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The Jewish Community of Siret

Siret

Yiddish: סערעט, Seret; German: Sereth

A town in northeastern Romania, in the historical region of Bukovina

Siret is one of the oldest towns in Romania. Between 1775 and 1919 it was part of the Austrian Empire, after which the region was annexed to Romania.

 

21ST CENTURY

The Great Synagogue is located in the center of town.

Siret’s last remaining Jewish resident died in 2002.

 

HISTORY

A number of Jews were living in Siret before 1775, when the area fell under Austrian rule. A census from 1774 mentions eight Jewish families, a total of 43 people, living in the town. Subsequently, Jews began arriving from Galicia and Russia.

In 1782 the Austrian authorities ordered the expulsion of 18 Jewish families (61 people) from Siret, as part of a larger attempt to limit Jewish immigration from Galicia; these families joined another 1,200 Jews who were expelled from Bukovina. Those who remained faced economic restrictions, and were forced to abandon their traditional professions and to work as farmers. Representatives from the community were among those who signed a letter to the authorities requesting permission to trade in wine and alcohol; the request was denied, and Jews were only permitted to maintain one inn, which could only serve other Jews who were passing through Siret en route to other areas in Bukovina.

Nonetheless, in spite of these restrictions the community continued to grow. In 1807 there were 65 Jewish families living in Siret; by 1880 the Jewish population numbered 3,122 (37.1% of the total).

As the community grew larger, it became necessary to hire rabbi, and by the beginning of the 19th century the community had a number of institutions, including the main synagogue, four battei midrash, and four prayer houses. At first, the community was subordinated to the Jewish community of Suceava but it eventually became independent; the regulations of the independent community were ratified in 1877.

The Chassidic sect of Vizhnitz was a dominant force within the community; at the same time, the middle and upper class members of the community tended to favor German culture, and spoke German. A significant number of the community’s children attended German elementary schools, and more than half of the students attending the German high school were Jewish. Additionally, 52% of the students enrolled in the local science high school were Jewish. There was also a yeshiva.

Just before World War I (1914-1918), Siret’s Jewish population was 3,500. After the war there were about 3,000 Jews living in the town.

During World War I, Siret and its Jewish inhabitants suffered severely, particularly under the Russian occupation. However, the community rebuilt itself after the war, with the help of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.

Jews played an important role in the economic development of Siret; most of the town’s civil and communal servants, physicians, teachers, lawyers, pharmacists, and traders were Jewish. Siret’s Jews were also active politically; Siret elected a Jewish mayor, who served from 1912 to 1918, and other Jews were elected to the municipal council.

In 1930 Siret’s Jewish population was 2,121 (out of a total population of 9,905).

During the 1930s, antisemitism rose significantly, promoted by the extreme right Romanian political parties. After the Romanian army retreated from northern Bucovina in June of 1940, the Jewish population was subject to violence.

 

THE HOLOCAUST

In 1941 the Jews of Siret were labeled as potential subversives. They were expelled from Siret and sent to camps in southern Romania, first to Dornesti and then to Craiova and Calafat. In October of 1941 they were sent to the town of Radauti; from there they were sent to ghettos and camps in Transnistria.

 

POSTWAR

In 1944, when the Jews were repatriated to Romania, most did not return to Siret; after the end of the war about 500 survivors returned to Siret and reestablished the community. There were 1,700 Jews living in Siret in 1947; that year, however, proved to be the first in a number of waves of emigration. By 1971 there were fewer than 100 Jews living in Siret.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
262008
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:
The Synagogue in Siret, Romania, 20th century
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Zusia Efron, Jerusalem)
Ornamented tombstones at the 19th century Jewish cemetery, Siret, Romania 1987.
Photo: Ion Miclea, Bucharest.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Ambassador I. Govrin, Israel)
Tombstones in Siret,
Bukovina, Romania, 1977
Photo: Clara Spitzer, Romania
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Clara Spitzer, Romania)
Charity box in the synagogue in Siret,
Romania 1960-1970. (Jerusalem, Private Collection)

Yitzhak Artzi (born Yitzhak "Izo" Hertzig) (1920-2003), Zionist activist, politician, member of the Knesset, born in Siret, Romania. Following the implementation of the anti-Semitic policy of the Romanian government, he was expelled from the high school. During WW2 he was in Bucharest where he continued his studies at a Jewish high school and at the same time became a member of Hanoar Hazioni (“Zionist Youth”) movement in Romania. He was instrumental in organizing the return of Jewish children deported to the ghettoes and concentration camps in Transnistria during 1941-1944 and then in assisting the illegal emigration of Romanian Jews to the Land of Israel during 1944-1946. He immigrated to Israel in 1946, but was arrested by the British Mandatory Authorities and detained in a camp for illegal immigrants in Cyprus. After his release he was a member of the kibbutz Hamaavak that later became the collective moshav Aloney Abba from 1947 to 1950. He studied law and economics at the University of Tel Aviv and qualified as a lawyer.

