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רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות

קהילת יהודי מילהאוזן

מילהאוזן Muelhausen

עיר במחוז טורינגיה, גרמניה.


יהודים ישבו בעיר בראשית המאה ה- 14; כפי שעולה מן ה-"אוניברסיטאס יודיאורום", מסמך משנת 1311 שהסדיר את היחסים בין העיריה לקהילה. באותה התקופה הייתה מחלוקת בין העיר ובין שליטי טורינגיה על זכות השיפוט בענייני היהודים. בשנת "המגפה השחורה" (1349) יעצו נסיכי טורינגיה לאנשי העיר לטבוח את היהודים; וכך היה. יהודים רבים נמלטו אז לערים ארפורט, ופראנקפורט, ועל נכסי היהודים שנותרו בעיר נאבקו המלך קארל הרביעי ושלטונות מילהאוזן.

ב-1374 שוב הופיעו יהודים במילהאוזן, וב-1391 הוכרז על שמיטת החובות שתושבי העיר היו חייבים ליהודים. במשך כל המאה ה-15 הוטל על הקהילה היהודית נטל כבד של מסים. בתקנה מ-1472 נאסר על יהודים להיכנס לבתי נוצרים ולהופיע בציבור בלי אות-הקלון; נשים יהודיות חוייבו להוסיף שני פסים כחולים על כיסוי-הראש שלהן. ב-1543 גורשו כל היהודים ממילהאוזן ובמאה ה-17 מתועדים יוצאי מילהאוזן בערי פולין - קראקוב, פוזנאן וליסה. "יהודי חסות" חזרו למילהאוזן ב-1643, ובסוף המאה ישבו בעיר ארבע משפחות יהודיות.

באמצע המאה ה-19 מנתה הקהילה כ-150 נפש, וכמספר הזה ב-1932.

ערב מלחמת-העולם השנייה (ספטמבר 1939) נשארו בעיר כ-70 יהודים, ואף אחד מהם לא שרד אחרי המלחמה.
סוג מקום:
עיר
מספר פריט:
133132
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:
He was the son of a wealthy manufacturer in Mulhouse, France, who moved to Paris out of French patriotism when Alsace came under German rule following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. Dreyfus entered the army as an engineer and overcame anti-Jewish prejudice to become a captain on the general staff, its only Jewish member. In 1894 it was discovered that intelligence was being leaked from the French army to the Germans and Dreyfus was convicted on the basis of documents that later proved forged. The "Affair" had enormous repercussions, headed by the Catholic, royalist and anti-Semitic press. Dreyfus was publicly degraded to cries of "death to the Jews". He was transported in chains to a prison on Devil's Island off the coast of South America. The "Affair" however, continued to divide France with a number of courageous liberals, convinced of his innocence, working for his release. Gradually the forgeries were exposed and in 1898 Dreyfus was brought back for a retrial. Despite the obvious evidence, he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment but was immediately pardoned by the liberal President of France. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus exonerated by the court of appeal and reinstated in the army, serving in WW1 with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
Rein, Alfred (1910-1944), dentist, born in Mulhouse, France. During the WW I his father Nathan served in the French army in Romania. While father was away, his mother, Mother Sophie, took the children to stay with her parents in the Bas Rhin. The family returned to Mulhouse in 1919. Alfred, the fourth child in a family of 12, enjoyed studying both secular and religious subjects and was a keen sportsman. He tried (unsuccessfully) to gain his bacalaureat from school. Having left school he attempted to find work as a commercial representative but he failed in this field also. At a dead end, he devoted himself to learning Torah. In 1931-1932 he was called up for national service with the French army and served in a cavalry unit in Belfort. When discharged in 1935, he decided to return to his studies. This time he passed the examinations and was enrolled in the University of Strasbourg, France, to study dentistry. He qualified in 1939.

When WW2 broke out, and the Jews became refugees in their own country, Alfred went with his family to live in the small town of Boege in the Haute Savoie, north of Grenoble, and very close to Geneva in Switzerland. Boege was in the Italian occupation zone of France where the Jews lived in relative safety.

In Boege Alfred opened a dental practice. He worked there four days per week, one day per week in Annemasse, and one day in the village of Saint-Jeoire. He travelled from one place to the other on a a motor-cycle or, if there was no petrol, on a regular bicycle. In 1943 the area was occupied by the Germans and conditions for the Jews deteriorated. He was no longer able to practice his profession. Although not officially a member of the Resistance, he helped them on many occasions and in particular he helped a number of the refugees who passed through Annemasse on the way to the Swiss frontier. He contacted members of his family who lived in Switzerland and asked them to help the refugees when they had crossed the frontier.

In November 1943 he decided to leave for Lyon, France, where he could study Torah and work at a food distribution centre for refugees. He was arrested by the Germans on 13th March 1944. On 30th April his family received a postcard written from “Arbeitslager L II Haus I”, stating simply that he was in good health and was working. It was the standard wording permitted to Jews who wrote to their families on arrival at a death camp. Nothing more was heard from him. His father died 5 days after the postcard was written.
Meyer, Henri (1844-1899), caricaturist and illustrator born in Mulhouse, France, who was brought to Argentina when he was ten years old. Before he was twenty years old he became editor of the political humourous Argentinian magazine "El Mosquito" and held that position for 30 years between 1863 and 1893. Many leading politicians of the time were the object of his jibes and sharp paint brush. Meyer also illustrated the novels of Jules Verne for a French publisher. One of his most famous pictures was that of the degradation of Dreyfus. He returned to Paris shortly before his death.
Rein, Armand (1921-), French Resistance fighter and businessman, born 1921 in Mulhouse, France, into a large family of eleven children. From 1942 to 1945 he was an active member of the French resistance movement. Rein and others worked to free (legally or illegally) Jewish children from the infamous internment camps established by the French in Gurs and Rivesaltes in the south of the country. He found the children safe places to hide, mainly in the Italian occupation zone, where the Italian army refused to allow the French police to molest or deport them, and arranging for them to be fed and receive medical care. Often he went from village to village looking for surplus fruit, vegetables and eggs with which to feed his charges. In 1943 he was put in charge of a socio/medical centre for the refugees in the region of the Savoie in south-east France. The centre had been organized by OSE, the French Jewish welfare organization which at that time was largely financed by the American Joint Distribution Committee. The Italian Zone was occupied by the Germans in 1943 after the Italians reached an armistice with the Allies. Rein organised a special train to take some 400 Jews out of the zone in the direction of Rome. He arranged for a number of groups of Jewish children to walk over the Alps and so helped to smuggle them to safety in Switzerland. At the end of 1943, learning that the Gestapo was planning to arrest him, he himself together some family members and also his eight months’ pregnant wife Jeannette who subsequently gave birth to her first child several weeks later in Zurich, escaped to Switzerland in the same way. After the WW 2 he became OSE representative in Marseilles, France, where he organized the reception of deportees from many parts of Europe and arranged their passage to Israel. Two of his brothers were deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp.

In the mid 1950s Rein started a successful business career and established connections with Ethiopia and several other African countries. He retired and immigrated to Israel in 1980.
Catane, Moshe, (1920-1995) academic, expert on Rashi, born in 1920 in Mulhouse, France, to an observant Jewish Alsatian family. He was an excellent student in both secular and Jewish studies. When WW II broke out his family, together with all other Jewish families, was ordered by the French authorities to leave their home in Strasbourg which was close to the German frontier. They found refuge in the small town of Cusset (population about 10,000 people) near Vichy, in central France. His three elder brothers had been mobilized so he supported the family as a secondary school teacher, In his spare time he continued his Jewish religious studies.
He also found ways to assist the many Jewish young people who found themselves hiding out in the Vichy unoccupied zone of France. He organized courses in Hebrew, Jewish history and Bible classes and other educational opportunities for many of them in study groups and by correspondence. As time went on the persecution of the Jews even in this zone become more serious, one of his brothers was shot for his part in the Resistance while two sisters were deported to Auschwitz where they were killed.

In 1941 Catane married and later, in order to avoid arrest by the Germans, fled to Switzerland with his wife and small baby. The Swiss sent him to an internment camp. After the war he resumed his studies and in 1949 he was awarded a degree in literature and later a diploma in the study of ancient writing and archivism to preserve old records for future generations. His thesis was on the life and works of Rashi. A staunch Zionist, he moved to Jerusalem together with his wife and five children a few months after the establishment of the State of Israel.

From 1956 to 1988 Catane was librarian at the Israel National Library in Jerusalem and at the same time also taught ancient French at Bar Ilan Universityin Ramat Gan, Israel. In 1968 the University of Strasbourg awarded him a doctorate in the study of ancient French. The French Ministry of Education made him a special award for his contribution to the study of French literature and the academic ties between France and Israel. He wrote many learned articles in both French and Hebrew. His books include "Les Juifs dans le Monde" (1962); "A History of the Jews" [in Hebrew] (1958), "Jerusalem a travers trois millenaires"; (1984), "Glossaires de Rachi sur la Bible et le Talmud" (1988); "Qui est Juif ?" (1990); "La vie en France au XI siecle d’apres les ecrits de Rachi" (1994).
Meyer, Henri (1844-1899), caricaturist and illustrator born in Mulhouse, France, who was brought to Argentina when he was ten years old. Before he was twenty years old he became editor of the political humourous Argentinian magazine "El Mosquito" and held that position for 30 years between 1863 and 1893. Many leading politicians of the time were the object of his jibes and sharp paint brush. Meyer also illustrated the novels of Jules Verne for a French publisher. One of his most famous pictures was that of the degradation of Dreyfus. He returned to Paris shortly before his death.
Meyer, Ernest Reuven (1863-1941, physician, born in Guebwiller, France, son of Cochel Meyer the locksmith. Meyer distinguished himself as a brilliant child with an amazing memory who on three occasions jumped a class at school. He could speak and read seven languages. He excelled in both secular and religious studies.

He was engaged to be married to a beautiful and rich young lady, but 15 days before the planned date of their marriage he decided that she was not sufficiently religious for him so he broke off the engagement. There is no record of the circumstances of this late change of mind; maybe it was an arranged marriage and he hardly knew the girl. He went on to marry the daughter of his brother Jacob and the couple gave birth to twelve children.

Meyr became a doctor but never gave up his Torah learning. Every evening, after a ten or twelve hour workday carrying for the sick he would go to his study or learn Talmud. If a rabbi came for a medical consultation he would permit the visitor to leave only after they had learned a few lines of Talmud together. When his son Jean went to study at the Yeshiva of Montreux in Switzerland, he used to spend his vacations by renting a hotel room in the town and studying alongside his son.

Elected as a member of the Consistoire [Jewish communal representative body] for the Haut-Rhin district, Meyer was very disturbed by the growing tendency towards assimilation by the Jews of Alsace. As a proud citizen of France he argued that only a full Jewish education could equip Jewish children to maximize their contribution to the society of a “noble and beautiful free France where Jews enjoy all the rights of citizenship” [from an article written in 1929]. Meyer wrote many articles warning of the dangers of assimilation and spoke at many public meetings in favour of the establishment of Jewish day schools which he believed would stem the tide. Other articles written by him and published in the Jewish press included criticisms of anti-Semitic French politicians in the 1930s, suggestions for improving the functioning of the French rabbinate, his opinions of Jewish non-religious settlers in the Palestine, and ideas for improving the communal organization in order to better assist the refugees from eastern Europe who had arrived in France before the outbreak of WW2.

