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Neuruppin

A town and the administrative seat of Ostprignitz-Ruppin district in Brandenburg, Germany.

The first mention of Jews in the city can be found in a document dated April 30, 1315, in which the Counts of Lindow transferred general jurisdiction to their city of Neuruppin, but retained jurisdiction over the Jews themselves. If the Jews wanted to acquire citizenship in Neuruppin, they first had to pay high taxes...The sovereign was entitled to 1/16 marks annually for the charter. In 1365 the city of Neuruppin charged a rent of 17 denars for the houses and three denars for the baths. Half a silver mark had to be paid quarterly for the synagogue and a house connected to it. There were also taxes to the Counts of Lindow. In return they allowed the Neuruppin Jews, who "honestly" paid their property taxes, to slaughter cattle as early as 1323 and freely sell meat that they did not need for their own consumption. They were also allowed to freely sell grain for making bread and beer. But if they bought more than they needed for their own consumption, they should like other citizens pay property taxes."

At the end of the 15th century there were four Jews in Neuruppin, only one of them lived on Judenstrasse, which was already in existence at the time. At the end of the 16th century, the mint master Lippold was executed after he had been accused of murdering the Prince Elector Joachim II. In the following 98 years Jews were no longer allowed to settle in the Mark Brandenburg. After the resettlement of Jews in Brandenburg around 1671, individual Jews lived in the Neuruppin area in Wusterhausen, Gransee, Lindow, and Rheinsberg. 

"In the 19th century the Jews in Germany experienced severe upheavals.... The emancipation edict of March 11, 1812, gave the Prussian Jews not only civil liberties but also the obligation to serve in the military. Several served in the wars of liberation against Napoleon and his French troops in the following years. The first Jews came to Neuruppin with the troops returning home. 

There were 70 Jews in the Ruppiner Kreis in 1824, but the Jews in these cities did not yet form a common community at that time.

"Traditionally, one of the most important tasks of the Jews was to acquire a burial place that would enable a burial according to ritual regulations. The Gransee Jews buried their dead in Zehdenick. It is unclear which cemetery the Fehrbellin Jews used. However, it is conceivable that they brought their dead like the Wusterhausen people to Kyritz or even like the Nauen Jews to Berlin. A government decree of May 20, 1814, which forbade the transport of corpses over a distance of more than a Prussian mile, forced the establishment of cemeteries in the individual cities. In the years that followed, cemeteries were built in Gransee, Wusterhausen, Lindow, Fehrbellin and Neuruppin, some of which have been preserved to this day."

In 1824 Joel Hirschberg from Neu Ruppin bought a plot of land for a burial place on the vineyard site. In 1829 the Jewish community was allocated a piece of land of 24 square rods for a new cemetery, located far from the city. 

It is located in the outermost northern corner of the large municipal cemetery. In April 1945 it was destroyed by acts of war. It still consists of a small corner of 10x7 m, which has been tended, raked and planted since 1985. An excavation sample in front of the rest of the wall showed that the base, grave borders and probably also tombstones are still under the surface of the meadow. In 1988 there were still five tombstones and grave borders, 26 m of wall remnants with two built-in stars of David. The tombstones point to the northwest. The names Silberstein, Johanna Jacobi, Isidor Zöllner, Samuel Zacharias, Johanna Jacobi could still be recognized. 

In 1838, 48 Jews lived in the city, the population of which was over 9,000. 

"When the community was constituted on July 1, 1858, eleven years after the "Law on the Conditions of the Jews" was enacted, the number of its "souls" had grown to 101. There were also around 35 Jews in Wusterhausen, ten in Neustadt and several in Fehrbellin and "on the flat country". In the following year, the board of directors and representatives of the community passed a statute in which the spatial expansion of the community was initially laid down. It extended from Fehrbellin in the south, Neuruppin/Dosse and Wusterhausen in the west, Basdorf in the north to Wulkow and Radensleben in the east and comprised a total of 57 localities. However, very few of them were home to Jewish citizens." 

