חיפוש
הדפסה
שיתוף
הפריט שבחרת:
מקום
רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות

קהילת יהודי ינה

Jena

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

Around 1400 there was a small Jewish community in Jena. In 1431 a synagogue that was located on Jüdengasse and Leutragasse is mentioned. From the middle of the 16th century to 1850 Jews were forbidden to settle in Jena. It was not until the second half of the 19th century that a small Jewish community formed again, but it never received the status of a religious community. The newly founded "Israelite Religious Community" endeavored to provide regular religious instruction for school-age children and worship service. Both took place in the private rooms of community members. The buildings in Scheidlerstrasse 3 and in the former Schützenstrasse 52 are now privately owned and used as residential buildings. The number of members of the Jena community developed as follows: In 1880 there were 30 Jewish residents in Jena, in 1890 there were 64, in 1895 already 85, in 1900 the number fell to 61 and in 1905 there were 145 Jews in Jena. The deceased of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery of the Erfurt community. Although the Jena congregation was given the opportunity to set up a burial place in a separate section of the Catholic cemetery, the predominantly conservative congregation refused.

In 1925 there were 277 Jewish residents in Jena. In 1933 it was less than half with 111. By the end of 1938 all Jewish businesses were "Aryanized" or closed, the Jews living in Jena at that time were crammed into so-called "Jewish houses". From 1942 the deportations to the to the Nazi concentration camps began. After the end of the war eleven survivors of Jena Jews returned from Theresienstadt, and they again founded a small community which only existed for a very short time.

It was only after 1990 when the USSR collapsed, that Jewish emigrants came to Jena and formed a new community.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

סוג מקום:
עיר
מספר פריט:
21374367
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:

ארפורט (Erfurt)


עיר בתורינגיה, גרמניה. עד מלחמת העולם השנייה השתייכה ארפורט למחוז סקסוניה.

המאה ה-21

ב-1998 בית הכנסת העתיק שוחזר ומתקיימים לימודי יהדות בו. ב-2003 נמנו בקהילה 550 אנשים, רובם מהגרים מברית המועצות לשעבר. ראש הקהילה הוא ריינהרד שארם ורב הקהילה הוא קונסנטין פאל. קיים מרכז תרבות של הקהילה ובו מתקיימים שיעורי יהדות וחברה כגון: קונצרטים, תכניות רדיו ומפגשים על כוס קפה. בית העלמין היהודי הישן נסגר ונפתח בית עלמין חדש. הוקם בו חדר טהרה והספדים נאמרים בסגנון מיוחד . בעיר מתקיימים סיורים במוזיאון, בבית הכנסת העתיק ובמקווה העתיק.

היסטוריה

היהודים מוזכרים לראשונה בארפורט במאה ה-12. בתחילה תחת חסותו של המלך, ובמחצית השנייה של המאה ה-12 הם עברו לסמכותו של הארכיבישוף ממיינץ, שחיבר עבורם נוסח שבועה בגרמנית. ב-1209 ויתר המלך גם על זכותו לגבות מסים מהיהודים, ובשנת 1212 הוענקה הזכות במפורש לארכיבישוף.  בפרעות שהתחוללו ב-1221 נשרף בית הכנסת. יהודים נרצחו או השליכו את עצמם לתוך הלהבות; ביניהם היה הפייטן והחזן שמואל בן קלונימוס. אף על פי כן, הקהילה היהודית של ארפורט המשיכה להתקיים ואף התרחבה. לאחר זמן מה הוקם בית כנסת חדש, ורבנים מפורסמים בחרו בארפורט כמקום מושבם. לפי המשוער, בין 1286 ל-1293, ר' אשר בן יחיאל (הרא"ש) וקלונימוס בן אליעזר הנקדן בעל "מסורה קטנה", גרו בארפורט. כתב היד של קלונימוס בן אליעזר שמור בארפורט עד היום. במהלך ימי הביניים ניהלו יהודי ארפוט את טקס התפילה בנוסח של סקסוניה. ספר הפולחן של הקהילה נשמר במכללת היהודים, לונדון (מס' 104, 4).

