital, fear of the Jewish faith and mostly the concern that Jews would bring back the custom of animal sacrifice to Britain - a most ludicrous fear, seeing as this ritual had been discontinued, as is well known, some 1,500 years prior.
And yet a small Jewish community began to form in Britain, consisting mostly of Jews whose ancestors were expelled from Spain in 1492. The community integrated into the English social fabric, its members built a Jewish cemetery, renovated the synagogue in the borough of Carterhatch Lane, and some were even granted licenses to work as brokers at the London Stock Exchange. Various scholars believe that many of the community's achievements are due to the work of Menasseh Ben Israel, who half a century before laid the “Jewish Question” before the British government.
Ben Israel died, broken and dejected, in 1657, en-route from London to Amsterdam to attend to funeral of his son, without living to witness the rebirth of the Jewish community in England.


1700 | The First Jewish Knight

Archbishop Archibald Campbell Tate, Head of the Anglican Church in the 19th century, once said of change that at first it is said to be impossible, then illegal, and finally the way things have always been. The return of the Jews to Britain after the great expulsion is a classic example of this witty British observation.
Ironically, it was the fact that the British refused to recognize the Jews as a separate entity, and thus for example did not push them into ghettos, that accelerated their natural integration into society. Slowly the Jews were accorded civil status. Among other rights, they were allowed to testify in court and swear on the Hebrew Bible (1667), to practice their religious rituals – a right not extended to other religious minorities (1673) – and to build a magnificent synagogue at Bevis Marks, which still stands in splendor to this day.
A symbolic, yet highly significant proof of the marked improvement in the status of the Jews was given in the year 1700, when the Jew Solomon de Medina was knighted by King William III.


1753 | The Jewish Law

The fact that the Jewish Naturalization Act, known colloquially as “The Jew Bill”, nearly passed in the British Parliament in 1753 should give pause to Francophile historians, who argue with great academic fervor that the gospel of liberalism only reached England 35 years later, from the land of champagne and refined taste.
The law, which proposed that Jews be eligible for British citizenship even without pledging allegiance to the Anglican Church, did pass in Parliament initially, but it triggered a public uproar which produced plenty of stereotypical cartoons in the press and myriad riots.
According to American historian Thomas Perry, the anti-Semitic motivation for rejecting the bill was marginal in the scheme of things. The main reason, he holds, was bad timing: The Jews found themselves trapped in the middle of a deadly political clash between the two rival parties in Parliament: The liberal Whigs and the conservative Tories. Both parties exploited the riots triggered by the law for political gain, and thus prevented a formative historic milestone in the annals of the Chosen People in particular and world humanism in general.


1858 | Tolerance Is All You Need

John Locke, the British philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political thought, stated that religious faith is no justification for the withholding of political rights. Which is to say, that Church and State must be separated. This statement caused a true revolution of conscience in the Christian religious climate, especially when applied to the Jewish faith, which had regularly served as the perfect antagonist to Christian Europe.
In 1858, buoyed by the waves of Enlightenment, the Jews were granted an exemption from swearing allegiance to the Anglican Church and were also granted basic civil rights, including the right to be appointed to public office, to be granted academic titles, the recognition of Jewish marriage and more. During this time the Board of Deputies of British Jews was formed, an important Jewish organization consisting of the representatives of the more distinguished families, which focused on promoting the Jewish community's interests. The central figure of the Board and its first chairman was Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, “The Philanthropist”, who in 1837 was appointed as Sheriff of London, an office equivalent to Deputy Mayor today. In addition, as implied above, Montefiore was knighted by Queen Victoria. Later on Montefiore would become enshrined in the annals of Zionism when he funded the establishment of the first Jewish neighborhoods in Jerusalem outside the walls of the Old City, as well as the founding of the first Agronomy school in the Promised Land, Mikveh Israel.
Montefiore, and soon after Lionel de Rothschild, elected in 1847 to the British Parliament, were the first signs of British spring in regard to the Jews.
Two other Jewish figures to win glory in Great Britain were the Jewish-English boxer Daniel Mendoza, considered the founder of scientific boxing – a method that allowed such a modest-sized man (all of 70 kg, or 154 lbs) to successfully overcome giants weighing in at 100 kg – and of course Benjamin Disraeli, the Prime Minister of Britain, who although he converted to Christianity, remained proud of his Jewish heritage to the end of his days. When a political adversary referred derogatorily to his Jewish ancestry during a debate at the House of Commons, Disraeli famously replied: “Yes, I am a Jew, and while the ancestors of the right honorable gentleman were brutal savages in an unknown island, mine were priests in the Temple of Solomon.”
Towards the end of the 19th century, following the pogroms in Eastern Europe, some 300,000 Jews migrated to Britain, and in time became a majority of British Jews.
The lion's share of these immigrants lived in London's East End, where they maintained a Jewish lifestyle apart from the general British society. These Jewish immigrants lived in great poverty, and the average number of children per family was 7.2, twice the British average at the time. Over the years, these Jews integrated into society at large, and within two generation had blended into all walks of life – from the financial elite to key positions in the public service.


