חיפוש
הדפסה
שיתוף
הפריט שבחרת:
מקום
רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות

קהילת יהודי מיינינגן

מיינינגן

Meiningen

עיר במחוז שמלקלדן-מיינינגן, בתורינגיה, גרמניה.
בימי הביניים קהילת יהודי מיינינגן סבלה מרדיפות:  עלילת דם ב-1243, כנופיות רינדפלייש התפרעו במקום ב-1298 ופרעות "המגיפה השחורה" החריבו אותה כליל ב-1349. ב-1384 הפך בית הכנסת לקפלה. יהודים הוסיפו להתגורר בעיירות הסביבה, שב-1803 סופחו לדוכסות סאקס-מיינינגן. מ-1811 פורסמו תקנות שהגבילו את היהודים במגורים, בהיתרי נישואין ובפעילות כלכלית. במיינינגן עצמה הותרה הישיבה ליהודים מעטים ואחרי המהומות של שנת 1819 (מהומות "הפ-הפ") נשארה בעיר משפחה יהודית אחת. ב-1844 התגוררו במיינינגן 29 יהודים, ובדוכסות כולה - 1,500 יהודים. מושב הרבנות היה בעיירה הסמוכה ואלדורף, שבה ישבו אז 550 יהודים (35% מכלל האוכלוסייה), כאשר רשויות הדוכסות אישרו את תקנות בית הכנסת של סאקס-מיינינגן והדגישו רפורמות דתיות. ב-1856 הוענקה האזרחות ליהודים אמידים, וב-1868 לכלל היהודים בדוכסות. ב-1870 גרו במיינינגן 470 יהודים, 490 ב-1898, 359 ב-1913 (2.08% מכלל האוכלוסייה), 293 ב-1925 (1.6%), ו-192 ביוני 1933.

ב-1871 הרבנות עברה למיינינגן, בית קברות נרכש ב-1874, בית כנסת הוקם ב-1883, וחברת קדישא ב-1885.

ב-1856 בנקאים יהודים ונוצרים הקימו בנק אשראי מרכזי במיינינגן. הבנק של ב' מ' סטרופ (לשעבר חברת מסחר) ושל ד' מאנהיימר (שנוסד ב-1871) היוו גורם חשוב במימון תעשייתי מעבר לגבולות הדוכסות. גוסטב סטרופ (1918-1851) היה גם יו"ר לשכת המסחר וראש הקהילה היהודית וחבר בית הנבחרים האזורי (1918-1903). החל משנות השבעים של המאה ה-19 הותר ליהודים לעסוק בפרקליטות, והיו אחדים שנתמנו שופטים.

שיעור ההצבעה של האנטישמים בעיר בבחירות ב-1898 וב-1932 חרג בהרבה מהממוצע הארצי. ב"ליל הבדולח" (נובמבר 1938) הוצת בית הכנסת, ובסוף השנה נותרו משפחות יהודיות מועטות במיינינגן, כולל 16 ילדים שלמדו בבית ספר יהודי.

אין רשימות על גירוש היהודים ממיינינגן. אחרי 1945 אף יהודי לא שב למיינינגן.

סוג מקום:
עיירה
מספר פריט:
181348
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:
Zionist

Born in Meiningen, Germany, he engaged in business in Rotterdam from 1915 to 1935. From 1924 to 1930 he was a member of the executive of the Dutch Zionist Federation and from 1930 to 1934 was its president. He also edited the Dutch Zionist weekly. Settling in Erets Israel in 1936, Bernstein was active in the General Zionist party of which he became president. From 1937 to 1946 he edited the daily Ha-Boker and in 1947-48 headed the Zionist Executive's Department of Trade and Industry. A General Zionist (later Liberal) member of the Knesset from its inception until 1965, he served as minister of commerce and industry, 1948-49 and 1952-55.

Aschenhausen

A village and a former municipality in the district Schmalkalden-Meiningen, in Thuringia, Germany.

Jews have lived in Aschenhausen since the end of the 17th century. They were allowed to settle in Aschenhausen as protected Jews from 1695. A cemetery was laid out in 1707, a prayer room was established in 1738 and a school was opened in 1752. In 1765 the community purchased a plot of land to build a synagogue, bakery and school. In 1841 these buildings were destroyed by fire. Thanks to a donation, the new synagogue was inaugurated in 1843, followed by the new school and teacher's apartment in 1846. In 1848, fifty Jewish families lived in Aschenhausen, making up half of the total population. There was a kosher butcher shop and a mikveh in town. In 1876 the Christian and Jewish schools were merged. At the end of the 19th century, more and more Jewish community members emigrated to larger towns, so that the Aschenhausen community got smaller and smaller. As a result, the synagogue could no longer be kept and was sold in 1936. The Torah scrolls and cult objects were probably buried in the Jewish cemetery by the community leaders. Due to the sale of the synagogue, the building at Oberkätzer Straße 16 survived the Nazi regime relatively unscathed and is now very well preserved and serves as a meeting place. With the last deportation of the Jews who remained in Aschenhausen in 1942, the Jewish community of Aschenhausen was exterminated.

-------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Dreissigacker

Dreißigacker

A municipal district of Meimimgen, Thuringia, Germany. 

At the end of the 17th century until 1867 there was a small Jewish community in Dreissigacker. The Jewish population was forbidden to reside in Leipzig and Meiningen, so the Jews who lived from trade settled close to the large trading centers. The Jewish community in Dreissigacker owned a synagogue, a mikveh, a school and a cemetery. Initially the services were held in a private prayer room and from 1822 the new synagogue could be used. In the great fire in Dreissigacker on 13. May, 1867, 145 houses, the Jewish school and the synagogue were destroyed. Due to the complete redesign of the city center after the fire, the original location of the Jewish institutions can no longer be traced. The cemetery still exists today and is in a relatively good condition, it is located east of the place on the edge of the plateau. After 1867, the admission of the Jewish residents of Dreissigacker into the Jewish community of Meiningen and the accompanying dissolution of the Jewish community of Dreissigacker, no more Jewish life was established here.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Eisenach

A town in Thuringia, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1235; peak population 440 in 1905; population in 1933: 378

Jewish presence in Eisenach was first documented around 1235. Jews lived in the so-called Judengasse in the center of the city (today Karlstrasse), and a synagogue was apparently established there. A well-known resident of Eisenach at that time, Jechiel ben Jaakov, composed synagogue poetry. In addition to a synagogue, a Jewish cemetery was located between the route to Langensalza and the road to Gotha. During the Black Death persecutions of 1348/49, Jews were forced out of the city. A few years later they returned to Eisenach and probably lived on Loebersgasse. They were expelled in the first half of the 15th century. From that point until the middle of the 19th century, Jewish settlement in Eisenach was rare.