"In the budget drawn up by the board of directors for 1862 there is the only reference to the existence of a ritual bath. In addition to 35 thalers for renting the synagogue and 150 thalers for the teacher's salary, a thaler is shown "for the bathhouse". 

In 1879 the number of community members had risen to over 200, which is still a small group within the city, which has now grown to 14,000 inhabitants. In the years that followed, the number of community members declined as a result of rural exodus and secularization. Gransee and Wusterhausen, where in 1910 only three Jews lived each, were particularly affected. No Jews at all have been recorded in Neustadt since 1880. 

The school-age Jewish children attended the Christian school and received Jewish religious instruction in the community. In 1827 two Jewish children were required to attend school, in 1850 the number rose to 26 and fell again to 18 by 1864. In addition to the lessons the teachers were responsible for the ritual slaughter of the animals. The teacher, slaughterer and prayer leader Nathan Levithal, who performed these tasks in Neuruppin for several decades, was particularly influential for the community. The social security of the teachers, prayer leaders and slaughterers was very low. For example, the municipality was not obliged to pay a pension or support to the widow. The coverage was probably provided by the "German-Israelite Community Association" which the Neuruppin community did not join until 1899. 

"The spectrum of Jewish places of worship in the Ruppin district ranged from prayer rooms in Wusterhausen and Lindow to the rural synagogue in Neuruppin, which was housed in the back yard of the building at Ferdinandstrasse 10, today's Virchowstrasse. The synagogue...was probably more of a prayer room and therefore one can assume that the community's synagogue was built in 1868... The floor plan can be seen on a drawing from 1899 which was created on the occasion of the construction of a neighboring building. Accordingly, the Neuruppin "temple" was a little wider than five meters and almost ten meters long. As can be seen on one of the two photos taken before the demolition in the mid-1960s, there was a women's gallery on the north side, which had its own staircase. The picture of the interior taken from the women's gallery reveals damage to the wall on the east side of the room, the extent and location of which suggest that the torah shrine was once located there. This impression is confirmed by the photo of the outside view, which clearly shows a cabinet-like bulge next to the entrance door. Of the former decoration of the room, only the arched windows can be seen in the photos, which emphasize the sacred character, as well as two borders that stretch around the room under the ceiling at a height of about two meters. The building in which the synagogue was located was never owned by the Jewish community. A tax list shows that the synagogue was abandoned in 1928. The building, which was exempt from the tax until this year, was "changed in purpose". 

The "Law on the conditions of the Jews" of July 23, 1847 stipulated "that all Jews living within a synagogue district belong to such a community". As a result there was a compulsory membership in the communities which lasted until May 14, 1873. On this day a law was passed as part of the culture war, which was supposed to weaken the Catholic church by allowing departure from it. On July 28, 1876, the Prussian federal state parliament finally passed the law regulating the departure of Jews from their synagogue communities and giving them the possibility to join another community." 

Some Jews in the Neuruppin synagogue district made use of one or the other option in the following years, most of them resigned in order to join a Reformed synagogue community. Around the middle of the 19th century, around 50% of the Jewish communities in Germany, especially in the countryside, were Orthodox, towards the end of the century it was only 15%. (jüd. Brandenburg, S.230-231)

In 1906/07, 43 Jews lived in 11 households in Neuruppin. Several Jews ran businesses. The largest was probably the Anker family's department store.(Foto S. 236) This was founded in 1839 by the Silberstein family and taken over by Robert Anker in 1904. There were also the companies Friedenthal (residual goods store), Jacoby, Elias (both men's and boys' clothing), Karger (department store) and Behmack (linen). Academics such as the lawyers Simon and Neuhaus and the doctors Hirsch and Jacoby also settled in Neuruppin. In the First World War Max Brasch and Louis Wolff fell, others received awards. At the same time, however, there was also emigration of Jews from Neuruppin, so that the synagogue on Ferdinandstrasse had to be abandoned at the end of the 1920s. 