His home was always open to visitors, including Jewish refugees some coming from Russia or Poland, who had succeeded crossing the frontier into France illegally and then found themselves in Mulhouse. Some wanted just a little warmth and hospitality, others looked for financial help.
After the Nazi invasion of France in WW2, Meyer found refuge in Lyons. He died there in 1941. Shortly before his death, when the intentions of Nazi terror were already clear, Dr Meyer wrote a moving prayer imploring his co-religionists to redouble their acts of faith confident that God will reward the righteous gentiles and will save all those who live their lives according to moral principles. His wife Rose was deported to their deaths by the Gestapo in 1944 together with one of her daughters Lucie and her Lucie’s husband, Rabbi Robert Brunschwig.
Rein, Armand (1921-), French Resistance fighter and businessman, born 1921 in Mulhouse, France, into a large family of eleven children. From 1942 to 1945 he was an active member of the French resistance movement. Rein and others worked to free (legally or illegally) Jewish children from the infamous internment camps established by the French in Gurs and Rivesaltes in the south of the country. He found the children safe places to hide, mainly in the Italian occupation zone, where the Italian army refused to allow the French police to molest or deport them, and arranging for them to be fed and receive medical care. Often he went from village to village looking for surplus fruit, vegetables and eggs with which to feed his charges. In 1943 he was put in charge of a socio/medical centre for the refugees in the region of the Savoie in south-east France. The centre had been organized by OSE, the French Jewish welfare organization which at that time was largely financed by the American Joint Distribution Committee. The Italian Zone was occupied by the Germans in 1943 after the Italians reached an armistice with the Allies. Rein organised a special train to take some 400 Jews out of the zone in the direction of Rome. He arranged for a number of groups of Jewish children to walk over the Alps and so helped to smuggle them to safety in Switzerland. At the end of 1943, learning that the Gestapo was planning to arrest him, he himself together some family members and also his eight months’ pregnant wife Jeannette who subsequently gave birth to her first child several weeks later in Zurich, escaped to Switzerland in the same way. After the WW 2 he became OSE representative in Marseilles, France, where he organized the reception of deportees from many parts of Europe and arranged their passage to Israel. Two of his brothers were deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp.

In the mid 1950s Rein started a successful business career and established connections with Ethiopia and several other African countries. He retired and immigrated to Israel in 1980.
He was the son of a wealthy manufacturer in Mulhouse, France, who moved to Paris out of French patriotism when Alsace came under German rule following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. Dreyfus entered the army as an engineer and overcame anti-Jewish prejudice to become a captain on the general staff, its only Jewish member. In 1894 it was discovered that intelligence was being leaked from the French army to the Germans and Dreyfus was convicted on the basis of documents that later proved forged. The "Affair" had enormous repercussions, headed by the Catholic, royalist and anti-Semitic press. Dreyfus was publicly degraded to cries of "death to the Jews". He was transported in chains to a prison on Devil's Island off the coast of South America. The "Affair" however, continued to divide France with a number of courageous liberals, convinced of his innocence, working for his release. Gradually the forgeries were exposed and in 1898 Dreyfus was brought back for a retrial. Despite the obvious evidence, he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment but was immediately pardoned by the liberal President of France. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus exonerated by the court of appeal and reinstated in the army, serving in WW1 with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
Rein, Alfred (1910-1944), dentist, born in Mulhouse, France. During the WW I his father Nathan served in the French army in Romania. While father was away, his mother, Mother Sophie, took the children to stay with her parents in the Bas Rhin. The family returned to Mulhouse in 1919. Alfred, the fourth child in a family of 12, enjoyed studying both secular and religious subjects and was a keen sportsman. He tried (unsuccessfully) to gain his bacalaureat from school. Having left school he attempted to find work as a commercial representative but he failed in this field also. At a dead end, he devoted himself to learning Torah. In 1931-1932 he was called up for national service with the French army and served in a cavalry unit in Belfort. When discharged in 1935, he decided to return to his studies. This time he passed the examinations and was enrolled in the University of Strasbourg, France, to study dentistry. He qualified in 1939.

When WW2 broke out, and the Jews became refugees in their own country, Alfred went with his family to live in the small town of Boege in the Haute Savoie, north of Grenoble, and very close to Geneva in Switzerland. Boege was in the Italian occupation zone of France where the Jews lived in relative safety.

In Boege Alfred opened a dental practice. He worked there four days per week, one day per week in Annemasse, and one day in the village of Saint-Jeoire. He travelled from one place to the other on a a motor-cycle or, if there was no petrol, on a regular bicycle. In 1943 the area was occupied by the Germans and conditions for the Jews deteriorated. He was no longer able to practice his profession. Although not officially a member of the Resistance, he helped them on many occasions and in particular he helped a number of the refugees who passed through Annemasse on the way to the Swiss frontier. He contacted members of his family who lived in Switzerland and asked them to help the refugees when they had crossed the frontier.

In November 1943 he decided to leave for Lyon, France, where he could study Torah and work at a food distribution centre for refugees. He was arrested by the Germans on 13th March 1944. On 30th April his family received a postcard written from “Arbeitslager L II Haus I”, stating simply that he was in good health and was working. It was the standard wording permitted to Jews who wrote to their families on arrival at a death camp. Nothing more was heard from him. His father died 5 days after the postcard was written.
Catane, Moshe, (1920-1995) academic, expert on Rashi, born in 1920 in Mulhouse, France, to an observant Jewish Alsatian family. He was an excellent student in both secular and Jewish studies. When WW II broke out his family, together with all other Jewish families, was ordered by the French authorities to leave their home in Strasbourg which was close to the German frontier. They found refuge in the small town of Cusset (population about 10,000 people) near Vichy, in central France. His three elder brothers had been mobilized so he supported the family as a secondary school teacher, In his spare time he continued his Jewish religious studies.
He also found ways to assist the many Jewish young people who found themselves hiding out in the Vichy unoccupied zone of France. He organized courses in Hebrew, Jewish history and Bible classes and other educational opportunities for many of them in study groups and by correspondence. As time went on the persecution of the Jews even in this zone become more serious, one of his brothers was shot for his part in the Resistance while two sisters were deported to Auschwitz where they were killed.

In 1941 Catane married and later, in order to avoid arrest by the Germans, fled to Switzerland with his wife and small baby. The Swiss sent him to an internment camp. After the war he resumed his studies and in 1949 he was awarded a degree in literature and later a diploma in the study of ancient writing and archivism to preserve old records for future generations. His thesis was on the life and works of Rashi. A staunch Zionist, he moved to Jerusalem together with his wife and five children a few months after the establishment of the State of Israel.

From 1956 to 1988 Catane was librarian at the Israel National Library in Jerusalem and at the same time also taught ancient French at Bar Ilan Universityin Ramat Gan, Israel. In 1968 the University of Strasbourg awarded him a doctorate in the study of ancient French. The French Ministry of Education made him a special award for his contribution to the study of French literature and the academic ties between France and Israel. He wrote many learned articles in both French and Hebrew. His books include "Les Juifs dans le Monde" (1962); "A History of the Jews" [in Hebrew] (1958), "Jerusalem a travers trois millenaires"; (1984), "Glossaires de Rachi sur la Bible et le Talmud" (1988); "Qui est Juif ?" (1990); "La vie en France au XI siecle d’apres les ecrits de Rachi" (1994).
סנדריי, אלפרד (1884-1976) , מוסיקולוג, מנצח ומלחין. נולד בבודפשט, הונגריה, ולמד באוניברסיטה של בודפשט. ניצח על אופרה בקלן (1907-1905), מילהאוזן (1909-1907), ברנו (1911-1908), פילדלפיה ושיקגו (1912-1911), המבורג (1913-1912), ניו-יורק (1914-1913), ברלין (1916-1914), וינה (1918-1916) ולייפציג (1924-1918). מ-1924 עד 1932 היה מנצח התזמורת הפילהרמונית של לייפציג. ב-1933 שימש היה מנהל רדיו פריס וב-1940 עבר לארה"ב. ב-1945 עבר מניו-יורק ללוס-אנג'לס, ושם היה המנהל המוסיקלי של בית הכנסת פיירפקס (1956-1952) ובית הכנסת סיני (1964-1956) ולימד מוסיקה יהודית באוניברסיטה ליהדות (1972-1962).
יצירותיו כוללות אופרה, סימפוניה, מוסיקה למקהלה ומוסיקה קאמרית. כתב "ביבלוגרפיה של המוסיקה היהודית" (1951), "מוסיקה בישראל הקדומה" (1969) ו"המוסיקה של יהודי התפוצות עד 1800" (1970). נפטר בלוס-אנג'לס, קליפורניה (ארה"ב).

Ensisheim

A town in Haut-Rhin department, Alsace, France, about 19 mi. (30 km.) south of Colmar.

R. Meir of Rothenburg was held prisoner there from 1286. The first evidence that Jews were living in the town dates from 1291. They were among the victims of the Armleder persecutions in 1338. The community had hardly been reconstituted when it suffered from the persecutions accompanying the black death in 1348-- 49. A few Jews again settled there from 1371. The small community welcomed the Jews expelled from Kaysersberg and Mulhouse at the beginning of the 16th century. After an ordinance of 1547, only one Jewish family was allowed to reside in Ensisheim and the surrounding localities, and the synagogue was closed for worship. In 1689, some Jews were again admitted for a short while on payment of a high protection fee. It was not until 1824 that some Jews again settled there. Only a few Jews were still living there in 1936. At an unknown date there was a blood libel in Ensisheim and the
Jews there were put on trial.

ציוני דרך בתולדות היהודים בצרפת

1040 | נכנס יין, יצא פירוש רש"י

בריחת מוחות אינה המצאה מודרנית. בין המאה השמינית למאה העשירית לספירה החלה תנועה גדולה של סוחרים יהודים מבבל – המרכז היהודי הגדול ביותר בעת ההיא – שהיגרו למערב אירופה, שם החלו להתפתח מרכזי מסחר בינלאומיים. היהודים הללו הצטרפו לקבוצה ותיקה וגדולה יותר מבני העם הנבחר, שהיגרה עוד בתקופת בית שני דרך הים התיכון היישר ל"ארץ הגאלים", היא צרפת.
כראוי לתרנגולת המטילה ביצי זהב, היהודים קיבלו זכויות מיוחדות וזכו להגנתם של האצילים הצרפתים מפני מלתעותיה של הכנסייה. השגשוג הכלכלי אִפשר להם לפתח מרכזי תורה וישיבות, שמהם צמחו תלמידי חכמים רבים. אחד מהם, גאון שעבד לפרנסתו כיינן, נולד ב-1040 במחוז שמפאן שבצפון צרפת, והוריש לעולם פירוש מקיף לתורה המאופיין בכתב ייחודי. האגדה מספרת כי הכתב הומצא על-ידי בנותיו, שהיו תלמידות חכמים בפני עצמן. אבל האמת שהיא שמדובר בגופן של כתב ספרדי קורסיבי, שהשתמשו בו בבתי הדפוס העברים באיטליה כדי להבדיל בעזרתו את פירוש רש"י מהטקסט המקראי.
שמו היה רבי שלמה יצחקי (רש"י) ויצירתו מקובלת עד היום כסמכות עליונה בעולם התורני.

1240 | במקום שבו שורפים ספרים...

מסעות הצלב, שהתפשטו באירופה משנת 1096, סתמו את הגולל על האידיליה שאִפיינה את חיי היהודים בארצות אשכנז בתחילת האלף. עלילות דם, רדיפות וגירושים היו מנת חלקם במשך מאות שנים.
אחד מאירועי השפל התרחש ב-1240 וידוע בשם "משפט פריז". במשפט, שנערך ביוזמתם של המלך לואי התשיעי והאפיפיור גרגוריוס התשיעי, הועמד לדין לא אדם, אלא יצירה – וליתר דיוק, התלמוד, שלטענת הכנסייה הכיל מסרים של שנאת הגוי וזלזול בישו הנוצרי.
ביום בהיר אחד התקבץ המון מוסת בחזית הקתדרלה נוטרדאם בפריז, וצפה בעבריין המועד – 12 אלף כתבי-יד של התלמוד – עולה באש השמימה. ועל כך יאמר כעבור 600 שנה המשורר היהודי-גרמני היינריך היינה: "במקום שבו שורפים ספרים, שם ישרפו בסוף גם בני-אדם".

