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The Jewish Community of Freiburg im Breisgau

Freiburg im Breisgau

A city in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

Jews were imprisoned there in 1230 by the town's overlord, and released by King Henry VII. Rudolf of Hapsburg levied taxes from the Jews there in 1281. In 1300 the counts of Freiburg ratified the ancient rights of Freiburg Jewry. The rights to their taxes, which had been given for a short time to a Basle burgher, were restored in 1310 to the counts' authority, who granted the Jews a privilege in 1338. About this time the Jews owned 15 houses, near the synagogue and in other streets, shared by several families.

The community, except pregnant women and children, was massacred by burning after one month's imprisonment, during the Black Death (January 1349). Emperor Charles IV permitted the Counts to resettle Jews in Freiburg in 1359. In 1373 a physician, master Gutleben, was admitted.

In 1394 the Austrian overlord ordered that Jews should wear a special garb, with a coat and cap in dull shades; prohibited them from leaving their houses during Holy Week and from watching the religious procession; and set the weekly interest rate at 0.83%. In 1401 the Jews were expelled from the town although individual Jews were admitted from 1411-1423; the expulsion became final in 1424 but Jews continued to live in the nearby villages and towns. In 1453 they were prohibited from doing business in the town.

Some Hebrew works were printed in Freiburg in the 16th century as the result of difficulties with Hebrew printing in Basle. Israel Tzifroni printed a number of Hebrew books for Ambrosius Froben, among them Benjamin of Tudela's "Massa'ot" (1583), Jacob B. Samuel Koppelman's "Ohel Ya'akov", and the first edition of Aaron of Pesaro's "Toledot Aharon", (1583-1584). In 1503 and 1504, editions were issued of Gregorius Reisch's Margarita Philosophica including a page with the Hebrew alphabet in woodcut.

By the early 17th century Jews were able to enter Freiburg business, accompanied by a constable. The first Jew received a medical degree from Freiburg University in 1791.

There were 20 Jews living in Freiburg in 1846. Following the Baden emancipation law of 1862 a congregation was formed in Freiburg in 1863, and a synagogue was consecrated in 1885. It was burned down under the Nazis in 1938. The first rabbi, Adolf Lewin, the historian of Baden Jewry, was succeeded by Max Eschelbacher and Julius Zimmels. The legal historian Heinrich Rosen (1855-1927) was active in Jewish community life. Also of note at Freiburg University were the philosopher Edmund Husserl, the economist Robert Liefmann, the jurist Otto Lenel, Fritz Pringsheim, the classical papyrologist, and the biochemist Siegfried Tannhauser.
From 1933-1935, along with six other professors, they were dismissed (Pringsheim returned from England in 1945). The Jewish population numbered 1,013 in 1903; 1,320 in 1910 (1.58% of the total), 1,399 in 1925 (1.44%), and 1,138 in June 1933 (1.5%). After the Nazi rise to power many left, and 474 remained in May 1939. In 1940, 350 Jews were expelled from Germany and interned by the French in Gurs camp; 41 were deported to Nazi concentration and death camps in Eastern Europe in 1941-1942, as were almost all survivors from Gurs. After the war 15 survivors returned to Freiburg, and 78 displaced persons lived there in 1945.

There were 58 Jews living in Freiburg in 1950, 111 in 1960, and 225 in 1968. A new prayer hall was consecrated in 1953. The university acquired the grounds where the synagogue once stood; it is commemorated by a memorial plaque. The Freiburger Rundbrief, a journal dedicated to Christian-Jewish understanding, is published in Freiburg. 