The local branch of the NSDAP was founded in January 1928 and in the elections of 1930 the party already received 30.5% of the vote. With the transfer of power to the Nazis, the disenfranchisement, exclusion and persecution began as everywhere in Germany for the Jews in Neuruppin. The shops were boycotted and later expropriated, the doctors and lawyers lost their licenses, and Jews were not allowed to study. The lawyer Dr. Alfred Neuhaus fled with his family from Nazi Germany in December 1933 to South Africa via Rotterdam, Dr. Leo from Rheinsberg had to flee Germany before, the 36-year-old Kurt Nathan from Fehrbellin, who was wounded as a combatant and later joined the SPD, was persecuted as a Jew and socialist and, like many other Social Democrats fled to Paris. His further path is unknown. Finally, the Schottländer family also emigrated to Argentina. Not much is known about their further fate either. In 1938 the two sons of the department store owner Anker managed to flee to Chile and the Karger family to Palestine. In March 1939 Carl and Johanne Levin were able to escape to Brazil. During the Night of the Pogrom of November 1938, they had to watch their house being shattered. Soon after, they had to sell their shoe shop well below value, only a small part of which was paid to settle the ship's passage and outstanding bills. The property of the doctors Dr. Jacoby and Dr. Hirsch and the lawyers Dr. Simon and Arthur Schwarz were brutally destroyed by SA men on the Night of the Pogrom. Several Jews from Neuruppin and Rheinsberg were arrested and locked up for a few days, Hans Nathan from Fehrbellin even until the end of December in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Most of the Jews from Neuruppin fled to Berlin to seek refuge in the big city.

In July 1940, 59 Jewish patients were transferred from the Neuruppin sanatorium and nursing home to Brandenburg/Havel and murdered there. After the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942, the deportations of Jews from the Neuruppin synagogue community began: Emma Anker, the wife of the department store owner, who had already been "Aryanized" before the Night of the Pogrom, was deported to the Twarnici extermination camp near Lublin in March 1942 and murdered there. Arnold Jacoby and the couple Selma and Richard Nathan were deported in August and September 1942 respectively to Theresienstadt, where the Nathans died due to the terrible conditions. Arnold Jacoby was further deported to Treblinka and murdered there. The Michaelis family from Gransee also perished in Theresienstadt. Erna Jacoby, Arthur Jacoby and his wife Gerda were deported to Auschwitz in February 1943, Hans and Erna Nathan from Fehrbellin and Edit Frank were arrested in Berlin as part of the factory action in Berlin at the end of February 1943 and deported to Auschwitz. Regina Meyerhard and the 93 year old Emilie Drucker from Neuruppin as well as the 86 year old Ida Hirschfeld from Rheinsberg perished in Theresienstadt. The couple Felix and Ida Weinstock, who were deported to Theresienstadt in September 1943, survived the camp and returned to Rheinsberg in autumn 1945.

The lawyer Dr. Paul Simon and the doctor Dr. Alfred Hirsch were married to non-Jews in Neuruppin who had been repeatedly asked to separate from their husbands, but who stood by their husbands and thus saved their lives. Dr. Simon died, however, weakened by forced labor and poor nutrition, only a few months after Germany was liberated from the Nazi regime. Dr. Hirsch was able to work as a doctor after the war in Neuruppin for three years before he died in an accident in 1948. He was one of the founding members of the "Anti-Fascist Bloc". Margot Pohrt survived in Rheinsberg. 

At the same time as the deprivation of rights and plundering of the Jews, the Nazis worked to dissolve the Neuruppin synagogue community. In May 1941, the Reich Minister of the Interior ordered that the “Jewish Religious Association of the Synagogue Community in Neuruppin" be incorporated into the Reich Association of Jews in Germany. The old Jewish cemetery behind the vineyard had already been confiscated in 1935 and was then sold to the Evangelical parish in 1942 after the dissolution of the Jewish community. The cemetery was devastated in a air raid in 1945. 