בתחילת המאה ה-14 ההגנה על היהודים עברה לידי העירייה. אך הגנה זו לא הועילה, ובתחילת במרס 1349 התרגשה עליהם שואת "המגיפה השחורה" שבה נרצחו יותר ממאה איש ורבים שלחו אש בבתיהם ומתו על קידוש השם, ביניהם ר' אלכסנדר זוסלין הכהן, בעל "ספר האגודה". היהודים הנותרים גורשו מן העיר. ישראל בן יואל זוסלין מזכיר את הקדושים המעונים של ארפורט בקינה (ספר הדמעות, 2, 126-7). ב-1357 מועצת העיר התירה ליהודים לשוב ולגור בעיר ולבנות בית כנסת חדש. ב-1391 ביטל המלך את כל חובות הנוצרים ליהודי ארפורט והעבירם לידי העירייה תמורת 2,000 גולדן. העירייה תבעה את הסכום הזה מן היהודים, אך הבטיחה להחזיר להם חלק מהחובות. לאחר מכן נאלצו היהודים לשלם מס מיוחד לאוצר המלך.

בשנת 1418 הם נאלצו להצהיר בשבועה, על גודל רכושם, בבית הכנסת, והמלך גבה מהם מסים חדשים על בסיס זה. בשנת 1458 היהודים גורשו שוב מן העיר.

במאה ה-15 נמנתה ארפורט עם הקהילות הגדולות והחשובות ביותר בגרמניה, בהנהגת גדולי תורה: ר' מאיר בן ברוך הלוי; תלמידו היה ר' הלל מארפורט. באמצע המאה ר' יעקב בן יהודה וייל לימד בארפורט. בתקופה זו מילאו יהודי ארפורט תפקיד חשוב בבנקאות בתורינגיה.

בסביבות 1820 השתמשו השלטונות הפרוסיים במצבות של בית העלמין היהודי למען ביצור העיר.

היישוב היהודי התחדש בארפורט בעשור השני של המאה ה-19, כאשר הוקם בית כנסת חדש, וגדל מ-144 נפש ב-1844 לכדי 546 בערך ב-1880 (1.03% מכלל האוכלוסייה); 795 ב-1910 (0.72%); ו-831 ב-1933 (%0.6 מכלל האוכלוסייה).

לאחר עליית הנאצים, עזבו רוב היהודים את ארפורט, ב-1939 נמנו רק 263 יהודים בעיר. ב-9 בנובמבר 1938 הועלה בית הכנסת באש והקהילה נאלצה לשלם את מחיר הדלק ששימש להצתה ובעד פינוי ההריסות. הגברים הוחזקו בתנאי השפלה בבית ספר מקומי וגורשו לבוכנוואלד. 173 היהודים האחרונים בעיר הועברו לטרזיינשטאדט בפברואר 1945.

הקהילה היהודית אחרי השואה

הקהילה חודשה אחרי השואה. בשנת 1952 נבנו בית כנסת חדש ומקווה. בשנת 1961 התגוררו בעיר 120 יהודים. הוצא ספר זיכרון לקורבנות השואה. בשנת 1998 שוחזר בית הכנסת העתיק ומתקיימים בו שיעורי יהדות. בארכיון המרכזי לתולדות העם היהודי בירושלים שמורים פנקסי קהילת ארפורט לשנים 1936-1855. אחד מכתבי היד המפורסמים של התוספתא נמצא בארפורט, ונקרא על שמה. על פי סול ליברמן, בהקדמה למהדורת התוספתא בי-פשוטו, התוספתא נכתבה כנראה במאה ה-12 בגרמניה.

 

Rudolstadt

A town and seat of the  of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt district in Thuringia, Germany.

In the Middle Ages there were occasional short time settlements of Jews in Rudolstadt. There was a more permanent Jewish settlement between 1784 and 1874. During these 90 years the community operated a prayer room in the private rooms of the merchant Schwabe and a cemetery that was destroyed during the Nazi era. Until 1816 there was also a mikveh in Ludwigsburg in Rudolstadt. In the first half of the 20th century there were still a few Jewish families living in Rudolstadt who attended religious services in Saalfeld on high holidays. Today only the buildings in which the prayer rooms were, are kept as residential houses. Any traces or references to Jewish life no longer exist in Rudolstadt.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Apolda

A town and the capital of the Weimarer Land district in Thuringia, Germany.