1481 | גו-פרובנס

כשמדברים על יהדות צרפת אי-אפשר שלא לייחד תשומת לב לקבוצה חד-פעמית של יהודים שחיה בדרום צרפת של היום ונקראה "חכמי פרובנס".
"חכמי פרובנס" היו כיתת המחוננים, ההקבצה הגבוהה, הקונטרה של "חכמי חלם" הפולנים. קבוצת חכמים זו יצרה הגות ופרשנות מקרא מיוחדות ומקוריות ושלחה ידה גם בתחומי הפילוסופיה והקבלה. תורתם של חכמי פרובנס ופסקי ההלכה שלהם הופצו בכל אירופה, ספרד וצפון אפריקה, וגאונותם היתה לשם דבר בקרב חכמי ישראל במערב אירופה.
עם היוצרים המרכזיים של קבוצה זו נמנים המאירי, רד"ק, רבנו זרחיה הלוי (רז"ה, שכונה "בעל המאור"), ראב"ד ובנו רבי יצחק סגי נהור, וכמובן יהודה אבן תיבון ("אבי המעתיקים"), המתרגם הגדול והאיש שהפיץ את הגותו של הרמב"ם לאחר שתִרגם אותה מערבית לעברית.
יהדות פרובנס כמושג תרבותי באה אל סופה בשנת 1481, כשמלך צרפת, לואי ה-11, סיפח את פרובנס עם צרפת.

1498 | אודיסיאת הגירושים

את תקופת ימי-הביניים יכולים היהודים להגדיר כפינג-פונג מייסר של גירושים והחזרות. בשנת 1306 פִרסם פיליפ ה-4 צו האוסר על היהודים להתגורר בשטח צרפת. כעבור 11 שנה החזיר בנו, לואי העשירי, את היהודים – בתנאי שיענדו טלאי זיהוי. לא עברו שבע שנים והיהודים שוב גורשו; הפעם היה זה המלך שארל הרביעי, שטען שהיהודים, ברוב חוצפתם, לא העבירו לו די מהכנסותיהם.
בשנת 1357 בעת כהונתו של ז'אן השני ובהמשך בימי שארל החמישי, שבו היהודים לצרפת, אולם גם הפעם סבלו מרדיפות, הגבלת משלח ידם לתחום ההלוואות, ולקינוח – חטיפות ילדים. אודיסיאת הגירושים הסתיימה ב-17 בספטמבר 1394, כאשר שארל השישי נכנע ללחץ ההמונים והוציא צו גירוש לכל היהודים בנחלותיו. ייאמר לזכותו שהעניק ליהודים שהות למכור את רכושם וגם הטיל על כל מי שנטל מהם הלוואה להחזירה.
ב-1498 לא נותר ולו יהודי אחד על אדמת צרפת, פרט לקומץ קהילות קטנות שהתקיימו בעיר אביניון וסביבתה בדרום צרפת, שהייתה אז תחת שלטון האפיפיורים.

1791 | אם אין לחם, תאכלו קרואסון

המהפכה הצרפתית, שפרצה ב-1789 וגבתה קורבנות רבים בזכות ''גברת גיליוטינה", בישרה את רעיון המדינה הליברלית הדמוקרטית כפי שאנו מכירים אותו היום. משלטון מלוכני עריץ עברה צרפת לשלטון דמוקרטי נאור, שבו כל אדם רשאי להיות אדון לגורלו.
הראשונים שנהנו מפירות האמנסיפציה (שוויון זכויות אזרחי) היו היהודים מאזור אלזס-לורן, חבל ארץ שכבשה צרפת בשנת 1630.
יהודי צרפת, שבאותה תקופה מנו כ-40 אלף נפש, היו, כאמור, היהודים הראשונים באירופה שנהנו מהמהפכה. ואולם, שחרורם מעול ה"שונה" וה"זר" לא היה קל. בתחילה טענו ראשי המהפכה כי היהודים הם "אומה בתוך אומה", ואשר על כן אין להתחשב בהם כאזרחים שווי זכויות. אלא שבשנת 1791 הוחל חוק השוויון היהודי הכללי, וליהודים הייתה אורה ושמחה, והעיר פריז צהלה ושמחה.

1806 | שנים-עשר מי יודע?

לא יהיה זה מופרך לתאר את ההיסטוריה של יהדות אירופה במאה ה-19 בכלל ואת זו של יהדות צרפת בפרט כהיסטוריה של "כמעט": כמעט שוויון, כמעט אמנסיפציה, כמעט חירות.
כאילו לא נחקק "חוק השוויון היהודי הכללי" 15 שנה קודם לכן, שוב צצה שאלת מעמד היהודים, והפעם בתקופת נפוליאון, המצביא המיתולוגי שהיה ידוע בקומתו הנמוכה שעמדה ביחס הפוך לשאפתנותו מרקיעת השחקים.
נפוליאון נקט גישה יצירתית. בשנת 1806 הוא כינס אסיפה של יהודים והציג בפניהם את "מבחן 12 השאלות", שנועד לבחון את נאמנותם לצרפת. בין היתר נשאלו היהודים מה השקפתה של ההלכה היהודית ביחס לנישואי תערובת, האם מותר ליהודי לקחת ריבית מנוכרי, מה יחס היהודים לצרפת ועוד.
תשובותיהם של היהודים, שהצהירו שצרפת היא מולדתם וכי הם רואים בצרפתים הלא-יהודים אחיהם, לא סיפקו את נפוליאון, וכעבור שנה הוא פִּרסם את "הפקודה המחפירה", שהגבילה את חופש העיסוק והתנועה של היהודים, אך חייבה אותם להתגייס לצבא. כאמור, מחפירה.

1860 | חבר, אתה חסר

סיפורו של הארגון היהודי העולמי הראשון, "כל ישראל חברים", שהוקם בפריז ב-1860, מתחיל בילד יהודי בן שלוש מבולוניה, אדגרדו לוי מורטארה שמו, שיום בהיר אחד נחטף מהוריו ונלקח לוותיקן, שם עבר תהליך של "חינוך מחדש" במוסדות הכנסייה הקתולית.
פרשת לוי עוררה סערה באירופה ובחוגים ליברליים והיתה העילה המרכזית להקמתו של "כל ישראל חברים", ארגון תרבותי יהודי שנועד להגן על זכויות היהודים, בעיקר בתחום החינוך.
בתקופה זו, 12 שנה אחרי מהפכת "אביב העמים", התעורר גל לאומנות ששטף את צרפת; כמו בהתניה פבלובית, שוב הועלו היהודים על המוקד כאשמים בכל הצרות שהתרגשו על ארץ הטעם הטוב. אחת ההאשמות המרכזיות היתה שהיהודים התעשרו על חשבון הצרפתים אחרי שהעניקו לאחרונים הלוואות לצורך המלחמה עם היריבה השנואה, פרוסיה. ועל זה נאמר: הרצחתם וגם טפלתם?

1894 | אגדה של סיפור

את החורף הזה הוא לא ישכח, ונראה שכמוהו גם אנחנו. הוא: כתב העיתון האוסטרי "נויה פרייה פרסה", גבר יפה תואר עם זקן שחור עבות ועיניים בוערות. הוא לא ישכח את השנאה הרעילה, את השקר השקוף, הוא לא ישכח את הצעקות "מוות ליהודים" ואת תחנוניו של הנאשם, קצין יהודי-צרפתי ושמו אלפרד דרייפוס, שניסה להיאחז בכבודו העצמי תוך שהוא נוזף בקול סדוק באלו שהיו אך רגע קודם פקודיו: "אני אוסר עליכם לגדף אותי". כמובן, ללא הועיל. הדרגות התלושות של דרייפוס מופיעות עד היום בחלומות הביעותים הכל-יהודיים.
היסטוריונים רבים מאמינים כי "משפט דרייפוס" הוא שדחף את חוזה המדינה, בנימין זאב הרצל, להאיץ את מאמציו מדינה ליהודים. כי אם בצרפת, המדינה שחרתה על דגלה את ערכי השוויון, החירות והאחווה, משתוללת כזו אנטישמיות – מה יעשו היהודים שמצטופפים באזור תחום המושב במזרח אירופה?
"אם תרצו", חשב העיתונאי הצעיר בלבו, ואז גמר אומר: "... אין זו אגדה".

1914 | אוצר בלום

ב-31 ביולי 1914 ישב ז'אן ז'ורס, מנהיג הזרם הסוציאל-דמוקרטי בצרפת, ואכל ארוחת ערב עם חבריו ב"קפה דה-קרואסון" המפורסם, ברובע התשיעי של פריז. מסביב המה הסער, רוחות מלחמת העולם הראשונה החלו לנשוב, וז'אן ז'ורס, שעשה כל שביכולתו למנוע את המלחמה, אך לשווא, חש אכזבה רבה. ברם, תחושה זו לא ארכה זמן רב. במהלך הארוחה הגיח מתנקש מאחורי גבו והשחיל שני כדורים בראשו.
רציחתו של ז'אן ז'ורס השפיעה רבות על תלמידו ורעו, ליאון בלום, אינטלקטואל יהודי סוציאליסט שעתיד לעשות היסטוריה ולהפוך כעבור 22 שנה ליהודי הראשון שיכהן כראש ממשלת צרפת. בלום, משפטן עם מצפון חברתי רגיש, שהוגדר על-ידי הביוגרף שלו "איש של מלים", גילם באישיותו את הלך רוחו של היהודי הצרפתי שבין שתי מלחמות העולם. הוא היה איש התרבות הצרפתית, "בורבון דה-לה-סורבון", בכל רמ"ח אבריו, ובו בזמן היה בעל תודעה יהודית מפותחת, ציוני בנשמתו, שראשי היישוב היהודי בארץ ישראל העריכו את דעתו ונהגו להתייעץ איתו מפעם לפעם.

1942 | תעביר וישי על היהודי

במהלך מלחמת העולם השנייה חשפה צרפת את פניה המכוערים. ממשלת וישי, הנהגת הבובות בחסות הגרמנים, השתתפה – ועל-פי עדויות הגרמנים, אפילו בהתלהבות רבה – בגירושם של יהודי צרפת (בעיקר יהודים חסרי אזרחות צרפתית שברחו מאזורים בשליטת הנאצים) אל מחנות ההשמדה במזרח.
אחד האירועים שייזכרו לדיראון עולם בהיסטוריה הצרפתית היה גירוש 12,500 יהודי פריז, שהובלו באישון לילה, באמצע יולי 1942, לאיצטדיון ולודרום דה-היבר, שם מתו רבים מהם עקב תנאים סניטריים קשים ומחסור חמור במזון ובמים. נכון, פרנקופילים גאים יאמרו – ובצדק – שהיתה גם תנועת התנגדות צרפתית (הרזיסטנס) שסלדה מהיחס ליהודים. כדי לחזק את דבריהם בשבח הרפובליקה, אולי יביאו גם את סיפורה של חסידת אומות העולם הנזירה יליזבטה סקובצובה, שהצליחה להתגנב לאצטדיון יחד עם בנה במסווה של מפני זבל ולהחביא בתוך הפחים כמה עשרות ילדים יהודים. אבל, כאמור, אלו היו יוצאים מן הכלל, שלא העידו על הכלל.
המספרים מדברים על כ-76,000 מיהודי צרפת (כרבע מיהודי המדינה) שנשלחו למחנות ההשמדה. מתוכם ניצלו כ-2,500 בלבד.