Place Type:
City
ID Number:
243772
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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Related items:
Jurist

Born in Freiburg. in 1926 he became assistant to the state attorney in Berlin, then a judge, and was a senior adviser in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. He demanded that Hitler be tried for treason and that the Nazi party be disbanded. When Hitler came to power, Kempner was arrested and on his release went to Italy where he taught until 1939. Then going to the United States, Kempner became a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania and worked on the Manhattan (atom bomb) Project. From 1946 to 1949 he was chief prosecutor of the Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. Thereafter he devoted himself to Holocaust research and helped the Israel government assemble evidence against Adolf Eichmann. He wrote many books on the Nazi era and connected post-War subjects.
Haas, Ludwig (1875-1930), politician, born and educated in Freiburg, Germany. He founded a Jewish students society in the town. He practiced law in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he was also elected to be a city councillor in 1908. He was to be a member of the city council until 1919. In 1912 he was elected a member of the Reichstag to represent the Progressive People's Party. Haas served in the German army during World War I and was decorated for his bravery on the Western Front. At the end of 1915 he became head of the Jewish section of the German military government of occupied Poland and worked to reorganize the Polish Jewish community and to formalize its relationship with the central government.

After the 1918 revolution in Germany, Haas became minister of the interior of the first republican government of Baden. He became chairman of the Progressive People's Party in the Reichstag in 1929. He was active in the Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, an organization dedicated to protecting the civil and social rights of Jews in Germany while at the same time, cultivating their German identity. The organization tried to combat anti-Semitism by showing that Jews were merely a religious group with no national characteristics or ambitions.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich (1883-1970), physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate, deciphered the chemical processes involved in respiration, born in Freiburg, Germany in 1883.

Warburg studied in Berlin and then at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, earning a Doctor of Medicine in 1911.

He was awarded the 1931 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine, "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme." Warburg also developed the manometric method for measurement of the products of biological processes.

During the Nazi regime in Germany, he was considered "half-Jew" by the racist law. As such, he managed to stay in Berlin, and then in a small village where he moved his laboratory in order to escape the air-raids during WW2.
Legal scholar

Born in Freiburg, he was early a scholar of the classics and Talmud. He studied music and literature in Paris and Roman law in Freiburg and Goettingen. Daube taught law at Cambridge, England, 1938-51, was professor of jurisprudence at Aberdeen 1951-55 and Regius Professor of Civil Law at Oxford from 1955 to 1970 when he went as professor to the University of California at Berkeley. A world authority on Roman law, he also wrote important studies on biblical and talmudic law.
Hevesy, George Charles de (1885-1966), chemist, isotopes pioneer, and Nobel Prize winner, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), to a Roman Catholic family of Hungarian Jewish descent. He studied in Budapest and in Freiburg. In 1908, after obtaining his doctorate at Freiburg, he worked with Lorenz at the Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerlan, with Haber at Karlsruhe, and with Rutherford in Manchester, England. In 1913 he started to work with F. Paneth in Vienna, Austria, on radioactive isotopes. This was the beginning of the use of radioactive tracers or "labeled atoms," an important tool in chemical and biological research. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hevesy joined the Austro-Hungarian army as technical supervisor of the state electrochemical plant in the Carpathians. After the war he returned to Budapest and during the revolution of 1918-19 he resumed his studies of isotope tracers.

In 1920 he joined Niels Bohr at the new institute of theoretical physics in Copenhagen. There, together with D. Coster, he discovered a new element, no. 72, which he called hafnium. In 1923 he revealed in a paper the first use of radioactive tracers in a biological problem and in 1924 their first use in animal physiology. In 1926 Hevesy became professor at Freiburg, Germany; there he added a new field – X-ray fluorescence – as a method of analysis of trace materials in minerals, rocks, and meteorites.

In 1930 to 1931 Hevesy was one of the two George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturers in Chemistry at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N.Y. He lectured on analysis by means of X-ray, the discovery and character of hafnium, and the chemical composition of the earth and the comic abundance of the elements.

In 1934 he was forced to resign from his position at Freiburg on account of his Jewish originsand returned to the Copenhagen institute. The discovery of artificial radioactive elements immensely enhanced the utility of the tracer technique in research work. After 1938 Hevesy gave his whole attention to the use of this tool in biochemical research. When Copenhagen was no longer safe he escaped to Sweden where he continued his work. In 1943 he was awarded the Nobel Prize "for the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes." After World War II, Hevesy remained in Stockholm, Sweden, as professor in the institute of organic chemistry of the university. His biological work continued, largely on nucleic acids, the metabolism of iron and calcium, cancer anemia, and effects of radiation. Among Hevesy's other awards and honors were the "Pour le Merite" from the German president Heuss and the Atoms for Peace Award (New York, 1959).