Many Eisenach Jews made a living by trading. They worked as retailers, merchants and cattle dealers. In the second half of the 19th century, Eisenach was home to several Jewish lawyers, physicians (Dr. Isaak Ganz and Dr. Julius Fackenheim), bankers and business people. Among the latter were Jewish women as well, such as Sara Epstein, her daughter Johanna, and Betty Hamburger. Several traditional companies opened in the following decades, among them the women's fashion store Loewenstein and the menswear store Dreyfuss.

In 1850 territorial residence restrictions for Jews were officially lifted, and increasing numbers of Jews, mostly from Geisa and Lengsfeld, moved from the southern parts of present-day Thuringia to Eisenach. In 1862, sixteen families and two widows formed a religious community. The official founding took place two years later in 1864. The membership list of that year contains the following names: Dr. Mendel Hess, Salomon Backhaus, the Kayser family, Jakob Katzenstein, the Stiebel family, Siegwardt Rothschild, Selma Levy, Rudolf Heinemann, Manus Lind, Isaak Reiss, Samuel Lind, Benjamin Epstein, Jakob Heidungsfeld, and Dr. Moritz Levi Baumann. The central rabbinate of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach had its seat in Eisenach from 1846 to 1876 and again from 1911/12. From 1827 to 1871, the rabbinate was headed by the honored Dr. Mendel Hess (1807-1871), who was strongly engaged in Jewish emancipation. He also published the journal "Der Israelit des 19. Jahrhunderts." One of his successors was Dr. Josef Wiesen (1866-1942) who was appointed as Chief Rabbi of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1898/1902. He first lived in Stadtlengsfeld and moved to Eisenach in 1911/12 when the rabbinate’s seat was returned to Eisenach. In 1877, the community received the status of an independent religious community. At that time, the Jewish population comprised 287 members and peaked at 440 in 1905.

On September 30, 1864 the Jewish community opened a prayer room in the rear building at 19 Jakobsplan. Official representatives of the municipality and the church participated in the event. Prior to 1864, prayer services had taken place in private homes, including Loeser Herz Kayser’s home on Georgenstrasse. Due to an increasing membership, services on High Holidays and weddings were held at the Hotel zum Loewen on Marienstrasse. In 1882, the grand-ducal regional office decided for safety reasons that no more than 100 people could enter the prayer room; women were therefore asked not to attend the services. In order to solve this problem, a committee for the erection of a new synagogue was formed, consisting of Moses Ehrlich, Heinrich Gruenstein, Ferdinand Stiebel, Joseph Weinstein, Salomon Stiebel, and Susmann Weinstein.

Several years later, the new building was completed. On January 8, 1885 the opening of the new synagogue took place at 26 Woerthstrasse (today Karl-Marx-Strasse). Rabbi Dr. Salzer held a festive service. Representatives of the municipality and the church attended the opening. The new synagogue was an impressive, Moorish-style building, drafted by the local architect Hermann Hahn. A women’s committee consisting of Mrs. Kayser, Kuh, Backhaus, Ehrlich and Stiebel had collected money for the synagogue’s interior, which included velvet curtains, silver decorations, Torah scrolls and covers. In 1928, the synagogue was renovated by the Leipzig architect Haller and equipped with a bronze monument in memory of 23 Jewish soldiers of the Eisenach community who had been killed in World War I. The synagogue building comprised rooms for community meetings and special events as well as a school where children received religious instruction. The synagogue was equipped with an organ and had a choir which had been founded in 1885 and was directed by Ferdinand Stiebel and Julius Heidungsfeld. Numerous contemporary witnesses praised the choir’s high quality.

Jakob Heidungsfeld (1830-1897) served the community as a teacher and cantor from November 1864 until 1897. A year after his employment (1865), a Jewish religious school was founded. At that time, eight schoolchildren received religious instruction at the prayer house. Later, religious instruction was given at a public school on Am Markt and from 1885 in the new synagogue. In 1890, the Jewish school consisted of two classes, comprising 53 students in total. Their number increased to 65 by the end of the 19th century. In 1897, Jakob Heidungsfeld was replaced by a new teacher, Ernst Meyer (1865-1923), who also worked as cantor and Hilfsprediger (curate).

Prior to 1868, Eisenach Jews buried their dead in Herleshausen. Subsequently, a new burial site was established, located in the municipal cemetery (Hauptfriedhof am Wartenberg). The first funeral (Loeb Stiebel) took place in March 1868 before the official opening. In 1910 or so, the community acquired an additional site in the municipal cemetery, which still exists today. A mikvah (ritual bath) also existed. It opened at 5 Clemensstrasse in 1879 and was part of Dobermann’s public baths.

In 1910, the Jewish community numbered 421 members. Landesrabbiner Dr. Josef Wiesen (1866-1942) served the community from 1898 until his retirement in 1930 and even after. In addition to his post, he maintained a school and nursing home for handicapped children. From the beginning of the community, several social and cultural associations had been founded, such as a society for the poor (Israelitischer Armen-Verein), a club for Jewish history as well as a men’s charitable and burial organization (Chebra-Gemilut-Chassadim, 1885) and a women’s association (Israelitischer Frauenverein). The latter’s long-termed president was Lydia Stiebel. After more than 30 years, she was replaced in 1914 by Marta Weinstein. After World War I, a local group of the Reichsbund Jüdischer Frontsoldaten (National Organization of Jewish Front-Line Soldiers) was established.

Latent antisemitism had always accompanied the development of the Jewish community. It turned into strident antisemitism in the 1890s. In 1891, the antisemitic organization Reformverein was founded in Eisenach. On several occasions, well-known representatives of German antisemitism, such as Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg (1897) and Adolf Stoecker (1905), came to the city to give speeches. In 1923 and 1925, the synagogue’s stained glass windows were destroyed. In June 1930, the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith organized an assembly of Thuringian Jews in Eisenach to protest the growing National Socialism movement in Thuringia.

In 1933, 378 Jews lived in Eisenach (56.9% of the total population). Although he had retired in 1930, Rabbi Dr. Josef Wiesen continued to serve the community and was the community’s last rabbi. Loewenthal, a cantor and teacher, provided religious instruction to Jewish schoolchildren. Two Jewish organizations, Chevra Kadisha (burial society) and Israelitischer Frauenverein, were still operating in the 1930s.