Artzi became involved in public and political activities. He was in charge of the public relations at the State Revenue Administration and during 1959-1961 he served as secretary general of the Progressive Party which later became the Liberal Party. He left the Liberal Party in 1966 and founded the Independent Liberal party in 1966 and became its secretary general. Artzi was deputy Mayor of Tel Aviv-Jaffa municipality from 1974 to 1983, and member of the Knesset for the Independent Liberal party from 1984 to 1988. He was active in organizations for the welfare of Holocaust survivors and the commemoration of the Holocaust, especially the Holocaust of the Jews of Romania. He was a member of the Yad Vashem Council and served for many years on the Committee for the Righteous Among the Nations.
Yitzhak Artzi was a member of the first Board of Directors of Beth Hatefutsoth museum, also known as the Diaspora Museum – now called ANU – Museum of the Jewish People. He is the father of the Israeli singer and songwriter Shlomo Artzi (b.1949) and the Israeli author and playwright Nava Semel (1954-2017). 

Elias Eliahu Weinstein (1888-1965), journalist, born in Siret, Romania (then part of Austria-Hungary). He attended the high school in Siret and then studied law at the University of Czernowitz. During WW I he served in the Austro-Hungarian army. Weinstein started his journalistic career in early 20th century. After WW I, along with Julius Weber, he founded the German-language liberal Jewish newspaper Czernowitzer Morgenblatt. The newspaper was distributed mainly in the Romanian provinces of Bukovina and Bessarabia and in Polish Eastern Galicia. A total of 6484 issues went out of print from 1918 until June 28, 1940, when Czernowitz (Cernauti) was annexed along with entire North Bukovina by the Soviet Union. After the establishment of the Soviet regime, Weinstein worked as editor of Yiddish language books. Following the capture of Czernowitz by the German and Romanian armies in 1941, he was arrested and deported to Edineti camp. He managed to escape a short time before he was due to be executed and returned to Czernowitz where he survived the Holocaust with the help of Traian Popovici, Mayor of Czernowitz and a Righteous Among the Nations. In 1944 he immigrated to the Land of Israel. He continued working as a journalist for Emet, a Hebrew periodical for new immigrants, Viata Noastra, a Romanian-language Israeli newspaper, and Die Stimme, a German-language newsletter for the Jews of Bukovina. Weinstein founded the Weltverband der Bukowiner Juden (“World Organization of Bukovinian Jews”) and was active in the negotiations with the authorities of Western Germany about the inclusion Holocaust survivors from Bukovina into the Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany.  Weinstein died in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, while on a working visit to Germany. 

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Baineț

A village ןמ איק Radauti district in the historical region of Bucovina region, Romania. Until the end of the First World War the region was part of Austria-Hungary.

In the second half of the 19th century, Jews from Siret, ten kilometers away, came to the village to do business and then settled there. Most of the Jews made a living from cattle trade, a few owned shops and inns. Craftsmen were not among them. Their economic situation was difficult and the young people preferred to leave the village and move to the surrounding towns of Siret and Radauti.

The Siret community provided the Jews of the village with religious-community services.

The Jews had good relationships with the Ukrainians, who were the majority of the inhabitants of the village. This continued even during the Romanian rule.

In 1930, there were 23 Jews in the village (2.3% of the total population).

The Holocaust 

In September 1940, Romania allied with Germany. At the outbreak of the war against the Soviet Union in June 1941, the local Jews were deported by foot to Suceava, from where they were transported to concentration camps in Calafat, a port city on the Danube, and Craiova, a provincial city in the province of Oltenia in southwestern Romania.

Ten weeks later, they were returned to Radauti, the capital of the district, where they were cared for by local Jews.

Together with all the inhabitants of the city, they were deported in October 1941 to the ghettoes and concentration camps in Transnistria. The hardships along the way resulted in the deaths of 80% of the deportees. The rest were scattered in the camps around Moghilev, where another ten percent perished.

At the end of World War II the survivors who returned to the village found their homes destroyed and none of them remained.

Terebleche

Тереблече / Terebleche

In Romanian: Tereblecea; in German: Tereblestie, Triwlescht, Between 1946 and 1995 the village was called Porubna.