It was not until 1850 that Jewish life was established in Apolda. Around 1900, a religious association "Israelite Religious Community of Apolda" was constituted. In 1880 there lived twelve Jews in Apolda, in 1885 there were 39, in 1895 47 and in 1905 their number increased to 62.

The Jewish community in Apolda held their services in a prayer hall on the upper floor of the "Civic Association".  However, by mid-1920s, there seemed that any  organized Jewish life in Apolda ceased to exist. The prayer hall was used for a different purpose and there was only one school-age child who was taught by the teacher of the Arnstadt Jewish community. In Apolda there was no cemetery, the dead were buried in the cemetery of the Jewish community in Erfurt.

Despite the fact that there was no organized Jewish community in Apolda, at the 1933 census, 80 people still claimed their affiliation with Judaism. They were persecuted by the Nazis. During the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938),  the Jewish shops in Apolda were destroyed and later demolished. The Jewish inhabitants who remained in Apolda were deported from May 1942 to Nazi concentration camps. The building containing the community's prayer room was demolished in 1993. The residential and commercial building of the fur trader Bernhard Prager is reminiscent of the Apolda Jewish life. It serves as a place of commemoration and remembrance.

-------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Weimar

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

A few Jews lived in Weimar as early as the Middle Ages. They were affected by the plague pogroms as well as by the expulsion from the Wettin areas. It was not until the 18th century that a small private community could be constituted. In April 1770 Duchess Anna Amalia von Weimar appointed Jacob Elkan to a court Jew in the Principality of Weimar. In the following years two more families moved to Weimar, so that in 1789 three Jewish families lived in the town.

These joined together to form a "private community". In 1805 Jacob Elkan set up a prayer room and a mikveh in his house, this building still exists today and is located at 25 Windischenstrasse. The initials of the community founder's name can still be read on the capstone of the entrance portal. After Elkan's death the building was used exclusively for residential purposes. Presumably from 1805 religious services were held in other private rooms of the Löser or Ulmann families. Jacob Elkan was also the founder of a Jewish cemetery in Weimar, which was used from 1774 to 1898. In the 20th century the site fell into disrepair and was then used as an orchard after the property passed into non-Jewish ownership. In 1983 part of the Jewish cemetery was restored and is now a memorial.

A religious community in the sense of a corporation under public law, could never be founded in Weimar. In 1903 some of the Jewish residents of Weimar joined together in the "Israelite Religious Association" which in 1925 had 25 members. In addition 80 other Jews lived in Weimar who did not join the association. In 1933 there were 91 Jewish inhabitants and in 1939 there were still eleven Jewish families  living here. In the years between 1942 and 1945, the Jewish residents who remained in Weimar were deported to the Nazi concentration and death camps in Eastern Europe. With the last deportations Jewish life in Weimar was irretrievably destroyed.

------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Naumburg

A town in the district of Kassel in Hesse, Germany.

First Jewish presence: Middle Ages; peak Jewish population: 81 in 1855; Jewish population in 1933: approximately 35

Jews were massacred in Naumburg in 1494, two years after which their synagogue was destroyed. Further Jewish settlement was forbidden in 1499, but records of a court case from 1503 mention a Jew. By 1692, six Jewish families had moved to Naumburg. Between 1793 and 1795, the community built a new synagogue on Gerichtstrasse (present-day 9 Graf-Volkwin- Strasse); in 1844, the building was enlarged to accommodate a school (it housed an apartment for the teacher) and a mikveh, both of which were moved to the synagogue from other locations. Naumburg’s synagogue had a seating capacity of 67 (40 men, 27 women), additional seating for guests and an impressive array of brass lighting fixtures. In 1826, the Jews of Naumburg consecrated a new cemetery (it was also used by Jews from Elben, Altenstaedt and Martinhagen). Then part of the district of Wolfhagen, the community belonged to the provincial rabbinate in Kassel. In 1931/32, three children received religious instruction. A chevra kadisha was active in the community, with which (by 1933) the Jews of Altendorf, Altenstaedt, Elben, Heimarshausen and Riede had been affiliated.