Only the remains of the cemetery in 1945 reminded that there had once been a flourishing Jewish community in Neuruppin. After the cemetery was overgrown for decades and without maintenance, some members of the Evangelical parish took the initiative in 1985 to repair it. After various clean-ups, there are 20 grave monuments in the cemetery today. In November 2001 a sculpture by the sculptor Wieland Schmiedel was set to commemorate the fate of the Jews. (Foto S. 242) Only a memorial stone put up in 1999 on an overgrown hill outside the city gates is evidence of the Jewish cemetery in Fehrbellin. The cemeteries in Wusterhausen and Gransee have completely disappeared. 

In 2003 a private initiative in Neuruppin to commemorate the murdered Jews in front of the houses they lived in, so-called stumbling blocks with their names and dates of life were set in the pavement. In 1998 a memorial plaque was placed on the house of the Michaelis family in Gransee. Until 1990, there was no evidence of the building's past on the front building of the former synagogue at Virchowstrasse 10.  

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

סוג מקום:
עיירה
מספר פריט:
21374370
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:

ברנדנבורג

מחוז הסטורי ומדינה בגרמניה.

 

אורניינבורג

Oranienburg

עיר ובירת מחוז אובר האוול ברנדנבורג, גרמניה.

נוכחות יהודית ראשונה: 1680; שיא האוכלוסייה היהודית: 131 ב-1925; אוכלוסייה יהודית בשנת 1933: 105.

הקהילה היהודית באורניינבורג הקימה מספר מוסדות במהלך המאה ה-19: בית כנסת צנוע ברחוב האוול (Havelstrasse) (מספר 6 או 58) היה בשימוש עד 1838, ובית קברות קודש ברחוב קרמנר (Kremmener) בשנת 1815. העֵדה בחרה לשמור על בית כנסת משלה לאחר שהקהילה השתלבה, בשנת 1920, בקהילה היהודית הרשמית של ברלין.

למרות שיהודי אורניינבורג היו בעיקר סוחרים, יהודים אחרים זכו להכרה במקצועות אחרים. לואי בלומנטל היה הבנקאי הראשון של העיר, ונחום אופנהיימר ייסד ארגון צדקה ידוע.

כל הנכסים היהודיים הותקפו ב"ליל הבדולח" (9 בנובמבר, 1938), אך היעדים העיקריים היו בית הכנסת והעסקים בבעלות יהודית. חורבות בית הכנסת והמרכז הקהילתי נהרסו על ידי פצצות במהלך המלחמה, ומאוחר יותר הוקמו במקום בנייני ממשלה. זקסנהאוזן, מחנה הריכוז הנאצי השני בגודלו בגרמניה, היה ממוקם באורניינבורג.

ורנר מייקל בלומנטל, יהודי יליד אורניינבורג, שימש כשר האוצר של ג'ימי קרטר, בסוף שנות ה-70 של המאה ה-20, ולאחר מכן מונה למנהל המוזיאון היהודי בברלין.

הקהילה היהודית החדשה של אורניינבורג נוסדה בשנת 2000. באתר בית הכנסת לשעבר נקבע לוח זיכרון.

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ערך זה פורסם לראשונה באנגלית באתר "בית אשכנז - בתי כנסת וקהילות שנחרבו בגרמניה" ונתרם למאגר המידע של מוזיאון העם היהודי באדיבות בית אשכנז.

 

Mirow

A town in the district of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Mirow, not far from Neustrelitz, had a very small Jewish community with a synagogue on Fischgang, which had been closed since the beginning of the 20th century, and a cemetery that no longer exists. A memorial stone still reminds of the square. Nothing is known about a Jewish school and a mikveh. At the time of Nazi regime there were only a few Jewish residents left in the community: The Rosenberg family had a clothing store and were very popular in Mirow because they were generous and helped many poor residents. The Moses family owned a hat shop at the other end of Schlossstrasse. The clothing store was destroyed on the Pogrom Night of Nov. 9, 1938, the owner Herbert Rosenberg was portrayed as a straw doll and hung up as such, he himself had been able to escape. The intervention of a mailwoman, Anna König, is said to have prevented the Nazis from causing even greater destruction. The building of the former synagogue was not destroyed. Herbert Rosenberg fled to South America, his younger sister Ruth to Israel. A former classmate managed to get in touch with her in the 1990s and invite her to a class reunion in Mirow.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

נוישטרליץ

Neustrelitz

עיר במחוז אזור האגמים של מקלנבורג (Mecklenburgische Seenplatte) במקלנבורג-מערב פומרניה, גרמניה.