A commune in the Chernivtsi Oblast in the historical region of Bukovina, Ukraine. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. It became part of Romania from 1918 to 1940, when it was annexed by the USSR. It was again under Romanian control from 1941 to 1944, when again it was annexed by the Soviet Union and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It comprised two villages: Tereblecea and Tereblecea Noua ("New Tereblecea”) – this second village was inhabitated mainly by Germans.

During the first half of the 20th century, the majority of the inhabitants were Romanians with a minority of Germans (27%) and one of Poles (10%). The census of 1930 recorded 53 Jews living in Tereblecea that constituted 1,27% of the genearl population. Of them 19 lived in Tereblecea and 39 in Tereblecea Noua.

Following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of August 1939 between Nazi Germany and the USSR, the northern region of Bukovina, which also included the town, was annexed to the USSR on 28 June 1940.  In June 1941 Romania joined the war against the Soviet Union. The village was captured by the German and Romanian forces.

16 Jews of Tereblecea perished in the Holocaust according to the List of murdered Jews of Tereblecea during 1941-1944 compiled by the Extraordinary State Commission to Investigate German-Fascist Crimes Committed on Soviet Territory after WW2.  

שרבאוץ

Șerbăuți 

מועצה מקומית במחוז סוצ'יאווה בחבל בוקובינה, רומניה, מורכבת משני כפרים:

שרבאוץ / Șerbăuți 

קאלינשט  / Călinești , ידועה גם בשם Călinești-Cuparencu ובגרמנית: Kalinestie Cuparenco

עד 1918 האזור היה חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה.

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בשני הכפרים 26 יהודים, מהם בשרבאוץ גרו 14 יהודים אשר היוו 0.7% מכלל תושבי הכפר, וכפר הסמוך קאלינשט נרשמו 22 יהודים אשר היוו 1.55% מכלל האוכלוסיה במקום.  

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

ב-1 ביולי, 1940 נרצחו בכפר 4 יהודים, ביניהם שמיל גלר ואשתו סלי גלר, ולייב אלנבוגן על ידי מפקד הז'אנדרמיה המקומית אדג'וטנט בוג'יקה ועוזרו החוואי חפינצ'יו.

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם.

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The Jewish Community of Siret

Siret

Yiddish: סערעט, Seret; German: Sereth

A town in northeastern Romania, in the historical region of Bukovina

Siret is one of the oldest towns in Romania. Between 1775 and 1919 it was part of the Austrian Empire, after which the region was annexed to Romania.

 

21ST CENTURY

The Great Synagogue is located in the center of town.

Siret’s last remaining Jewish resident died in 2002.

 

HISTORY

A number of Jews were living in Siret before 1775, when the area fell under Austrian rule. A census from 1774 mentions eight Jewish families, a total of 43 people, living in the town. Subsequently, Jews began arriving from Galicia and Russia.

In 1782 the Austrian authorities ordered the expulsion of 18 Jewish families (61 people) from Siret, as part of a larger attempt to limit Jewish immigration from Galicia; these families joined another 1,200 Jews who were expelled from Bukovina. Those who remained faced economic restrictions, and were forced to abandon their traditional professions and to work as farmers. Representatives from the community were among those who signed a letter to the authorities requesting permission to trade in wine and alcohol; the request was denied, and Jews were only permitted to maintain one inn, which could only serve other Jews who were passing through Siret en route to other areas in Bukovina.

Nonetheless, in spite of these restrictions the community continued to grow. In 1807 there were 65 Jewish families living in Siret; by 1880 the Jewish population numbered 3,122 (37.1% of the total).

As the community grew larger, it became necessary to hire rabbi, and by the beginning of the 19th century the community had a number of institutions, including the main synagogue, four battei midrash, and four prayer houses. At first, the community was subordinated to the Jewish community of Suceava but it eventually became independent; the regulations of the independent community were ratified in 1877.

The Chassidic sect of Vizhnitz was a dominant force within the community; at the same time, the middle and upper class members of the community tended to favor German culture, and spoke German. A significant number of the community’s children attended German elementary schools, and more than half of the students attending the German high school were Jewish. Additionally, 52% of the students enrolled in the local science high school were Jewish. There was also a yeshiva.

Just before World War I (1914-1918), Siret’s Jewish population was 3,500. After the war there were about 3,000 Jews living in the town.

During World War I, Siret and its Jewish inhabitants suffered severely, particularly under the Russian occupation. However, the community rebuilt itself after the war, with the help of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.

Jews played an important role in the economic development of Siret; most of the town’s civil and communal servants, physicians, teachers, lawyers, pharmacists, and traders were Jewish. Siret’s Jews were also active politically; Siret elected a Jewish mayor, who served from 1912 to 1918, and other Jews were elected to the municipal council.