2000 | תחילת המאה ה-21

אחרי נפילת החומות והתפוררות ברית-המועצות הפכה קהילת יהודי צרפת לקהילה היהודית הגדולה ביותר באירופה: כ-600 אלף יהודים, שרובם היגרו לצרפת בשנות ה-50 וה-60 של המאה ה-20 מצפון אפריקה, עם תום עידן הקולוניות הצרפתיות שם.
מלחמת ששת-הימים היתה סוג של "עקבתא דמשיחא" גם עבור יהודי צרפת. הזדהותם עם ישראל בעקבות המלחמה באה לידי ביטוי בקיום הפגנות ועצרות בחוצות פריז, בתמיכה כלכלית בישראל ובהקמת ארגונים כמו "הוועד הלאומי לתיאום", שאיחד את רובם המכריע של הארגונים היהודיים בצרפת.
בשנות ה-80 התאפיינה קהילת היהודים בצרפת בתסיסה אינטלקטואלית שהתחוללה גם בקרב צעירים שנחשבו מתבוללים: בין השאר הוקמו תחנות רדיו יהודיות, מחלקות ללימודים יהודיים באוניברסיטאות זכו לטיפוח, והמחקר וכתבי-העת בנושאים יהודיים נהנו מפריחה גדולה. בין יהודי צרפת המוכרים ניתן למנות את האינטלקטואל ברנאר אנרי לוי, הקולנוען קלוד ללוש, הפילוסוף עמנואל לוינס, הוגה הדעות ז'אק דירדה, משפחת רוטשילד ועוד.
אלא שגם בראשית המאה ה-21 לא פסו פעולות וביטויים אנטי-יהודיים מצרפת, והפעם גם מצד מהגרים מוסלמים. התפרצויות אלו, שכללו יידויי אבנים, השחתת רכוש בבתי-כנסת ואף פיגועי טרור רצחניים, הובילו לגל עלייה נוסף לישראל.

Alsace

A historical region in northeastern France on the Rhine River plain, bordering Germany and Switzerland. 

Habsheim

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Between 1871-1918 Alsace was part of Germany.

Jews are mentioned in Habsheim during the 15th century. The modern community was established after Jews began settling in Habsheim in the 18th century. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Habsheim 29 Jewish families with a total of 128 individuals. The next count from 1846 mentions a total of 187 Jewish inhabitants in Habsheim. After mid-19th century, the Jewish population decreased steadly with 174 Jews recorded in 1861, 68 in 1900, and only 11 in 1936.

There was no organized Jewish community in Habsheim. Until 1910 the local Jews belonged to the rabbinate of Rixheim rabbinate, then to that of Dornach and Mulhouse. During the 19th century the community employed a teacher who was in charge of the children’s education and also acted as a prayer leader and schochet. After WW I, the community dissolved with only a few elderly people still living in Habsheim. The synagogue was founded during early 19th century and it was sold in the 1926. The building, currently used as a shed, still displays Jewish ornamental motifs and Hebrew inscriptions. The building of the Jewish school and teachers' house along with a mikve in the basement were located next to the synagogue. The edifices have been renovated and serve as residential building.  

The Jews left in Habsheim were deported to southern France after Alsace was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1940. At least nine Jews of Habsheim perished in the Holocaust: Henriette Aron (b.1886), Johanna Baum (b.1872), David Brunschwig (b.1910), Arlette Dreyfus (b.1925), Clemence Dreyfus (b.1880), Marcel Dreyfus (b.1887), Jules Haas, Isabelle Picard (b.1879), Henriette Szpinak née Levy (b.1865).     

Hirsingue 

In German: Hirsingen 

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Hirsingue was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

Jewish settlement in Hirsingue is documented from the end of the 17th century. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Hirsingue 20 Jewish families with a total of 95 people. In 1846 there were 127 Jewish inhabitants in Hirsingue, after that year the Jewish population decreased continuously with 94 Jews recorded in 1861, about 80 in 1910 and only 28 in 1936.  

In 1848, during the unrest in Sundgau region - now part of Haut Rhin and Belfort, the homes of Jewish families in Hirsingen were looted and the old synagogue was partially destroyed. 

The synagogue was repaired and returned to function a few years later. A new synagogue was built during 1911-1912. It was inaugurated in 1913 by Rabbi Dr. Auscher from the nearby community of Altkirch. The Jews of Hirsingue belonged to the rabbinate of Altkirch. During the 19th century the community temporarily employed a teacher who, in addition to teaching the children religiously, also acted as a prayer leader and schochet. The Jews of Hirsingue used the Jewish cemetery of Altkirch.

After the German occupation of Alsace in 1940, the Jews of Hirsingue were deported to southern France, of them nine perished in the Holocaust:  Mathilde Cerf née Levy (b.1885), Justin Hubschwerlin (b.1915), Marguerite Meyer (b.1886), Rose Meyer (b.1874), Juliah Meyer née Schwob (b.1888), Henriette Picard (b.1886), Armand Schwob (b.1902), Alexandre Weill (b.1876), and Julie Weill née Meyer (b.1870).

The building of the old synagogue was sold in 1920. The new synagogue was closed in 1940 and in 1962 it too was sold and turned into a residential building.

Cernay 

In German: Sennheim 

A town in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Cernay was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

The Jewish community of Cernay dates from the Middle Ages. It suffered violent persecutions in 1309 during riots against Jews in Upper Alsace, then in 1338 during the Armleder massacres against Jews in southwestern Germany, including Alsace, and again during 1348/1349 following the Black Death epidemic. Despite these persecutions, Jews are documented again in Cernay after 1370. During the 15th century a Judengasse (“Jewish street”) located in the southern part of the city near the wall along with a synagogue are documented in Cernay. In 1470 the Jews were again expelled from Cernay. A few Jewish families were allowed to return by mid-16th century.

The beginnings of the modern Jewish community in Cernay date to the end of the 17th century and early 18th century. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Cernay 30 Jewish families with a total of about 140 people. The number of the Jewish inhabitants of Cernay reached a peak in 1849 when a total of 340 Jews were recorded in the town. After mid-19th century the Jewish population declined to 291 people in 1861, and then 122 in 1900 and 113 in 1910. In 1936 there were 41 Jews in Cernay.

Around 1750/1755 the community had a synagogue. It was demolished in 1846, and a new synagogue was built on Haffnerstrasse. The community employed a teacher who also served as a prayer leader and shochet.

The Jews of Cernay belonged to the rabbinate of Uffholtz until it was dissolved in 1878. Cernay became the seat of a new rabbinate until 1910. There was a Jewish cemetery in Cernay since the late Middle Ages. It was used even after the expulsion of the Jews from Cernay. A new burial area was opened within the communal cemetery in the 19th century, separated from the Christian area by a wall.

The synagogue on Haffnerstrasse was destroyed in the First World War. In the mid-1920s, the community hold their prayers in a new building. At that time, the Israelite community already consisted of very few families. 

After the German occupation of France in WW II, fifteen Jews of Cernay perished in the Holocaust.

The Jewish community of Cernay was not renewed after WW II and no Jews lived in the city. The Jewish cemetery of Cernay was completely destroyed during the German occupation. The last prayer room of the community has been preserved and it has been used as a grain store. The ancient Judengasse of the Middle Ages today is called "rue de l'Eglise".

Sierentz 

In German: Sierenz 

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Sierentz was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

Sierentz was home of one of the first Jewish communities that were established in Alsace after the Thirty Year War in the 17th century.

The roots of an Israelite community in Sierentz go back to the time immediately after the end of the Thirty Years War. In 1689 there were three Jewish families in the village. Their number grew to 10 families in 1716 and then to 41 families in 1766. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Sierentz 43 Jewish families with a total of about 217 people. In 1808 there were 256 Jews in the village and their number reached a peak of 312 in 1849.  After mid-19th century the Jewish population decreased steadily. In 1861 the village had 248 Jewish inhabitants, in 1900 there were 95 Jews in Sierentz and in 1936 only 33.

The synagogue was opened in the 1757 and was in use for almost 150 years until 1901, when it was replaced by a new building. Sierentz had a yeshiva during the 18th century and during the 19th century there was a Jewish private school in the village. The community employed a teacher who also acted as a prayer leader and shochet. Sierentz was the seat of a regional rabbinate. Rabbi Marcel Meyer Nathan Hirsch served in Sierentz for forty years, from 1849 until his death in 1889. The last rabbi in Sierentz was Henri Levy who served from 1900 to 1909, when the rabbinate was moved to Dornach. Deceased members of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery of Hegenheim.

The community of Sierentz was disbanded in 1940. The last Jews of the village were deported by the Germans to southern France in 1940. Nine Jews of Sierentz perished in the Holocaust.

The building of the synagogue was bombed and partially destroyed in 1939 at the start of WW II and demolished in the 1965.

Saint-Louis

In German: St. Ludwig

A town in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Saint-Louis was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

Jews began to settle in Saint-Louis during the first half of the 19th century. In 1846 there were 10 Jews in Saint-Louis and in 1861 their number stood at 12. It was during the second half of the 19th century and then after WW I that the Jewish population of the town increased significantly. In 1910 there were 173 Jews in town and in 1936 their number reached a total of 275. The demographic growth was triggered by the arrival in town of Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe and in the 1930s from Germany.

The Jewish community was organized in early 20th century and the synagogue was opened in 1907 and at the same time Saint-Louis became the seat of a rabbinate that was moved from Hegenheim. Earlier the Jews of Saint-Louis prayed in the synagogue of the neighboring village of Huningue. The community also operated a school and a mikveh. Deceased members of the community were buried in the central Jewish cemetery in Hegenheim.

Following the German occupation of France in WW II, some Jews of Saint-Louis managed to cross the border to Switzerland. Those who remained were deported and of them twelve perished in the Holocaust.

The Jewish community of Saint-Louis was re-established after WW II. In 1953 the town had a Jewish population of 62 people. Saint-Louis continues to be the seat of a rabbinate and of a yeshiva. The 100th anniversary of the synagogue was celebrated in 2007. Address of the synagogue: 5, rue de la Synagogue, Saint-Louis.  

במאגרי המידע הפתוחים
גניאולוגיה יהודית
שמות משפחה
קהילות יהודיות
תיעוד חזותי
מרכז המוזיקה היהודית
מקום
אA
אA
אA
רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות
קהילת יהודי מילהאוזן
מילהאוזן Muelhausen

עיר במחוז טורינגיה, גרמניה.


יהודים ישבו בעיר בראשית המאה ה- 14; כפי שעולה מן ה-"אוניברסיטאס יודיאורום", מסמך משנת 1311 שהסדיר את היחסים בין העיריה לקהילה. באותה התקופה הייתה מחלוקת בין העיר ובין שליטי טורינגיה על זכות השיפוט בענייני היהודים. בשנת "המגפה השחורה" (1349) יעצו נסיכי טורינגיה לאנשי העיר לטבוח את היהודים; וכך היה. יהודים רבים נמלטו אז לערים ארפורט, ופראנקפורט, ועל נכסי היהודים שנותרו בעיר נאבקו המלך קארל הרביעי ושלטונות מילהאוזן.