קיים רישום ראשון של קהילה יהודית בנוישטרליץ החל מ-1700; שיא האוכלוסייה היהודית: 600 אנשים בשנת 1802; בשנת 1933 נמנו: 62 יהודים.

במהלך שנות ה-1800 בעיר אלט-שטרליץ התגוררה האוכלוסייה היהודית הגדולה והחשובה ביותר במקלנבורג, בית הכנסת הגדול ביותר והרב המכובד ביותר של המחוז. הדבר התאפשר על ידי דוכס מקומי שקיבל את פני היהודים והתיר להם להקים חדרי תפילה, בית קברות ובית ספר יסודי. כאשר הקהילה היהודית גדלה והיה צורך בחדרי תפילה נוספים, הדוכס אדולף פרידריך הרביעי, לא רק אישר את ההחלטה לרכוש אדמות לבניית בית כנסת, אלא תרם מכספו ועזר בארגון מימון למאמץ. בית הכנסת – בניין מסיבי – הושלם בשנת 1763; בטקס חנוכת בית הכנסת השתתפו בעלי קרקעות ופוליטיקאים מקומיים. כמאה שנים מאוחר יותר, ב-1847, שופץ בית הכנסת בשלמותו, ולאחר מכן נחנך שוב. הרב יעקב המבורגר כיהן כרב כמעט חמישים שנה עד למותו בשנת 1911. ככל הנראה הוא שמר על אחידות הקהילה, שכן רק לאחר מותו עזבו יהודים רבים את אלט-שטרליץ.

יהודים ונוצרים חיו בשלום באלט-שטרליץ עד 1935. ב"ליל הבדולח" (9 בנובמבר, 1938) שלושה צעירים נאצים פרצו לבית הכנסת, ניפצו את החלונות והעלו אותו באש. זמן קצר לאחר מכן, הקהילה היהודית נאלצה לשלם עבור הריסת הבניין.

ב-1988 הוסר הלוט מעל לוח זיכרון באתר בית הכנסת לשעבר.

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ערך זה פורסם לראשונה באנגלית באתר "בית אשכנז - בתי כנסת וקהילות שנחרבו בגרמניה" ונתרם למאגר המידע של מוזיאון העם היהודי באדיבות בית אשכנז.

רובל

Roebel

כפר במחוז האגמים במקלנבורג-מערב פומרניה , גרמניה.

נוכחות ראשונה של קהילה יהודית נרשמה באמצע המאה ה-14; שיא האוכלוסייה היהודית: 104 אנשים ב-1867; אוכלוסייה יהודית ב-1933: 20 אנשים.

הקהילה היהודית של רובל גורשה בשנת 1492, כפי שגורשו קהילות יהודיות רבות אחרות בגרמניה. רק בתחילת המאה ה-18 הורשו היהודים לשוב לרובל, לאחר מכן יסדו קהילה והקימו חדר תפילה בבית מגורים פרטי.  בית קברות קטן נחנך ברובל ב-1720. ב-1830 השלטונות התירו לקהילה לבנות בית כנסת, מבנה צנוע שבו התקיימו תפילות עד אחרי מלחמת העולם הראשונה, כאשר רוב היהודים עזבו את רובל. בניין בית הכנסת הריק נמכר בשנת 1930.

למרות שבניין בית הכנסת כבר לא היה בבעלות יהודית, אנשי ה-ס"ס הציתו אותו ב"ליל הבדולח" (9 בנובמבר, 1938). כתוצאה מהתערבותו של שכן, שחשש לביתו שלו, בית הכנסת לא נשרף עד היסוד.