On Pogrom Night, in the late evening of November 9, 1938, SA men destroyed and plundered Jewish shops. They stormed into Jewish homes and mistreated and insulted the occupants. Furniture was damaged and precious collections were destroyed or stolen. The cemetery was vandalized. The synagogue was set on fire and burnt down. A day before, SA followers, as well as members of the Jungvolk, a subgroup of the Hitler Youth, had already destroyed the stained glass windows of the synagogue and used axes to destroy the furniture and the Aron haKodesh (Torah Ark), as well as the World War I memorial. Prayer books and other ritual objects were thrown into the street. However, the Torah scrolls remained unharmed and were later used in clandestine prayer services. The synagogue’s remains were blown up in January 1939. Many Jews were taken to the sports hall on today’s Goethestrasse. In the morning of November 10, the majority of the Jewish men were deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar. Among them was Dr. Josef Wiesen, who was later released. In the following years, he hosted Jews at his home in Eisenach before they emigrated from Nazi Germany. He also provided prayer services in his private dining room. On September 19, 1942, he was deported to Theresienstadt, where he perished in November of the same year.

From 1933 to 1941, one third of the Jewish residents emigrated, mainly to Palestine and the USA. Many moved to other German cities. In May 1939, only 215 Jews resided in Eisenach. They were forced to live under very cramped conditions in so-called Judenhaeusern. On May 9 and September 19, 1942, most of them were gathered at the Sammelstelle (collecting point) at 48 Goethestrasse and taken to the train station. From there they were deported to the ghettos of Belzyce and Theresienstadt. Only very few of the deportees survived. Among the survivors were Therese Cohn, Renate Eckmann, Lina Rothschild, Hedwig Wolfermann, Dr. Erich Wiesen, Elisabeth Grienwaldt, Moritz Heinemann, Josef Kahn, and Rosa Pracht. At least 213 Eisenach Jews perished in the Shoah.

In 1945, a new Jewish community was founded in Eisenach. Due to migration and antisemitic measures, the community gradually ceased to exist (1951/52). In 1947, a memorial site was established on Karl-Marx-Strasse, commemorating the Pogrom Night and the deportation of Eisenach Jews. in 1998, a new memorial was dedicated to those who were deported, never to return.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

ברקך

Berkach

עיירה ברובע שמלקלדן-מיינינגן (Schmalkalden-Meiningen) בתורינגיה, גרמניה.

רשומות מהמאה ה-17 מתעדות את נוכחותם המוקדמת ביותר של יהודים בברקך, בסביבות 1626. ממקורות אלה ידוע לנו כי יהודי עבר לברקך במהלך מלחמת שלושים השנים; יהודים נוספים הצטרפו אחרי זמן קצר והתיישבו בעיירה. רוב היהודים חיו תחת הגנת הלורדים פון שטיין ובתחילה התגוררו במחוזות ברקך, בזנטהוף (Zehnthof) ובהינטרדורף (Hinterdorf). למרות זאת, הותר להם להשתמש במתקנים המשותפים של העיירה, כגון בית השימוש והבאר. היהודים התפללו בבתים פרטיים. יהודי ברקך קברו את מתיהם בקליינברדורף (Kleinbardorf). רק בשנת 1820 רכשה הקהילה היהודית נכסים כדי להקים בית קברות משלה מזרחית לברונגר לנדשטראסה (Behrunger Landstrasse). הוא נפתח בשנת 1846. עד המחצית הראשונה של המאה ה-19, מספר היהודים בברקך גדל בהתמדה. בשנת 1740 גרו 12 משפחות יהודיות בברקך ו-32 משפחות ב-1819. בשנת 1833 מנתה האוכלוסייה היהודית 152 יהודים (33% מאוכלוסיית העיירה). בתחילה הם סחרו בבקר ובסחורות (טקסטיל, צמר). בשנות ה-1900 היו ליהודים מספר עסקים בעיירה; ביניהם היו גם בעלי מלאכה.

במהלך המאות ה-18 וה-19 הקימה הקהילה היהודית מספר מוסדות. בשנות 40 של המאה ה-18 שכרו יהודי ברקך בניין שאותו כינו "בית הכנסת" שלהם. בשנת 1762 נבנה בית כנסת, שהיה בשימוש כמעט 100 שנים. בשנים 1850 עד 1854 נבנו בית כנסת חדש ובית ספר ברחוב מוהלפלדר (Muehlfelder). הפתיחה החגיגית התקיימה ב-1 ביוני 1854. בבית הכנסת היה ארון קודש ובו שישה ספרי תורה. בבית הספר היסודי היהודי החדש, שליד בית הכנסת, למדו 45 תלמידים בסביבות 1860. עם זאת, בשל הירידה במספר הילדים היהודים, צריך היה לסגור את בית הספר; הוא נמכר בשנת 1898. לאחר מכן למדו תלמידי בית הספר היהודי בבית הספר המקומי בעיירה.

בתחילה הפעילו יהודי ברקך שלושה מקוואות בבתים פרטיים. כאשר הרשויות דרשו את הקמתו של מקווה חדש, מקווה חדש, שמומן על ידי שמואל איזאק, נפתח בשנת 1838 ברחוב פוסט (Poststrasse) של היום. הקהילה היהודית העסיקה מורה ששימש גם כשוחט וכחזן. ידוע מאוד היה הרמן ארליך (1879-1815), החזן והמורה של הקהילה. הוא התגורר בעיירה והוציא לאור כתב עת למוזיקה יהודית. כיום ניתן למצוא חלק מיצירותיו בספריות מסוימות, אפילו בניו יורק. חזן נוסף, מוערך מאוד, היה לב (Loew) פרידמן (1893-1818). במשך כ-30 שנה הוא שירת את הקהילה כחזן מסייע בימי החגים וכסגן החזן המקומי.

עמותת אמונה (כוח האמונה), שנוסדה בשנת 1842, סייעה לעניים המקומיים והלא-מקומיים. הארגון חגג 50 שנה להיווסדו באוקטובר 1892.

משנות ה-70 של המאה ה-19 ירד מספר התושבים היהודים עקב הגירה.  37 יהודים חיו בברקך ב-1913, ורק 28 ב-1925-1924. כאשר הנאצים עלו לשלטון ב-1933, כ-20 יהודים היו עדיין רשומים בברקך.

