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Eliezer of Toul

Eliezer of Toul d. before 1234), Talmudist, tosafist. He came from Toul in France near the German border (and not from Toulouse as had been mistakenly believed). In his youth he was a tutor in the home of the wealthy scholar, Hizkiyyahu ben Reuven of Boppard. When Hizkiyyahu refused to pay him what had been promised, the matter was referred to the local rabbis. Eliezer's talmudic discussions are cited in the works of later scholars. He was a tosafist - i.e. of the school of scholars who wrote comments on Rashi's commentary - and his notes on the tractate Betsa are mentioned, but these have not survived.

Date of birth:
1210s
Personality type:
Talmudists
ID Number:
262582
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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Toul

A town in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department, France

The earliest reference to the existence of Jews is the life of St. Mansuy, written in 974, in which the author mentions a Jewish physician in Toul. The tosafists Eliezer of Toul, who died before 1234, and his brother Abraham, disciple of Isaac the Elder of Dampierre, lived in the town. From the Middle Ages until the French revolution there is no evidence of Jews living there legally, although some Jews were in the region during various periods, and in 1711 a few even settled in the town temporarily. In 1791 an important community was formed and in 1808 one of its members was a delegate to the Napoleonic sanhedrin. The synagogue was built in 1819, and for a time after 1850, Toul was the seat of a rabbinate. In 1905 there were no more than 40--50 Jews in the community.

In 1970 there were 15 Jews residing in the city.

Boppard

Formerly Boppart

Town in Coblenz district, Germany.

The earliest reference to Jews there dates from the last quarter of the 11th century. In 1179, 13 Jews in Boppard were murdered following a blood libel. In 1196 eight Jews of Boppard were massacred by crusaders. Subsequently the leader of the community, the learned and wealthy R. Hezekiah B. Reuben, managed to secure the protection of the authorities. A Jewish quarter (Judengasse, Vicus Judaeorum) is first mentioned in Boppard in 1248-1250. In 1287, 40 Jews were Armleder persecutions of 1337 and during the Black Death in 1349. In 1312 Boppard ceased to be a free imperial city and the Jews came under the jurisdiction of the archbishops of Trier. In 1418 all Jews were expelled from the archbishopric. Jews resettled in Boppard in 1532, and by the 1560s numbered approximately 32 families. There were 53 Jews living in Boppard at the beginning of the 19th century, 101 in 1880, 80 in 1895, 108 in 1910, 125 in 1926-1927 (out of a total population of 7,000), and 92 in 1932. At this time the community possessed a synagogue, a cemetery, and two charitable institutions. Under the Nazi regime, the Jews who were unable to emigrate from Boppard were deported to the east. On November 9, 1938, the interior of the synagogue was despoiled, although the building was spared because of its proximity to neighboring buildings. The Torah scrolls, ritual objects, and communal archives were thrown into the street and destroyed. On July 27, 1942, the ten remaining Jews were deported to Theresienstadt and Auschwitz, and only one survived. Three Jews settled in Boppard after World War II but subsequently left.

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Eliezer of Toul

Eliezer of Toul d. before 1234), Talmudist, tosafist. He came from Toul in France near the German border (and not from Toulouse as had been mistakenly believed). In his youth he was a tutor in the home of the wealthy scholar, Hizkiyyahu ben Reuven of Boppard. When Hizkiyyahu refused to pay him what had been promised, the matter was referred to the local rabbis. Eliezer's talmudic discussions are cited in the works of later scholars. He was a tosafist - i.e. of the school of scholars who wrote comments on Rashi's commentary - and his notes on the tractate Betsa are mentioned, but these have not survived.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

BOPPARD
Toul

Boppard

Formerly Boppart

Town in Coblenz district, Germany.

The earliest reference to Jews there dates from the last quarter of the 11th century. In 1179, 13 Jews in Boppard were murdered following a blood libel. In 1196 eight Jews of Boppard were massacred by crusaders. Subsequently the leader of the community, the learned and wealthy R. Hezekiah B. Reuben, managed to secure the protection of the authorities. A Jewish quarter (Judengasse, Vicus Judaeorum) is first mentioned in Boppard in 1248-1250. In 1287, 40 Jews were Armleder persecutions of 1337 and during the Black Death in 1349. In 1312 Boppard ceased to be a free imperial city and the Jews came under the jurisdiction of the archbishops of Trier. In 1418 all Jews were expelled from the archbishopric. Jews resettled in Boppard in 1532, and by the 1560s numbered approximately 32 families. There were 53 Jews living in Boppard at the beginning of the 19th century, 101 in 1880, 80 in 1895, 108 in 1910, 125 in 1926-1927 (out of a total population of 7,000), and 92 in 1932. At this time the community possessed a synagogue, a cemetery, and two charitable institutions. Under the Nazi regime, the Jews who were unable to emigrate from Boppard were deported to the east. On November 9, 1938, the interior of the synagogue was despoiled, although the building was spared because of its proximity to neighboring buildings. The Torah scrolls, ritual objects, and communal archives were thrown into the street and destroyed. On July 27, 1942, the ten remaining Jews were deported to Theresienstadt and Auschwitz, and only one survived. Three Jews settled in Boppard after World War II but subsequently left.

Toul

A town in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department, France

The earliest reference to the existence of Jews is the life of St. Mansuy, written in 974, in which the author mentions a Jewish physician in Toul. The tosafists Eliezer of Toul, who died before 1234, and his brother Abraham, disciple of Isaac the Elder of Dampierre, lived in the town. From the Middle Ages until the French revolution there is no evidence of Jews living there legally, although some Jews were in the region during various periods, and in 1711 a few even settled in the town temporarily. In 1791 an important community was formed and in 1808 one of its members was a delegate to the Napoleonic sanhedrin. The synagogue was built in 1819, and for a time after 1850, Toul was the seat of a rabbinate. In 1905 there were no more than 40--50 Jews in the community.

In 1970 there were 15 Jews residing in the city.