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קהילת יהודי פרייבורג אים ברייזגאו

פרייבורג אים ברייזגאו FREIBURG

עיר במחוז באדן, גרמניה.


הקהילה היהודית

קהילה יהודית עתיקה הייתב בפרייבורג. במחצית השנייה של המאה ה-13 נאסרו בני-הקהילה ושוחררו לאחר זמן. וב-1300 אושרו זכויותיהם במקום.

בינואר 1339, בפרעות "המגיפה השחורה", הואשמו יהודי פרייבורג בגרימת המגיפה והוצאו להורג בשריפה. נשים הרות וילדים הושארו בחיים. כעבור עשר שנים הותר ליהודים לחזור לעיר, ובסוף המאה נגזר עליהם ללבוש לבוש מיוחד בצבע כהה, ולא לצאת מפתח ביתם בשבוע הפסחא.

ב-1401 גורשו היהודים מן העיר, והוסיפו להתגורר בכפרים הסמוכים; ב-1453 נאסר עליהם לסחור עם אנשי העיר. האיסור בוטל רק בתחילת המאה ה-17, ואז הותר לסוחרים יהודים להיכנס לעיר בליווי שוטר.

במשך המאה ה- 18 לא ישבו יהודים בעיר, אולם בשנת 1719 יהודי אחד סיים לימודי רפואה באונברסיטת פרייבורג.

באמצע המאה ה-19 ישבו בעיר 20 יהודים, ושנה לאחר פירסום חוק האמנציפאציה במדינת באדן התארגנה הקהילה רשמית (1863). ראשון הרבנים בה היה אדולף לוין; אחריו כיהנו מאכס אשלבאכר ויוליוס צימלס. היינריך רוזן (1927-1855), מיהודי פרייבורג, שנודע כחוקר תורת המשפט, היה פעיל גם בחיי הקהילה.

באוניברסיטה המקומית בלטו הפילוסוף היהודי אדמונד הוסרל, הכלכלן רוברט ליפמן, המשפטן אוטו לנל, הפאפירולוג פריץ פרינגסהיים והביוכימאי זיגפריד טאנהויזר. כולם סולקו ממשרותיהם בשנים 1935-1933, אחרי עליית הנאצים לשלטון בגרמניה.


ב-1933 עוד ישבו בעיר 1,138 יהודים; במאי 1939 מנו 474 נפש, וזה בערך היה מספרם כשפרצה מלחמת העולם השנייה (ספטמבר 1939).


תקופת השואה


ב-1940 גורשו 350 מיהודי פרייבורג למחנה גירס שבצרפת, ועד 1942 שולחו ממחנה גירס למחנות השמדה במזרח אירופה, גם 41 היהודים שנשארו עד אז בפרייבורג שולחו מזרחה.

הקהילה היהודית אחרי המלחמה


אחרי המלחמה חזרו 15 יהודים לפרייבורג. במקומו של בית-הכנסת הגדול, שנחנך ב-1885 ונהרס בידי הנאצים ב-1938, העמידו לוח-זכרון. ועם הזמן התיישבו יהודים נוספים בעיר.

בשנת 1960 ישבו בעיר 111 יהודים, וב-1986 התגוררו בה 225 יהודים.

בית-כנסת חדש נחנך כבר ב-1953, וכתב-עת לטיפוח ההבנה בין יהודים ונוצרים, בשם "פרייבורגר רונדבריף", יצא לאור בשנות הששים.

הקהילה היהודית בשנות ה - 2000

בשנת 2005 לפי נתוני הארגונים היהודיים מנתה הקהילה כ - 700 נפש , רובם יוצאי ברית המועצות לשעבר . בשנת 1998 נוסדה קהילה נוספת פרוגרסיבית , שמנתה בשנת 2004 כ - 30 חברים .בשנת 1987 נחנכו מרכז קהילתי , בית כנסת , מקווה ודלתות בית הכנסת הישן שולבו בחדש לזיכרון . בנוסף הוצב שלט זיכרון באתר בית הכנסת שחרב בשואה .

בעיר יש שני בתי עלמין - ישן שעדיין מתפקד וגם חדש . בבית העלמין הישן נבנו אנדרטאות זיכרון לחיילים היהודיים שנפלו במלחמת העולם הראשונה וגם לנרצחי השואה .

בעיר יוצא עלון עירוני המוקדש להבנות בין הקהילה הנוצרית והקהילה היהודית .

על המדרכות בעיר מפוזרים אריחי הנצחה של האמן גונטר דמינג --השטולפרשטין . זהו מפעל הנצחה בעשרות ערים ועיירות בגרמניה .

מאז שנת 2011 ישנו לחם כשר ממאפיה מקומית ומתאפשרת קניית מוצרי מזון כשרים .

 

 

 

 

סוג מקום:
עיר
מספר פריט:
243772
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:
Jurist

Born in Freiburg. in 1926 he became assistant to the state attorney in Berlin, then a judge, and was a senior adviser in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. He demanded that Hitler be tried for treason and that the Nazi party be disbanded. When Hitler came to power, Kempner was arrested and on his release went to Italy where he taught until 1939. Then going to the United States, Kempner became a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania and worked on the Manhattan (atom bomb) Project. From 1946 to 1949 he was chief prosecutor of the Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. Thereafter he devoted himself to Holocaust research and helped the Israel government assemble evidence against Adolf Eichmann. He wrote many books on the Nazi era and connected post-War subjects.
Haas, Ludwig (1875-1930), politician, born and educated in Freiburg, Germany. He founded a Jewish students society in the town. He practiced law in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he was also elected to be a city councillor in 1908. He was to be a member of the city council until 1919. In 1912 he was elected a member of the Reichstag to represent the Progressive People's Party. Haas served in the German army during World War I and was decorated for his bravery on the Western Front. At the end of 1915 he became head of the Jewish section of the German military government of occupied Poland and worked to reorganize the Polish Jewish community and to formalize its relationship with the central government.

After the 1918 revolution in Germany, Haas became minister of the interior of the first republican government of Baden. He became chairman of the Progressive People's Party in the Reichstag in 1929. He was active in the Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, an organization dedicated to protecting the civil and social rights of Jews in Germany while at the same time, cultivating their German identity. The organization tried to combat anti-Semitism by showing that Jews were merely a religious group with no national characteristics or ambitions.
ורבורג, אוטו (1883- 1970), רופא, חתן פרס נובל, פיענח את התהליכים הכימיים של הנשימה, אשר נולד בפרייבורג שבבריסגאו, גרמניה, בשנת 1883.

ורבורג למד בברלין ואחר כך קיבל דוקטורט ברפואה מאוניברסיטת היילדלברג, גרמניה, בשנת 1911.

בשנת 1931 הוענק לו פרס נובל לרפואה ופיזיולוגיה, "בעבור גילוי טבעו ודרך פעולתו של אנזים הנשימה". כמו-כן, פיתח ורבורג את שיטת המנומטריה למדידת תוצרים של תהליכים ביולוגיים.

בזמן המשטר הנאצי, ורבורג נחשב ל"חצי-יהודי", על פי החקיקה הגזענית. מעמד זה איפשר לו להישאר בברלין, ולאחר מכן בכפר קטן לשם העביר את המעבדה שלו בגלל הפצצות האוויר על ברלין בזמן מלחמת העולם השנייה.
Legal scholar

Born in Freiburg, he was early a scholar of the classics and Talmud. He studied music and literature in Paris and Roman law in Freiburg and Goettingen. Daube taught law at Cambridge, England, 1938-51, was professor of jurisprudence at Aberdeen 1951-55 and Regius Professor of Civil Law at Oxford from 1955 to 1970 when he went as professor to the University of California at Berkeley. A world authority on Roman law, he also wrote important studies on biblical and talmudic law.
Hevesy, George Charles de (1885-1966), chemist, isotopes pioneer, and Nobel Prize winner, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), to a Roman Catholic family of Hungarian Jewish descent. He studied in Budapest and in Freiburg. In 1908, after obtaining his doctorate at Freiburg, he worked with Lorenz at the Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerlan, with Haber at Karlsruhe, and with Rutherford in Manchester, England. In 1913 he started to work with F. Paneth in Vienna, Austria, on radioactive isotopes. This was the beginning of the use of radioactive tracers or "labeled atoms," an important tool in chemical and biological research. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hevesy joined the Austro-Hungarian army as technical supervisor of the state electrochemical plant in the Carpathians. After the war he returned to Budapest and during the revolution of 1918-19 he resumed his studies of isotope tracers.

In 1920 he joined Niels Bohr at the new institute of theoretical physics in Copenhagen. There, together with D. Coster, he discovered a new element, no. 72, which he called hafnium. In 1923 he revealed in a paper the first use of radioactive tracers in a biological problem and in 1924 their first use in animal physiology. In 1926 Hevesy became professor at Freiburg, Germany; there he added a new field – X-ray fluorescence – as a method of analysis of trace materials in minerals, rocks, and meteorites.

In 1930 to 1931 Hevesy was one of the two George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturers in Chemistry at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N.Y. He lectured on analysis by means of X-ray, the discovery and character of hafnium, and the chemical composition of the earth and the comic abundance of the elements.

In 1934 he was forced to resign from his position at Freiburg on account of his Jewish originsand returned to the Copenhagen institute. The discovery of artificial radioactive elements immensely enhanced the utility of the tracer technique in research work. After 1938 Hevesy gave his whole attention to the use of this tool in biochemical research. When Copenhagen was no longer safe he escaped to Sweden where he continued his work. In 1943 he was awarded the Nobel Prize "for the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes." After World War II, Hevesy remained in Stockholm, Sweden, as professor in the institute of organic chemistry of the university. His biological work continued, largely on nucleic acids, the metabolism of iron and calcium, cancer anemia, and effects of radiation. Among Hevesy's other awards and honors were the "Pour le Merite" from the German president Heuss and the Atoms for Peace Award (New York, 1959).