ב"ליל הבדולח", בנובמבר 1938, בית הכנסת ובנייני קהילה יהודיים אחרים לא נפגעו או ניזוקו. בית הכנסת ובניין בית הספר ניצלו מהצתה בהתערבות תושבי המקום. בשנה שלאחר מכן היהודים נאלצו למכור את הבניינים לעירייה. לאחר 1945, הבעלות על בית הכנסת לשעבר התחלפה מספר פעמים: בית הכנסת שימש כנפחייה ומאוחר יותר כמחסן. בית הקברות היהודי חולל על ידי הנאצים. תשעה יהודים נעצרו והועברו למחנה הריכוז בוכנוולד; אחד מהם, גוטמן (Goetz) פרידמן, לא שרד את הייסורים. 10 מיהודי ברקך הצליחו להימלט מגרמניה הנאצית ולהגר לפלשתינה, אוסטרליה וארצות הברית. ב-1939, חבר הקהילה לותר גולדשמידט, הצליח להציל אחד משישה ספרי תורה, שנמצאים כיום בבית כנסת בניו ג'רזי, בארה"ב.

בשנת 1942 גורשו היהודים הנותרים לטרזיינשטאדט, ביניהם מוריץ בוקסבאום, אידה בוקסבאום לבית זקס (1894), דינה בוקסבאום (1927), האנס קאופמן (1903), הלנה קאופמן, סלומון שטיין ואלזה שטיין. לפחות 38 מיהודי ברקך נִספו בשואה.

בשנת 1990 רכשה הקהילה של ברקך את בניין בית הכנסת לשעבר ושיפצה אותו היטב בשנים 1990/91. כיום ניתן למצוא את שמות היהודים המגורשים של ברקך, שהוזכרו לעיל, על לוח עץ בפרוזדור בית הכנסת המשופץ. בנוסף, לוח הזיכרון מנציח גם את גורלם של יהודי ברקך הבאים: רוזלי פרידמן, רודולף ורוזה גולדשמידט ובנם הרמן, קלרה גוטמן, חולדה הופמן, גוטמן פרידמן ובתו רזי פרידמן.

-------------------------------------

ערך זה פורסם לראשונה באנגלית באתר "בית אשכנז - בתי כנסת וקהילות שנחרבו בגרמניה" ונתרם למאגר המידע של מוזיאון העם היהודי באדיבות בית אשכנז.

 

Heinrichs

A municipal district of Suhl in Thuringia, Germany. 

At the beginning of the 18th century, a Jewish community was established in Heinrichs, founded by Jews expelled from Suhl. These Jews continued to run their businesses in Suhl or Schleusingen, but lived in Heinrichs. Until 1725 the community still belonged to the religious community Schleusingen. In 1811, 17 Jewish families lived in Heinrichs. The community ran a school, employed a teacher, and set up a synagogue. In 1847 a law granted freedom of movement to Jews living in Prussia. From this point on Jewish life moved back to Suhl. The Jewish cemetery in Heinrichs which was laid out around 1720 still exists today and is under monumental protection. The synagogue building was sold in 1872 and was demolished after the WW II.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Marisfeld

A village in the district of Hildburghausen, in Thuringia, German

Duke Friedrich I of Saxe-Gotha granted the Marisfeld Lord of the Castle Johann Friedrich Marschalk von Ostheim permission to issue a letter of protection for a Jew in 1679. From this moment on Jews can settle in Marisfeld. In 1822, 121 people of Jewish faith lived here, in 1865 there were already 200. After the great fire in the village in 1866, many Jews left Marisfeld and went to cities like Meinigen or Themar. In 1942 the last three Jewish citizens remaining in Marisfeld were deported to the concentration camps.

At the end of the 17th century a three-story building near the church, the so-called "Judenbau", served as living space for the Marisfeld Jews. The synagogue was also housed here. In 1867 the building was demolished. From 1832 there was a new synagogue in Marisfeld because the prayer room in the “Judenbau” had become too small. This synagogue was used until the 1930s, but was sold to private individuals before the Nazis came to power in 1933 and was able to survive the war unharmed. Traces of the original religious use are no longer recognizable today, the location of the house is Themarer Straße. Also in 1832 a new school building was built near the new synagogue. In 1875, due to the elementary school law for the unification of the Jewish and Christian schools, the Jewish schoolhouse was sold and later used as a restaurant and residential building. The building is also on Themarer Straße. The mikveh, which was built in the course of the construction of the synagogue and school in the garden of the synagogue, was also located here. There was probably a cemetery since the end of the 17th century, in 1848 the Jewish community of Marisfeld received a piece of land from Baron von Stockmar, which was used as a burial place. The Themar Jewish community buried their dead here. The cemetery is located on the Guhligsberg east of the place and was desecrated during the Nazi era. Today the burial place is in good condition.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Walldorf

A village and a former municipality in the district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen in Thuringia, Germany.

Jews have been recorded in Walldorf repeatedly since the middle of the 14th century. Protected Jews were accepted in Waldorf in the following centuries. Up until the 18th century Walldorf was divided between three manor owners. The three landlords the Joint Heir Marschalk von Ostheim, the Baron von Bibra and the Baron von Diemar accepted protected Jews and allowed them to found their own community and the necessary institutions. In 1789 with the permission of the landlords, the three Jewish associations merged to form a community, after which joint institutions were created for the first time. A new common synagogue and school were built. A cemetery which has been attested as early as 1737 was shared between the three communities already before 1789. The prime of the Walldorf Jewish community, which was the largest Jewish community in the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen at that time, was in the first half of the 19th century. The number of community members developed as follows in the 18th century: in 1810 there were 238 Jewish residents, in 1833 there were already 537 (in about 90 families), in 1849 the highest number of 562 Jewish people was reached. In 1895 there were 108 Jewish residents living in Walldorf, in 1900 there were 98 and in 1910 only 75 Jewish community members were registered. In 1845 the synagogue was expanded due to lack of space. The community's Jewish school, bakery and bath house were destroyed by a fire in 1836. In 1840 a new school was opened. From 1839 to 1869 Walldorf was the seat of the state rabbinate of the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen. From 1851 there were two other Jewish educational institutions in Walldorf, which were privately run. In 1856 however, these were merged again. At the beginning of the 20th century the various denominational schools were merged. In Walldorf, too, the number of members decreased due to emigration, so that in 1933 only 32 residents of Jewish faith lived in the place. Most of them were deported to the extermination camps in 1942 and 1944.