1917 | L'Chaim!

Every country has its own independence myth. The Americans cherish the memory of the “Boston Tea Party”, the French have the Bastille and Israelis have the Balfour Declaration. And indeed, it is difficult to discuss the Jews of Britain in the early 20th century without mentioning the Balfour Declaration. The story of this seminal diplomatic moment involved a doctor of chemistry, corn, and Britain's munitions crisis.
The story begins with Chaim Weizmann, a Zionist activist and a gifted chemist, who managed to produce acetone, a vital ingredient in the production of explosives, through a biochemical fermentation process of various plants, among them corn. This invention saved the British Naval Command from a critical munitions crisis, and cleared Weizmann's path to high places in the British establishment.
Weizmann's diplomatic efforts paved the way for the famous declaration by British Foreign Secretary Lord Arthur Balfour, who promised to grant a national homeland to the Jewish People in the Land of Israel.
The ties between the Jews of Britain and the British Empire grew ever tighter in those years. During WW1, for instance, some 50,000 Jews served in the British military. Approximately 10,000 of them lost their lives on the killing fields. During that time the Hebrew Battalions were also established, and took part in conquering the Land of Israel from the Ottoman forces.
Britain received a mandate to govern Palestine/Eretz Israel, and the members of the Zionist Movement in Britain fought tirelessly against the British policy of restricting Jewish immigration to the Promised Land, as set forth in the “White Papers”. The impact of British Jews on achieving the historic aims of the Zionist endeavor was crucial.


1939 | The Kinder Transport

Within the great darkness of Nazi Europe a few light-beams of human solidarity shone through. One of these was the “kinder transport” - the rescue operation of Jewish children from Germany, planned and executed by the initiative of the Jewish community of Britain and with the help of the British government.
Immediately following Kristallnacht, Jews all over Germany began seeking ways to get their children out of Europe. The Jewish organizations of Britain enlisted in this effort, and applied political pressure on their government to allow the refugees to enter. The British government acceded to the request of the Jewish community, and in an operation later to be dubbed “The Kinder Transport” over 7,000 Jewish children reached the shores of Britain. The British government even went so far as to call upon British families to take the young refugees into their homes.
An amusing essay written by one of the refugee children offers a glimpse into the experience of finding oneself at a young age in totally unfamiliar surroundings. Even in the midst of a tragedy, children are the most astute observers of reality.
This is what the boy wrote:
The English live in strange, fragile houses
They don't have automatic dialing outside of London
They drink a strange liquid that looks like coffee, tastes like poison and they call it tea.
They've never heard of double-pane windows.
They let 90% of the fire go up the chimney.


1991 | 150 Years of Making Headlines

In 1991 the “Jewish Chronicle”, the famous Jewish weekly founded in London, celebrated a century and a half of continuous operation. The Chronicle serves to this day as a sort of seismograph indicating cultural and political shifts among British Jews in particular and European Jews in general. More than once, the publication actively set the agenda of the European Jewish community in the modern era. Its standing, influence and values have embodied the principles of the free world on one hand and the maintenance of a unique Jewish identity on the other, and still do. Its editorials and op-eds have reflected the shift in the Jewish community of Britain from an established Victorian society to a raucous immigrant one, unique in character, language and customs.
Among its seminal reports was a series of magazine specials titled “Dark Russia – A Persecution Journal .” In 1881 this series exposed the pogroms taking place against Jews in Tzarist Russia, which led to a massive wave of Jewish immigration from Russia to Britain. The weekly also published Herzl's article “A Solution to the Jewish Question”, in which the Visionary of the State first addressed the Jewish issue. Yet more proof of the periodical's power is the fact that the British government postponed the publication of the Balfour Declaration by a day just so that the Jewish Chronicle could report it at the same time as the daily press.


2014 | An Empty Trough

In the new millennium the Jewish community in Britain faces an empty trough. On one hand, it is flourishing and numbers over 250,000 people. On the other, its power as a community, as well as its political influence, are continually dwindling due to the phenomenon of assimilation. One of the reasons for this is the reduced numbers of leaders with deep Jewish awareness, such as those who had grown among the immigrants from Eastern Europe in previous generations. This spiritual pool is emptying fast .
Most British Jews currently reside in London, but there are large communities in Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham and Liverpool as well. Approximately one third of British Jews describe themselves as secular, and the rest are divided among three main groups: The Liberal Congregation, the Reform Congregation, and the Sephardi Congregation. Some 10% of British Jews are Ultra-Orthodox (Haredi).