His major published works are: "Recherches sur les proprietes du hafnium" (1925); "A Manual of Radiactivity" (co-author, Fritz Paneth, two additions); "Das Alter der Grundstoffe" (1929); "Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and Its Applications" (1932; translated also into Russian, 1935); "Artificial Radioactivity of Scandium" (1935); "Action of Neutrons on the Rare Earth Elements" (Hilde Levi, co-author, 1936); "Excretion of Phosphorus" (Ladislau Hahn and O. Rebbe, co-authors, 1939).
כנר. נולד בבודפשט, הונגריה. עקר לגרמניה, למד כינור אצל אנרי מארטו (Marteau) וניגן ככנר שני ברביעייה שלו. בשנים 1920-1915 שימש נגן ראשי של התזמורת הפילהרמונית של ברלין, ובשנים 1923-1920 של תזמורת התיאטרון הלאומי של מנהיים. ב-1921 הקים את רביעיית כלי-הקשת שנשאה את שמו ופעלה עד שנת 1929. הרביעייה, שהוויולן שלה היה פאול הינדמית, התמחתה בנגינת מוסיקה חדשה. ב-1933 אולץ עמר לעזוב את גרמניה, הגיע לתורכיה, ומ-1935 לימד בקונסרבטוריון של אנקרה. ב-1957 חזר לגרמניה ולימד בפרייבורג. נפטר בפרייבורג, גרמניה.

Hauser, Franz (1794-1870), singer and teacher, born in Krasovice (Kraschowitz in German), near Prague,  Bohemia, Czech Republic (then part of the Austrian Empire). Over a period of many years he sang leading baritone roles in major opera houses throughout Europe, including those of Vienna (1828), London (1832), and Berlin (1835). In 1837 he settled in Vienna, where he became well-known as a teacher of singing. In 1846, he was appointed director of the Munich Conservatory, a post he held to 1865, when he was pensioned. He wrote a treatise on singing Gesanglehre.
Hauser died in Freiburg, Germany.

 

FREIBURG, FRIBOURG

שמות משפחה נובעים מכמה מקורות שונים. לעיתים לאותו שם קיים יותר מהסבר אחד. שם משפחה זה הוא מסוג השמות הטופונימיים (שם הנגזר משם של מקום כגון עיירה, עיר, מחוז או ארץ). שמות אלו, אשר נובעים משמות של מקומות, לא בהכרח מעידים על קשר היסטורי ישיר לאותו מקום, אבל יכולים להצביע על קשר בלתי ישיר בין נושא השם או אבותיו לבין מקום לידה, מגורים ארעיים, אזור מסחר או קרובי משפחה.

לשם משפחה זה יש שני מקורות אפשריים.

שם משפחה זה יכול להיות קשור בשמה של העיר פרייבורג בברייסגאו, גרמניה; היישוב היהודי של העיר פרייבורג ("המבצר החופשי", בגרמנית) בחבל ברייסגאו אשר בבאדן, גרמניה, מוזכר החל מהמאה ה-12; והעיר השוויצרית פרייבורג (פריבור, בצרפתית) התירה ליהודים להתיישב בתחומה היישוב היהודי במקום מתועד מאז המאה ה-14.

אפשר ששם זה קשור במילה הגרמנית פראי שפירושה "חופשי". חרות הוא אחד מעקרונות הייסוד של היהדות. עקרון זה מודגש מדי שנה בחג הפסח, "חג החירות", שמציין את יציאת בני ישראל ממצרים, מ"בית העבדים".

בתפוצות למילה "חופשי" היו גם משמעויות אחרות. בקהילות היהודיות פריימן ("איש חופשי") ציין גבר לא נשוי, רווק, כלומר אדם שיכול להיות "פרייר", מונח שפירושו "מחזר". בסלנג יידיש ואחר כך ישראלי, פרייר הוא כינוי לאדם טיפש "שאפשר לעבוד עליו".

שמות משפחה יהודיים המכילים את המילה פריי יכולים להיות גם טופונימים הקשורים במספר שמות של מקומות.

פרייברג, שפירושו המילולי הוא "הר חופשי" בגרמנית, הוא שמה של עיירה בסכסוניה, גרמניה; העיירה פריבור, בשלזיה מרכזית, צ'כיה, וכמו כן העיירה שוויבודזיצה בשלזיה התחתונה, פולין, ידועות גם בשמות פריבורק ופרייבורג. תחילתו של היישוב היהודי בעיר פרייבורג ("עיר חופשית") ברייסגאו בבאדן, גרמניה, מוזכרת במאה ה-12. העיר השוויצרית פרייבורג / פריבורג התירה להיהודים להתיישב בתחומה במאה ה-14. פריישטט ("עיר חופשית") הוא שמה של עיירה ליד לינץ, אוסטריה; פריישטט בשלזיה הפכה לחלק מהעיר קרבינה / קרבין, פולין. פריישטט הוא שמה של עיירה בבאדן, גרמניה; פריישטדל (שפירושו המילולי הוא "עיירה חופשית") הוא שמה הגרמני של העיירה הלודובץ בסלובקיה, הידועה גם בשמה ההונגרי גאלגוץ; תחילתו של היישוב היהודי במקום הזה מתועדת במאה ה-16. שם התואר "חופשי" מתועד כשם משפחה בגרסה פראי בפריס בשנת 1789. פראי מתועד בצרפת בשנת 1792; פריי בבודפשט, הונגריה, בשנת 1872. בשנת 1957 יהודי בשם פריירמן החליף את שמו לצורה הצרפתית פרז'ר.
בית הכנסת בפרייבורג, גרמניה 1920-1930.
בית הכנסת נבנה ב-1870 ונשרף
ב"ליל הבדולח" בנובמבר 1938.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות רוברט ספייר, גרמניה)
אבן זכרון במקום בו עמד בית הכנסת
של פיירבורג, גרמניה 1981.
בית הכנסת נבנה ב-1870
ונחרב ע"י הנאצים ב-1938.
צילום: רוברט פ. ספייר, גרמניה.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות רוברט ספייר, גרמניה)
אלזה לוי-מיזם מקריאה את מכתבי אביה,
הסופר היהודי-גרמני פול מיזם, בחנות הספרים ואלטארי,
פרייבורג, ברייסגאו, גרמניה, 1984
צילום: אן-מארי ברום, גרמניה
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות אן-מארי ברום, גרמניה)
Weiss, Bernhard (1880-1951), jurist and vice-president of Berlin police until the establishment of the German Nazi state, born in Berlin, Germany. Weiss studied law at the University of Berlin, University of Freiburg i.B., Germany, University of Wuerzburg, Germany, earning a doctorate in law. In 1908 he was commissioned as an officer in the Royal Bavarian Army, in WW1 he was promoted captain and was awarded the Iron Cross First Class. His three brothers and cousin also fought in the war, one was killed and another seriously injured.

Weiss made a name as an exceptionally efficient lawyer and judge before being the first Jew to enter the Home Service of pre-Weimar Gemany. He was appointed Deputy Chief of the Berlin Criminal Police in 1918, and became its head in 1925, then he was appointed Vice President of the Berlin police force in 1927. Dr Drews, the minister who appointed him said in 1932, when Weiss’s government career was ending, that “when we decided to appoint for the Home Service a Jew who was not baptized, we knew that the first had to be the best. It was you I chose and I am glad to say that you lived up to our expectations”. Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and then Vice-Chancellor when Adolf Hitler came to power, had Weiss and his superior arrested, albeit for one day only.

While in office, Weiss was the target of a constant campaign of vilification organized by Joseph Goebbels who nicknamed Weiss “Isidore” and the Weimar Republic as “The Jews Republic”. Weiss sued Goebbels for libel and won his case. Goebbels did not refrain and Weiss was not intimidated so in the end Weiss sued Goebbels over 40 times. The name of Dr. Weiss is clearly associated with the history of the Weimar Republic. From the days when he produced evidence of the subversive activities of the Russian trade delegation in Berlin to the hunt for the murderers of Walter Rathenau, the Jewish industrialist and politician who served the Weimar governments in several capacities including that of Foreign Minister in 1922, or in the struggles against the Communists and the Nazis alike Weiss was in the forefront of the efforts to preserve democracy in Germany.

Weiss finally decided to flee Germany a just few days before Hitler was made Chancellor. When his police force was ordered to arrest Weiss and Hermann Goering had offered to pay a reward for anyone who assisted in his capture, a friend drove him out of the country to Czechoslovakia. He then went to England where he opened a printing and stationery business and lived out the remainder of his life. After World War II he applied for his German nationality, of which he had been stripped in 1933, to be restored, he planned to go back and live in Berlin. On the way to a London hospital, a few days before he died of cancer, he was informed that his request for the restoration of his Germany nationality had been granted . Weiss died at the age of 71 in London.

"He was a man of extremes, a Jew imbibed with Prussian virtues, small of stature, large in responsible behavior and a staunch Democrat," wrote Uwe Dannenbaum in the "Die Welt" newspaper to mark the naming of the forecourt at the Friedrichstrasse Station in Berlin after the former police chief . The movie picture "The Man who Drove Goebbels" (2005) by Reiner Mathias Brueckner portrays Weiss as a resolute defender of the republican order. In 2007 the German Federation of Jewish soldiers started to award in his honour a medal for fellow Germans who had worked for understanding and tolerance.
Kaufmann, Fritz (1891-1958), philosopher, born in Leipzig, Germany. Kaufmann was the assistant of philosopher and mathematician Edmund Husserl who founded the school of phenomenology at Freiburg, Germany. In 1936 Kaufmann went to Berlin to join the Hochschule fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums.

Two years later he fled from Nazi Germany and went to the USA where he was appointed to the faculty of Northwestern University and the University of Buffalo. He wrote several books on phenomenology and helped to popularise its teachings in America. He also wrote short biographies on Martin Buber, Cassirer, Thomas Mann, Nietzche, Goethe, Flaubert and has teacher Husserl.
Legal scholar

Born in Freiburg, he was early a scholar of the classics and Talmud. He studied music and literature in Paris and Roman law in Freiburg and Goettingen. Daube taught law at Cambridge, England, 1938-51, was professor of jurisprudence at Aberdeen 1951-55 and Regius Professor of Civil Law at Oxford from 1955 to 1970 when he went as professor to the University of California at Berkeley. A world authority on Roman law, he also wrote important studies on biblical and talmudic law.
Haas, Ludwig (1875-1930), politician, born and educated in Freiburg, Germany. He founded a Jewish students society in the town. He practiced law in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he was also elected to be a city councillor in 1908. He was to be a member of the city council until 1919. In 1912 he was elected a member of the Reichstag to represent the Progressive People's Party. Haas served in the German army during World War I and was decorated for his bravery on the Western Front. At the end of 1915 he became head of the Jewish section of the German military government of occupied Poland and worked to reorganize the Polish Jewish community and to formalize its relationship with the central government.