On October 3, 1938, the local police ordered Jews to leave town within four weeks. On November 11, 1938 (after Pogrom Night), SA men destroyed the synagogue’s interior, heavily damaged the mikveh and school, plundered and burned down the empty Rosenstein and Blumenkorn apartments and partially destroyed the Rosenstein family residence. Naumburg’s fire department extinguished fires that were lit in the Rosenstein and Blumenkorn homes. According to eyewitnesses, Jews were detained near the stone quarry, guarded by SA men, while this was going on. The last community leader immigrated to Chile; his predecessor made it to Argentina. In all, five families emigrated—three went to South America and two to Israel. By November 1939, all Jews had left Naumburg, many of whom were deported from Kassel to Riga on December 9, 1941. At least 28 local Jews perished in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site on November 14, 2004.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

במאגרי המידע הפתוחים
גניאולוגיה יהודית
שמות משפחה
קהילות יהודיות
תיעוד חזותי
מרכז המוזיקה היהודית
מקום
אA
אA
אA
רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות
קהילת יהודי ינה

Jena

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

Around 1400 there was a small Jewish community in Jena. In 1431 a synagogue that was located on Jüdengasse and Leutragasse is mentioned. From the middle of the 16th century to 1850 Jews were forbidden to settle in Jena. It was not until the second half of the 19th century that a small Jewish community formed again, but it never received the status of a religious community. The newly founded "Israelite Religious Community" endeavored to provide regular religious instruction for school-age children and worship service. Both took place in the private rooms of community members. The buildings in Scheidlerstrasse 3 and in the former Schützenstrasse 52 are now privately owned and used as residential buildings. The number of members of the Jena community developed as follows: In 1880 there were 30 Jewish residents in Jena, in 1890 there were 64, in 1895 already 85, in 1900 the number fell to 61 and in 1905 there were 145 Jews in Jena. The deceased of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery of the Erfurt community. Although the Jena congregation was given the opportunity to set up a burial place in a separate section of the Catholic cemetery, the predominantly conservative congregation refused.

In 1925 there were 277 Jewish residents in Jena. In 1933 it was less than half with 111. By the end of 1938 all Jewish businesses were "Aryanized" or closed, the Jews living in Jena at that time were crammed into so-called "Jewish houses". From 1942 the deportations to the to the Nazi concentration camps began. After the end of the war eleven survivors of Jena Jews returned from Theresienstadt, and they again founded a small community which only existed for a very short time.

It was only after 1990 when the USSR collapsed, that Jewish emigrants came to Jena and formed a new community.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי

נאומבורג
ויימאר
אפולדה
רודלשטדט
ארפורט

Naumburg

A town in the district of Kassel in Hesse, Germany.

First Jewish presence: Middle Ages; peak Jewish population: 81 in 1855; Jewish population in 1933: approximately 35

Jews were massacred in Naumburg in 1494, two years after which their synagogue was destroyed. Further Jewish settlement was forbidden in 1499, but records of a court case from 1503 mention a Jew. By 1692, six Jewish families had moved to Naumburg. Between 1793 and 1795, the community built a new synagogue on Gerichtstrasse (present-day 9 Graf-Volkwin- Strasse); in 1844, the building was enlarged to accommodate a school (it housed an apartment for the teacher) and a mikveh, both of which were moved to the synagogue from other locations. Naumburg’s synagogue had a seating capacity of 67 (40 men, 27 women), additional seating for guests and an impressive array of brass lighting fixtures. In 1826, the Jews of Naumburg consecrated a new cemetery (it was also used by Jews from Elben, Altenstaedt and Martinhagen). Then part of the district of Wolfhagen, the community belonged to the provincial rabbinate in Kassel. In 1931/32, three children received religious instruction. A chevra kadisha was active in the community, with which (by 1933) the Jews of Altendorf, Altenstaedt, Elben, Heimarshausen and Riede had been affiliated.