In 1930 Siret’s Jewish population was 2,121 (out of a total population of 9,905).

During the 1930s, antisemitism rose significantly, promoted by the extreme right Romanian political parties. After the Romanian army retreated from northern Bucovina in June of 1940, the Jewish population was subject to violence.

 

THE HOLOCAUST

In 1941 the Jews of Siret were labeled as potential subversives. They were expelled from Siret and sent to camps in southern Romania, first to Dornesti and then to Craiova and Calafat. In October of 1941 they were sent to the town of Radauti; from there they were sent to ghettos and camps in Transnistria.

 

POSTWAR

In 1944, when the Jews were repatriated to Romania, most did not return to Siret; after the end of the war about 500 survivors returned to Siret and reestablished the community. There were 1,700 Jews living in Siret in 1947; that year, however, proved to be the first in a number of waves of emigration. By 1971 there were fewer than 100 Jews living in Siret.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Serbauti 
Terebleche
Bainet
Romania

שרבאוץ

Șerbăuți 

מועצה מקומית במחוז סוצ'יאווה בחבל בוקובינה, רומניה, מורכבת משני כפרים:

שרבאוץ / Șerbăuți 

קאלינשט  / Călinești , ידועה גם בשם Călinești-Cuparencu ובגרמנית: Kalinestie Cuparenco

עד 1918 האזור היה חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה.

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בשני הכפרים 26 יהודים, מהם בשרבאוץ גרו 14 יהודים אשר היוו 0.7% מכלל תושבי הכפר, וכפר הסמוך קאלינשט נרשמו 22 יהודים אשר היוו 1.55% מכלל האוכלוסיה במקום.  

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

ב-1 ביולי, 1940 נרצחו בכפר 4 יהודים, ביניהם שמיל גלר ואשתו סלי גלר, ולייב אלנבוגן על ידי מפקד הז'אנדרמיה המקומית אדג'וטנט בוג'יקה ועוזרו החוואי חפינצ'יו.

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם.

Terebleche

Тереблече / Terebleche

In Romanian: Tereblecea; in German: Tereblestie, Triwlescht, Between 1946 and 1995 the village was called Porubna.

A commune in the Chernivtsi Oblast in the historical region of Bukovina, Ukraine. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. It became part of Romania from 1918 to 1940, when it was annexed by the USSR. It was again under Romanian control from 1941 to 1944, when again it was annexed by the Soviet Union and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It comprised two villages: Tereblecea and Tereblecea Noua ("New Tereblecea”) – this second village was inhabitated mainly by Germans.

During the first half of the 20th century, the majority of the inhabitants were Romanians with a minority of Germans (27%) and one of Poles (10%). The census of 1930 recorded 53 Jews living in Tereblecea that constituted 1,27% of the genearl population. Of them 19 lived in Tereblecea and 39 in Tereblecea Noua.

Following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of August 1939 between Nazi Germany and the USSR, the northern region of Bukovina, which also included the town, was annexed to the USSR on 28 June 1940.  In June 1941 Romania joined the war against the Soviet Union. The village was captured by the German and Romanian forces.

16 Jews of Tereblecea perished in the Holocaust according to the List of murdered Jews of Tereblecea during 1941-1944 compiled by the Extraordinary State Commission to Investigate German-Fascist Crimes Committed on Soviet Territory after WW2.  

Baineț

A village ןמ איק Radauti district in the historical region of Bucovina region, Romania. Until the end of the First World War the region was part of Austria-Hungary.

In the second half of the 19th century, Jews from Siret, ten kilometers away, came to the village to do business and then settled there. Most of the Jews made a living from cattle trade, a few owned shops and inns. Craftsmen were not among them. Their economic situation was difficult and the young people preferred to leave the village and move to the surrounding towns of Siret and Radauti.

The Siret community provided the Jews of the village with religious-community services.

The Jews had good relationships with the Ukrainians, who were the majority of the inhabitants of the village. This continued even during the Romanian rule.

In 1930, there were 23 Jews in the village (2.3% of the total population).

The Holocaust 

In September 1940, Romania allied with Germany. At the outbreak of the war against the Soviet Union in June 1941, the local Jews were deported by foot to Suceava, from where they were transported to concentration camps in Calafat, a port city on the Danube, and Craiova, a provincial city in the province of Oltenia in southwestern Romania.

Ten weeks later, they were returned to Radauti, the capital of the district, where they were cared for by local Jews.