After the 1918 revolution in Germany, Haas became minister of the interior of the first republican government of Baden. He became chairman of the Progressive People's Party in the Reichstag in 1929. He was active in the Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, an organization dedicated to protecting the civil and social rights of Jews in Germany while at the same time, cultivating their German identity. The organization tried to combat anti-Semitism by showing that Jews were merely a religious group with no national characteristics or ambitions.
Jurist

Born in Freiburg. in 1926 he became assistant to the state attorney in Berlin, then a judge, and was a senior adviser in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. He demanded that Hitler be tried for treason and that the Nazi party be disbanded. When Hitler came to power, Kempner was arrested and on his release went to Italy where he taught until 1939. Then going to the United States, Kempner became a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania and worked on the Manhattan (atom bomb) Project. From 1946 to 1949 he was chief prosecutor of the Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. Thereafter he devoted himself to Holocaust research and helped the Israel government assemble evidence against Adolf Eichmann. He wrote many books on the Nazi era and connected post-War subjects.
Baer, Yitzhak (1888-1980), historian and expert in Medieval Spanish Jewish history, born in Halberstadt, Germany. He studied history and philosophy at the universities of Berlin, Strasbourg, France, and Freiburg, Germany. In 1919 Baer became research associate of the Akademie fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, under whose auspices he twice visited Spain to obtain material about the history of Jews in Spain under the Christians. In 1930 he emigrated to Palestine in 1930 and he was appointed to lecturere in Medieval Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 1932 he was appointed professor. From 1930 to 1959 he was head of the university's department of Jewish history. In 1945, Baer was awarded the Bialik Prize for Jewish thought and in 1958 he was awarded the Israel Prize in Jewish studies

Baer was one of the founders of the Jewish historical review “Zion”, he was very active in the Israel Historical Society and one of the founder members of the Israel Academy of Sciences. He contributed several important articles to the German Encyclopedia Judaica.

As a result of his research into the history of Spanish Jewry he wrote "Studien zur Geschichte der Juden im Konigreich Aragonien: wahrend des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts" (Berlin, 1913), "Untersuchungen über Quellen und Komposition des Schebet Jehuda" (1923), and "History of Jews in Christian Spain" (Tel Aviv 1945), which is regarded as the standard work on the subject. Important amongst his studies of the development and history of Jewish communal organizations in the Middle Ages are "Das Protokollbuch der Landjudenschaft des Herzogtums Kleve: erster Teil: die Geschichte des Landjudenschaft Herzogtums Kleve" (1922) and "Galut" (1936). His method tried to bring out the internal forces which fashioned the Jewish communities within the framework of general history. He believed that the main features of Jewish communal organization were largely established during the 2nd Temple period. In “Peoples of Israel: Studies in the History of the Second Temple Period of the Mishna, the Foundations of Law and Faith. Jerusalem” (1955) Baer also investigated the spiritual and religious world of the the Jewish people. He concluded that the driving force of Jewish history lay in the continuing socioreligious activities of groups of pious men of faith who aimed at perfecting the world. Among his other numerous works is “Studies and Essays in the History of Israel” (1985, in Hebrew).

Baer is recognized as one of the most fruitful students and teachers of Jewish history in modern times
Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979), philosopher, sociologist and political theorist, born in Berlin, Germany. Marcuse became known as the "Father of the New Left." In 1916 he joined the German Army. He then became a member of a Soldiers' Council that participated in the 1919 aborted socialist Spartacist strike and uprising. He completed his Ph.D. thesis at the University of Freiburg in 1922 on German romantic literature after which he moved back to Berlin, where he worked in a publishing house. He returned to Freiburg in 1928 to study with Edmund Husserl, who developed the method of phenomenology believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, and wrote "Hegel's Ontology and Theory of Historicity". This study was written in the context of the Hegelian renaissance which was taking place in Europe with an emphasis on ontology, which studies the nature of existence of life and history, idealist theory of spirit and dialectic.

After the rise of Nazism, Marcuse emigrated first to Switzerland in 1934 and then to the USA, although he remained associated with the Frankfurt Institute for Social Development and in 1940 he published "Reason and Revolution", a dialectical work which examined G. W. F. Hegel and Karl Marx.

During World War 2, Marcuse first worked for the U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) on anti-Nazi propaganda projects and in 1943 he transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency. His work for the OSS involved research on Nazi Germany and denazification. After the dissolution of the OSS in 1945, Marcuse was until 1951 employed by the US Department of State as head of the Central European section.

In 1952 he began a teaching career as a political theorist, first at Columbia University, then at Harvard University, then at Brandeis University from 1958 to 1965, where he taught philosophy and politics, and finally, at the University of California, San Diego. He was a friend and collaborator of political sociologists and political philosophers and a friend of Columbia University sociology professor C. Wright Mills, one of the founders of the New Left movement. In the post-war period, Marcuse was the most explicitly political and left-wing member of the Frankfurt School and continued to identify himself as a Marxist, a socialist, and a Hegelian. Marcuse's criticism of capitalist society (especially in his 1955 synthesis of Marx and Freud, “Eros and Civilization”, and his 1964 book “One-Dimensional Man”) resonated with the concerns of the student movement in the 1960s. Because of his willingness to speak at student protests, Marcuse soon became known as "the father of the New Left in the United States". His work heavily influenced intellectual discourse on popular culture and scholarly popular culture studies. He was a popular speaker in the US and Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. Marcuse's 1965 essay "Repressive Tolerance", in which he claimed capitalist democracies can have totalitarian aspects, was strongly criticized by conservatives. In it he argued that genuine tolerance does not tolerate support for "repression", since doing so ensures that voices on the margins will remain unheard. He characterizes tolerance of repressive speech as "inauthentic". Instead, he advocates a form of tolerance that is intolerant of right wing political movements. His “An Essay on Liberation” in 1969, celebrating liberation movements such as those in Vietnam, inspired many radicals. In 1972 he wrote "Counterrevolution and Revolt", which argues that the hopes of the 1960s were facing a counterrevolution from the right.

After Brandeis University decided against the renewal of his teaching contract in 1965, Marcuse devoted his life to writing and lecturing around the world. His efforts brought him attention from the media, which claimed that he openly advocated violence, although he often clarified that only "violence of defense" could be appropriate, not "violence of aggression". He continued to promote Marxian theory, with some of his students helping to spread his ideas. Marcuse’s analysis of capitalism derives partially from one of Karl Marx’s main concepts. Marx believed that capitalism was exploiting humans; that the objects produced by laborers became alienated and thus ultimately dehumanized them to functional objects. Marcuse took this belief and expanded it. He argued that capitalism and industrialization pushed laborers so hard that they began to see themselves as extensions of the objects they were producing.
Physicist

Born in Rexingen, he taught at Freiburg University before emigrating to England in 1933. There he was a researcher and then reader in theoretical physics at the University of Bristol (1935-1948) and professor of theoretical physics at Liverpool University from 1948. In 1951 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Philosopher

He was born in Prossnitz and studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Viennareceiving his doctorate in Vienna. While a young adult, he converted to Protestantism. In Vienna Husserl became increasingly interested in philosophy, which he was to teach at the University of Halle (1887-1901), and then at Goettingen (1906-16) and Freiburg (1916-29). He is regarded as one of the outstanding thinkers of the century and the father of phenomenology, which has been called the 'logic' of consciousness and has greatly influenced many aspects of modern culture. After his death, his voluminous manuscripts were secreted out of Nazi Germany. His writings and lectures were published (1950-66) in eleven volumes by the Husserl Archives at the University of Louvain.
ורבורג, אוטו (1883- 1970), רופא, חתן פרס נובל, פיענח את התהליכים הכימיים של הנשימה, אשר נולד בפרייבורג שבבריסגאו, גרמניה, בשנת 1883.

ורבורג למד בברלין ואחר כך קיבל דוקטורט ברפואה מאוניברסיטת היילדלברג, גרמניה, בשנת 1911.

בשנת 1931 הוענק לו פרס נובל לרפואה ופיזיולוגיה, "בעבור גילוי טבעו ודרך פעולתו של אנזים הנשימה". כמו-כן, פיתח ורבורג את שיטת המנומטריה למדידת תוצרים של תהליכים ביולוגיים.

בזמן המשטר הנאצי, ורבורג נחשב ל"חצי-יהודי", על פי החקיקה הגזענית. מעמד זה איפשר לו להישאר בברלין, ולאחר מכן בכפר קטן לשם העביר את המעבדה שלו בגלל הפצצות האוויר על ברלין בזמן מלחמת העולם השנייה.
Frommer, Rudolf De Fegyvernek (1868-1936), arms expert, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He graduated in mechanical engineering from the Technical Academy in Budapest. Initially he worked in banking and then in the stock market. In 1896, at the age of 28, he accepted an appointment with the Hungarian Arms Company which had been founded in 1888. Frommer proved himself to be an inventive engineer and quickly rose to a leading position in the company. In 1903 Oscar Epperlein, the president, died unexpectedly and Frommer was chosen to succeed him. He led the company until his semi-retirement in 1930. He was succeeded by his eldedst son Stephen.

A variety of automatic pistols, rifles and machine-guns, designed by Frommer, were widely used by Hungarian and other European law enforcement agencies and armed forces. Many such weapons bore the Frommer name. They included the "Stop," "Liliputian," "Baby," and especially the 7.65 millimeter Frommer-revolver which was the official weapon used by the gendarmerie as well as in various branches of the postal, telegraph, forestry and other government services. Many hundred thousands of Frommer-Stops were used by the Austro-Hungarian, German, Turkish and Bulgarian armies during World War I.

After the conclusion of WWI, most of the company’s previous clients no longer existed or where prohibited from rearming so the company’s production capacity was turned over to household appliances and lamps as well as sporting guns. From 1938 the company reverted to military work, providing the Germany army with many products and the workforce grew to 4500. The factory was destroyed by allied bombing in 1944.