His major published works are: "Recherches sur les proprietes du hafnium" (1925); "A Manual of Radiactivity" (co-author, Fritz Paneth, two additions); "Das Alter der Grundstoffe" (1929); "Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and Its Applications" (1932; translated also into Russian, 1935); "Artificial Radioactivity of Scandium" (1935); "Action of Neutrons on the Rare Earth Elements" (Hilde Levi, co-author, 1936); "Excretion of Phosphorus" (Ladislau Hahn and O. Rebbe, co-authors, 1939).

Licco Amar  (1873-1959), violinist, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), he moved to Germany, where he studied the violin with Henri Marteau and became second violinist in his teacher’s quartet. Amar served as concertmaster of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra from 1915 until 1920 and of the National Theater Orchestra of Mannheim from 1920 until 1923. In 1921 he founded the Amar String Quartet which existed until 1929. The Quartet, in which Paul Hindemith played the viola, devoted itself mainly to the performance of new music. In 1933 Amar was forced to leave Germany and went to Turkey, where he taught from 1935 at the Ankara Conservatory. In 1957 he resettled in Germany and taught in Freiburg.
He died in Freiburg, Germany.

Hauser, Franz (1794-1870), singer and teacher, born in Krasovice (Kraschowitz in German), near Prague,  Bohemia, Czech Republic (then part of the Austrian Empire). Over a period of many years he sang leading baritone roles in major opera houses throughout Europe, including those of Vienna (1828), London (1832), and Berlin (1835). In 1837 he settled in Vienna, where he became well-known as a teacher of singing. In 1846, he was appointed director of the Munich Conservatory, a post he held to 1865, when he was pensioned. He wrote a treatise on singing Gesanglehre.
Hauser died in Freiburg, Germany.

 

FREIBURG, FRIBOURG

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. This name has two possible sources. The name may derive from the city of Freiburg in Breisgau, Baden, in Germany, where Jews are known to have lived from the 13th century; or from the capital of the Swiss canton of Friburg, where Jews lived since the 14th century. The name may also be associated with Frei, the German for "freedom", which is one of the fundamental principles of Judaism. It is re-asserted year after year at Passover celebrating the Exodus from "the House of Bondage".

In the Diaspora, the term "Free" also had other connotations. In Jewish communities, a 'Free Man' was an unmarried man, a bachelor, which meant that he could be a potential Freier, that is a "suitor". Another meaning of the Yiddish and Hebrew slang word Freier/Fraier is "simpleton/sucker".

A number of Jewish family names comprising the word Frei can also be toponymics with connections to several place names. Freiberg, the German for "free mountain", is a town in Saxony (Germany) and the German name of Pribor, central Silesia (Czech Republic), as well as of Swiebodzice, lower Silesia (Poland), also known as Frybork and Freiburg. Freiburg ("free fortress/town") in Breisgau, Baden (Germany) is known to have had Jewish inhabitants since the 12th century and the Swiss town Freiburg (Fribourg) permitted Jews to settle there in the 14th century. Freistadt ("free town") is a town near Linz (Austria); Freistadt/Frystat, in Silesia, has become part of Karvina/Karwina/Karwin. Freistett is a locality in Baden (Germany), and Freistadl (literally "free small town"), is the German name of Hlohovec, Slovakia, known as Galgoc when it belonged to Hungary, where Jews lived since the 16th century. The adjective "Free" is documented as a family name in the form of Fray in Paris in 1789. Frey is recorded in France in 1792, Frei in Budapest (Hungary) in 1872. In 1957, a man called Frajermann Frenchified his name to Frajert.
The synagogue of Freiburg, built in 1870, Germany,
The synagogue destroyed during Kristallnacht
on November 9-10, 1938.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Robert F. Speyer, Germany)
Commemoration stone in the place where the synagogue of Freiburg in Breigau stood.
Germany, 1981.
The synagogue was built in 1870
and destroyed by the Nazis in 1938.
Photo: Robert F. Speyer, Germany.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
Courtesy of Robert F. Speyer, Germany)
Elsa Levi-Muehsam reading the literary works
of her father, the Jewish-Germant writer Paul Muehsam,
in Walterari Bookshop, Freiburg, Germany, 1984
Photo: Anne-Marie Brumm, Germany
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Anne-Marie Brumm, Germany)
Weiss, Bernhard (1880-1951), jurist and vice-president of Berlin police until the establishment of the German Nazi state, born in Berlin, Germany. Weiss studied law at the University of Berlin, University of Freiburg i.B., Germany, University of Wuerzburg, Germany, earning a doctorate in law. In 1908 he was commissioned as an officer in the Royal Bavarian Army, in WW1 he was promoted captain and was awarded the Iron Cross First Class. His three brothers and cousin also fought in the war, one was killed and another seriously injured.