ב-1374 שוב הופיעו יהודים במילהאוזן, וב-1391 הוכרז על שמיטת החובות שתושבי העיר היו חייבים ליהודים. במשך כל המאה ה-15 הוטל על הקהילה היהודית נטל כבד של מסים. בתקנה מ-1472 נאסר על יהודים להיכנס לבתי נוצרים ולהופיע בציבור בלי אות-הקלון; נשים יהודיות חוייבו להוסיף שני פסים כחולים על כיסוי-הראש שלהן. ב-1543 גורשו כל היהודים ממילהאוזן ובמאה ה-17 מתועדים יוצאי מילהאוזן בערי פולין - קראקוב, פוזנאן וליסה. "יהודי חסות" חזרו למילהאוזן ב-1643, ובסוף המאה ישבו בעיר ארבע משפחות יהודיות.

באמצע המאה ה-19 מנתה הקהילה כ-150 נפש, וכמספר הזה ב-1932.

ערב מלחמת-העולם השנייה (ספטמבר 1939) נשארו בעיר כ-70 יהודים, ואף אחד מהם לא שרד אחרי המלחמה.
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי

סנט-לואי
סירנץ
סרניי
אירסנג
הבסהיים
אלזס
צרפת
Ensisheim

Saint-Louis

In German: St. Ludwig

A town in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Saint-Louis was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

Jews began to settle in Saint-Louis during the first half of the 19th century. In 1846 there were 10 Jews in Saint-Louis and in 1861 their number stood at 12. It was during the second half of the 19th century and then after WW I that the Jewish population of the town increased significantly. In 1910 there were 173 Jews in town and in 1936 their number reached a total of 275. The demographic growth was triggered by the arrival in town of Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe and in the 1930s from Germany.

The Jewish community was organized in early 20th century and the synagogue was opened in 1907 and at the same time Saint-Louis became the seat of a rabbinate that was moved from Hegenheim. Earlier the Jews of Saint-Louis prayed in the synagogue of the neighboring village of Huningue. The community also operated a school and a mikveh. Deceased members of the community were buried in the central Jewish cemetery in Hegenheim.

Following the German occupation of France in WW II, some Jews of Saint-Louis managed to cross the border to Switzerland. Those who remained were deported and of them twelve perished in the Holocaust.

The Jewish community of Saint-Louis was re-established after WW II. In 1953 the town had a Jewish population of 62 people. Saint-Louis continues to be the seat of a rabbinate and of a yeshiva. The 100th anniversary of the synagogue was celebrated in 2007. Address of the synagogue: 5, rue de la Synagogue, Saint-Louis.  

Sierentz 

In German: Sierenz 

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Sierentz was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

Sierentz was home of one of the first Jewish communities that were established in Alsace after the Thirty Year War in the 17th century.

The roots of an Israelite community in Sierentz go back to the time immediately after the end of the Thirty Years War. In 1689 there were three Jewish families in the village. Their number grew to 10 families in 1716 and then to 41 families in 1766. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Sierentz 43 Jewish families with a total of about 217 people. In 1808 there were 256 Jews in the village and their number reached a peak of 312 in 1849.  After mid-19th century the Jewish population decreased steadily. In 1861 the village had 248 Jewish inhabitants, in 1900 there were 95 Jews in Sierentz and in 1936 only 33.

The synagogue was opened in the 1757 and was in use for almost 150 years until 1901, when it was replaced by a new building. Sierentz had a yeshiva during the 18th century and during the 19th century there was a Jewish private school in the village. The community employed a teacher who also acted as a prayer leader and shochet. Sierentz was the seat of a regional rabbinate. Rabbi Marcel Meyer Nathan Hirsch served in Sierentz for forty years, from 1849 until his death in 1889. The last rabbi in Sierentz was Henri Levy who served from 1900 to 1909, when the rabbinate was moved to Dornach. Deceased members of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery of Hegenheim.

The community of Sierentz was disbanded in 1940. The last Jews of the village were deported by the Germans to southern France in 1940. Nine Jews of Sierentz perished in the Holocaust.

The building of the synagogue was bombed and partially destroyed in 1939 at the start of WW II and demolished in the 1965.

Cernay 

In German: Sennheim 

A town in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Cernay was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

The Jewish community of Cernay dates from the Middle Ages. It suffered violent persecutions in 1309 during riots against Jews in Upper Alsace, then in 1338 during the Armleder massacres against Jews in southwestern Germany, including Alsace, and again during 1348/1349 following the Black Death epidemic. Despite these persecutions, Jews are documented again in Cernay after 1370. During the 15th century a Judengasse (“Jewish street”) located in the southern part of the city near the wall along with a synagogue are documented in Cernay. In 1470 the Jews were again expelled from Cernay. A few Jewish families were allowed to return by mid-16th century.

The beginnings of the modern Jewish community in Cernay date to the end of the 17th century and early 18th century. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Cernay 30 Jewish families with a total of about 140 people. The number of the Jewish inhabitants of Cernay reached a peak in 1849 when a total of 340 Jews were recorded in the town. After mid-19th century the Jewish population declined to 291 people in 1861, and then 122 in 1900 and 113 in 1910. In 1936 there were 41 Jews in Cernay.

Around 1750/1755 the community had a synagogue. It was demolished in 1846, and a new synagogue was built on Haffnerstrasse. The community employed a teacher who also served as a prayer leader and shochet.

The Jews of Cernay belonged to the rabbinate of Uffholtz until it was dissolved in 1878. Cernay became the seat of a new rabbinate until 1910. There was a Jewish cemetery in Cernay since the late Middle Ages. It was used even after the expulsion of the Jews from Cernay. A new burial area was opened within the communal cemetery in the 19th century, separated from the Christian area by a wall.

The synagogue on Haffnerstrasse was destroyed in the First World War. In the mid-1920s, the community hold their prayers in a new building. At that time, the Israelite community already consisted of very few families. 

After the German occupation of France in WW II, fifteen Jews of Cernay perished in the Holocaust.

The Jewish community of Cernay was not renewed after WW II and no Jews lived in the city. The Jewish cemetery of Cernay was completely destroyed during the German occupation. The last prayer room of the community has been preserved and it has been used as a grain store. The ancient Judengasse of the Middle Ages today is called "rue de l'Eglise".

Hirsingue 

In German: Hirsingen 

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Hirsingue was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

Jewish settlement in Hirsingue is documented from the end of the 17th century. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Hirsingue 20 Jewish families with a total of 95 people. In 1846 there were 127 Jewish inhabitants in Hirsingue, after that year the Jewish population decreased continuously with 94 Jews recorded in 1861, about 80 in 1910 and only 28 in 1936.  

In 1848, during the unrest in Sundgau region - now part of Haut Rhin and Belfort, the homes of Jewish families in Hirsingen were looted and the old synagogue was partially destroyed. 

The synagogue was repaired and returned to function a few years later. A new synagogue was built during 1911-1912. It was inaugurated in 1913 by Rabbi Dr. Auscher from the nearby community of Altkirch. The Jews of Hirsingue belonged to the rabbinate of Altkirch. During the 19th century the community temporarily employed a teacher who, in addition to teaching the children religiously, also acted as a prayer leader and schochet. The Jews of Hirsingue used the Jewish cemetery of Altkirch.

After the German occupation of Alsace in 1940, the Jews of Hirsingue were deported to southern France, of them nine perished in the Holocaust:  Mathilde Cerf née Levy (b.1885), Justin Hubschwerlin (b.1915), Marguerite Meyer (b.1886), Rose Meyer (b.1874), Juliah Meyer née Schwob (b.1888), Henriette Picard (b.1886), Armand Schwob (b.1902), Alexandre Weill (b.1876), and Julie Weill née Meyer (b.1870).

The building of the old synagogue was sold in 1920. The new synagogue was closed in 1940 and in 1962 it too was sold and turned into a residential building.

Habsheim

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Between 1871-1918 Alsace was part of Germany.

Jews are mentioned in Habsheim during the 15th century. The modern community was established after Jews began settling in Habsheim in the 18th century. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Habsheim 29 Jewish families with a total of 128 individuals. The next count from 1846 mentions a total of 187 Jewish inhabitants in Habsheim. After mid-19th century, the Jewish population decreased steadly with 174 Jews recorded in 1861, 68 in 1900, and only 11 in 1936.

There was no organized Jewish community in Habsheim. Until 1910 the local Jews belonged to the rabbinate of Rixheim rabbinate, then to that of Dornach and Mulhouse. During the 19th century the community employed a teacher who was in charge of the children’s education and also acted as a prayer leader and schochet. After WW I, the community dissolved with only a few elderly people still living in Habsheim. The synagogue was founded during early 19th century and it was sold in the 1926. The building, currently used as a shed, still displays Jewish ornamental motifs and Hebrew inscriptions. The building of the Jewish school and teachers' house along with a mikve in the basement were located next to the synagogue. The edifices have been renovated and serve as residential building.  

The Jews left in Habsheim were deported to southern France after Alsace was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1940. At least nine Jews of Habsheim perished in the Holocaust: Henriette Aron (b.1886), Johanna Baum (b.1872), David Brunschwig (b.1910), Arlette Dreyfus (b.1925), Clemence Dreyfus (b.1880), Marcel Dreyfus (b.1887), Jules Haas, Isabelle Picard (b.1879), Henriette Szpinak née Levy (b.1865).     

Alsace

A historical region in northeastern France on the Rhine River plain, bordering Germany and Switzerland. 

ציוני דרך בתולדות היהודים בצרפת

1040 | נכנס יין, יצא פירוש רש"י

בריחת מוחות אינה המצאה מודרנית. בין המאה השמינית למאה העשירית לספירה החלה תנועה גדולה של סוחרים יהודים מבבל – המרכז היהודי הגדול ביותר בעת ההיא – שהיגרו למערב אירופה, שם החלו להתפתח מרכזי מסחר בינלאומיים. היהודים הללו הצטרפו לקבוצה ותיקה וגדולה יותר מבני העם הנבחר, שהיגרה עוד בתקופת בית שני דרך הים התיכון היישר ל"ארץ הגאלים", היא צרפת.
כראוי לתרנגולת המטילה ביצי זהב, היהודים קיבלו זכויות מיוחדות וזכו להגנתם של האצילים הצרפתים מפני מלתעותיה של הכנסייה. השגשוג הכלכלי אִפשר להם לפתח מרכזי תורה וישיבות, שמהם צמחו תלמידי חכמים רבים. אחד מהם, גאון שעבד לפרנסתו כיינן, נולד ב-1040 במחוז שמפאן שבצפון צרפת, והוריש לעולם פירוש מקיף לתורה המאופיין בכתב ייחודי. האגדה מספרת כי הכתב הומצא על-ידי בנותיו, שהיו תלמידות חכמים בפני עצמן. אבל האמת שהיא שמדובר בגופן של כתב ספרדי קורסיבי, שהשתמשו בו בבתי הדפוס העברים באיטליה כדי להבדיל בעזרתו את פירוש רש"י מהטקסט המקראי.
שמו היה רבי שלמה יצחקי (רש"י) ויצירתו מקובלת עד היום כסמכות עליונה בעולם התורני.

1240 | במקום שבו שורפים ספרים...

מסעות הצלב, שהתפשטו באירופה משנת 1096, סתמו את הגולל על האידיליה שאִפיינה את חיי היהודים בארצות אשכנז בתחילת האלף. עלילות דם, רדיפות וגירושים היו מנת חלקם במשך מאות שנים.
אחד מאירועי השפל התרחש ב-1240 וידוע בשם "משפט פריז". במשפט, שנערך ביוזמתם של המלך לואי התשיעי והאפיפיור גרגוריוס התשיעי, הועמד לדין לא אדם, אלא יצירה – וליתר דיוק, התלמוד, שלטענת הכנסייה הכיל מסרים של שנאת הגוי וזלזול בישו הנוצרי.
ביום בהיר אחד התקבץ המון מוסת בחזית הקתדרלה נוטרדאם בפריז, וצפה בעבריין המועד – 12 אלף כתבי-יד של התלמוד – עולה באש השמימה. ועל כך יאמר כעבור 600 שנה המשורר היהודי-גרמני היינריך היינה: "במקום שבו שורפים ספרים, שם ישרפו בסוף גם בני-אדם".