The synagogue building was desecrated during the Night of the Pogrom. The Jewish community was forced to sell the building to the political community of Waldorf. The house "Am Tanzberg" was demolished in 1948 due to the risk of collapse. The building that housed the former Jewish school still exists today and is located at Freie Platz 4. The cemetery has also been preserved and is in fair condition.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

במאגרי המידע הפתוחים
גניאולוגיה יהודית
שמות משפחה
קהילות יהודיות
תיעוד חזותי
מרכז המוזיקה היהודית
מקום
אA
אA
אA
רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות
קהילת יהודי מיינינגן

מיינינגן

Meiningen

עיר במחוז שמלקלדן-מיינינגן, בתורינגיה, גרמניה.
בימי הביניים קהילת יהודי מיינינגן סבלה מרדיפות:  עלילת דם ב-1243, כנופיות רינדפלייש התפרעו במקום ב-1298 ופרעות "המגיפה השחורה" החריבו אותה כליל ב-1349. ב-1384 הפך בית הכנסת לקפלה. יהודים הוסיפו להתגורר בעיירות הסביבה, שב-1803 סופחו לדוכסות סאקס-מיינינגן. מ-1811 פורסמו תקנות שהגבילו את היהודים במגורים, בהיתרי נישואין ובפעילות כלכלית. במיינינגן עצמה הותרה הישיבה ליהודים מעטים ואחרי המהומות של שנת 1819 (מהומות "הפ-הפ") נשארה בעיר משפחה יהודית אחת. ב-1844 התגוררו במיינינגן 29 יהודים, ובדוכסות כולה - 1,500 יהודים. מושב הרבנות היה בעיירה הסמוכה ואלדורף, שבה ישבו אז 550 יהודים (35% מכלל האוכלוסייה), כאשר רשויות הדוכסות אישרו את תקנות בית הכנסת של סאקס-מיינינגן והדגישו רפורמות דתיות. ב-1856 הוענקה האזרחות ליהודים אמידים, וב-1868 לכלל היהודים בדוכסות. ב-1870 גרו במיינינגן 470 יהודים, 490 ב-1898, 359 ב-1913 (2.08% מכלל האוכלוסייה), 293 ב-1925 (1.6%), ו-192 ביוני 1933.

ב-1871 הרבנות עברה למיינינגן, בית קברות נרכש ב-1874, בית כנסת הוקם ב-1883, וחברת קדישא ב-1885.

ב-1856 בנקאים יהודים ונוצרים הקימו בנק אשראי מרכזי במיינינגן. הבנק של ב' מ' סטרופ (לשעבר חברת מסחר) ושל ד' מאנהיימר (שנוסד ב-1871) היוו גורם חשוב במימון תעשייתי מעבר לגבולות הדוכסות. גוסטב סטרופ (1918-1851) היה גם יו"ר לשכת המסחר וראש הקהילה היהודית וחבר בית הנבחרים האזורי (1918-1903). החל משנות השבעים של המאה ה-19 הותר ליהודים לעסוק בפרקליטות, והיו אחדים שנתמנו שופטים.

שיעור ההצבעה של האנטישמים בעיר בבחירות ב-1898 וב-1932 חרג בהרבה מהממוצע הארצי. ב"ליל הבדולח" (נובמבר 1938) הוצת בית הכנסת, ובסוף השנה נותרו משפחות יהודיות מועטות במיינינגן, כולל 16 ילדים שלמדו בבית ספר יהודי.

אין רשימות על גירוש היהודים ממיינינגן. אחרי 1945 אף יהודי לא שב למיינינגן.

חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
ברנשטיין, פרץ פריץ
Zionist

Born in Meiningen, Germany, he engaged in business in Rotterdam from 1915 to 1935. From 1924 to 1930 he was a member of the executive of the Dutch Zionist Federation and from 1930 to 1934 was its president. He also edited the Dutch Zionist weekly. Settling in Erets Israel in 1936, Bernstein was active in the General Zionist party of which he became president. From 1937 to 1946 he edited the daily Ha-Boker and in 1947-48 headed the Zionist Executive's Department of Trade and Industry. A General Zionist (later Liberal) member of the Knesset from its inception until 1965, he served as minister of commerce and industry, 1948-49 and 1952-55.

אשנהאוזן

Aschenhausen

A village and a former municipality in the district Schmalkalden-Meiningen, in Thuringia, Germany.

Jews have lived in Aschenhausen since the end of the 17th century. They were allowed to settle in Aschenhausen as protected Jews from 1695. A cemetery was laid out in 1707, a prayer room was established in 1738 and a school was opened in 1752. In 1765 the community purchased a plot of land to build a synagogue, bakery and school. In 1841 these buildings were destroyed by fire. Thanks to a donation, the new synagogue was inaugurated in 1843, followed by the new school and teacher's apartment in 1846. In 1848, fifty Jewish families lived in Aschenhausen, making up half of the total population. There was a kosher butcher shop and a mikveh in town. In 1876 the Christian and Jewish schools were merged. At the end of the 19th century, more and more Jewish community members emigrated to larger towns, so that the Aschenhausen community got smaller and smaller. As a result, the synagogue could no longer be kept and was sold in 1936. The Torah scrolls and cult objects were probably buried in the Jewish cemetery by the community leaders. Due to the sale of the synagogue, the building at Oberkätzer Straße 16 survived the Nazi regime relatively unscathed and is now very well preserved and serves as a meeting place. With the last deportation of the Jews who remained in Aschenhausen in 1942, the Jewish community of Aschenhausen was exterminated.

-------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

דרייסיגאקר

Dreissigacker

Dreißigacker

A municipal district of Meimimgen, Thuringia, Germany. 

At the end of the 17th century until 1867 there was a small Jewish community in Dreissigacker. The Jewish population was forbidden to reside in Leipzig and Meiningen, so the Jews who lived from trade settled close to the large trading centers. The Jewish community in Dreissigacker owned a synagogue, a mikveh, a school and a cemetery. Initially the services were held in a private prayer room and from 1822 the new synagogue could be used. In the great fire in Dreissigacker on 13. May, 1867, 145 houses, the Jewish school and the synagogue were destroyed. Due to the complete redesign of the city center after the fire, the original location of the Jewish institutions can no longer be traced. The cemetery still exists today and is in a relatively good condition, it is located east of the place on the edge of the plateau. After 1867, the admission of the Jewish residents of Dreissigacker into the Jewish community of Meiningen and the accompanying dissolution of the Jewish community of Dreissigacker, no more Jewish life was established here.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

איזנאך

Eisenach

A town in Thuringia, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1235; peak population 440 in 1905; population in 1933: 378

Jewish presence in Eisenach was first documented around 1235. Jews lived in the so-called Judengasse in the center of the city (today Karlstrasse), and a synagogue was apparently established there. A well-known resident of Eisenach at that time, Jechiel ben Jaakov, composed synagogue poetry. In addition to a synagogue, a Jewish cemetery was located between the route to Langensalza and the road to Gotha. During the Black Death persecutions of 1348/49, Jews were forced out of the city. A few years later they returned to Eisenach and probably lived on Loebersgasse. They were expelled in the first half of the 15th century. From that point until the middle of the 19th century, Jewish settlement in Eisenach was rare.