After WWI, in recognition of his patriotic services, Frommer was knighted, the suffix Fegyvernek was added to his name and, in 1928, he was appointed to the Hungarian House of Peers. Living more or less in retirement since 1930, he wrote and published (in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany), an authoritative volume on the impact of the war on Eastern European forests ["Einfluss des Weltkrieges auf die osteuropaische Forstwirtschaft unter besondern Berueksichtigung der Karpaten-forste"].
כנר. נולד בבודפשט, הונגריה. עקר לגרמניה, למד כינור אצל אנרי מארטו (Marteau) וניגן ככנר שני ברביעייה שלו. בשנים 1920-1915 שימש נגן ראשי של התזמורת הפילהרמונית של ברלין, ובשנים 1923-1920 של תזמורת התיאטרון הלאומי של מנהיים. ב-1921 הקים את רביעיית כלי-הקשת שנשאה את שמו ופעלה עד שנת 1929. הרביעייה, שהוויולן שלה היה פאול הינדמית, התמחתה בנגינת מוסיקה חדשה. ב-1933 אולץ עמר לעזוב את גרמניה, הגיע לתורכיה, ומ-1935 לימד בקונסרבטוריון של אנקרה. ב-1957 חזר לגרמניה ולימד בפרייבורג. נפטר בפרייבורג, גרמניה.
Hevesy, George Charles de (1885-1966), chemist, isotopes pioneer, and Nobel Prize winner, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), to a Roman Catholic family of Hungarian Jewish descent. He studied in Budapest and in Freiburg. In 1908, after obtaining his doctorate at Freiburg, he worked with Lorenz at the Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerlan, with Haber at Karlsruhe, and with Rutherford in Manchester, England. In 1913 he started to work with F. Paneth in Vienna, Austria, on radioactive isotopes. This was the beginning of the use of radioactive tracers or "labeled atoms," an important tool in chemical and biological research. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hevesy joined the Austro-Hungarian army as technical supervisor of the state electrochemical plant in the Carpathians. After the war he returned to Budapest and during the revolution of 1918-19 he resumed his studies of isotope tracers.

In 1920 he joined Niels Bohr at the new institute of theoretical physics in Copenhagen. There, together with D. Coster, he discovered a new element, no. 72, which he called hafnium. In 1923 he revealed in a paper the first use of radioactive tracers in a biological problem and in 1924 their first use in animal physiology. In 1926 Hevesy became professor at Freiburg, Germany; there he added a new field – X-ray fluorescence – as a method of analysis of trace materials in minerals, rocks, and meteorites.

In 1930 to 1931 Hevesy was one of the two George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturers in Chemistry at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N.Y. He lectured on analysis by means of X-ray, the discovery and character of hafnium, and the chemical composition of the earth and the comic abundance of the elements.

In 1934 he was forced to resign from his position at Freiburg on account of his Jewish originsand returned to the Copenhagen institute. The discovery of artificial radioactive elements immensely enhanced the utility of the tracer technique in research work. After 1938 Hevesy gave his whole attention to the use of this tool in biochemical research. When Copenhagen was no longer safe he escaped to Sweden where he continued his work. In 1943 he was awarded the Nobel Prize "for the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes." After World War II, Hevesy remained in Stockholm, Sweden, as professor in the institute of organic chemistry of the university. His biological work continued, largely on nucleic acids, the metabolism of iron and calcium, cancer anemia, and effects of radiation. Among Hevesy's other awards and honors were the "Pour le Merite" from the German president Heuss and the Atoms for Peace Award (New York, 1959).

His major published works are: "Recherches sur les proprietes du hafnium" (1925); "A Manual of Radiactivity" (co-author, Fritz Paneth, two additions); "Das Alter der Grundstoffe" (1929); "Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and Its Applications" (1932; translated also into Russian, 1935); "Artificial Radioactivity of Scandium" (1935); "Action of Neutrons on the Rare Earth Elements" (Hilde Levi, co-author, 1936); "Excretion of Phosphorus" (Ladislau Hahn and O. Rebbe, co-authors, 1939).
Cassirer, Richard (1868-1925), neurologist, born in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland) who became Professor of Neurology at Berlin University, a position which he continued to hold from 1912 to 1925, the year of his death. Cassirer studied in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. He received his doctorate in 1891 and subsequently was assistant at the psychiatric clinic in Breslau under Karl Wernicke (1848-1905) until 1893. He then went to Vienna, Austria, in order to continue his studies. In 1895 he came to the Berliner Poliklinik für Nervenkranke. With R. Hirschfeld he directed this clinic from 1919 until his death in 1925.

Cassirer chiefly concerned himself with clinical neurology as well as the anatomy of the central nervous system; he investigated the vasomotor-trophical and in this regard succeeded in defining the acroasphyxia chronica. He also investigated the anatomy of the vegetative system, the bulbar and spinal marrow diseases, poliomyelitis chronica, multiple sclerosis, prognoses and indications of the operative treatment of lesions of the peripheral nerves, muscular atrophy, etc. His later years were mainly devoted to writing a new edition of Oppenheimer's textbook.

In 1912 he first described a circulatory disease marked by an association of ovarian insufficiency and acrocyanosis with vasomotor-trophic disturbance of the skin, and disturbances of sensitivity caused by dysregulation of the vegetative nervous system which has been given the eponymic name of "Cassirer's syndrome" or "Crocq-Cassirer syndrome". In 1921, Cassirer was asked to give testimony regarding the mental condition of Soghomon Tehlirian, who was accused of murdering Talaat Pasha. Cassirer maintained that Tehlirian was not sane when he carried out the crime because of his psychotic state caused as a result of his family being victims of a war-time massacre.

Cassirer's portrait was painted by renowned artist Max Liebermann in 1918, and later presented to the Tate Gallery in London, England.

ETTENHEIM

A town in the Ortenau district in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 13th century; peak Jewish population: 92 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 31

Ettenheim’s first Jewish community was destroyed in the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. A new community was established there during the 1660s, and although a decree initially forbade Jews from building a synagogue, they were permitted to establish prayer rooms in private residences. They also built a mikveh, but townspeople destroyed it in 1778. The first reference to a synagogue is dated 1816, and we also know that a new house of worship was inaugurated on Alleestrasse in 1881.

By the mid-1920s, as a result of Jewish emigration, the synagogue was no longer in use. In 1933, a teacher from Schmieheim instructed two children in religion. Later, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s interior was destroyed and its contents burned; Jewish homes and businesses were heavily damaged during the pogrom. The synagogue was later sold to a tannery. Five surviving Torah scrolls were transferred to Freiburg im Breisgau in 1947. Although many Jews fled Ettenheim, seven actually moved there after 1933. In all, 25 local Jews emigrated, 12 relocated within Germany and three died in Ettenheim. On October 22, 1940, the town’s last Jewish family was deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. At least four Ettenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. A plaque was unveiled at the town hall in 1969.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

 

IHRINGEN

A town in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district in Baden-Wurrttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1716; peak Jewish population: 263 in 1852; Jewish population in 1933: 98

This Jewish community established a prayer hall (in a private residence) in 1738, a synagogue in 1761, a cemetery in 1810 and a school in the late 1820s or early 1830s, which was closed in 1876. In 1863/64, local Jews inaugurated a new synagogue with 72 seats for men, 72 for women and 35-40 for children. Ihringen was also had a mikveh. In 1933, a teacher/chazzan instructed six schoolchildren in religion. The community maintained a men’s fund for the sick, a women’s association and a charity fund. Jewish children were expelled from the local school in 1936, after which they traveled to Freiburg for their schooling. The synagogue was incinerated on Pogrom Night (Nov 9, 1938), Jews were forced to watch, and several men were deported to Dachau. Thirty-two Jews were forcibly evacuated from Ihringen when war broke out, of whom 13 returned when the expulsion order was revoked. By 1940, 30 had emigrated, 47 had relocated within Germany and nine had died in Ihringen. The last 12, all elderly, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. At least 56 Ihringen Jews perished in the Shoah. In 1980, a memorial stone was unveiled at the former synagogue’s site; a monument was later constructed there. The cemetery was desecrated in 1952, 1990 and 2007.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

וילינגן

עיר במדינת באדן, גרמניה. עד 1990 בגרמניה המערבית.


במאה ה-14 התגוררו יהודי המקום ברובע נפרד; ב-1342 הואשמו אחדים מהם בגניבת כלי- פולחן נוצריים וברדיפות "המגיפה השחורה" נהרסה הקהילה כליל. ב-1504 נאסרו הגברים בעקבות עלילת-דם בפרייבורג וכעבור שש שנים גורשו כל יהודי וילינגן לאחר שרופאים יהודיים הואשמו על-ידי הקיסר מאכסימיליאן ה-1 בטיפול כושל באחד מחייליו הוותיקים. היישוב התחדש רק ב-1862 וב-1933 מנה 60 איש, 42 הצליחו להגר אחרי עליית הנאצים לשלטון. בית- הכנסת נהרס ב"ליל-הבדולח". 11 נשלחו למחנה גור שבדרום-צרפת; שניים חזרו בתום המלחמה מתרזיינשטאדט.

ברייזאך

עיר על הריין, ממערב לפרייבורג, גרמניה. בעבר בגרמניה המערבית.

היישוב היהודי ברייזאך הושמד בשנת "המגיפה השחורה" (1349), התחדש, גורש ב-1424 וחזר למקום ב-1550.

באמצע המאה ה-18 הקים יהודי מפעל טכסטיל ברייזאך והעסיק 330 אורגים. בית-הכנסת שהוקם ב-1756 נחרב ב-1938. לקראת סוף המאה ה-19 התגוררו בעיר 564 יהודים (%17 מכלל האוכלוסיה) אבל ב-1933 נותרו רק 231.

בתחילת מלחמת העולם השנייה פונו היהודים מן העיר בגלל קירבתה לגבול, ואחר כך הורשו לחזור. באוקטובר 1940 הועברו למחנה-הריכוז גור שבצרפת.
במאגרי המידע הפתוחים
גניאולוגיה יהודית
שמות משפחה
קהילות יהודיות
תיעוד חזותי
מרכז המוזיקה היהודית
מקום
אA
אA
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רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות
קהילת יהודי פרייבורג אים ברייזגאו

פרייבורג אים ברייזגאו FREIBURG

עיר במחוז באדן, גרמניה.


הקהילה היהודית

קהילה יהודית עתיקה הייתב בפרייבורג. במחצית השנייה של המאה ה-13 נאסרו בני-הקהילה ושוחררו לאחר זמן. וב-1300 אושרו זכויותיהם במקום.

בינואר 1339, בפרעות "המגיפה השחורה", הואשמו יהודי פרייבורג בגרימת המגיפה והוצאו להורג בשריפה. נשים הרות וילדים הושארו בחיים. כעבור עשר שנים הותר ליהודים לחזור לעיר, ובסוף המאה נגזר עליהם ללבוש לבוש מיוחד בצבע כהה, ולא לצאת מפתח ביתם בשבוע הפסחא.