1481 | גו-פרובנס

כשמדברים על יהדות צרפת אי-אפשר שלא לייחד תשומת לב לקבוצה חד-פעמית של יהודים שחיה בדרום צרפת של היום ונקראה "חכמי פרובנס".
"חכמי פרובנס" היו כיתת המחוננים, ההקבצה הגבוהה, הקונטרה של "חכמי חלם" הפולנים. קבוצת חכמים זו יצרה הגות ופרשנות מקרא מיוחדות ומקוריות ושלחה ידה גם בתחומי הפילוסופיה והקבלה. תורתם של חכמי פרובנס ופסקי ההלכה שלהם הופצו בכל אירופה, ספרד וצפון אפריקה, וגאונותם היתה לשם דבר בקרב חכמי ישראל במערב אירופה.
עם היוצרים המרכזיים של קבוצה זו נמנים המאירי, רד"ק, רבנו זרחיה הלוי (רז"ה, שכונה "בעל המאור"), ראב"ד ובנו רבי יצחק סגי נהור, וכמובן יהודה אבן תיבון ("אבי המעתיקים"), המתרגם הגדול והאיש שהפיץ את הגותו של הרמב"ם לאחר שתִרגם אותה מערבית לעברית.
יהדות פרובנס כמושג תרבותי באה אל סופה בשנת 1481, כשמלך צרפת, לואי ה-11, סיפח את פרובנס עם צרפת.

1498 | אודיסיאת הגירושים

את תקופת ימי-הביניים יכולים היהודים להגדיר כפינג-פונג מייסר של גירושים והחזרות. בשנת 1306 פִרסם פיליפ ה-4 צו האוסר על היהודים להתגורר בשטח צרפת. כעבור 11 שנה החזיר בנו, לואי העשירי, את היהודים – בתנאי שיענדו טלאי זיהוי. לא עברו שבע שנים והיהודים שוב גורשו; הפעם היה זה המלך שארל הרביעי, שטען שהיהודים, ברוב חוצפתם, לא העבירו לו די מהכנסותיהם.
בשנת 1357 בעת כהונתו של ז'אן השני ובהמשך בימי שארל החמישי, שבו היהודים לצרפת, אולם גם הפעם סבלו מרדיפות, הגבלת משלח ידם לתחום ההלוואות, ולקינוח – חטיפות ילדים. אודיסיאת הגירושים הסתיימה ב-17 בספטמבר 1394, כאשר שארל השישי נכנע ללחץ ההמונים והוציא צו גירוש לכל היהודים בנחלותיו. ייאמר לזכותו שהעניק ליהודים שהות למכור את רכושם וגם הטיל על כל מי שנטל מהם הלוואה להחזירה.
ב-1498 לא נותר ולו יהודי אחד על אדמת צרפת, פרט לקומץ קהילות קטנות שהתקיימו בעיר אביניון וסביבתה בדרום צרפת, שהייתה אז תחת שלטון האפיפיורים.

1791 | אם אין לחם, תאכלו קרואסון

המהפכה הצרפתית, שפרצה ב-1789 וגבתה קורבנות רבים בזכות ''גברת גיליוטינה", בישרה את רעיון המדינה הליברלית הדמוקרטית כפי שאנו מכירים אותו היום. משלטון מלוכני עריץ עברה צרפת לשלטון דמוקרטי נאור, שבו כל אדם רשאי להיות אדון לגורלו.
הראשונים שנהנו מפירות האמנסיפציה (שוויון זכויות אזרחי) היו היהודים מאזור אלזס-לורן, חבל ארץ שכבשה צרפת בשנת 1630.
יהודי צרפת, שבאותה תקופה מנו כ-40 אלף נפש, היו, כאמור, היהודים הראשונים באירופה שנהנו מהמהפכה. ואולם, שחרורם מעול ה"שונה" וה"זר" לא היה קל. בתחילה טענו ראשי המהפכה כי היהודים הם "אומה בתוך אומה", ואשר על כן אין להתחשב בהם כאזרחים שווי זכויות. אלא שבשנת 1791 הוחל חוק השוויון היהודי הכללי, וליהודים הייתה אורה ושמחה, והעיר פריז צהלה ושמחה.

1806 | שנים-עשר מי יודע?

לא יהיה זה מופרך לתאר את ההיסטוריה של יהדות אירופה במאה ה-19 בכלל ואת זו של יהדות צרפת בפרט כהיסטוריה של "כמעט": כמעט שוויון, כמעט אמנסיפציה, כמעט חירות.
כאילו לא נחקק "חוק השוויון היהודי הכללי" 15 שנה קודם לכן, שוב צצה שאלת מעמד היהודים, והפעם בתקופת נפוליאון, המצביא המיתולוגי שהיה ידוע בקומתו הנמוכה שעמדה ביחס הפוך לשאפתנותו מרקיעת השחקים.
נפוליאון נקט גישה יצירתית. בשנת 1806 הוא כינס אסיפה של יהודים והציג בפניהם את "מבחן 12 השאלות", שנועד לבחון את נאמנותם לצרפת. בין היתר נשאלו היהודים מה השקפתה של ההלכה היהודית ביחס לנישואי תערובת, האם מותר ליהודי לקחת ריבית מנוכרי, מה יחס היהודים לצרפת ועוד.
תשובותיהם של היהודים, שהצהירו שצרפת היא מולדתם וכי הם רואים בצרפתים הלא-יהודים אחיהם, לא סיפקו את נפוליאון, וכעבור שנה הוא פִּרסם את "הפקודה המחפירה", שהגבילה את חופש העיסוק והתנועה של היהודים, אך חייבה אותם להתגייס לצבא. כאמור, מחפירה.

1860 | חבר, אתה חסר

סיפורו של הארגון היהודי העולמי הראשון, "כל ישראל חברים", שהוקם בפריז ב-1860, מתחיל בילד יהודי בן שלוש מבולוניה, אדגרדו לוי מורטארה שמו, שיום בהיר אחד נחטף מהוריו ונלקח לוותיקן, שם עבר תהליך של "חינוך מחדש" במוסדות הכנסייה הקתולית.
פרשת לוי עוררה סערה באירופה ובחוגים ליברליים והיתה העילה המרכזית להקמתו של "כל ישראל חברים", ארגון תרבותי יהודי שנועד להגן על זכויות היהודים, בעיקר בתחום החינוך.
בתקופה זו, 12 שנה אחרי מהפכת "אביב העמים", התעורר גל לאומנות ששטף את צרפת; כמו בהתניה פבלובית, שוב הועלו היהודים על המוקד כאשמים בכל הצרות שהתרגשו על ארץ הטעם הטוב. אחת ההאשמות המרכזיות היתה שהיהודים התעשרו על חשבון הצרפתים אחרי שהעניקו לאחרונים הלוואות לצורך המלחמה עם היריבה השנואה, פרוסיה. ועל זה נאמר: הרצחתם וגם טפלתם?

1894 | אגדה של סיפור

את החורף הזה הוא לא ישכח, ונראה שכמוהו גם אנחנו. הוא: כתב העיתון האוסטרי "נויה פרייה פרסה", גבר יפה תואר עם זקן שחור עבות ועיניים בוערות. הוא לא ישכח את השנאה הרעילה, את השקר השקוף, הוא לא ישכח את הצעקות "מוות ליהודים" ואת תחנוניו של הנאשם, קצין יהודי-צרפתי ושמו אלפרד דרייפוס, שניסה להיאחז בכבודו העצמי תוך שהוא נוזף בקול סדוק באלו שהיו אך רגע קודם פקודיו: "אני אוסר עליכם לגדף אותי". כמובן, ללא הועיל. הדרגות התלושות של דרייפוס מופיעות עד היום בחלומות הביעותים הכל-יהודיים.
היסטוריונים רבים מאמינים כי "משפט דרייפוס" הוא שדחף את חוזה המדינה, בנימין זאב הרצל, להאיץ את מאמציו מדינה ליהודים. כי אם בצרפת, המדינה שחרתה על דגלה את ערכי השוויון, החירות והאחווה, משתוללת כזו אנטישמיות – מה יעשו היהודים שמצטופפים באזור תחום המושב במזרח אירופה?
"אם תרצו", חשב העיתונאי הצעיר בלבו, ואז גמר אומר: "... אין זו אגדה".

1914 | אוצר בלום

ב-31 ביולי 1914 ישב ז'אן ז'ורס, מנהיג הזרם הסוציאל-דמוקרטי בצרפת, ואכל ארוחת ערב עם חבריו ב"קפה דה-קרואסון" המפורסם, ברובע התשיעי של פריז. מסביב המה הסער, רוחות מלחמת העולם הראשונה החלו לנשוב, וז'אן ז'ורס, שעשה כל שביכולתו למנוע את המלחמה, אך לשווא, חש אכזבה רבה. ברם, תחושה זו לא ארכה זמן רב. במהלך הארוחה הגיח מתנקש מאחורי גבו והשחיל שני כדורים בראשו.
רציחתו של ז'אן ז'ורס השפיעה רבות על תלמידו ורעו, ליאון בלום, אינטלקטואל יהודי סוציאליסט שעתיד לעשות היסטוריה ולהפוך כעבור 22 שנה ליהודי הראשון שיכהן כראש ממשלת צרפת. בלום, משפטן עם מצפון חברתי רגיש, שהוגדר על-ידי הביוגרף שלו "איש של מלים", גילם באישיותו את הלך רוחו של היהודי הצרפתי שבין שתי מלחמות העולם. הוא היה איש התרבות הצרפתית, "בורבון דה-לה-סורבון", בכל רמ"ח אבריו, ובו בזמן היה בעל תודעה יהודית מפותחת, ציוני בנשמתו, שראשי היישוב היהודי בארץ ישראל העריכו את דעתו ונהגו להתייעץ איתו מפעם לפעם.

1942 | תעביר וישי על היהודי

במהלך מלחמת העולם השנייה חשפה צרפת את פניה המכוערים. ממשלת וישי, הנהגת הבובות בחסות הגרמנים, השתתפה – ועל-פי עדויות הגרמנים, אפילו בהתלהבות רבה – בגירושם של יהודי צרפת (בעיקר יהודים חסרי אזרחות צרפתית שברחו מאזורים בשליטת הנאצים) אל מחנות ההשמדה במזרח.
אחד האירועים שייזכרו לדיראון עולם בהיסטוריה הצרפתית היה גירוש 12,500 יהודי פריז, שהובלו באישון לילה, באמצע יולי 1942, לאיצטדיון ולודרום דה-היבר, שם מתו רבים מהם עקב תנאים סניטריים קשים ומחסור חמור במזון ובמים. נכון, פרנקופילים גאים יאמרו – ובצדק – שהיתה גם תנועת התנגדות צרפתית (הרזיסטנס) שסלדה מהיחס ליהודים. כדי לחזק את דבריהם בשבח הרפובליקה, אולי יביאו גם את סיפורה של חסידת אומות העולם הנזירה יליזבטה סקובצובה, שהצליחה להתגנב לאצטדיון יחד עם בנה במסווה של מפני זבל ולהחביא בתוך הפחים כמה עשרות ילדים יהודים. אבל, כאמור, אלו היו יוצאים מן הכלל, שלא העידו על הכלל.
המספרים מדברים על כ-76,000 מיהודי צרפת (כרבע מיהודי המדינה) שנשלחו למחנות ההשמדה. מתוכם ניצלו כ-2,500 בלבד.