On October 3, 1938, the local police ordered Jews to leave town within four weeks. On November 11, 1938 (after Pogrom Night), SA men destroyed the synagogue’s interior, heavily damaged the mikveh and school, plundered and burned down the empty Rosenstein and Blumenkorn apartments and partially destroyed the Rosenstein family residence. Naumburg’s fire department extinguished fires that were lit in the Rosenstein and Blumenkorn homes. According to eyewitnesses, Jews were detained near the stone quarry, guarded by SA men, while this was going on. The last community leader immigrated to Chile; his predecessor made it to Argentina. In all, five families emigrated—three went to South America and two to Israel. By November 1939, all Jews had left Naumburg, many of whom were deported from Kassel to Riga on December 9, 1941. At least 28 local Jews perished in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site on November 14, 2004.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Weimar

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

A few Jews lived in Weimar as early as the Middle Ages. They were affected by the plague pogroms as well as by the expulsion from the Wettin areas. It was not until the 18th century that a small private community could be constituted. In April 1770 Duchess Anna Amalia von Weimar appointed Jacob Elkan to a court Jew in the Principality of Weimar. In the following years two more families moved to Weimar, so that in 1789 three Jewish families lived in the town.

These joined together to form a "private community". In 1805 Jacob Elkan set up a prayer room and a mikveh in his house, this building still exists today and is located at 25 Windischenstrasse. The initials of the community founder's name can still be read on the capstone of the entrance portal. After Elkan's death the building was used exclusively for residential purposes. Presumably from 1805 religious services were held in other private rooms of the Löser or Ulmann families. Jacob Elkan was also the founder of a Jewish cemetery in Weimar, which was used from 1774 to 1898. In the 20th century the site fell into disrepair and was then used as an orchard after the property passed into non-Jewish ownership. In 1983 part of the Jewish cemetery was restored and is now a memorial.

A religious community in the sense of a corporation under public law, could never be founded in Weimar. In 1903 some of the Jewish residents of Weimar joined together in the "Israelite Religious Association" which in 1925 had 25 members. In addition 80 other Jews lived in Weimar who did not join the association. In 1933 there were 91 Jewish inhabitants and in 1939 there were still eleven Jewish families  living here. In the years between 1942 and 1945, the Jewish residents who remained in Weimar were deported to the Nazi concentration and death camps in Eastern Europe. With the last deportations Jewish life in Weimar was irretrievably destroyed.

------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Apolda

A town and the capital of the Weimarer Land district in Thuringia, Germany.

It was not until 1850 that Jewish life was established in Apolda. Around 1900, a religious association "Israelite Religious Community of Apolda" was constituted. In 1880 there lived twelve Jews in Apolda, in 1885 there were 39, in 1895 47 and in 1905 their number increased to 62.

The Jewish community in Apolda held their services in a prayer hall on the upper floor of the "Civic Association".  However, by mid-1920s, there seemed that any  organized Jewish life in Apolda ceased to exist. The prayer hall was used for a different purpose and there was only one school-age child who was taught by the teacher of the Arnstadt Jewish community. In Apolda there was no cemetery, the dead were buried in the cemetery of the Jewish community in Erfurt.

Despite the fact that there was no organized Jewish community in Apolda, at the 1933 census, 80 people still claimed their affiliation with Judaism. They were persecuted by the Nazis. During the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938),  the Jewish shops in Apolda were destroyed and later demolished. The Jewish inhabitants who remained in Apolda were deported from May 1942 to Nazi concentration camps. The building containing the community's prayer room was demolished in 1993. The residential and commercial building of the fur trader Bernhard Prager is reminiscent of the Apolda Jewish life. It serves as a place of commemoration and remembrance.

-------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Rudolstadt

A town and seat of the  of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt district in Thuringia, Germany.