Weiss made a name as an exceptionally efficient lawyer and judge before being the first Jew to enter the Home Service of pre-Weimar Gemany. He was appointed Deputy Chief of the Berlin Criminal Police in 1918, and became its head in 1925, then he was appointed Vice President of the Berlin police force in 1927. Dr Drews, the minister who appointed him said in 1932, when Weiss’s government career was ending, that “when we decided to appoint for the Home Service a Jew who was not baptized, we knew that the first had to be the best. It was you I chose and I am glad to say that you lived up to our expectations”. Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and then Vice-Chancellor when Adolf Hitler came to power, had Weiss and his superior arrested, albeit for one day only.

While in office, Weiss was the target of a constant campaign of vilification organized by Joseph Goebbels who nicknamed Weiss “Isidore” and the Weimar Republic as “The Jews Republic”. Weiss sued Goebbels for libel and won his case. Goebbels did not refrain and Weiss was not intimidated so in the end Weiss sued Goebbels over 40 times. The name of Dr. Weiss is clearly associated with the history of the Weimar Republic. From the days when he produced evidence of the subversive activities of the Russian trade delegation in Berlin to the hunt for the murderers of Walter Rathenau, the Jewish industrialist and politician who served the Weimar governments in several capacities including that of Foreign Minister in 1922, or in the struggles against the Communists and the Nazis alike Weiss was in the forefront of the efforts to preserve democracy in Germany.

Weiss finally decided to flee Germany a just few days before Hitler was made Chancellor. When his police force was ordered to arrest Weiss and Hermann Goering had offered to pay a reward for anyone who assisted in his capture, a friend drove him out of the country to Czechoslovakia. He then went to England where he opened a printing and stationery business and lived out the remainder of his life. After World War II he applied for his German nationality, of which he had been stripped in 1933, to be restored, he planned to go back and live in Berlin. On the way to a London hospital, a few days before he died of cancer, he was informed that his request for the restoration of his Germany nationality had been granted . Weiss died at the age of 71 in London.

"He was a man of extremes, a Jew imbibed with Prussian virtues, small of stature, large in responsible behavior and a staunch Democrat," wrote Uwe Dannenbaum in the "Die Welt" newspaper to mark the naming of the forecourt at the Friedrichstrasse Station in Berlin after the former police chief . The movie picture "The Man who Drove Goebbels" (2005) by Reiner Mathias Brueckner portrays Weiss as a resolute defender of the republican order. In 2007 the German Federation of Jewish soldiers started to award in his honour a medal for fellow Germans who had worked for understanding and tolerance.
Kaufmann, Fritz (1891-1958), philosopher, born in Leipzig, Germany. Kaufmann was the assistant of philosopher and mathematician Edmund Husserl who founded the school of phenomenology at Freiburg, Germany. In 1936 Kaufmann went to Berlin to join the Hochschule fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums.