2000 | תחילת המאה ה-21

אחרי נפילת החומות והתפוררות ברית-המועצות הפכה קהילת יהודי צרפת לקהילה היהודית הגדולה ביותר באירופה: כ-600 אלף יהודים, שרובם היגרו לצרפת בשנות ה-50 וה-60 של המאה ה-20 מצפון אפריקה, עם תום עידן הקולוניות הצרפתיות שם.
מלחמת ששת-הימים היתה סוג של "עקבתא דמשיחא" גם עבור יהודי צרפת. הזדהותם עם ישראל בעקבות המלחמה באה לידי ביטוי בקיום הפגנות ועצרות בחוצות פריז, בתמיכה כלכלית בישראל ובהקמת ארגונים כמו "הוועד הלאומי לתיאום", שאיחד את רובם המכריע של הארגונים היהודיים בצרפת.
בשנות ה-80 התאפיינה קהילת היהודים בצרפת בתסיסה אינטלקטואלית שהתחוללה גם בקרב צעירים שנחשבו מתבוללים: בין השאר הוקמו תחנות רדיו יהודיות, מחלקות ללימודים יהודיים באוניברסיטאות זכו לטיפוח, והמחקר וכתבי-העת בנושאים יהודיים נהנו מפריחה גדולה. בין יהודי צרפת המוכרים ניתן למנות את האינטלקטואל ברנאר אנרי לוי, הקולנוען קלוד ללוש, הפילוסוף עמנואל לוינס, הוגה הדעות ז'אק דירדה, משפחת רוטשילד ועוד.
אלא שגם בראשית המאה ה-21 לא פסו פעולות וביטויים אנטי-יהודיים מצרפת, והפעם גם מצד מהגרים מוסלמים. התפרצויות אלו, שכללו יידויי אבנים, השחתת רכוש בבתי-כנסת ואף פיגועי טרור רצחניים, הובילו לגל עלייה נוסף לישראל.

Ensisheim

A town in Haut-Rhin department, Alsace, France, about 19 mi. (30 km.) south of Colmar.

R. Meir of Rothenburg was held prisoner there from 1286. The first evidence that Jews were living in the town dates from 1291. They were among the victims of the Armleder persecutions in 1338. The community had hardly been reconstituted when it suffered from the persecutions accompanying the black death in 1348-- 49. A few Jews again settled there from 1371. The small community welcomed the Jews expelled from Kaysersberg and Mulhouse at the beginning of the 16th century. After an ordinance of 1547, only one Jewish family was allowed to reside in Ensisheim and the surrounding localities, and the synagogue was closed for worship. In 1689, some Jews were again admitted for a short while on payment of a high protection fee. It was not until 1824 that some Jews again settled there. Only a few Jews were still living there in 1936. At an unknown date there was a blood libel in Ensisheim and the
Jews there were put on trial.

סנדריי, אלפרד
מאיר, ארנסט ראובן
קטן, משה
ריין, ארמאן
מאיר, הנרי
ריין, אלפרד
דרייפוס, אלפרד
סנדריי, אלפרד (1884-1976) , מוסיקולוג, מנצח ומלחין. נולד בבודפשט, הונגריה, ולמד באוניברסיטה של בודפשט. ניצח על אופרה בקלן (1907-1905), מילהאוזן (1909-1907), ברנו (1911-1908), פילדלפיה ושיקגו (1912-1911), המבורג (1913-1912), ניו-יורק (1914-1913), ברלין (1916-1914), וינה (1918-1916) ולייפציג (1924-1918). מ-1924 עד 1932 היה מנצח התזמורת הפילהרמונית של לייפציג. ב-1933 שימש היה מנהל רדיו פריס וב-1940 עבר לארה"ב. ב-1945 עבר מניו-יורק ללוס-אנג'לס, ושם היה המנהל המוסיקלי של בית הכנסת פיירפקס (1956-1952) ובית הכנסת סיני (1964-1956) ולימד מוסיקה יהודית באוניברסיטה ליהדות (1972-1962).
יצירותיו כוללות אופרה, סימפוניה, מוסיקה למקהלה ומוסיקה קאמרית. כתב "ביבלוגרפיה של המוסיקה היהודית" (1951), "מוסיקה בישראל הקדומה" (1969) ו"המוסיקה של יהודי התפוצות עד 1800" (1970). נפטר בלוס-אנג'לס, קליפורניה (ארה"ב).
Meyer, Ernest Reuven (1863-1941, physician, born in Guebwiller, France, son of Cochel Meyer the locksmith. Meyer distinguished himself as a brilliant child with an amazing memory who on three occasions jumped a class at school. He could speak and read seven languages. He excelled in both secular and religious studies.

He was engaged to be married to a beautiful and rich young lady, but 15 days before the planned date of their marriage he decided that she was not sufficiently religious for him so he broke off the engagement. There is no record of the circumstances of this late change of mind; maybe it was an arranged marriage and he hardly knew the girl. He went on to marry the daughter of his brother Jacob and the couple gave birth to twelve children.

Meyr became a doctor but never gave up his Torah learning. Every evening, after a ten or twelve hour workday carrying for the sick he would go to his study or learn Talmud. If a rabbi came for a medical consultation he would permit the visitor to leave only after they had learned a few lines of Talmud together. When his son Jean went to study at the Yeshiva of Montreux in Switzerland, he used to spend his vacations by renting a hotel room in the town and studying alongside his son.

Elected as a member of the Consistoire [Jewish communal representative body] for the Haut-Rhin district, Meyer was very disturbed by the growing tendency towards assimilation by the Jews of Alsace. As a proud citizen of France he argued that only a full Jewish education could equip Jewish children to maximize their contribution to the society of a “noble and beautiful free France where Jews enjoy all the rights of citizenship” [from an article written in 1929]. Meyer wrote many articles warning of the dangers of assimilation and spoke at many public meetings in favour of the establishment of Jewish day schools which he believed would stem the tide. Other articles written by him and published in the Jewish press included criticisms of anti-Semitic French politicians in the 1930s, suggestions for improving the functioning of the French rabbinate, his opinions of Jewish non-religious settlers in the Palestine, and ideas for improving the communal organization in order to better assist the refugees from eastern Europe who had arrived in France before the outbreak of WW2.

His home was always open to visitors, including Jewish refugees some coming from Russia or Poland, who had succeeded crossing the frontier into France illegally and then found themselves in Mulhouse. Some wanted just a little warmth and hospitality, others looked for financial help.
After the Nazi invasion of France in WW2, Meyer found refuge in Lyons. He died there in 1941. Shortly before his death, when the intentions of Nazi terror were already clear, Dr Meyer wrote a moving prayer imploring his co-religionists to redouble their acts of faith confident that God will reward the righteous gentiles and will save all those who live their lives according to moral principles. His wife Rose was deported to their deaths by the Gestapo in 1944 together with one of her daughters Lucie and her Lucie’s husband, Rabbi Robert Brunschwig.
Catane, Moshe, (1920-1995) academic, expert on Rashi, born in 1920 in Mulhouse, France, to an observant Jewish Alsatian family. He was an excellent student in both secular and Jewish studies. When WW II broke out his family, together with all other Jewish families, was ordered by the French authorities to leave their home in Strasbourg which was close to the German frontier. They found refuge in the small town of Cusset (population about 10,000 people) near Vichy, in central France. His three elder brothers had been mobilized so he supported the family as a secondary school teacher, In his spare time he continued his Jewish religious studies.
He also found ways to assist the many Jewish young people who found themselves hiding out in the Vichy unoccupied zone of France. He organized courses in Hebrew, Jewish history and Bible classes and other educational opportunities for many of them in study groups and by correspondence. As time went on the persecution of the Jews even in this zone become more serious, one of his brothers was shot for his part in the Resistance while two sisters were deported to Auschwitz where they were killed.

In 1941 Catane married and later, in order to avoid arrest by the Germans, fled to Switzerland with his wife and small baby. The Swiss sent him to an internment camp. After the war he resumed his studies and in 1949 he was awarded a degree in literature and later a diploma in the study of ancient writing and archivism to preserve old records for future generations. His thesis was on the life and works of Rashi. A staunch Zionist, he moved to Jerusalem together with his wife and five children a few months after the establishment of the State of Israel.

From 1956 to 1988 Catane was librarian at the Israel National Library in Jerusalem and at the same time also taught ancient French at Bar Ilan Universityin Ramat Gan, Israel. In 1968 the University of Strasbourg awarded him a doctorate in the study of ancient French. The French Ministry of Education made him a special award for his contribution to the study of French literature and the academic ties between France and Israel. He wrote many learned articles in both French and Hebrew. His books include "Les Juifs dans le Monde" (1962); "A History of the Jews" [in Hebrew] (1958), "Jerusalem a travers trois millenaires"; (1984), "Glossaires de Rachi sur la Bible et le Talmud" (1988); "Qui est Juif ?" (1990); "La vie en France au XI siecle d’apres les ecrits de Rachi" (1994).
Rein, Armand (1921-), French Resistance fighter and businessman, born 1921 in Mulhouse, France, into a large family of eleven children. From 1942 to 1945 he was an active member of the French resistance movement. Rein and others worked to free (legally or illegally) Jewish children from the infamous internment camps established by the French in Gurs and Rivesaltes in the south of the country. He found the children safe places to hide, mainly in the Italian occupation zone, where the Italian army refused to allow the French police to molest or deport them, and arranging for them to be fed and receive medical care. Often he went from village to village looking for surplus fruit, vegetables and eggs with which to feed his charges. In 1943 he was put in charge of a socio/medical centre for the refugees in the region of the Savoie in south-east France. The centre had been organized by OSE, the French Jewish welfare organization which at that time was largely financed by the American Joint Distribution Committee. The Italian Zone was occupied by the Germans in 1943 after the Italians reached an armistice with the Allies. Rein organised a special train to take some 400 Jews out of the zone in the direction of Rome. He arranged for a number of groups of Jewish children to walk over the Alps and so helped to smuggle them to safety in Switzerland. At the end of 1943, learning that the Gestapo was planning to arrest him, he himself together some family members and also his eight months’ pregnant wife Jeannette who subsequently gave birth to her first child several weeks later in Zurich, escaped to Switzerland in the same way. After the WW 2 he became OSE representative in Marseilles, France, where he organized the reception of deportees from many parts of Europe and arranged their passage to Israel. Two of his brothers were deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp.

In the mid 1950s Rein started a successful business career and established connections with Ethiopia and several other African countries. He retired and immigrated to Israel in 1980.
Meyer, Henri (1844-1899), caricaturist and illustrator born in Mulhouse, France, who was brought to Argentina when he was ten years old. Before he was twenty years old he became editor of the political humourous Argentinian magazine "El Mosquito" and held that position for 30 years between 1863 and 1893. Many leading politicians of the time were the object of his jibes and sharp paint brush. Meyer also illustrated the novels of Jules Verne for a French publisher. One of his most famous pictures was that of the degradation of Dreyfus. He returned to Paris shortly before his death.
Rein, Alfred (1910-1944), dentist, born in Mulhouse, France. During the WW I his father Nathan served in the French army in Romania. While father was away, his mother, Mother Sophie, took the children to stay with her parents in the Bas Rhin. The family returned to Mulhouse in 1919. Alfred, the fourth child in a family of 12, enjoyed studying both secular and religious subjects and was a keen sportsman. He tried (unsuccessfully) to gain his bacalaureat from school. Having left school he attempted to find work as a commercial representative but he failed in this field also. At a dead end, he devoted himself to learning Torah. In 1931-1932 he was called up for national service with the French army and served in a cavalry unit in Belfort. When discharged in 1935, he decided to return to his studies. This time he passed the examinations and was enrolled in the University of Strasbourg, France, to study dentistry. He qualified in 1939.