Many Eisenach Jews made a living by trading. They worked as retailers, merchants and cattle dealers. In the second half of the 19th century, Eisenach was home to several Jewish lawyers, physicians (Dr. Isaak Ganz and Dr. Julius Fackenheim), bankers and business people. Among the latter were Jewish women as well, such as Sara Epstein, her daughter Johanna, and Betty Hamburger. Several traditional companies opened in the following decades, among them the women's fashion store Loewenstein and the menswear store Dreyfuss.

In 1850 territorial residence restrictions for Jews were officially lifted, and increasing numbers of Jews, mostly from Geisa and Lengsfeld, moved from the southern parts of present-day Thuringia to Eisenach. In 1862, sixteen families and two widows formed a religious community. The official founding took place two years later in 1864. The membership list of that year contains the following names: Dr. Mendel Hess, Salomon Backhaus, the Kayser family, Jakob Katzenstein, the Stiebel family, Siegwardt Rothschild, Selma Levy, Rudolf Heinemann, Manus Lind, Isaak Reiss, Samuel Lind, Benjamin Epstein, Jakob Heidungsfeld, and Dr. Moritz Levi Baumann. The central rabbinate of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach had its seat in Eisenach from 1846 to 1876 and again from 1911/12. From 1827 to 1871, the rabbinate was headed by the honored Dr. Mendel Hess (1807-1871), who was strongly engaged in Jewish emancipation. He also published the journal "Der Israelit des 19. Jahrhunderts." One of his successors was Dr. Josef Wiesen (1866-1942) who was appointed as Chief Rabbi of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1898/1902. He first lived in Stadtlengsfeld and moved to Eisenach in 1911/12 when the rabbinate’s seat was returned to Eisenach. In 1877, the community received the status of an independent religious community. At that time, the Jewish population comprised 287 members and peaked at 440 in 1905.

On September 30, 1864 the Jewish community opened a prayer room in the rear building at 19 Jakobsplan. Official representatives of the municipality and the church participated in the event. Prior to 1864, prayer services had taken place in private homes, including Loeser Herz Kayser’s home on Georgenstrasse. Due to an increasing membership, services on High Holidays and weddings were held at the Hotel zum Loewen on Marienstrasse. In 1882, the grand-ducal regional office decided for safety reasons that no more than 100 people could enter the prayer room; women were therefore asked not to attend the services. In order to solve this problem, a committee for the erection of a new synagogue was formed, consisting of Moses Ehrlich, Heinrich Gruenstein, Ferdinand Stiebel, Joseph Weinstein, Salomon Stiebel, and Susmann Weinstein.

Several years later, the new building was completed. On January 8, 1885 the opening of the new synagogue took place at 26 Woerthstrasse (today Karl-Marx-Strasse). Rabbi Dr. Salzer held a festive service. Representatives of the municipality and the church attended the opening. The new synagogue was an impressive, Moorish-style building, drafted by the local architect Hermann Hahn. A women’s committee consisting of Mrs. Kayser, Kuh, Backhaus, Ehrlich and Stiebel had collected money for the synagogue’s interior, which included velvet curtains, silver decorations, Torah scrolls and covers. In 1928, the synagogue was renovated by the Leipzig architect Haller and equipped with a bronze monument in memory of 23 Jewish soldiers of the Eisenach community who had been killed in World War I. The synagogue building comprised rooms for community meetings and special events as well as a school where children received religious instruction. The synagogue was equipped with an organ and had a choir which had been founded in 1885 and was directed by Ferdinand Stiebel and Julius Heidungsfeld. Numerous contemporary witnesses praised the choir’s high quality.

Jakob Heidungsfeld (1830-1897) served the community as a teacher and cantor from November 1864 until 1897. A year after his employment (1865), a Jewish religious school was founded. At that time, eight schoolchildren received religious instruction at the prayer house. Later, religious instruction was given at a public school on Am Markt and from 1885 in the new synagogue. In 1890, the Jewish school consisted of two classes, comprising 53 students in total. Their number increased to 65 by the end of the 19th century. In 1897, Jakob Heidungsfeld was replaced by a new teacher, Ernst Meyer (1865-1923), who also worked as cantor and Hilfsprediger (curate).

Prior to 1868, Eisenach Jews buried their dead in Herleshausen. Subsequently, a new burial site was established, located in the municipal cemetery (Hauptfriedhof am Wartenberg). The first funeral (Loeb Stiebel) took place in March 1868 before the official opening. In 1910 or so, the community acquired an additional site in the municipal cemetery, which still exists today. A mikvah (ritual bath) also existed. It opened at 5 Clemensstrasse in 1879 and was part of Dobermann’s public baths.

In 1910, the Jewish community numbered 421 members. Landesrabbiner Dr. Josef Wiesen (1866-1942) served the community from 1898 until his retirement in 1930 and even after. In addition to his post, he maintained a school and nursing home for handicapped children. From the beginning of the community, several social and cultural associations had been founded, such as a society for the poor (Israelitischer Armen-Verein), a club for Jewish history as well as a men’s charitable and burial organization (Chebra-Gemilut-Chassadim, 1885) and a women’s association (Israelitischer Frauenverein). The latter’s long-termed president was Lydia Stiebel. After more than 30 years, she was replaced in 1914 by Marta Weinstein. After World War I, a local group of the Reichsbund Jüdischer Frontsoldaten (National Organization of Jewish Front-Line Soldiers) was established.

Latent antisemitism had always accompanied the development of the Jewish community. It turned into strident antisemitism in the 1890s. In 1891, the antisemitic organization Reformverein was founded in Eisenach. On several occasions, well-known representatives of German antisemitism, such as Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg (1897) and Adolf Stoecker (1905), came to the city to give speeches. In 1923 and 1925, the synagogue’s stained glass windows were destroyed. In June 1930, the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith organized an assembly of Thuringian Jews in Eisenach to protest the growing National Socialism movement in Thuringia.

In 1933, 378 Jews lived in Eisenach (56.9% of the total population). Although he had retired in 1930, Rabbi Dr. Josef Wiesen continued to serve the community and was the community’s last rabbi. Loewenthal, a cantor and teacher, provided religious instruction to Jewish schoolchildren. Two Jewish organizations, Chevra Kadisha (burial society) and Israelitischer Frauenverein, were still operating in the 1930s.

