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קהילת יהודי אטלאנטה

אטלאנטה


בירת מדינה ג'ורג'יה, ארצות הברית.


מספר תושביה 487,500 (1970). ב-1976 התגוררו באטלאנטה 21,000 יהודים, חלקם הגדול בענפי המסחר, הבניין, ההלבשה ובתעשיה הכימית, ולהם מרכז קהילתי, לשכה לחינוך יהודי ובית-ספר יומי, מושב זקנים, שני מועדונים, ועיתון מקומי ("סאתרן איזראעליט"). בעיר שתי קהילות רפורמיות, שתי קהילות קונסרבטיביות ושלוש אורתודוכסיות, מהן אחת לספרדים. באטלאנטה סניפים של מוסדות וארגונים יהודיים ארציים ומרכז לפעולות סעד ואיסוף כספים למטרות כלל-יהודיות.

בשנים 1973-1969 כיהן כראש העיר עוה"ד היהודי סם מאסל.

באטלאנטה קונסוליה של מדינת ישראל.

יהודים יוצאי גרמניה הגיעו לאטלאנטה בתחילת שנות ה-40 של המאה ה-19 ובית-כנסת ראשון (רפורמי) הוקם בה ב-1877. בשנות ה-80 התחילו להגיע יהודים ממזרח-אירופה וב-1914 התארגנה קהילת הספרדים יוצאי רודוס. היהודים תפסו עמדות בולטות בחיי הציבור; שמואל וייל היה חבר בית המחוקקים בג'ורג'יה (1869), רב הקהילה הרפורמית ד"ר דוד מארכס (1962-1872) פעל רבות בתחום הבין-דתי, ויורשו ד"ר יעקב רוטשילד השתתף במאבק למען זכויות הכושים.

הבולט בין רבני העדה האורתודוכסית היה טוביה גפן.

יהודי אטלאנטה סבלו מאנטישמיות בשל פרשת ליאו פראנק, מבני המקום, חשוד ברצח שהמון מוסת הוציא אותו מכלאו וערך בו לינץ' (1915). ב-1958 הטמינו ניאו-נאצים חומר-נפץ בבית-הכנסת הרפורמי, בגל של מעשי אלימות דומים ברחבי ארצות- הברית.
סוג מקום:
עיר
מספר פריט:
195823
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:
Geffen, Tobias (1870-1970), rabbi, born in Kovno, Lithuania (then part of the Russian Empire). He studied under Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Spektor and then in the Yeshiva of Slovodka. In 1903 he immigrated to the USA and was appointed rabbi of Ahavat Zedek congregation in New York City. Four years later he moved to a small community in Ohio and then in 1910 he became rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel, Atlanta, Georgia. He remained in this position until the end of his life.

Geffen became widely known for his decision in 1935 to certify Coca-Cola as kosher. Geffen published eight books, written in Yiddish, of responsa, sermons and Talmudic dissertations. He was the leader of the Southern division of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis.
בית יתומים יהודי, אטלנטה, ג'ורג'יה (ארה"ב).
ציור. גלויה 1910 בקירוב.
(תל אביב, אוסף משפחת גרוס)
הפגנה למען יהודי בריה"מ.
אטלנטה, ג'ורג'יה, ארה"ב, 1970.
צילום: ג'רלד צ'רלס לסנסנקי, ארה"ב.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות ג'רלד צ'רלס לסנסקי, ארה"ב)
Levi, Yoel (b. 1950), musician and conductor, born in Satu Mare, Romania. He immigrated at a young age to Israel. Levi attended the Tel Aviv Academy of Music, earning a Master of Arts degree with distinction, and then the Jerusalem Academy of Music under Mendi Rodan.

Levi won the 1978 International Besancon Competition for Young Conductors and later on studied with Franco Ferrara in Siena and Rome, Italy, with Kiril Kondrashin in the Netherlands, and at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London, England.

He moved to United States in late 1970s and became an American citizen in 1987. Levi was chief assistant of Lorin Maazel at the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra (1978-1980) and then chief resident with the same orchestra (1980-1984). Levi. He was the music director and principal conductor for the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra from 1988 to 2000. Through 2004-2005, Levi continued to conduct two concert weekends in Atlanta each season.