בשנת 2000 השתלטה העירייה על בניין בית הכנסת לשעבר וייעדה אותו כנקודת ציון. כיום הבניין משמש כמרכז נוער, לצידו מבנה ובו תערוכה על ההיסטוריה של יהודי רובל.

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ערך זה פורסם לראשונה באנגלית באתר "בית אשכנז - בתי כנסת וקהילות שנחרבו בגרמניה" ונתרם למאגר המידע של מוזיאון העם היהודי באדיבות בית אשכנז.

Malchow

A municipality in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Around the middle of the 18th century, Jewish traders and their families probably settled in Malchow and in the neighboring towns of Röbel and Waren. One of them was Salomon Jakauf, who ran a small business of spinning yarn and woven fabrics, which he passed on to his son Moses in 1760 who later called himself Moses Jakob. In the following generations, the family was called Jacobsohn due to a naming law published in 1813 by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I. The Jacobson family belonged to one of the most important and respected families in Malchow until the Jews were expelled and murdered by the Nazis. This family history was written down by Max Jacobson for his descendants after his liberation from Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp.

From documents in the Mecklenburg State Main Archives it can be seen that the Jews Elias Salomon and Lewin David from Malchow each had to pay 12 Reichsthaler protection money to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1760 and that the protected Jews Michaelsohn Lewinthal, Simon Schmuhl, Salomon Jacob, Joachim Simon, Aaron Seligmann and Hirsch Lewin received the trade privilege. In this context it should be pointed out that the so-called "privileges" granted to Jews were of course actually none such, because every Christian citizen could of course register his trade with the local administrations. "Privileges" and "protection money" are therefore more an indication of the lack of rights of the Jews at that time and were not awarded to all Jews.

At the beginning of the 19th century probably due to the immigration of further Jews in Malchow, a Jewish community was formed, which elected a board to exercise its rights towards the city and the federal state government. The Malchow city archive shows that in 1812 the protected Jews Joseph Moses and Salomon Jakob were the principles. With the establishment of the Jewish community, the cemetery was also laid out. 48 Jews lived in Malchow between 1811 and 1819. (A census list of Jews of both genders and children under 15 from 1818 is on p. 9 in the brochure of Karl-Heinz Oelke, Aus der Geschichte der jüdischen Gemeinde in Malchow (Meckl.), 1994 published by the city of Malchow) The synagogue was built between 1820 and 1825 at Langen Strasse 64. It was similar to the synagogues in Röbel and Waren: a long rectangular building with bricked-up compartments and a heavy tiled roof, the long sides with three stripes, on the front side, directly under the eaves, a small row of windows, probably for the women's gallery. From 1775 there was a regulation that synagogues could only be built on side streets and set back behind the street front. As in other Jewish communities, the synagogue in Malchow was the center of the religious and social life of the Jews. In 1828 the Jews in Mecklenburg were given the right to purchase their own property, which several families in Malchow and the Jewish community itself used between 1834 and 1838 to purchase houses.

The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Friedrich-Franz I issued an ordinance in 1843 in which he instructed various Jewish communities, including Malchow, to set up religious schools for school-age children. It was only allowed to employ teachers who had attended a German teachers' seminar and passed a teacher examination and had been approved by the regional rabbi. The children of the Jewish faith were obliged to attend religious school from the age of 6 to 14. Subjects were religion, Biblical history, Jewish writing, Hebrew prayer translation, Hebrew reading. For Jewish boys attending grammar school, religious lessons were limited to four hours a week.

By 1858 the number of Jewish residents in Malchow had increased to about 110 and continued to increase, albeit only slightly until 1882. A decline in the number of Jewish families can only be recorded from 1900, i.e. later than in other small towns in Mecklenburg, where emigration usually began in the 1960s for political and economic reasons, which of course also decreased the income from the contributions of the members. In 1912 there were still 8 male and 5 female contributors living in Malchow, 8 of whom were older than 55 years. The synagogue was no longer used for the Shabbat service, the community members only gathered here on the three highest Jewish holidays. In 1935 the synagogue building which was no longer in use, was sold to master carpenter Kroschel, who had also acquired property in Langen Strasse 103 from the Jewish community in previous years. In 1992 the synagogue building was demolished by the owner because it was in disrepair.