ב-1401 גורשו היהודים מן העיר, והוסיפו להתגורר בכפרים הסמוכים; ב-1453 נאסר עליהם לסחור עם אנשי העיר. האיסור בוטל רק בתחילת המאה ה-17, ואז הותר לסוחרים יהודים להיכנס לעיר בליווי שוטר.

במשך המאה ה- 18 לא ישבו יהודים בעיר, אולם בשנת 1719 יהודי אחד סיים לימודי רפואה באונברסיטת פרייבורג.

באמצע המאה ה-19 ישבו בעיר 20 יהודים, ושנה לאחר פירסום חוק האמנציפאציה במדינת באדן התארגנה הקהילה רשמית (1863). ראשון הרבנים בה היה אדולף לוין; אחריו כיהנו מאכס אשלבאכר ויוליוס צימלס. היינריך רוזן (1927-1855), מיהודי פרייבורג, שנודע כחוקר תורת המשפט, היה פעיל גם בחיי הקהילה.

באוניברסיטה המקומית בלטו הפילוסוף היהודי אדמונד הוסרל, הכלכלן רוברט ליפמן, המשפטן אוטו לנל, הפאפירולוג פריץ פרינגסהיים והביוכימאי זיגפריד טאנהויזר. כולם סולקו ממשרותיהם בשנים 1935-1933, אחרי עליית הנאצים לשלטון בגרמניה.


ב-1933 עוד ישבו בעיר 1,138 יהודים; במאי 1939 מנו 474 נפש, וזה בערך היה מספרם כשפרצה מלחמת העולם השנייה (ספטמבר 1939).


תקופת השואה


ב-1940 גורשו 350 מיהודי פרייבורג למחנה גירס שבצרפת, ועד 1942 שולחו ממחנה גירס למחנות השמדה במזרח אירופה, גם 41 היהודים שנשארו עד אז בפרייבורג שולחו מזרחה.

הקהילה היהודית אחרי המלחמה


אחרי המלחמה חזרו 15 יהודים לפרייבורג. במקומו של בית-הכנסת הגדול, שנחנך ב-1885 ונהרס בידי הנאצים ב-1938, העמידו לוח-זכרון. ועם הזמן התיישבו יהודים נוספים בעיר.

בשנת 1960 ישבו בעיר 111 יהודים, וב-1986 התגוררו בה 225 יהודים.

בית-כנסת חדש נחנך כבר ב-1953, וכתב-עת לטיפוח ההבנה בין יהודים ונוצרים, בשם "פרייבורגר רונדבריף", יצא לאור בשנות הששים.

הקהילה היהודית בשנות ה - 2000

בשנת 2005 לפי נתוני הארגונים היהודיים מנתה הקהילה כ - 700 נפש , רובם יוצאי ברית המועצות לשעבר . בשנת 1998 נוסדה קהילה נוספת פרוגרסיבית , שמנתה בשנת 2004 כ - 30 חברים .בשנת 1987 נחנכו מרכז קהילתי , בית כנסת , מקווה ודלתות בית הכנסת הישן שולבו בחדש לזיכרון . בנוסף הוצב שלט זיכרון באתר בית הכנסת שחרב בשואה .

בעיר יש שני בתי עלמין - ישן שעדיין מתפקד וגם חדש . בבית העלמין הישן נבנו אנדרטאות זיכרון לחיילים היהודיים שנפלו במלחמת העולם הראשונה וגם לנרצחי השואה .

בעיר יוצא עלון עירוני המוקדש להבנות בין הקהילה הנוצרית והקהילה היהודית .

על המדרכות בעיר מפוזרים אריחי הנצחה של האמן גונטר דמינג --השטולפרשטין . זהו מפעל הנצחה בעשרות ערים ועיירות בגרמניה .

מאז שנת 2011 ישנו לחם כשר ממאפיה מקומית ומתאפשרת קניית מוצרי מזון כשרים .

 

 

 

 

חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי

ברייזאך
וילינגן
איהרינגן
אטנהיים
ברייזאך

עיר על הריין, ממערב לפרייבורג, גרמניה. בעבר בגרמניה המערבית.

היישוב היהודי ברייזאך הושמד בשנת "המגיפה השחורה" (1349), התחדש, גורש ב-1424 וחזר למקום ב-1550.

באמצע המאה ה-18 הקים יהודי מפעל טכסטיל ברייזאך והעסיק 330 אורגים. בית-הכנסת שהוקם ב-1756 נחרב ב-1938. לקראת סוף המאה ה-19 התגוררו בעיר 564 יהודים (%17 מכלל האוכלוסיה) אבל ב-1933 נותרו רק 231.

בתחילת מלחמת העולם השנייה פונו היהודים מן העיר בגלל קירבתה לגבול, ואחר כך הורשו לחזור. באוקטובר 1940 הועברו למחנה-הריכוז גור שבצרפת.
וילינגן

עיר במדינת באדן, גרמניה. עד 1990 בגרמניה המערבית.


במאה ה-14 התגוררו יהודי המקום ברובע נפרד; ב-1342 הואשמו אחדים מהם בגניבת כלי- פולחן נוצריים וברדיפות "המגיפה השחורה" נהרסה הקהילה כליל. ב-1504 נאסרו הגברים בעקבות עלילת-דם בפרייבורג וכעבור שש שנים גורשו כל יהודי וילינגן לאחר שרופאים יהודיים הואשמו על-ידי הקיסר מאכסימיליאן ה-1 בטיפול כושל באחד מחייליו הוותיקים. היישוב התחדש רק ב-1862 וב-1933 מנה 60 איש, 42 הצליחו להגר אחרי עליית הנאצים לשלטון. בית- הכנסת נהרס ב"ליל-הבדולח". 11 נשלחו למחנה גור שבדרום-צרפת; שניים חזרו בתום המלחמה מתרזיינשטאדט.

IHRINGEN

A town in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district in Baden-Wurrttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1716; peak Jewish population: 263 in 1852; Jewish population in 1933: 98

This Jewish community established a prayer hall (in a private residence) in 1738, a synagogue in 1761, a cemetery in 1810 and a school in the late 1820s or early 1830s, which was closed in 1876. In 1863/64, local Jews inaugurated a new synagogue with 72 seats for men, 72 for women and 35-40 for children. Ihringen was also had a mikveh. In 1933, a teacher/chazzan instructed six schoolchildren in religion. The community maintained a men’s fund for the sick, a women’s association and a charity fund. Jewish children were expelled from the local school in 1936, after which they traveled to Freiburg for their schooling. The synagogue was incinerated on Pogrom Night (Nov 9, 1938), Jews were forced to watch, and several men were deported to Dachau. Thirty-two Jews were forcibly evacuated from Ihringen when war broke out, of whom 13 returned when the expulsion order was revoked. By 1940, 30 had emigrated, 47 had relocated within Germany and nine had died in Ihringen. The last 12, all elderly, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. At least 56 Ihringen Jews perished in the Shoah. In 1980, a memorial stone was unveiled at the former synagogue’s site; a monument was later constructed there. The cemetery was desecrated in 1952, 1990 and 2007.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

ETTENHEIM

A town in the Ortenau district in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 13th century; peak Jewish population: 92 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 31

Ettenheim’s first Jewish community was destroyed in the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. A new community was established there during the 1660s, and although a decree initially forbade Jews from building a synagogue, they were permitted to establish prayer rooms in private residences. They also built a mikveh, but townspeople destroyed it in 1778. The first reference to a synagogue is dated 1816, and we also know that a new house of worship was inaugurated on Alleestrasse in 1881.

By the mid-1920s, as a result of Jewish emigration, the synagogue was no longer in use. In 1933, a teacher from Schmieheim instructed two children in religion. Later, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s interior was destroyed and its contents burned; Jewish homes and businesses were heavily damaged during the pogrom. The synagogue was later sold to a tannery. Five surviving Torah scrolls were transferred to Freiburg im Breisgau in 1947. Although many Jews fled Ettenheim, seven actually moved there after 1933. In all, 25 local Jews emigrated, 12 relocated within Germany and three died in Ettenheim. On October 22, 1940, the town’s last Jewish family was deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. At least four Ettenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. A plaque was unveiled at the town hall in 1969.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

 

קסירר, ריכרד
פרומר, קודולף דה פג'וורנק
הוסרל, אדמונד גוסטאב אלברכט
פרוליך, הרברט
מרקוזה, הרברט
בער, יצחק
קאופמן, פריץ
וייס, ברנהרד איזידור
עמר, ליקו
הבשי, ג'וארג' צ'רלס דה
דאובה, דיוויד
ורבורג, אוטו
האס, לודוויג
Kempner, Robert Max Wasilii
Cassirer, Richard (1868-1925), neurologist, born in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland) who became Professor of Neurology at Berlin University, a position which he continued to hold from 1912 to 1925, the year of his death. Cassirer studied in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. He received his doctorate in 1891 and subsequently was assistant at the psychiatric clinic in Breslau under Karl Wernicke (1848-1905) until 1893. He then went to Vienna, Austria, in order to continue his studies. In 1895 he came to the Berliner Poliklinik für Nervenkranke. With R. Hirschfeld he directed this clinic from 1919 until his death in 1925.

Cassirer chiefly concerned himself with clinical neurology as well as the anatomy of the central nervous system; he investigated the vasomotor-trophical and in this regard succeeded in defining the acroasphyxia chronica. He also investigated the anatomy of the vegetative system, the bulbar and spinal marrow diseases, poliomyelitis chronica, multiple sclerosis, prognoses and indications of the operative treatment of lesions of the peripheral nerves, muscular atrophy, etc. His later years were mainly devoted to writing a new edition of Oppenheimer's textbook.

In 1912 he first described a circulatory disease marked by an association of ovarian insufficiency and acrocyanosis with vasomotor-trophic disturbance of the skin, and disturbances of sensitivity caused by dysregulation of the vegetative nervous system which has been given the eponymic name of "Cassirer's syndrome" or "Crocq-Cassirer syndrome". In 1921, Cassirer was asked to give testimony regarding the mental condition of Soghomon Tehlirian, who was accused of murdering Talaat Pasha. Cassirer maintained that Tehlirian was not sane when he carried out the crime because of his psychotic state caused as a result of his family being victims of a war-time massacre.