Two years later he fled from Nazi Germany and went to the USA where he was appointed to the faculty of Northwestern University and the University of Buffalo. He wrote several books on phenomenology and helped to popularise its teachings in America. He also wrote short biographies on Martin Buber, Cassirer, Thomas Mann, Nietzche, Goethe, Flaubert and has teacher Husserl.
Legal scholar

Born in Freiburg, he was early a scholar of the classics and Talmud. He studied music and literature in Paris and Roman law in Freiburg and Goettingen. Daube taught law at Cambridge, England, 1938-51, was professor of jurisprudence at Aberdeen 1951-55 and Regius Professor of Civil Law at Oxford from 1955 to 1970 when he went as professor to the University of California at Berkeley. A world authority on Roman law, he also wrote important studies on biblical and talmudic law.
Haas, Ludwig (1875-1930), politician, born and educated in Freiburg, Germany. He founded a Jewish students society in the town. He practiced law in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he was also elected to be a city councillor in 1908. He was to be a member of the city council until 1919. In 1912 he was elected a member of the Reichstag to represent the Progressive People's Party. Haas served in the German army during World War I and was decorated for his bravery on the Western Front. At the end of 1915 he became head of the Jewish section of the German military government of occupied Poland and worked to reorganize the Polish Jewish community and to formalize its relationship with the central government.

After the 1918 revolution in Germany, Haas became minister of the interior of the first republican government of Baden. He became chairman of the Progressive People's Party in the Reichstag in 1929. He was active in the Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, an organization dedicated to protecting the civil and social rights of Jews in Germany while at the same time, cultivating their German identity. The organization tried to combat anti-Semitism by showing that Jews were merely a religious group with no national characteristics or ambitions.
Jurist

Born in Freiburg. in 1926 he became assistant to the state attorney in Berlin, then a judge, and was a senior adviser in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. He demanded that Hitler be tried for treason and that the Nazi party be disbanded. When Hitler came to power, Kempner was arrested and on his release went to Italy where he taught until 1939. Then going to the United States, Kempner became a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania and worked on the Manhattan (atom bomb) Project. From 1946 to 1949 he was chief prosecutor of the Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. Thereafter he devoted himself to Holocaust research and helped the Israel government assemble evidence against Adolf Eichmann. He wrote many books on the Nazi era and connected post-War subjects.
Baer, Yitzhak (1888-1980), historian and expert in Medieval Spanish Jewish history, born in Halberstadt, Germany. He studied history and philosophy at the universities of Berlin, Strasbourg, France, and Freiburg, Germany. In 1919 Baer became research associate of the Akademie fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, under whose auspices he twice visited Spain to obtain material about the history of Jews in Spain under the Christians. In 1930 he emigrated to Palestine in 1930 and he was appointed to lecturere in Medieval Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 1932 he was appointed professor. From 1930 to 1959 he was head of the university's department of Jewish history. In 1945, Baer was awarded the Bialik Prize for Jewish thought and in 1958 he was awarded the Israel Prize in Jewish studies

Baer was one of the founders of the Jewish historical review “Zion”, he was very active in the Israel Historical Society and one of the founder members of the Israel Academy of Sciences. He contributed several important articles to the German Encyclopedia Judaica.

As a result of his research into the history of Spanish Jewry he wrote "Studien zur Geschichte der Juden im Konigreich Aragonien: wahrend des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts" (Berlin, 1913), "Untersuchungen über Quellen und Komposition des Schebet Jehuda" (1923), and "History of Jews in Christian Spain" (Tel Aviv 1945), which is regarded as the standard work on the subject. Important amongst his studies of the development and history of Jewish communal organizations in the Middle Ages are "Das Protokollbuch der Landjudenschaft des Herzogtums Kleve: erster Teil: die Geschichte des Landjudenschaft Herzogtums Kleve" (1922) and "Galut" (1936). His method tried to bring out the internal forces which fashioned the Jewish communities within the framework of general history. He believed that the main features of Jewish communal organization were largely established during the 2nd Temple period. In “Peoples of Israel: Studies in the History of the Second Temple Period of the Mishna, the Foundations of Law and Faith. Jerusalem” (1955) Baer also investigated the spiritual and religious world of the the Jewish people. He concluded that the driving force of Jewish history lay in the continuing socioreligious activities of groups of pious men of faith who aimed at perfecting the world. Among his other numerous works is “Studies and Essays in the History of Israel” (1985, in Hebrew).