From the childhood memories of Max Jacobson mentioned above, who wrote down his family history after the liberation from Theresienstadt, the picture emerges that Jews and Christians lived peacefully together in Malchow in the 19th century.

"On Saturday I had no school, because then I had to go to the synagogue, quite apart from the fact that I was not allowed to write on Shabbos. In general one day passed like another in my hometown. The inhabitants of the small country town, farmers, small traders, craftsmen and merchants grew their cabbage and potatoes themselves and were satisfied, upright and sincere people. The eldest son of the family usually inherited the house and property, the other children became craftsmen or merchants and often married into another family. This was especially the case when there were no male heirs in a family. – Two doctors and a dentist took care of the city's health. They, the mayor councilor Rettberg, the district judge, the pastor, pharmacist and candidate for higher civil service, as well as the director of the rather important cloth factory made up the city's dignitaries. At the art-loving pharmacist’s home, literary evenings were held weekly which my mother also attended, and for music my parents' house was the center of all music lovers. I had a happy and undisturbed youth with my siblings and schoolmates. The annual gymnastics event, the folk festival in June and the children's festival in July, at which all schools participated, as well as the autumn market were highlights in the life of the town. On these festive days there was a parade ride on the lake with fireworks and decorated boats and in winter a big ice festival ... On October 12, 1894 I joined the 8th Würtemberg Infantry Regiment No. 126 in Strasbourg in Alsace. Raised in a patriotic spirit by my parents and school, I was a soldier with body and soul. Neither from the side of superiors nor from comrades was there a trace of anti-Semitism ..." (ibid. p. 21) In the First World War he was initially a sergeant and was made an officer in September 1917. He received various orders of merit and, like several other Malchow Jews was honored for bravery. Another member of the large Jacobson family, Isidor Jacobson, was a successful businessman, head of the Jewish community and a volunteer in various committees and associations in the city and regarded as an equal citizen. The same can be said of various members of the Levy, Löwenthal and Schlomann merchant families over several generations.

In the Weimar Republic, there were anti-Semitic riots in Malchow for the first time. In the federal state elections of June 1926 the NSDAP received 6 votes in town, in May 1927, 13 votes and in June 1929, 37 voters voted for the NSDAP. With the transfer of power by President of the Reich von Hindenburg to Hitler on January 30, 1933, the discrimination and persecution of Jewish citizens began in Malchow as well. There were a few Christian residents, such as the families of the goods merchant Carl Stein, the hairdresser and master rope maker Lehrmann, and the master shoemaker Schmidt who helped Jews. "In his letter, Karl Schmidt shares a story about the name Schlomann that may have happened many times in the small towns, almost a peripheral occurrence, a gesture of obvious neighborly solidarity. Richard Schlomann, probably a son of the aforementioned Hermann Schlomann, served in the First World War and bearer of the Iron Cross, was an itinerant dealer. He carried his goods to his customers in the village and town on a bicycle with a large luggage rack. The commentator's grandfather, a master shoemaker, was friends with Schlomann. When more and more restrictions were imposed on the Jews and it was literally made difficult for them to buy bread and groceries, the master shoemaker often met with Schlomann in the cemetery to give him a briefcase with groceries. Schlomann could no longer come to the shoemaker's workshop. The city policeman Maack had already warned: One ought to be careful, people are watching... I still remember the conversation my father had with my mother after he returned from Rostock. Schlomanns were waiting for the transport to Poland. Father wanted to encourage him and said: Maybe they'll finally leave you alone and Richard replied: No, no, Karl, they're killing us all." (Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkastens andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, S. 115)