In the Middle Ages there were occasional short time settlements of Jews in Rudolstadt. There was a more permanent Jewish settlement between 1784 and 1874. During these 90 years the community operated a prayer room in the private rooms of the merchant Schwabe and a cemetery that was destroyed during the Nazi era. Until 1816 there was also a mikveh in Ludwigsburg in Rudolstadt. In the first half of the 20th century there were still a few Jewish families living in Rudolstadt who attended religious services in Saalfeld on high holidays. Today only the buildings in which the prayer rooms were, are kept as residential houses. Any traces or references to Jewish life no longer exist in Rudolstadt.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

ארפורט (Erfurt)


עיר בתורינגיה, גרמניה. עד מלחמת העולם השנייה השתייכה ארפורט למחוז סקסוניה.

המאה ה-21

ב-1998 בית הכנסת העתיק שוחזר ומתקיימים לימודי יהדות בו. ב-2003 נמנו בקהילה 550 אנשים, רובם מהגרים מברית המועצות לשעבר. ראש הקהילה הוא ריינהרד שארם ורב הקהילה הוא קונסנטין פאל. קיים מרכז תרבות של הקהילה ובו מתקיימים שיעורי יהדות וחברה כגון: קונצרטים, תכניות רדיו ומפגשים על כוס קפה. בית העלמין היהודי הישן נסגר ונפתח בית עלמין חדש. הוקם בו חדר טהרה והספדים נאמרים בסגנון מיוחד . בעיר מתקיימים סיורים במוזיאון, בבית הכנסת העתיק ובמקווה העתיק.

היסטוריה

היהודים מוזכרים לראשונה בארפורט במאה ה-12. בתחילה תחת חסותו של המלך, ובמחצית השנייה של המאה ה-12 הם עברו לסמכותו של הארכיבישוף ממיינץ, שחיבר עבורם נוסח שבועה בגרמנית. ב-1209 ויתר המלך גם על זכותו לגבות מסים מהיהודים, ובשנת 1212 הוענקה הזכות במפורש לארכיבישוף.  בפרעות שהתחוללו ב-1221 נשרף בית הכנסת. יהודים נרצחו או השליכו את עצמם לתוך הלהבות; ביניהם היה הפייטן והחזן שמואל בן קלונימוס. אף על פי כן, הקהילה היהודית של ארפורט המשיכה להתקיים ואף התרחבה. לאחר זמן מה הוקם בית כנסת חדש, ורבנים מפורסמים בחרו בארפורט כמקום מושבם. לפי המשוער, בין 1286 ל-1293, ר' אשר בן יחיאל (הרא"ש) וקלונימוס בן אליעזר הנקדן בעל "מסורה קטנה", גרו בארפורט. כתב היד של קלונימוס בן אליעזר שמור בארפורט עד היום. במהלך ימי הביניים ניהלו יהודי ארפוט את טקס התפילה בנוסח של סקסוניה. ספר הפולחן של הקהילה נשמר במכללת היהודים, לונדון (מס' 104, 4).

בתחילת המאה ה-14 ההגנה על היהודים עברה לידי העירייה. אך הגנה זו לא הועילה, ובתחילת במרס 1349 התרגשה עליהם שואת "המגיפה השחורה" שבה נרצחו יותר ממאה איש ורבים שלחו אש בבתיהם ומתו על קידוש השם, ביניהם ר' אלכסנדר זוסלין הכהן, בעל "ספר האגודה". היהודים הנותרים גורשו מן העיר. ישראל בן יואל זוסלין מזכיר את הקדושים המעונים של ארפורט בקינה (ספר הדמעות, 2, 126-7). ב-1357 מועצת העיר התירה ליהודים לשוב ולגור בעיר ולבנות בית כנסת חדש. ב-1391 ביטל המלך את כל חובות הנוצרים ליהודי ארפורט והעבירם לידי העירייה תמורת 2,000 גולדן. העירייה תבעה את הסכום הזה מן היהודים, אך הבטיחה להחזיר להם חלק מהחובות. לאחר מכן נאלצו היהודים לשלם מס מיוחד לאוצר המלך.