Baer is recognized as one of the most fruitful students and teachers of Jewish history in modern times
Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979), philosopher, sociologist and political theorist, born in Berlin, Germany. Marcuse became known as the "Father of the New Left." In 1916 he joined the German Army. He then became a member of a Soldiers' Council that participated in the 1919 aborted socialist Spartacist strike and uprising. He completed his Ph.D. thesis at the University of Freiburg in 1922 on German romantic literature after which he moved back to Berlin, where he worked in a publishing house. He returned to Freiburg in 1928 to study with Edmund Husserl, who developed the method of phenomenology believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, and wrote "Hegel's Ontology and Theory of Historicity". This study was written in the context of the Hegelian renaissance which was taking place in Europe with an emphasis on ontology, which studies the nature of existence of life and history, idealist theory of spirit and dialectic.

After the rise of Nazism, Marcuse emigrated first to Switzerland in 1934 and then to the USA, although he remained associated with the Frankfurt Institute for Social Development and in 1940 he published "Reason and Revolution", a dialectical work which examined G. W. F. Hegel and Karl Marx.

During World War 2, Marcuse first worked for the U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) on anti-Nazi propaganda projects and in 1943 he transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency. His work for the OSS involved research on Nazi Germany and denazification. After the dissolution of the OSS in 1945, Marcuse was until 1951 employed by the US Department of State as head of the Central European section.

In 1952 he began a teaching career as a political theorist, first at Columbia University, then at Harvard University, then at Brandeis University from 1958 to 1965, where he taught philosophy and politics, and finally, at the University of California, San Diego. He was a friend and collaborator of political sociologists and political philosophers and a friend of Columbia University sociology professor C. Wright Mills, one of the founders of the New Left movement. In the post-war period, Marcuse was the most explicitly political and left-wing member of the Frankfurt School and continued to identify himself as a Marxist, a socialist, and a Hegelian. Marcuse's criticism of capitalist society (especially in his 1955 synthesis of Marx and Freud, “Eros and Civilization”, and his 1964 book “One-Dimensional Man”) resonated with the concerns of the student movement in the 1960s. Because of his willingness to speak at student protests, Marcuse soon became known as "the father of the New Left in the United States". His work heavily influenced intellectual discourse on popular culture and scholarly popular culture studies. He was a popular speaker in the US and Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. Marcuse's 1965 essay "Repressive Tolerance", in which he claimed capitalist democracies can have totalitarian aspects, was strongly criticized by conservatives. In it he argued that genuine tolerance does not tolerate support for "repression", since doing so ensures that voices on the margins will remain unheard. He characterizes tolerance of repressive speech as "inauthentic". Instead, he advocates a form of tolerance that is intolerant of right wing political movements. His “An Essay on Liberation” in 1969, celebrating liberation movements such as those in Vietnam, inspired many radicals. In 1972 he wrote "Counterrevolution and Revolt", which argues that the hopes of the 1960s were facing a counterrevolution from the right.

After Brandeis University decided against the renewal of his teaching contract in 1965, Marcuse devoted his life to writing and lecturing around the world. His efforts brought him attention from the media, which claimed that he openly advocated violence, although he often clarified that only "violence of defense" could be appropriate, not "violence of aggression". He continued to promote Marxian theory, with some of his students helping to spread his ideas. Marcuse’s analysis of capitalism derives partially from one of Karl Marx’s main concepts. Marx believed that capitalism was exploiting humans; that the objects produced by laborers became alienated and thus ultimately dehumanized them to functional objects. Marcuse took this belief and expanded it. He argued that capitalism and industrialization pushed laborers so hard that they began to see themselves as extensions of the objects they were producing.
Physicist

Born in Rexingen, he taught at Freiburg University before emigrating to England in 1933. There he was a researcher and then reader in theoretical physics at the University of Bristol (1935-1948) and professor of theoretical physics at Liverpool University from 1948. In 1951 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Philosopher