On Pogrom Night, in the late evening of November 9, 1938, SA men destroyed and plundered Jewish shops. They stormed into Jewish homes and mistreated and insulted the occupants. Furniture was damaged and precious collections were destroyed or stolen. The cemetery was vandalized. The synagogue was set on fire and burnt down. A day before, SA followers, as well as members of the Jungvolk, a subgroup of the Hitler Youth, had already destroyed the stained glass windows of the synagogue and used axes to destroy the furniture and the Aron haKodesh (Torah Ark), as well as the World War I memorial. Prayer books and other ritual objects were thrown into the street. However, the Torah scrolls remained unharmed and were later used in clandestine prayer services. The synagogue’s remains were blown up in January 1939. Many Jews were taken to the sports hall on today’s Goethestrasse. In the morning of November 10, the majority of the Jewish men were deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar. Among them was Dr. Josef Wiesen, who was later released. In the following years, he hosted Jews at his home in Eisenach before they emigrated from Nazi Germany. He also provided prayer services in his private dining room. On September 19, 1942, he was deported to Theresienstadt, where he perished in November of the same year.

From 1933 to 1941, one third of the Jewish residents emigrated, mainly to Palestine and the USA. Many moved to other German cities. In May 1939, only 215 Jews resided in Eisenach. They were forced to live under very cramped conditions in so-called Judenhaeusern. On May 9 and September 19, 1942, most of them were gathered at the Sammelstelle (collecting point) at 48 Goethestrasse and taken to the train station. From there they were deported to the ghettos of Belzyce and Theresienstadt. Only very few of the deportees survived. Among the survivors were Therese Cohn, Renate Eckmann, Lina Rothschild, Hedwig Wolfermann, Dr. Erich Wiesen, Elisabeth Grienwaldt, Moritz Heinemann, Josef Kahn, and Rosa Pracht. At least 213 Eisenach Jews perished in the Shoah.

In 1945, a new Jewish community was founded in Eisenach. Due to migration and antisemitic measures, the community gradually ceased to exist (1951/52). In 1947, a memorial site was established on Karl-Marx-Strasse, commemorating the Pogrom Night and the deportation of Eisenach Jews. in 1998, a new memorial was dedicated to those who were deported, never to return.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Berkach

ברקך

Berkach

עיירה ברובע שמלקלדן-מיינינגן (Schmalkalden-Meiningen) בתורינגיה, גרמניה.

רשומות מהמאה ה-17 מתעדות את נוכחותם המוקדמת ביותר של יהודים בברקך, בסביבות 1626. ממקורות אלה ידוע לנו כי יהודי עבר לברקך במהלך מלחמת שלושים השנים; יהודים נוספים הצטרפו אחרי זמן קצר והתיישבו בעיירה. רוב היהודים חיו תחת הגנת הלורדים פון שטיין ובתחילה התגוררו במחוזות ברקך, בזנטהוף (Zehnthof) ובהינטרדורף (Hinterdorf). למרות זאת, הותר להם להשתמש במתקנים המשותפים של העיירה, כגון בית השימוש והבאר. היהודים התפללו בבתים פרטיים. יהודי ברקך קברו את מתיהם בקליינברדורף (Kleinbardorf). רק בשנת 1820 רכשה הקהילה היהודית נכסים כדי להקים בית קברות משלה מזרחית לברונגר לנדשטראסה (Behrunger Landstrasse). הוא נפתח בשנת 1846. עד המחצית הראשונה של המאה ה-19, מספר היהודים בברקך גדל בהתמדה. בשנת 1740 גרו 12 משפחות יהודיות בברקך ו-32 משפחות ב-1819. בשנת 1833 מנתה האוכלוסייה היהודית 152 יהודים (33% מאוכלוסיית העיירה). בתחילה הם סחרו בבקר ובסחורות (טקסטיל, צמר). בשנות ה-1900 היו ליהודים מספר עסקים בעיירה; ביניהם היו גם בעלי מלאכה.

במהלך המאות ה-18 וה-19 הקימה הקהילה היהודית מספר מוסדות. בשנות 40 של המאה ה-18 שכרו יהודי ברקך בניין שאותו כינו "בית הכנסת" שלהם. בשנת 1762 נבנה בית כנסת, שהיה בשימוש כמעט 100 שנים. בשנים 1850 עד 1854 נבנו בית כנסת חדש ובית ספר ברחוב מוהלפלדר (Muehlfelder). הפתיחה החגיגית התקיימה ב-1 ביוני 1854. בבית הכנסת היה ארון קודש ובו שישה ספרי תורה. בבית הספר היסודי היהודי החדש, שליד בית הכנסת, למדו 45 תלמידים בסביבות 1860. עם זאת, בשל הירידה במספר הילדים היהודים, צריך היה לסגור את בית הספר; הוא נמכר בשנת 1898. לאחר מכן למדו תלמידי בית הספר היהודי בבית הספר המקומי בעיירה.

בתחילה הפעילו יהודי ברקך שלושה מקוואות בבתים פרטיים. כאשר הרשויות דרשו את הקמתו של מקווה חדש, מקווה חדש, שמומן על ידי שמואל איזאק, נפתח בשנת 1838 ברחוב פוסט (Poststrasse) של היום. הקהילה היהודית העסיקה מורה ששימש גם כשוחט וכחזן. ידוע מאוד היה הרמן ארליך (1879-1815), החזן והמורה של הקהילה. הוא התגורר בעיירה והוציא לאור כתב עת למוזיקה יהודית. כיום ניתן למצוא חלק מיצירותיו בספריות מסוימות, אפילו בניו יורק. חזן נוסף, מוערך מאוד, היה לב (Loew) פרידמן (1893-1818). במשך כ-30 שנה הוא שירת את הקהילה כחזן מסייע בימי החגים וכסגן החזן המקומי.

עמותת אמונה (כוח האמונה), שנוסדה בשנת 1842, סייעה לעניים המקומיים והלא-מקומיים. הארגון חגג 50 שנה להיווסדו באוקטובר 1892.

משנות ה-70 של המאה ה-19 ירד מספר התושבים היהודים עקב הגירה.  37 יהודים חיו בברקך ב-1913, ורק 28 ב-1925-1924. כאשר הנאצים עלו לשלטון ב-1933, כ-20 יהודים היו עדיין רשומים בברקך.