Otto Löwenthal was one of the Jews who foresaw the disastrous development and moved to Berlin with his wife and daughter at the end of December 1935, and from there probably fled to Palestine. Betty Jacobson, Isidor's wife, who died before 1938 and was buried in Malchow, was deported to Theresienstadt in 1942 and perished there in 1943. The daughter Anne was able to save herself to Palestine with her husband Kurt Hesse and their son Peter. Likewise Norbert Schlomann, who could not bring his parents Richard and Hedwig Schlomann later on. In the foreclosure auction procedure, Jewish residential properties were handed over to new, presumably Nazi oriented owners. On the Pogrom Night in 1938, only the Jewish cemetery in Malchow was still owned by Jews. Except for the Schlomann gravestone with the inscription: " Hermann Schlomann, died in 1913 " it was devastated. Today there is a sign directing to the Jewish cemetery near the entrance.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Lindow

Lindow in der Mark

A town in the Ostprignitz-Ruppin district, in Brandenburg, Germany.

The history of the town of Lindow goes back to the 12th century, when the Arnstein counts took possession and colonized the land. The Wendens residing in the region were encouraged by the colonizers to cultivate agriculture, and a Cistercian monastery was built around 1230. The fishing settlement next to the monastery developed into a small market and craft settlement. Around 1600 Lindow which has been mentioned as a town since 1365 had 1,500 inhabitants. Like many cities in Brandenburg, the Thirty Years War devastated the city - fires, plague epidemics and crop failures decimated the population by two thirds.... The population lived in great poverty. Traces of Jewish life can be found in Lindow earlier than in other places in the Ruppiner Kreis. A document in the Secret State Archives in Berlin shows that as early as 1677 Jews appeared here at annual fairs - they were instructed to "abstain from all peddling." At the end of the 17th century individual Jewish families were already living in Lindow. In 1815 the merchant Samuel Naumann (1788-1858) moved to Lindow, and in 1825 set up a prayer room in the attic of his house in today's Seestrasse/corner Strasse des Friedens. The cemetery had been inaugurated the year before. In the years to come a minyan, the 10 men required for the ritual Shabbat prayer, did not materialize but the Jewish community grew slowly. In 1842, 15 Jewish citizens lived in Lindow, two of them of school age. The children attended Christian school but received Jewish religious instruction. A slaughterer was employed who also acted as the choir leader at the worship service. In 1847 there were 22 Jews in Lindow, 6 of whom were of age. The number was still too small to be able to form its own synagogue community. This would have required three board members and nine representatives. It was not until 1854, that the required number of male community members was reached, in order to be able to found a synagogue community. For more than twenty years a lively community life developed in which the families of Samuel Naumann and Michaelis, who were also connected through marriages, played an important role. A cantor was hired and in 1863 and 1864 the community also had a Jewish teacher who also held the office of slaughter. In the following decades the community lost some members due to emigration and departures, and in 1895 only 27 Jewish citizens were counted. The center of Jewish life in the region had moved to Neuruppin. In 1910, there were still 18 Jewish residents in Lindow who were now formally part of the Neuruppin synagogue community.

In 1933 the period of disenfranchisement and persecution began for the six remaining Jews in Lindow. They were deported to the camps and ghettos in the east and murdered there. Some were driven to desperate "suicide" by the terrible circumstances.

Only the cemetery in Lindow reminds of Jewish life. "It was founded in 1824 and was in use until 1925. It is located in Harnackstrase behind the new building no. 3. The wall is still there on three sides. The gatehouse and the front wall were demolished after 1970, when an asphalt road was laid as an access to the garages that were being built on the adjacent site...The cemetery was still in use in 1945, and the Jewish cemetery was in good condition until 1970. " Then he went into disrepair. In 1980 there were 25 tombstones with inscriptions. The cemetery was restored in 1988 by a citizens' initiative on the 50th anniversary of the Pogrom Night on November 9th. With the help of the "Young Community" from the Evangelical church it was cleaned, freed of wild vegetation, tombstones were put back together and set up, the paths rebuilt, the cemetery wall rebuilt. The Lindow youths have also taken care of the cemetery. 

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.