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Eppingen

A town in the district of Heilbronn in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 14th century; peak Jewish population: 222 in 1842; Jewish population in 1933: 60

The first Jews of Eppingen were massacred during the Black Death pogroms of 1348/1349. It was only during the 18th century that the town’s Jewish population grew considerably. In 1749, in response to provocations by non-Jewish neighbors, the community moved its prayer room on Metzgersgasse to a private residence. Later, in 1772, a synagogue—it housed a mikveh—was inaugurated on Kuefergasse. A Jewish cemetery was consecrated in Eppingen in 1818/1819, and the community inaugurated a new synagogue on Kaiserstrasse in 1873. By 1825, Eppingen was home to one of the first Jewish primary schools in Baden.

In 1933, 60 Jews lived in Eppingen; seven children studied religion under the guidance of a teacher/chazzan. Jewish charity and women’s associations were active in Eppingen that year. Although the synagogue was later sold, in October 1938, it was nevertheless burned down on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), and local Jewish men were sent to Dachau. Twenty Eppingen Jews emigrated, 33 relocated within Germany, one died in Eppingen and four were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. At least 51 Eppingen Jews perished in the Shoah. Restored in 1964, the cemetery was desecrated in 1982. The synagogue ruins were cleared, and the site now accommodates a new building; a plaque was unveiled there in 1980.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

סוג מקום:
עיירה
מספר פריט:
16735188
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
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פריטים קשורים:

Gurs internment camp

The Gurs camp was an internment camp built in France at Gurs near Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Basses-Pyrénées (currently Pyrénées-Atlantiques) department by the French government of Édouard Daladier between March 15 and April 25 1939 to intern people fleeing Spain after the victory of the Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War. 

Following the armistice of June 22, 1940 , signed with Germany by the French government of Pétain , the camp was used as a mixed internment camp to accommodate Jews of all nationalities - except French - captured and deported by the Nazi regime in countries under its control (Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands). Nearly 4,000 Jews were transferred from Gurs to the Drancy camp between August 6, 1942 and March 3, 1943. They were subsequently deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz and almost all were murdered there.

Gemmingen

A town in the district of Heilbronn in Baden-Wuerttemberg, in Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1644; peak Jewish population: 291 in 1864; Jewish population in 1933: 39

The Jewish community of Gemmingen constituted 23% of the local population in 1864. In 1727, the community was given permission to build a prayer room in a Jewish residence. A synagogue was opened at Schwaigerner in 1821, but the building quickly deteriorated and was replaced, in 1887, by a new house of worship (built at the same location). Beginning in 1819, the community conducted burials in Eppingen. A Jewish elementary school, opened in the 1830s, was shut down in 1876 together with all confessional schools in Baden. Gemmingen also had a mikveh. In 1933, the 39 Jews who lived in Gemmingen maintained a charity association. The community was disbanded in July 1938, not long after which, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), rioters vandalized the synagogue’s interior, smashed its windows and doors, and threw out its furniture and ritual objects. The municipality later appropriated the building. Twelve Jews moved to Gemmingen during the Nazi period, and two Jewish children were born in the town. By way of contrast, 21 local Jews emigrated, 26 relocated inside Germany, nine died in Gemmingen, and five, the last, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. At least 49 Gemmingen Jews perished in the Shoah. The synagogue building was torn down in 1975/76.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Berwangen

A small village in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1719; peak Jewish population: 146 in 1887; Jewish population in 1933: 33

This community built its first synagogue in 1771. Later, in 1845, a new synagogue was inaugurated at 45 Hausener Strasse. Local Jews maintained a mikveh (20 Hausener Strasse) and a school for religious studies whose teacher also served as chazzan and shochet. In Berwangen, a cemetery was consecrated (on Fuerfelderweg) in 1845. Thirty-three Jews lived in Berwangen in 1933: Two schoolchildren received religious instruction, and a chevra kadisha and three charity associations were active in the community.

On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s windows and interior were destroyed. Jews were beaten with rubber clubs, and homes were wrecked. Furniture from the homes of Jews who had emigrated, which had been stored in the school, was also damaged. The community chairman and his wife were marched through the streets while crowds lined the streets and shouted abuse. The synagogue building was demolished shortly after the pogrom. Eighteen local Jews immigrated to the United States; seven relocated within Germany. Nine Jews, Berwangen’s last, were deported to the concentration camp in Gurs, France, on October 22, 1940. At least 52 Berwangen Jews perished in the Shoah. At the demolished cemetery site, a memorial stone was later unveiled. The former synagogue site now accommodates a vegetable garden, a garage and a warehouse.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.