Zilina

Hung. Zsolna, Ger. Sillein

Town in north-western Slovakia.

After the repulsion of the Tatar invasion in the 13th century, King Bela IV of Hungary elevated Zilina to the status of a royal city and invited Jews and Germans to the abandoned and depopulated town, granting them certain important privileges. The town later suffered severely from various vicissitudes and was repeatedly burned down; the town archives therefore retain no documents concerning Jewish life there in this period.

Despite the Toleranzpatent issued by Joseph II the municipality gave no permission to Jews to settle in Zilina in the early 19th century, and they were only allowed to visit markets and fairs. Nevertheless, some Jewish families were living in Zilina in 1840. An organized community was formed in 1852, with 52 members. A synagogue was opened in 1861, a school in 1860, and a chevra kaddisha (burial society) in 1865. After Zilina became an important railway center an increasing number of Jewish families settled there. Jews took a major role in the rapid development of business and industry, establishing, among other enterprises, a factory for cellulose and textile factories. Through Jewish initiative Zilina became the center of the timber trade in Slovakia.

Arnold Kiss, the noted rabbi of Buda, officiated for a short while in Zilina. The community was Neologist. David Friedmann served as rabbi from 1902. After his death in 1934 he was replaced by Hugo Stransky, who left for London in 1938. His successor, E. Lichtenstein, perished in the Holocaust. A new synagogue, one of the most beautiful in Czechoslovakia, was built in 1934. In 1929 the Orthodox minority seceded from the community and established a separate congregation. The last rabbi was Martin (Mordechai) Klein, a noted Talmudist. He returned to Zilina after the Holocaust, and died soon afterward. Zilina was one of the centers of Zionist activity in Slovakia after World War I.

During World War II, in 1942, the Slovak Fascist government established a transit concentration camp at Zilina; many thousands of Jews passed through this anteroom to hell to death camps in Poland. After the war some 700 Jewish survivors returned to Zilina, out of the 3,500 living there before World War II. About 400 of them left for Israel or other countries before 1950; others moved to the capital or crossed the borders in 1968 after the Russian invasion of Czechoslovakia. In 1971 only some dozens of Jews, mostly of advanced age, were living in Zilina. Although the community was officially recorded as the main Jewish center for northern Slovakia, there was little congregational life there.

Birmingham

A major city in West Midlands region in England, UK.

The Jewish community there is believed to have come into existence around 1730. The early Jewish settlers included peddlers who used Birmingham as a base. The first known Birmingham glass furnace was set up by Meyer Oppenheim (or Opnaim) in or about 1760. In 1783 a synagogue existed in "The Froggery." A new synagogue, constructed in Severn street in 1809, was wrecked in the riots of 1813 along with the nonconformist chapels but was rebuilt and enlarged in 1827. Internecine strife at this period resulted in the formation of a second congregation, but the two groups united to build the Singers Hill Synagogue, consecrated in 1856, and still in use. There were then about 700 Jews in Birmingham. The Jewish community included jewelers, merchants, and manufacturers.

In the 20th century Jews were leading figures in property development and in the entertainment world. On the other hand, immigration from Eastern Europe affected Birmingham less than other large cities.

Rabbis of the community included M.J. Raphall (1841--49) and George J. Emanuel (1863--1911), succeeded by Abraham Cohen (1913--49).To serve the east European Jews who settled in Birmingham, a bet midrash was opened in 1901, which later became the central synagogue. The Hebrew Philanthropic Society, established in 1838, and the Board of Guardians, in 1870 were consolidated in 1926 in the Birmingham United Jewish Benevolent Board. The Birmingham Jewish Representative Council was established in 1937.

Jews have played a prominent part in the civic and business life of Birmingham. Sir David Davis served as lord mayor in 1922 and 1923, as did Louis glass in 1963--64.

Birmingham, whose Jewish population numbered approximately 6,300 in 1967, had the lowest percentage of Jews of any great city in England.

By the mid 1990's the Jewish population had dropped to approximately 3,000, while in the 2001 British census, which asked an optional question about the religious affiliation of respondents for the first time, found 2,340 declared Jews in Birmingham, although the actual figure was probably still about 3,000.

In 2004, Birmingham had two Orthodox synagogues and a Reform temple, a Shehitah board, and other local institutions.