Cassirer's portrait was painted by renowned artist Max Liebermann in 1918, and later presented to the Tate Gallery in London, England.
Frommer, Rudolf De Fegyvernek (1868-1936), arms expert, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He graduated in mechanical engineering from the Technical Academy in Budapest. Initially he worked in banking and then in the stock market. In 1896, at the age of 28, he accepted an appointment with the Hungarian Arms Company which had been founded in 1888. Frommer proved himself to be an inventive engineer and quickly rose to a leading position in the company. In 1903 Oscar Epperlein, the president, died unexpectedly and Frommer was chosen to succeed him. He led the company until his semi-retirement in 1930. He was succeeded by his eldedst son Stephen.

A variety of automatic pistols, rifles and machine-guns, designed by Frommer, were widely used by Hungarian and other European law enforcement agencies and armed forces. Many such weapons bore the Frommer name. They included the "Stop," "Liliputian," "Baby," and especially the 7.65 millimeter Frommer-revolver which was the official weapon used by the gendarmerie as well as in various branches of the postal, telegraph, forestry and other government services. Many hundred thousands of Frommer-Stops were used by the Austro-Hungarian, German, Turkish and Bulgarian armies during World War I.

After the conclusion of WWI, most of the company’s previous clients no longer existed or where prohibited from rearming so the company’s production capacity was turned over to household appliances and lamps as well as sporting guns. From 1938 the company reverted to military work, providing the Germany army with many products and the workforce grew to 4500. The factory was destroyed by allied bombing in 1944.

After WWI, in recognition of his patriotic services, Frommer was knighted, the suffix Fegyvernek was added to his name and, in 1928, he was appointed to the Hungarian House of Peers. Living more or less in retirement since 1930, he wrote and published (in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany), an authoritative volume on the impact of the war on Eastern European forests ["Einfluss des Weltkrieges auf die osteuropaische Forstwirtschaft unter besondern Berueksichtigung der Karpaten-forste"].
Philosopher

He was born in Prossnitz and studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Viennareceiving his doctorate in Vienna. While a young adult, he converted to Protestantism. In Vienna Husserl became increasingly interested in philosophy, which he was to teach at the University of Halle (1887-1901), and then at Goettingen (1906-16) and Freiburg (1916-29). He is regarded as one of the outstanding thinkers of the century and the father of phenomenology, which has been called the 'logic' of consciousness and has greatly influenced many aspects of modern culture. After his death, his voluminous manuscripts were secreted out of Nazi Germany. His writings and lectures were published (1950-66) in eleven volumes by the Husserl Archives at the University of Louvain.
Physicist

Born in Rexingen, he taught at Freiburg University before emigrating to England in 1933. There he was a researcher and then reader in theoretical physics at the University of Bristol (1935-1948) and professor of theoretical physics at Liverpool University from 1948. In 1951 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979), philosopher, sociologist and political theorist, born in Berlin, Germany. Marcuse became known as the "Father of the New Left." In 1916 he joined the German Army. He then became a member of a Soldiers' Council that participated in the 1919 aborted socialist Spartacist strike and uprising. He completed his Ph.D. thesis at the University of Freiburg in 1922 on German romantic literature after which he moved back to Berlin, where he worked in a publishing house. He returned to Freiburg in 1928 to study with Edmund Husserl, who developed the method of phenomenology believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, and wrote "Hegel's Ontology and Theory of Historicity". This study was written in the context of the Hegelian renaissance which was taking place in Europe with an emphasis on ontology, which studies the nature of existence of life and history, idealist theory of spirit and dialectic.

After the rise of Nazism, Marcuse emigrated first to Switzerland in 1934 and then to the USA, although he remained associated with the Frankfurt Institute for Social Development and in 1940 he published "Reason and Revolution", a dialectical work which examined G. W. F. Hegel and Karl Marx.

During World War 2, Marcuse first worked for the U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) on anti-Nazi propaganda projects and in 1943 he transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency. His work for the OSS involved research on Nazi Germany and denazification. After the dissolution of the OSS in 1945, Marcuse was until 1951 employed by the US Department of State as head of the Central European section.

In 1952 he began a teaching career as a political theorist, first at Columbia University, then at Harvard University, then at Brandeis University from 1958 to 1965, where he taught philosophy and politics, and finally, at the University of California, San Diego. He was a friend and collaborator of political sociologists and political philosophers and a friend of Columbia University sociology professor C. Wright Mills, one of the founders of the New Left movement. In the post-war period, Marcuse was the most explicitly political and left-wing member of the Frankfurt School and continued to identify himself as a Marxist, a socialist, and a Hegelian. Marcuse's criticism of capitalist society (especially in his 1955 synthesis of Marx and Freud, “Eros and Civilization”, and his 1964 book “One-Dimensional Man”) resonated with the concerns of the student movement in the 1960s. Because of his willingness to speak at student protests, Marcuse soon became known as "the father of the New Left in the United States". His work heavily influenced intellectual discourse on popular culture and scholarly popular culture studies. He was a popular speaker in the US and Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. Marcuse's 1965 essay "Repressive Tolerance", in which he claimed capitalist democracies can have totalitarian aspects, was strongly criticized by conservatives. In it he argued that genuine tolerance does not tolerate support for "repression", since doing so ensures that voices on the margins will remain unheard. He characterizes tolerance of repressive speech as "inauthentic". Instead, he advocates a form of tolerance that is intolerant of right wing political movements. His “An Essay on Liberation” in 1969, celebrating liberation movements such as those in Vietnam, inspired many radicals. In 1972 he wrote "Counterrevolution and Revolt", which argues that the hopes of the 1960s were facing a counterrevolution from the right.

After Brandeis University decided against the renewal of his teaching contract in 1965, Marcuse devoted his life to writing and lecturing around the world. His efforts brought him attention from the media, which claimed that he openly advocated violence, although he often clarified that only "violence of defense" could be appropriate, not "violence of aggression". He continued to promote Marxian theory, with some of his students helping to spread his ideas. Marcuse’s analysis of capitalism derives partially from one of Karl Marx’s main concepts. Marx believed that capitalism was exploiting humans; that the objects produced by laborers became alienated and thus ultimately dehumanized them to functional objects. Marcuse took this belief and expanded it. He argued that capitalism and industrialization pushed laborers so hard that they began to see themselves as extensions of the objects they were producing.
Baer, Yitzhak (1888-1980), historian and expert in Medieval Spanish Jewish history, born in Halberstadt, Germany. He studied history and philosophy at the universities of Berlin, Strasbourg, France, and Freiburg, Germany. In 1919 Baer became research associate of the Akademie fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, under whose auspices he twice visited Spain to obtain material about the history of Jews in Spain under the Christians. In 1930 he emigrated to Palestine in 1930 and he was appointed to lecturere in Medieval Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 1932 he was appointed professor. From 1930 to 1959 he was head of the university's department of Jewish history. In 1945, Baer was awarded the Bialik Prize for Jewish thought and in 1958 he was awarded the Israel Prize in Jewish studies

Baer was one of the founders of the Jewish historical review “Zion”, he was very active in the Israel Historical Society and one of the founder members of the Israel Academy of Sciences. He contributed several important articles to the German Encyclopedia Judaica.

As a result of his research into the history of Spanish Jewry he wrote "Studien zur Geschichte der Juden im Konigreich Aragonien: wahrend des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts" (Berlin, 1913), "Untersuchungen über Quellen und Komposition des Schebet Jehuda" (1923), and "History of Jews in Christian Spain" (Tel Aviv 1945), which is regarded as the standard work on the subject. Important amongst his studies of the development and history of Jewish communal organizations in the Middle Ages are "Das Protokollbuch der Landjudenschaft des Herzogtums Kleve: erster Teil: die Geschichte des Landjudenschaft Herzogtums Kleve" (1922) and "Galut" (1936). His method tried to bring out the internal forces which fashioned the Jewish communities within the framework of general history. He believed that the main features of Jewish communal organization were largely established during the 2nd Temple period. In “Peoples of Israel: Studies in the History of the Second Temple Period of the Mishna, the Foundations of Law and Faith. Jerusalem” (1955) Baer also investigated the spiritual and religious world of the the Jewish people. He concluded that the driving force of Jewish history lay in the continuing socioreligious activities of groups of pious men of faith who aimed at perfecting the world. Among his other numerous works is “Studies and Essays in the History of Israel” (1985, in Hebrew).

Baer is recognized as one of the most fruitful students and teachers of Jewish history in modern times
Kaufmann, Fritz (1891-1958), philosopher, born in Leipzig, Germany. Kaufmann was the assistant of philosopher and mathematician Edmund Husserl who founded the school of phenomenology at Freiburg, Germany. In 1936 Kaufmann went to Berlin to join the Hochschule fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums.

Two years later he fled from Nazi Germany and went to the USA where he was appointed to the faculty of Northwestern University and the University of Buffalo. He wrote several books on phenomenology and helped to popularise its teachings in America. He also wrote short biographies on Martin Buber, Cassirer, Thomas Mann, Nietzche, Goethe, Flaubert and has teacher Husserl.
Weiss, Bernhard (1880-1951), jurist and vice-president of Berlin police until the establishment of the German Nazi state, born in Berlin, Germany. Weiss studied law at the University of Berlin, University of Freiburg i.B., Germany, University of Wuerzburg, Germany, earning a doctorate in law. In 1908 he was commissioned as an officer in the Royal Bavarian Army, in WW1 he was promoted captain and was awarded the Iron Cross First Class. His three brothers and cousin also fought in the war, one was killed and another seriously injured.

Weiss made a name as an exceptionally efficient lawyer and judge before being the first Jew to enter the Home Service of pre-Weimar Gemany. He was appointed Deputy Chief of the Berlin Criminal Police in 1918, and became its head in 1925, then he was appointed Vice President of the Berlin police force in 1927. Dr Drews, the minister who appointed him said in 1932, when Weiss’s government career was ending, that “when we decided to appoint for the Home Service a Jew who was not baptized, we knew that the first had to be the best. It was you I chose and I am glad to say that you lived up to our expectations”. Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and then Vice-Chancellor when Adolf Hitler came to power, had Weiss and his superior arrested, albeit for one day only.