ב"ליל הבדולח", בנובמבר 1938, בית הכנסת ובנייני קהילה יהודיים אחרים לא נפגעו או ניזוקו. בית הכנסת ובניין בית הספר ניצלו מהצתה בהתערבות תושבי המקום. בשנה שלאחר מכן היהודים נאלצו למכור את הבניינים לעירייה. לאחר 1945, הבעלות על בית הכנסת לשעבר התחלפה מספר פעמים: בית הכנסת שימש כנפחייה ומאוחר יותר כמחסן. בית הקברות היהודי חולל על ידי הנאצים. תשעה יהודים נעצרו והועברו למחנה הריכוז בוכנוולד; אחד מהם, גוטמן (Goetz) פרידמן, לא שרד את הייסורים. 10 מיהודי ברקך הצליחו להימלט מגרמניה הנאצית ולהגר לפלשתינה, אוסטרליה וארצות הברית. ב-1939, חבר הקהילה לותר גולדשמידט, הצליח להציל אחד משישה ספרי תורה, שנמצאים כיום בבית כנסת בניו ג'רזי, בארה"ב.

בשנת 1942 גורשו היהודים הנותרים לטרזיינשטאדט, ביניהם מוריץ בוקסבאום, אידה בוקסבאום לבית זקס (1894), דינה בוקסבאום (1927), האנס קאופמן (1903), הלנה קאופמן, סלומון שטיין ואלזה שטיין. לפחות 38 מיהודי ברקך נִספו בשואה.

בשנת 1990 רכשה הקהילה של ברקך את בניין בית הכנסת לשעבר ושיפצה אותו היטב בשנים 1990/91. כיום ניתן למצוא את שמות היהודים המגורשים של ברקך, שהוזכרו לעיל, על לוח עץ בפרוזדור בית הכנסת המשופץ. בנוסף, לוח הזיכרון מנציח גם את גורלם של יהודי ברקך הבאים: רוזלי פרידמן, רודולף ורוזה גולדשמידט ובנם הרמן, קלרה גוטמן, חולדה הופמן, גוטמן פרידמן ובתו רזי פרידמן.

-------------------------------------

ערך זה פורסם לראשונה באנגלית באתר "בית אשכנז - בתי כנסת וקהילות שנחרבו בגרמניה" ונתרם למאגר המידע של מוזיאון העם היהודי באדיבות בית אשכנז.

 

היינריכס

Heinrichs

A municipal district of Suhl in Thuringia, Germany. 

At the beginning of the 18th century, a Jewish community was established in Heinrichs, founded by Jews expelled from Suhl. These Jews continued to run their businesses in Suhl or Schleusingen, but lived in Heinrichs. Until 1725 the community still belonged to the religious community Schleusingen. In 1811, 17 Jewish families lived in Heinrichs. The community ran a school, employed a teacher, and set up a synagogue. In 1847 a law granted freedom of movement to Jews living in Prussia. From this point on Jewish life moved back to Suhl. The Jewish cemetery in Heinrichs which was laid out around 1720 still exists today and is under monumental protection. The synagogue building was sold in 1872 and was demolished after the WW II.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

מריספלד

Marisfeld

A village in the district of Hildburghausen, in Thuringia, German

Duke Friedrich I of Saxe-Gotha granted the Marisfeld Lord of the Castle Johann Friedrich Marschalk von Ostheim permission to issue a letter of protection for a Jew in 1679. From this moment on Jews can settle in Marisfeld. In 1822, 121 people of Jewish faith lived here, in 1865 there were already 200. After the great fire in the village in 1866, many Jews left Marisfeld and went to cities like Meinigen or Themar. In 1942 the last three Jewish citizens remaining in Marisfeld were deported to the concentration camps.

At the end of the 17th century a three-story building near the church, the so-called "Judenbau", served as living space for the Marisfeld Jews. The synagogue was also housed here. In 1867 the building was demolished. From 1832 there was a new synagogue in Marisfeld because the prayer room in the “Judenbau” had become too small. This synagogue was used until the 1930s, but was sold to private individuals before the Nazis came to power in 1933 and was able to survive the war unharmed. Traces of the original religious use are no longer recognizable today, the location of the house is Themarer Straße. Also in 1832 a new school building was built near the new synagogue. In 1875, due to the elementary school law for the unification of the Jewish and Christian schools, the Jewish schoolhouse was sold and later used as a restaurant and residential building. The building is also on Themarer Straße. The mikveh, which was built in the course of the construction of the synagogue and school in the garden of the synagogue, was also located here. There was probably a cemetery since the end of the 17th century, in 1848 the Jewish community of Marisfeld received a piece of land from Baron von Stockmar, which was used as a burial place. The Themar Jewish community buried their dead here. The cemetery is located on the Guhligsberg east of the place and was desecrated during the Nazi era. Today the burial place is in good condition.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

ואלדורף, תורינגיה

Walldorf

A village and a former municipality in the district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen in Thuringia, Germany.

Jews have been recorded in Walldorf repeatedly since the middle of the 14th century. Protected Jews were accepted in Waldorf in the following centuries. Up until the 18th century Walldorf was divided between three manor owners. The three landlords the Joint Heir Marschalk von Ostheim, the Baron von Bibra and the Baron von Diemar accepted protected Jews and allowed them to found their own community and the necessary institutions. In 1789 with the permission of the landlords, the three Jewish associations merged to form a community, after which joint institutions were created for the first time. A new common synagogue and school were built. A cemetery which has been attested as early as 1737 was shared between the three communities already before 1789. The prime of the Walldorf Jewish community, which was the largest Jewish community in the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen at that time, was in the first half of the 19th century. The number of community members developed as follows in the 18th century: in 1810 there were 238 Jewish residents, in 1833 there were already 537 (in about 90 families), in 1849 the highest number of 562 Jewish people was reached. In 1895 there were 108 Jewish residents living in Walldorf, in 1900 there were 98 and in 1910 only 75 Jewish community members were registered. In 1845 the synagogue was expanded due to lack of space. The community's Jewish school, bakery and bath house were destroyed by a fire in 1836. In 1840 a new school was opened. From 1839 to 1869 Walldorf was the seat of the state rabbinate of the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen. From 1851 there were two other Jewish educational institutions in Walldorf, which were privately run. In 1856 however, these were merged again. At the beginning of the 20th century the various denominational schools were merged. In Walldorf, too, the number of members decreased due to emigration, so that in 1933 only 32 residents of Jewish faith lived in the place. Most of them were deported to the extermination camps in 1942 and 1944.

The synagogue building was desecrated during the Night of the Pogrom. The Jewish community was forced to sell the building to the political community of Waldorf. The house "Am Tanzberg" was demolished in 1948 due to the risk of collapse. The building that housed the former Jewish school still exists today and is located at Freie Platz 4. The cemetery has also been preserved and is in fair condition.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.