He was born in Prossnitz and studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Viennareceiving his doctorate in Vienna. While a young adult, he converted to Protestantism. In Vienna Husserl became increasingly interested in philosophy, which he was to teach at the University of Halle (1887-1901), and then at Goettingen (1906-16) and Freiburg (1916-29). He is regarded as one of the outstanding thinkers of the century and the father of phenomenology, which has been called the 'logic' of consciousness and has greatly influenced many aspects of modern culture. After his death, his voluminous manuscripts were secreted out of Nazi Germany. His writings and lectures were published (1950-66) in eleven volumes by the Husserl Archives at the University of Louvain.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich (1883-1970), physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate, deciphered the chemical processes involved in respiration, born in Freiburg, Germany in 1883.

Warburg studied in Berlin and then at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, earning a Doctor of Medicine in 1911.

He was awarded the 1931 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine, "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme." Warburg also developed the manometric method for measurement of the products of biological processes.

During the Nazi regime in Germany, he was considered "half-Jew" by the racist law. As such, he managed to stay in Berlin, and then in a small village where he moved his laboratory in order to escape the air-raids during WW2.
Frommer, Rudolf De Fegyvernek (1868-1936), arms expert, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He graduated in mechanical engineering from the Technical Academy in Budapest. Initially he worked in banking and then in the stock market. In 1896, at the age of 28, he accepted an appointment with the Hungarian Arms Company which had been founded in 1888. Frommer proved himself to be an inventive engineer and quickly rose to a leading position in the company. In 1903 Oscar Epperlein, the president, died unexpectedly and Frommer was chosen to succeed him. He led the company until his semi-retirement in 1930. He was succeeded by his eldedst son Stephen.

A variety of automatic pistols, rifles and machine-guns, designed by Frommer, were widely used by Hungarian and other European law enforcement agencies and armed forces. Many such weapons bore the Frommer name. They included the "Stop," "Liliputian," "Baby," and especially the 7.65 millimeter Frommer-revolver which was the official weapon used by the gendarmerie as well as in various branches of the postal, telegraph, forestry and other government services. Many hundred thousands of Frommer-Stops were used by the Austro-Hungarian, German, Turkish and Bulgarian armies during World War I.

After the conclusion of WWI, most of the company’s previous clients no longer existed or where prohibited from rearming so the company’s production capacity was turned over to household appliances and lamps as well as sporting guns. From 1938 the company reverted to military work, providing the Germany army with many products and the workforce grew to 4500. The factory was destroyed by allied bombing in 1944.

After WWI, in recognition of his patriotic services, Frommer was knighted, the suffix Fegyvernek was added to his name and, in 1928, he was appointed to the Hungarian House of Peers. Living more or less in retirement since 1930, he wrote and published (in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany), an authoritative volume on the impact of the war on Eastern European forests ["Einfluss des Weltkrieges auf die osteuropaische Forstwirtschaft unter besondern Berueksichtigung der Karpaten-forste"].

Licco Amar  (1873-1959), violinist, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), he moved to Germany, where he studied the violin with Henri Marteau and became second violinist in his teacher’s quartet. Amar served as concertmaster of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra from 1915 until 1920 and of the National Theater Orchestra of Mannheim from 1920 until 1923. In 1921 he founded the Amar String Quartet which existed until 1929. The Quartet, in which Paul Hindemith played the viola, devoted itself mainly to the performance of new music. In 1933 Amar was forced to leave Germany and went to Turkey, where he taught from 1935 at the Ankara Conservatory. In 1957 he resettled in Germany and taught in Freiburg.
He died in Freiburg, Germany.