When WW2 broke out, and the Jews became refugees in their own country, Alfred went with his family to live in the small town of Boege in the Haute Savoie, north of Grenoble, and very close to Geneva in Switzerland. Boege was in the Italian occupation zone of France where the Jews lived in relative safety.

In Boege Alfred opened a dental practice. He worked there four days per week, one day per week in Annemasse, and one day in the village of Saint-Jeoire. He travelled from one place to the other on a a motor-cycle or, if there was no petrol, on a regular bicycle. In 1943 the area was occupied by the Germans and conditions for the Jews deteriorated. He was no longer able to practice his profession. Although not officially a member of the Resistance, he helped them on many occasions and in particular he helped a number of the refugees who passed through Annemasse on the way to the Swiss frontier. He contacted members of his family who lived in Switzerland and asked them to help the refugees when they had crossed the frontier.

In November 1943 he decided to leave for Lyon, France, where he could study Torah and work at a food distribution centre for refugees. He was arrested by the Germans on 13th March 1944. On 30th April his family received a postcard written from “Arbeitslager L II Haus I”, stating simply that he was in good health and was working. It was the standard wording permitted to Jews who wrote to their families on arrival at a death camp. Nothing more was heard from him. His father died 5 days after the postcard was written.
He was the son of a wealthy manufacturer in Mulhouse, France, who moved to Paris out of French patriotism when Alsace came under German rule following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. Dreyfus entered the army as an engineer and overcame anti-Jewish prejudice to become a captain on the general staff, its only Jewish member. In 1894 it was discovered that intelligence was being leaked from the French army to the Germans and Dreyfus was convicted on the basis of documents that later proved forged. The "Affair" had enormous repercussions, headed by the Catholic, royalist and anti-Semitic press. Dreyfus was publicly degraded to cries of "death to the Jews". He was transported in chains to a prison on Devil's Island off the coast of South America. The "Affair" however, continued to divide France with a number of courageous liberals, convinced of his innocence, working for his release. Gradually the forgeries were exposed and in 1898 Dreyfus was brought back for a retrial. Despite the obvious evidence, he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment but was immediately pardoned by the liberal President of France. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus exonerated by the court of appeal and reinstated in the army, serving in WW1 with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
קטן, משה
ריין, ארמאן
מאיר, הנרי
ריין, אלפרד
דרייפוס, אלפרד
Catane, Moshe, (1920-1995) academic, expert on Rashi, born in 1920 in Mulhouse, France, to an observant Jewish Alsatian family. He was an excellent student in both secular and Jewish studies. When WW II broke out his family, together with all other Jewish families, was ordered by the French authorities to leave their home in Strasbourg which was close to the German frontier. They found refuge in the small town of Cusset (population about 10,000 people) near Vichy, in central France. His three elder brothers had been mobilized so he supported the family as a secondary school teacher, In his spare time he continued his Jewish religious studies.
He also found ways to assist the many Jewish young people who found themselves hiding out in the Vichy unoccupied zone of France. He organized courses in Hebrew, Jewish history and Bible classes and other educational opportunities for many of them in study groups and by correspondence. As time went on the persecution of the Jews even in this zone become more serious, one of his brothers was shot for his part in the Resistance while two sisters were deported to Auschwitz where they were killed.

In 1941 Catane married and later, in order to avoid arrest by the Germans, fled to Switzerland with his wife and small baby. The Swiss sent him to an internment camp. After the war he resumed his studies and in 1949 he was awarded a degree in literature and later a diploma in the study of ancient writing and archivism to preserve old records for future generations. His thesis was on the life and works of Rashi. A staunch Zionist, he moved to Jerusalem together with his wife and five children a few months after the establishment of the State of Israel.

From 1956 to 1988 Catane was librarian at the Israel National Library in Jerusalem and at the same time also taught ancient French at Bar Ilan Universityin Ramat Gan, Israel. In 1968 the University of Strasbourg awarded him a doctorate in the study of ancient French. The French Ministry of Education made him a special award for his contribution to the study of French literature and the academic ties between France and Israel. He wrote many learned articles in both French and Hebrew. His books include "Les Juifs dans le Monde" (1962); "A History of the Jews" [in Hebrew] (1958), "Jerusalem a travers trois millenaires"; (1984), "Glossaires de Rachi sur la Bible et le Talmud" (1988); "Qui est Juif ?" (1990); "La vie en France au XI siecle d’apres les ecrits de Rachi" (1994).
Rein, Armand (1921-), French Resistance fighter and businessman, born 1921 in Mulhouse, France, into a large family of eleven children. From 1942 to 1945 he was an active member of the French resistance movement. Rein and others worked to free (legally or illegally) Jewish children from the infamous internment camps established by the French in Gurs and Rivesaltes in the south of the country. He found the children safe places to hide, mainly in the Italian occupation zone, where the Italian army refused to allow the French police to molest or deport them, and arranging for them to be fed and receive medical care. Often he went from village to village looking for surplus fruit, vegetables and eggs with which to feed his charges. In 1943 he was put in charge of a socio/medical centre for the refugees in the region of the Savoie in south-east France. The centre had been organized by OSE, the French Jewish welfare organization which at that time was largely financed by the American Joint Distribution Committee. The Italian Zone was occupied by the Germans in 1943 after the Italians reached an armistice with the Allies. Rein organised a special train to take some 400 Jews out of the zone in the direction of Rome. He arranged for a number of groups of Jewish children to walk over the Alps and so helped to smuggle them to safety in Switzerland. At the end of 1943, learning that the Gestapo was planning to arrest him, he himself together some family members and also his eight months’ pregnant wife Jeannette who subsequently gave birth to her first child several weeks later in Zurich, escaped to Switzerland in the same way. After the WW 2 he became OSE representative in Marseilles, France, where he organized the reception of deportees from many parts of Europe and arranged their passage to Israel. Two of his brothers were deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp.

In the mid 1950s Rein started a successful business career and established connections with Ethiopia and several other African countries. He retired and immigrated to Israel in 1980.
Meyer, Henri (1844-1899), caricaturist and illustrator born in Mulhouse, France, who was brought to Argentina when he was ten years old. Before he was twenty years old he became editor of the political humourous Argentinian magazine "El Mosquito" and held that position for 30 years between 1863 and 1893. Many leading politicians of the time were the object of his jibes and sharp paint brush. Meyer also illustrated the novels of Jules Verne for a French publisher. One of his most famous pictures was that of the degradation of Dreyfus. He returned to Paris shortly before his death.
Rein, Alfred (1910-1944), dentist, born in Mulhouse, France. During the WW I his father Nathan served in the French army in Romania. While father was away, his mother, Mother Sophie, took the children to stay with her parents in the Bas Rhin. The family returned to Mulhouse in 1919. Alfred, the fourth child in a family of 12, enjoyed studying both secular and religious subjects and was a keen sportsman. He tried (unsuccessfully) to gain his bacalaureat from school. Having left school he attempted to find work as a commercial representative but he failed in this field also. At a dead end, he devoted himself to learning Torah. In 1931-1932 he was called up for national service with the French army and served in a cavalry unit in Belfort. When discharged in 1935, he decided to return to his studies. This time he passed the examinations and was enrolled in the University of Strasbourg, France, to study dentistry. He qualified in 1939.

When WW2 broke out, and the Jews became refugees in their own country, Alfred went with his family to live in the small town of Boege in the Haute Savoie, north of Grenoble, and very close to Geneva in Switzerland. Boege was in the Italian occupation zone of France where the Jews lived in relative safety.

In Boege Alfred opened a dental practice. He worked there four days per week, one day per week in Annemasse, and one day in the village of Saint-Jeoire. He travelled from one place to the other on a a motor-cycle or, if there was no petrol, on a regular bicycle. In 1943 the area was occupied by the Germans and conditions for the Jews deteriorated. He was no longer able to practice his profession. Although not officially a member of the Resistance, he helped them on many occasions and in particular he helped a number of the refugees who passed through Annemasse on the way to the Swiss frontier. He contacted members of his family who lived in Switzerland and asked them to help the refugees when they had crossed the frontier.

In November 1943 he decided to leave for Lyon, France, where he could study Torah and work at a food distribution centre for refugees. He was arrested by the Germans on 13th March 1944. On 30th April his family received a postcard written from “Arbeitslager L II Haus I”, stating simply that he was in good health and was working. It was the standard wording permitted to Jews who wrote to their families on arrival at a death camp. Nothing more was heard from him. His father died 5 days after the postcard was written.
He was the son of a wealthy manufacturer in Mulhouse, France, who moved to Paris out of French patriotism when Alsace came under German rule following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. Dreyfus entered the army as an engineer and overcame anti-Jewish prejudice to become a captain on the general staff, its only Jewish member. In 1894 it was discovered that intelligence was being leaked from the French army to the Germans and Dreyfus was convicted on the basis of documents that later proved forged. The "Affair" had enormous repercussions, headed by the Catholic, royalist and anti-Semitic press. Dreyfus was publicly degraded to cries of "death to the Jews". He was transported in chains to a prison on Devil's Island off the coast of South America. The "Affair" however, continued to divide France with a number of courageous liberals, convinced of his innocence, working for his release. Gradually the forgeries were exposed and in 1898 Dreyfus was brought back for a retrial. Despite the obvious evidence, he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment but was immediately pardoned by the liberal President of France. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus exonerated by the court of appeal and reinstated in the army, serving in WW1 with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
דרייפוס, אלפרד
He was the son of a wealthy manufacturer in Mulhouse, France, who moved to Paris out of French patriotism when Alsace came under German rule following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. Dreyfus entered the army as an engineer and overcame anti-Jewish prejudice to become a captain on the general staff, its only Jewish member. In 1894 it was discovered that intelligence was being leaked from the French army to the Germans and Dreyfus was convicted on the basis of documents that later proved forged. The "Affair" had enormous repercussions, headed by the Catholic, royalist and anti-Semitic press. Dreyfus was publicly degraded to cries of "death to the Jews". He was transported in chains to a prison on Devil's Island off the coast of South America. The "Affair" however, continued to divide France with a number of courageous liberals, convinced of his innocence, working for his release. Gradually the forgeries were exposed and in 1898 Dreyfus was brought back for a retrial. Despite the obvious evidence, he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment but was immediately pardoned by the liberal President of France. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus exonerated by the court of appeal and reinstated in the army, serving in WW1 with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
דרייפוס, אלפרד
He was the son of a wealthy manufacturer in Mulhouse, France, who moved to Paris out of French patriotism when Alsace came under German rule following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. Dreyfus entered the army as an engineer and overcame anti-Jewish prejudice to become a captain on the general staff, its only Jewish member. In 1894 it was discovered that intelligence was being leaked from the French army to the Germans and Dreyfus was convicted on the basis of documents that later proved forged. The "Affair" had enormous repercussions, headed by the Catholic, royalist and anti-Semitic press. Dreyfus was publicly degraded to cries of "death to the Jews". He was transported in chains to a prison on Devil's Island off the coast of South America. The "Affair" however, continued to divide France with a number of courageous liberals, convinced of his innocence, working for his release. Gradually the forgeries were exposed and in 1898 Dreyfus was brought back for a retrial. Despite the obvious evidence, he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment but was immediately pardoned by the liberal President of France. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus exonerated by the court of appeal and reinstated in the army, serving in WW1 with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.