While in office, Weiss was the target of a constant campaign of vilification organized by Joseph Goebbels who nicknamed Weiss “Isidore” and the Weimar Republic as “The Jews Republic”. Weiss sued Goebbels for libel and won his case. Goebbels did not refrain and Weiss was not intimidated so in the end Weiss sued Goebbels over 40 times. The name of Dr. Weiss is clearly associated with the history of the Weimar Republic. From the days when he produced evidence of the subversive activities of the Russian trade delegation in Berlin to the hunt for the murderers of Walter Rathenau, the Jewish industrialist and politician who served the Weimar governments in several capacities including that of Foreign Minister in 1922, or in the struggles against the Communists and the Nazis alike Weiss was in the forefront of the efforts to preserve democracy in Germany.

Weiss finally decided to flee Germany a just few days before Hitler was made Chancellor. When his police force was ordered to arrest Weiss and Hermann Goering had offered to pay a reward for anyone who assisted in his capture, a friend drove him out of the country to Czechoslovakia. He then went to England where he opened a printing and stationery business and lived out the remainder of his life. After World War II he applied for his German nationality, of which he had been stripped in 1933, to be restored, he planned to go back and live in Berlin. On the way to a London hospital, a few days before he died of cancer, he was informed that his request for the restoration of his Germany nationality had been granted . Weiss died at the age of 71 in London.

"He was a man of extremes, a Jew imbibed with Prussian virtues, small of stature, large in responsible behavior and a staunch Democrat," wrote Uwe Dannenbaum in the "Die Welt" newspaper to mark the naming of the forecourt at the Friedrichstrasse Station in Berlin after the former police chief . The movie picture "The Man who Drove Goebbels" (2005) by Reiner Mathias Brueckner portrays Weiss as a resolute defender of the republican order. In 2007 the German Federation of Jewish soldiers started to award in his honour a medal for fellow Germans who had worked for understanding and tolerance.
כנר. נולד בבודפשט, הונגריה. עקר לגרמניה, למד כינור אצל אנרי מארטו (Marteau) וניגן ככנר שני ברביעייה שלו. בשנים 1920-1915 שימש נגן ראשי של התזמורת הפילהרמונית של ברלין, ובשנים 1923-1920 של תזמורת התיאטרון הלאומי של מנהיים. ב-1921 הקים את רביעיית כלי-הקשת שנשאה את שמו ופעלה עד שנת 1929. הרביעייה, שהוויולן שלה היה פאול הינדמית, התמחתה בנגינת מוסיקה חדשה. ב-1933 אולץ עמר לעזוב את גרמניה, הגיע לתורכיה, ומ-1935 לימד בקונסרבטוריון של אנקרה. ב-1957 חזר לגרמניה ולימד בפרייבורג. נפטר בפרייבורג, גרמניה.
Hevesy, George Charles de (1885-1966), chemist, isotopes pioneer, and Nobel Prize winner, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), to a Roman Catholic family of Hungarian Jewish descent. He studied in Budapest and in Freiburg. In 1908, after obtaining his doctorate at Freiburg, he worked with Lorenz at the Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerlan, with Haber at Karlsruhe, and with Rutherford in Manchester, England. In 1913 he started to work with F. Paneth in Vienna, Austria, on radioactive isotopes. This was the beginning of the use of radioactive tracers or "labeled atoms," an important tool in chemical and biological research. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hevesy joined the Austro-Hungarian army as technical supervisor of the state electrochemical plant in the Carpathians. After the war he returned to Budapest and during the revolution of 1918-19 he resumed his studies of isotope tracers.

In 1920 he joined Niels Bohr at the new institute of theoretical physics in Copenhagen. There, together with D. Coster, he discovered a new element, no. 72, which he called hafnium. In 1923 he revealed in a paper the first use of radioactive tracers in a biological problem and in 1924 their first use in animal physiology. In 1926 Hevesy became professor at Freiburg, Germany; there he added a new field – X-ray fluorescence – as a method of analysis of trace materials in minerals, rocks, and meteorites.

In 1930 to 1931 Hevesy was one of the two George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturers in Chemistry at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N.Y. He lectured on analysis by means of X-ray, the discovery and character of hafnium, and the chemical composition of the earth and the comic abundance of the elements.

In 1934 he was forced to resign from his position at Freiburg on account of his Jewish originsand returned to the Copenhagen institute. The discovery of artificial radioactive elements immensely enhanced the utility of the tracer technique in research work. After 1938 Hevesy gave his whole attention to the use of this tool in biochemical research. When Copenhagen was no longer safe he escaped to Sweden where he continued his work. In 1943 he was awarded the Nobel Prize "for the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes." After World War II, Hevesy remained in Stockholm, Sweden, as professor in the institute of organic chemistry of the university. His biological work continued, largely on nucleic acids, the metabolism of iron and calcium, cancer anemia, and effects of radiation. Among Hevesy's other awards and honors were the "Pour le Merite" from the German president Heuss and the Atoms for Peace Award (New York, 1959).

His major published works are: "Recherches sur les proprietes du hafnium" (1925); "A Manual of Radiactivity" (co-author, Fritz Paneth, two additions); "Das Alter der Grundstoffe" (1929); "Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and Its Applications" (1932; translated also into Russian, 1935); "Artificial Radioactivity of Scandium" (1935); "Action of Neutrons on the Rare Earth Elements" (Hilde Levi, co-author, 1936); "Excretion of Phosphorus" (Ladislau Hahn and O. Rebbe, co-authors, 1939).
Legal scholar

Born in Freiburg, he was early a scholar of the classics and Talmud. He studied music and literature in Paris and Roman law in Freiburg and Goettingen. Daube taught law at Cambridge, England, 1938-51, was professor of jurisprudence at Aberdeen 1951-55 and Regius Professor of Civil Law at Oxford from 1955 to 1970 when he went as professor to the University of California at Berkeley. A world authority on Roman law, he also wrote important studies on biblical and talmudic law.
ורבורג, אוטו (1883- 1970), רופא, חתן פרס נובל, פיענח את התהליכים הכימיים של הנשימה, אשר נולד בפרייבורג שבבריסגאו, גרמניה, בשנת 1883.

ורבורג למד בברלין ואחר כך קיבל דוקטורט ברפואה מאוניברסיטת היילדלברג, גרמניה, בשנת 1911.

בשנת 1931 הוענק לו פרס נובל לרפואה ופיזיולוגיה, "בעבור גילוי טבעו ודרך פעולתו של אנזים הנשימה". כמו-כן, פיתח ורבורג את שיטת המנומטריה למדידת תוצרים של תהליכים ביולוגיים.

בזמן המשטר הנאצי, ורבורג נחשב ל"חצי-יהודי", על פי החקיקה הגזענית. מעמד זה איפשר לו להישאר בברלין, ולאחר מכן בכפר קטן לשם העביר את המעבדה שלו בגלל הפצצות האוויר על ברלין בזמן מלחמת העולם השנייה.
Haas, Ludwig (1875-1930), politician, born and educated in Freiburg, Germany. He founded a Jewish students society in the town. He practiced law in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he was also elected to be a city councillor in 1908. He was to be a member of the city council until 1919. In 1912 he was elected a member of the Reichstag to represent the Progressive People's Party. Haas served in the German army during World War I and was decorated for his bravery on the Western Front. At the end of 1915 he became head of the Jewish section of the German military government of occupied Poland and worked to reorganize the Polish Jewish community and to formalize its relationship with the central government.

After the 1918 revolution in Germany, Haas became minister of the interior of the first republican government of Baden. He became chairman of the Progressive People's Party in the Reichstag in 1929. He was active in the Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, an organization dedicated to protecting the civil and social rights of Jews in Germany while at the same time, cultivating their German identity. The organization tried to combat anti-Semitism by showing that Jews were merely a religious group with no national characteristics or ambitions.
Jurist

Born in Freiburg. in 1926 he became assistant to the state attorney in Berlin, then a judge, and was a senior adviser in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. He demanded that Hitler be tried for treason and that the Nazi party be disbanded. When Hitler came to power, Kempner was arrested and on his release went to Italy where he taught until 1939. Then going to the United States, Kempner became a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania and worked on the Manhattan (atom bomb) Project. From 1946 to 1949 he was chief prosecutor of the Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. Thereafter he devoted himself to Holocaust research and helped the Israel government assemble evidence against Adolf Eichmann. He wrote many books on the Nazi era and connected post-War subjects.
HAYAH,HINDA FREIBURG
BENJAMIN,ERIC FREIBURGER
הוסרל, אדמונד גוסטאב אלברכט
Philosopher

He was born in Prossnitz and studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Viennareceiving his doctorate in Vienna. While a young adult, he converted to Protestantism. In Vienna Husserl became increasingly interested in philosophy, which he was to teach at the University of Halle (1887-1901), and then at Goettingen (1906-16) and Freiburg (1916-29). He is regarded as one of the outstanding thinkers of the century and the father of phenomenology, which has been called the 'logic' of consciousness and has greatly influenced many aspects of modern culture. After his death, his voluminous manuscripts were secreted out of Nazi Germany. His writings and lectures were published (1950-66) in eleven volumes by the Husserl Archives at the University of Louvain.
אלזה לוי-מיזם קוראת מכתבי אביה הסופר פול מיזם, פרייבורג, גרמניה, 1984
אבן זכרון במקום בו עמד בית הכנסת של פיירבורג, גרמניה, 1981
בית הכנסת בפרייבורג, גרמניה 1920-1930
אלזה לוי-מיזם מקריאה את מכתבי אביה,
הסופר היהודי-גרמני פול מיזם, בחנות הספרים ואלטארי,
פרייבורג, ברייסגאו, גרמניה, 1984
צילום: אן-מארי ברום, גרמניה
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות אן-מארי ברום, גרמניה)
אבן זכרון במקום בו עמד בית הכנסת
של פיירבורג, גרמניה 1981.
בית הכנסת נבנה ב-1870
ונחרב ע"י הנאצים ב-1938.
צילום: רוברט פ. ספייר, גרמניה.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות רוברט ספייר, גרמניה)
בית הכנסת בפרייבורג, גרמניה 1920-1930.
בית הכנסת נבנה ב-1870 ונשרף
ב"ליל הבדולח" בנובמבר 1938.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות רוברט ספייר, גרמניה)
פרייבורג
FREIBURG, FRIBOURG

שמות משפחה נובעים מכמה מקורות שונים. לעיתים לאותו שם קיים יותר מהסבר אחד. שם משפחה זה הוא מסוג השמות הטופונימיים (שם הנגזר משם של מקום כגון עיירה, עיר, מחוז או ארץ). שמות אלו, אשר נובעים משמות של מקומות, לא בהכרח מעידים על קשר היסטורי ישיר לאותו מקום, אבל יכולים להצביע על קשר בלתי ישיר בין נושא השם או אבותיו לבין מקום לידה, מגורים ארעיים, אזור מסחר או קרובי משפחה.