He conducted the Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra at the 1991 Nobel Prize Ceremony and the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra at the opening and closing ceremonies of the 1996 Olympics Games in Atlanta.

As of 2005, he is a music advisor to the Flemish Radio Orchestra and is the Principal Guest Conductor of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.

In 2001, he was awarded the Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government.

United States of America (USA)

A country in North America

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 5,700,000 out of 325,000,000 (1.7%). United States is the home of the second largest Jewish population in the world. 

Community life is organized in more than 2,000 organizations and 700 federations. Each of the main religious denominators – Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist – has its own national association of synagogues and rabbis. 

American cities (greater area) with largest Jewish populations in 2018:

New York City, NY: 2,000,000
Los Angeles, CA: 662,000
Miami, FL: 555,000
Philadelphia, PA: 275,000
Chicago, IL: 294,000
Boston, MA: 250,000
San Francisco, CA: 304,000
Washington, DC & Baltimore, MY: 217,000

States with largest proportion of Jewish population in 2018 (Percentage of Total Population):

New York: 8.9
New Jersey: 5.8
Florida: 3.3
District of Columbia: 4.3
Massachusetts: 4.1
Maryland: 4
Connecticut: 3.3
California: 3.2
Pennsylvania: 2.3
Illinois: 2.3

Anniston

A city and seat of Calhoun County in Alabama, United States

The Jewish community was established after Leon Ullman, a merchant from Talladega, Alabama, moved his business to Anniston. In 1884, along with his brothers, Leopold, August, Abe, and Solomon, he opened Ullman Brothers on Noble Street, the main street of the city. They were followed by other German Jews who identified the business opportunities the developing town offered during the second half of the 19th century, particularly after Anniston was connected to the railroad network in 1883. Joseph Saks, Adolph Adler, and Anselm Sterne and other Jews soon operated thriving businesses.

In 1888 the growing number of Jews in Anniston enabled the establishment of a congregation. Henrietta Sterne, the wife of Anselm Sterne, who came from Albany, GA, where she ran the local Jewish school, opened a similar one in Anniston in 1889. Anselm and Henrietta Sterne, influential members of the congregation, were instrumental in establishing The Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society, a charitable organization that was open in 1890 with Henrietta Sterne as its first president. She held this position until her death in 1915.

During the first years of Jewish settlement in Anniston the prayers were conducted in private homes or halls. The Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society led the efforts for the opening of a synagogue in Anniston. In 1891 the land at the corner of Quintard Avenue and Thirteenth Street was purchased, and two years later, on December 8, 1893, Beth El temple was officially inaugurated in the presence of Rabbi Max Heller, the distinguished Reform Jewish rabbi from New Orleans. Upon his return to Louisiana, Rabbi Heller sent the congregation a Bible, which still rests on the bimah, and the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society sent the rabbi’s wife a piece of their “fancy work.”

The women’s charitable association continued to gather the funds that ultimately allowed for the furbishing of the temple and its maintenance. In 1907 the temple was presented to the congregation. Beth El of Anniston is the oldest building in Alabama continuously and currently being used for Jewish worship.

Leon Ullman served as the first leader of the congregation. He was followed by Joseph Saks and Anselm Sterne. Joseph Saks, for whom the community of Saks just outside the city of Anniston was named, served as president for more than two decades. In 1900 Anselm Sterne arranged for a student rabbi from the Hebrew Union College to officiate at High Holy Days services. Student rabbis were employed for most of the next eight decades, leading only the High Holy Days services. Only in mid-1950s a student rabbi also began to visit the congregation once and then twice a month. Rabbis from out of town performed at weddings, funerals, confirmations, and bar mitzvah ceremonies.

Harry Shiretzki, the Jewish police chief of Anniston, was murdered by the owner of an illegal moonshining operation during a raid on the business in 1924.

Before and after WW II, a number of Jewish refugees and then Holocaust survivors settled in Anniston.

Given the Jewish support to the Civil Rights movement of the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Jews of Anniston were occasionally threatened by white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan.

Over the years the congregation has grown as new members moved into the community and congregants married and downturns in its membership as older congregants have passed away and their children have moved to communities with more economic and social opportunities.

The building of the temple was enlarged with the additions of a community room, religious classrooms, and a library. In 1985, Temple Beth-El, a building in the Romanesque Revival style, was included in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) – The United States federal government’s official list of buildings of historical significance.