Together with all the inhabitants of the city, they were deported in October 1941 to the ghettoes and concentration camps in Transnistria. The hardships along the way resulted in the deaths of 80% of the deportees. The rest were scattered in the camps around Moghilev, where another ten percent perished.

At the end of World War II the survivors who returned to the village found their homes destroyed and none of them remained.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Elias Weinstein
Yitzhak Artzi

Elias Eliahu Weinstein (1888-1965), journalist, born in Siret, Romania (then part of Austria-Hungary). He attended the high school in Siret and then studied law at the University of Czernowitz. During WW I he served in the Austro-Hungarian army. Weinstein started his journalistic career in early 20th century. After WW I, along with Julius Weber, he founded the German-language liberal Jewish newspaper Czernowitzer Morgenblatt. The newspaper was distributed mainly in the Romanian provinces of Bukovina and Bessarabia and in Polish Eastern Galicia. A total of 6484 issues went out of print from 1918 until June 28, 1940, when Czernowitz (Cernauti) was annexed along with entire North Bukovina by the Soviet Union. After the establishment of the Soviet regime, Weinstein worked as editor of Yiddish language books. Following the capture of Czernowitz by the German and Romanian armies in 1941, he was arrested and deported to Edineti camp. He managed to escape a short time before he was due to be executed and returned to Czernowitz where he survived the Holocaust with the help of Traian Popovici, Mayor of Czernowitz and a Righteous Among the Nations. In 1944 he immigrated to the Land of Israel. He continued working as a journalist for Emet, a Hebrew periodical for new immigrants, Viata Noastra, a Romanian-language Israeli newspaper, and Die Stimme, a German-language newsletter for the Jews of Bukovina. Weinstein founded the Weltverband der Bukowiner Juden (“World Organization of Bukovinian Jews”) and was active in the negotiations with the authorities of Western Germany about the inclusion Holocaust survivors from Bukovina into the Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany.  Weinstein died in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, while on a working visit to Germany. 

Yitzhak Artzi (born Yitzhak "Izo" Hertzig) (1920-2003), Zionist activist, politician, member of the Knesset, born in Siret, Romania. Following the implementation of the anti-Semitic policy of the Romanian government, he was expelled from the high school. During WW2 he was in Bucharest where he continued his studies at a Jewish high school and at the same time became a member of Hanoar Hazioni (“Zionist Youth”) movement in Romania. He was instrumental in organizing the return of Jewish children deported to the ghettoes and concentration camps in Transnistria during 1941-1944 and then in assisting the illegal emigration of Romanian Jews to the Land of Israel during 1944-1946. He immigrated to Israel in 1946, but was arrested by the British Mandatory Authorities and detained in a camp for illegal immigrants in Cyprus. After his release he was a member of the kibbutz Hamaavak that later became the collective moshav Aloney Abba from 1947 to 1950. He studied law and economics at the University of Tel Aviv and qualified as a lawyer.

Artzi became involved in public and political activities. He was in charge of the public relations at the State Revenue Administration and during 1959-1961 he served as secretary general of the Progressive Party which later became the Liberal Party. He left the Liberal Party in 1966 and founded the Independent Liberal party in 1966 and became its secretary general. Artzi was deputy Mayor of Tel Aviv-Jaffa municipality from 1974 to 1983, and member of the Knesset for the Independent Liberal party from 1984 to 1988. He was active in organizations for the welfare of Holocaust survivors and the commemoration of the Holocaust, especially the Holocaust of the Jews of Romania. He was a member of the Yad Vashem Council and served for many years on the Committee for the Righteous Among the Nations.
Yitzhak Artzi was a member of the first Board of Directors of Beth Hatefutsoth museum, also known as the Diaspora Museum – now called ANU – Museum of the Jewish People. He is the father of the Israeli singer and songwriter Shlomo Artzi (b.1949) and the Israeli author and playwright Nava Semel (1954-2017). 

Charity box in the synagogue in Siret, Romania 1960-1970
Tombstones in Siret, Bukovina, Romania, 1977
Ornamented Tombstones in a Jewish Cemetery, Siret, Romania 1987
The Synagogue in Siret, Romania, 20th century
Charity box in the synagogue in Siret,
Romania 1960-1970. (Jerusalem, Private Collection)
Tombstones in Siret,
Bukovina, Romania, 1977
Photo: Clara Spitzer, Romania
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Clara Spitzer, Romania)
Ornamented tombstones at the 19th century Jewish cemetery, Siret, Romania 1987.
Photo: Ion Miclea, Bucharest.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Ambassador I. Govrin, Israel)
The Synagogue in Siret, Romania, 20th century
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Zusia Efron, Jerusalem)