לשם משפחה זה יש שני מקורות אפשריים.

שם משפחה זה יכול להיות קשור בשמה של העיר פרייבורג בברייסגאו, גרמניה; היישוב היהודי של העיר פרייבורג ("המבצר החופשי", בגרמנית) בחבל ברייסגאו אשר בבאדן, גרמניה, מוזכר החל מהמאה ה-12; והעיר השוויצרית פרייבורג (פריבור, בצרפתית) התירה ליהודים להתיישב בתחומה היישוב היהודי במקום מתועד מאז המאה ה-14.

אפשר ששם זה קשור במילה הגרמנית פראי שפירושה "חופשי". חרות הוא אחד מעקרונות הייסוד של היהדות. עקרון זה מודגש מדי שנה בחג הפסח, "חג החירות", שמציין את יציאת בני ישראל ממצרים, מ"בית העבדים".

בתפוצות למילה "חופשי" היו גם משמעויות אחרות. בקהילות היהודיות פריימן ("איש חופשי") ציין גבר לא נשוי, רווק, כלומר אדם שיכול להיות "פרייר", מונח שפירושו "מחזר". בסלנג יידיש ואחר כך ישראלי, פרייר הוא כינוי לאדם טיפש "שאפשר לעבוד עליו".

שמות משפחה יהודיים המכילים את המילה פריי יכולים להיות גם טופונימים הקשורים במספר שמות של מקומות.

פרייברג, שפירושו המילולי הוא "הר חופשי" בגרמנית, הוא שמה של עיירה בסכסוניה, גרמניה; העיירה פריבור, בשלזיה מרכזית, צ'כיה, וכמו כן העיירה שוויבודזיצה בשלזיה התחתונה, פולין, ידועות גם בשמות פריבורק ופרייבורג. תחילתו של היישוב היהודי בעיר פרייבורג ("עיר חופשית") ברייסגאו בבאדן, גרמניה, מוזכרת במאה ה-12. העיר השוויצרית פרייבורג / פריבורג התירה להיהודים להתיישב בתחומה במאה ה-14. פריישטט ("עיר חופשית") הוא שמה של עיירה ליד לינץ, אוסטריה; פריישטט בשלזיה הפכה לחלק מהעיר קרבינה / קרבין, פולין. פריישטט הוא שמה של עיירה בבאדן, גרמניה; פריישטדל (שפירושו המילולי הוא "עיירה חופשית") הוא שמה הגרמני של העיירה הלודובץ בסלובקיה, הידועה גם בשמה ההונגרי גאלגוץ; תחילתו של היישוב היהודי במקום הזה מתועדת במאה ה-16. שם התואר "חופשי" מתועד כשם משפחה בגרסה פראי בפריס בשנת 1789. פראי מתועד בצרפת בשנת 1792; פריי בבודפשט, הונגריה, בשנת 1872. בשנת 1957 יהודי בשם פריירמן החליף את שמו לצורה הצרפתית פרז'ר.
Hauser, Franz
עמר, ליקו
הבשי, ג'וארג' צ'רלס דה

Hauser, Franz (1794-1870), singer and teacher, born in Krasovice (Kraschowitz in German), near Prague,  Bohemia, Czech Republic (then part of the Austrian Empire). Over a period of many years he sang leading baritone roles in major opera houses throughout Europe, including those of Vienna (1828), London (1832), and Berlin (1835). In 1837 he settled in Vienna, where he became well-known as a teacher of singing. In 1846, he was appointed director of the Munich Conservatory, a post he held to 1865, when he was pensioned. He wrote a treatise on singing Gesanglehre.
Hauser died in Freiburg, Germany.

 

כנר. נולד בבודפשט, הונגריה. עקר לגרמניה, למד כינור אצל אנרי מארטו (Marteau) וניגן ככנר שני ברביעייה שלו. בשנים 1920-1915 שימש נגן ראשי של התזמורת הפילהרמונית של ברלין, ובשנים 1923-1920 של תזמורת התיאטרון הלאומי של מנהיים. ב-1921 הקים את רביעיית כלי-הקשת שנשאה את שמו ופעלה עד שנת 1929. הרביעייה, שהוויולן שלה היה פאול הינדמית, התמחתה בנגינת מוסיקה חדשה. ב-1933 אולץ עמר לעזוב את גרמניה, הגיע לתורכיה, ומ-1935 לימד בקונסרבטוריון של אנקרה. ב-1957 חזר לגרמניה ולימד בפרייבורג. נפטר בפרייבורג, גרמניה.
Hevesy, George Charles de (1885-1966), chemist, isotopes pioneer, and Nobel Prize winner, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), to a Roman Catholic family of Hungarian Jewish descent. He studied in Budapest and in Freiburg. In 1908, after obtaining his doctorate at Freiburg, he worked with Lorenz at the Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerlan, with Haber at Karlsruhe, and with Rutherford in Manchester, England. In 1913 he started to work with F. Paneth in Vienna, Austria, on radioactive isotopes. This was the beginning of the use of radioactive tracers or "labeled atoms," an important tool in chemical and biological research. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hevesy joined the Austro-Hungarian army as technical supervisor of the state electrochemical plant in the Carpathians. After the war he returned to Budapest and during the revolution of 1918-19 he resumed his studies of isotope tracers.

In 1920 he joined Niels Bohr at the new institute of theoretical physics in Copenhagen. There, together with D. Coster, he discovered a new element, no. 72, which he called hafnium. In 1923 he revealed in a paper the first use of radioactive tracers in a biological problem and in 1924 their first use in animal physiology. In 1926 Hevesy became professor at Freiburg, Germany; there he added a new field – X-ray fluorescence – as a method of analysis of trace materials in minerals, rocks, and meteorites.

In 1930 to 1931 Hevesy was one of the two George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturers in Chemistry at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N.Y. He lectured on analysis by means of X-ray, the discovery and character of hafnium, and the chemical composition of the earth and the comic abundance of the elements.

In 1934 he was forced to resign from his position at Freiburg on account of his Jewish originsand returned to the Copenhagen institute. The discovery of artificial radioactive elements immensely enhanced the utility of the tracer technique in research work. After 1938 Hevesy gave his whole attention to the use of this tool in biochemical research. When Copenhagen was no longer safe he escaped to Sweden where he continued his work. In 1943 he was awarded the Nobel Prize "for the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes." After World War II, Hevesy remained in Stockholm, Sweden, as professor in the institute of organic chemistry of the university. His biological work continued, largely on nucleic acids, the metabolism of iron and calcium, cancer anemia, and effects of radiation. Among Hevesy's other awards and honors were the "Pour le Merite" from the German president Heuss and the Atoms for Peace Award (New York, 1959).

His major published works are: "Recherches sur les proprietes du hafnium" (1925); "A Manual of Radiactivity" (co-author, Fritz Paneth, two additions); "Das Alter der Grundstoffe" (1929); "Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and Its Applications" (1932; translated also into Russian, 1935); "Artificial Radioactivity of Scandium" (1935); "Action of Neutrons on the Rare Earth Elements" (Hilde Levi, co-author, 1936); "Excretion of Phosphorus" (Ladislau Hahn and O. Rebbe, co-authors, 1939).
דאובה, דיוויד
ורבורג, אוטו
האס, לודוויג
Kempner, Robert Max Wasilii
Legal scholar

Born in Freiburg, he was early a scholar of the classics and Talmud. He studied music and literature in Paris and Roman law in Freiburg and Goettingen. Daube taught law at Cambridge, England, 1938-51, was professor of jurisprudence at Aberdeen 1951-55 and Regius Professor of Civil Law at Oxford from 1955 to 1970 when he went as professor to the University of California at Berkeley. A world authority on Roman law, he also wrote important studies on biblical and talmudic law.
ורבורג, אוטו (1883- 1970), רופא, חתן פרס נובל, פיענח את התהליכים הכימיים של הנשימה, אשר נולד בפרייבורג שבבריסגאו, גרמניה, בשנת 1883.

ורבורג למד בברלין ואחר כך קיבל דוקטורט ברפואה מאוניברסיטת היילדלברג, גרמניה, בשנת 1911.

בשנת 1931 הוענק לו פרס נובל לרפואה ופיזיולוגיה, "בעבור גילוי טבעו ודרך פעולתו של אנזים הנשימה". כמו-כן, פיתח ורבורג את שיטת המנומטריה למדידת תוצרים של תהליכים ביולוגיים.

בזמן המשטר הנאצי, ורבורג נחשב ל"חצי-יהודי", על פי החקיקה הגזענית. מעמד זה איפשר לו להישאר בברלין, ולאחר מכן בכפר קטן לשם העביר את המעבדה שלו בגלל הפצצות האוויר על ברלין בזמן מלחמת העולם השנייה.
Haas, Ludwig (1875-1930), politician, born and educated in Freiburg, Germany. He founded a Jewish students society in the town. He practiced law in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he was also elected to be a city councillor in 1908. He was to be a member of the city council until 1919. In 1912 he was elected a member of the Reichstag to represent the Progressive People's Party. Haas served in the German army during World War I and was decorated for his bravery on the Western Front. At the end of 1915 he became head of the Jewish section of the German military government of occupied Poland and worked to reorganize the Polish Jewish community and to formalize its relationship with the central government.

After the 1918 revolution in Germany, Haas became minister of the interior of the first republican government of Baden. He became chairman of the Progressive People's Party in the Reichstag in 1929. He was active in the Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, an organization dedicated to protecting the civil and social rights of Jews in Germany while at the same time, cultivating their German identity. The organization tried to combat anti-Semitism by showing that Jews were merely a religious group with no national characteristics or ambitions.
Jurist

Born in Freiburg. in 1926 he became assistant to the state attorney in Berlin, then a judge, and was a senior adviser in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. He demanded that Hitler be tried for treason and that the Nazi party be disbanded. When Hitler came to power, Kempner was arrested and on his release went to Italy where he taught until 1939. Then going to the United States, Kempner became a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania and worked on the Manhattan (atom bomb) Project. From 1946 to 1949 he was chief prosecutor of the Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. Thereafter he devoted himself to Holocaust research and helped the Israel government assemble evidence against Adolf Eichmann. He wrote many books on the Nazi era and connected post-War subjects.