בשנת 1418 הם נאלצו להצהיר בשבועה, על גודל רכושם, בבית הכנסת, והמלך גבה מהם מסים חדשים על בסיס זה. בשנת 1458 היהודים גורשו שוב מן העיר.

במאה ה-15 נמנתה ארפורט עם הקהילות הגדולות והחשובות ביותר בגרמניה, בהנהגת גדולי תורה: ר' מאיר בן ברוך הלוי; תלמידו היה ר' הלל מארפורט. באמצע המאה ר' יעקב בן יהודה וייל לימד בארפורט. בתקופה זו מילאו יהודי ארפורט תפקיד חשוב בבנקאות בתורינגיה.

בסביבות 1820 השתמשו השלטונות הפרוסיים במצבות של בית העלמין היהודי למען ביצור העיר.

היישוב היהודי התחדש בארפורט בעשור השני של המאה ה-19, כאשר הוקם בית כנסת חדש, וגדל מ-144 נפש ב-1844 לכדי 546 בערך ב-1880 (1.03% מכלל האוכלוסייה); 795 ב-1910 (0.72%); ו-831 ב-1933 (%0.6 מכלל האוכלוסייה).

לאחר עליית הנאצים, עזבו רוב היהודים את ארפורט, ב-1939 נמנו רק 263 יהודים בעיר. ב-9 בנובמבר 1938 הועלה בית הכנסת באש והקהילה נאלצה לשלם את מחיר הדלק ששימש להצתה ובעד פינוי ההריסות. הגברים הוחזקו בתנאי השפלה בבית ספר מקומי וגורשו לבוכנוואלד. 173 היהודים האחרונים בעיר הועברו לטרזיינשטאדט בפברואר 1945.

הקהילה היהודית אחרי השואה

הקהילה חודשה אחרי השואה. בשנת 1952 נבנו בית כנסת חדש ומקווה. בשנת 1961 התגוררו בעיר 120 יהודים. הוצא ספר זיכרון לקורבנות השואה. בשנת 1998 שוחזר בית הכנסת העתיק ומתקיימים בו שיעורי יהדות. בארכיון המרכזי לתולדות העם היהודי בירושלים שמורים פנקסי קהילת ארפורט לשנים 1936-1855. אחד מכתבי היד המפורסמים של התוספתא נמצא בארפורט, ונקרא על שמה. על פי סול ליברמן, בהקדמה למהדורת התוספתא בי-פשוטו, התוספתא נכתבה כנראה במאה ה-12 בגרמניה.

 

ויימאר

Weimar

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

A few Jews lived in Weimar as early as the Middle Ages. They were affected by the plague pogroms as well as by the expulsion from the Wettin areas. It was not until the 18th century that a small private community could be constituted. In April 1770 Duchess Anna Amalia von Weimar appointed Jacob Elkan to a court Jew in the Principality of Weimar. In the following years two more families moved to Weimar, so that in 1789 three Jewish families lived in the town.

These joined together to form a "private community". In 1805 Jacob Elkan set up a prayer room and a mikveh in his house, this building still exists today and is located at 25 Windischenstrasse. The initials of the community founder's name can still be read on the capstone of the entrance portal. After Elkan's death the building was used exclusively for residential purposes. Presumably from 1805 religious services were held in other private rooms of the Löser or Ulmann families. Jacob Elkan was also the founder of a Jewish cemetery in Weimar, which was used from 1774 to 1898. In the 20th century the site fell into disrepair and was then used as an orchard after the property passed into non-Jewish ownership. In 1983 part of the Jewish cemetery was restored and is now a memorial.

A religious community in the sense of a corporation under public law, could never be founded in Weimar. In 1903 some of the Jewish residents of Weimar joined together in the "Israelite Religious Association" which in 1925 had 25 members. In addition 80 other Jews lived in Weimar who did not join the association. In 1933 there were 91 Jewish inhabitants and in 1939 there were still eleven Jewish families  living here. In the years between 1942 and 1945, the Jewish residents who remained in Weimar were deported to the Nazi concentration and death camps in Eastern Europe. With the last deportations Jewish life in Weimar was irretrievably destroyed.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.