Hevesy, George Charles de (1885-1966), chemist, isotopes pioneer, and Nobel Prize winner, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), to a Roman Catholic family of Hungarian Jewish descent. He studied in Budapest and in Freiburg. In 1908, after obtaining his doctorate at Freiburg, he worked with Lorenz at the Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerlan, with Haber at Karlsruhe, and with Rutherford in Manchester, England. In 1913 he started to work with F. Paneth in Vienna, Austria, on radioactive isotopes. This was the beginning of the use of radioactive tracers or "labeled atoms," an important tool in chemical and biological research. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hevesy joined the Austro-Hungarian army as technical supervisor of the state electrochemical plant in the Carpathians. After the war he returned to Budapest and during the revolution of 1918-19 he resumed his studies of isotope tracers.

In 1920 he joined Niels Bohr at the new institute of theoretical physics in Copenhagen. There, together with D. Coster, he discovered a new element, no. 72, which he called hafnium. In 1923 he revealed in a paper the first use of radioactive tracers in a biological problem and in 1924 their first use in animal physiology. In 1926 Hevesy became professor at Freiburg, Germany; there he added a new field – X-ray fluorescence – as a method of analysis of trace materials in minerals, rocks, and meteorites.

In 1930 to 1931 Hevesy was one of the two George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturers in Chemistry at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N.Y. He lectured on analysis by means of X-ray, the discovery and character of hafnium, and the chemical composition of the earth and the comic abundance of the elements.

In 1934 he was forced to resign from his position at Freiburg on account of his Jewish originsand returned to the Copenhagen institute. The discovery of artificial radioactive elements immensely enhanced the utility of the tracer technique in research work. After 1938 Hevesy gave his whole attention to the use of this tool in biochemical research. When Copenhagen was no longer safe he escaped to Sweden where he continued his work. In 1943 he was awarded the Nobel Prize "for the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes." After World War II, Hevesy remained in Stockholm, Sweden, as professor in the institute of organic chemistry of the university. His biological work continued, largely on nucleic acids, the metabolism of iron and calcium, cancer anemia, and effects of radiation. Among Hevesy's other awards and honors were the "Pour le Merite" from the German president Heuss and the Atoms for Peace Award (New York, 1959).

His major published works are: "Recherches sur les proprietes du hafnium" (1925); "A Manual of Radiactivity" (co-author, Fritz Paneth, two additions); "Das Alter der Grundstoffe" (1929); "Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and Its Applications" (1932; translated also into Russian, 1935); "Artificial Radioactivity of Scandium" (1935); "Action of Neutrons on the Rare Earth Elements" (Hilde Levi, co-author, 1936); "Excretion of Phosphorus" (Ladislau Hahn and O. Rebbe, co-authors, 1939).
Cassirer, Richard (1868-1925), neurologist, born in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland) who became Professor of Neurology at Berlin University, a position which he continued to hold from 1912 to 1925, the year of his death. Cassirer studied in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. He received his doctorate in 1891 and subsequently was assistant at the psychiatric clinic in Breslau under Karl Wernicke (1848-1905) until 1893. He then went to Vienna, Austria, in order to continue his studies. In 1895 he came to the Berliner Poliklinik für Nervenkranke. With R. Hirschfeld he directed this clinic from 1919 until his death in 1925.

Cassirer chiefly concerned himself with clinical neurology as well as the anatomy of the central nervous system; he investigated the vasomotor-trophical and in this regard succeeded in defining the acroasphyxia chronica. He also investigated the anatomy of the vegetative system, the bulbar and spinal marrow diseases, poliomyelitis chronica, multiple sclerosis, prognoses and indications of the operative treatment of lesions of the peripheral nerves, muscular atrophy, etc. His later years were mainly devoted to writing a new edition of Oppenheimer's textbook.

In 1912 he first described a circulatory disease marked by an association of ovarian insufficiency and acrocyanosis with vasomotor-trophic disturbance of the skin, and disturbances of sensitivity caused by dysregulation of the vegetative nervous system which has been given the eponymic name of "Cassirer's syndrome" or "Crocq-Cassirer syndrome". In 1921, Cassirer was asked to give testimony regarding the mental condition of Soghomon Tehlirian, who was accused of murdering Talaat Pasha. Cassirer maintained that Tehlirian was not sane when he carried out the crime because of his psychotic state caused as a result of his family being victims of a war-time massacre.

Cassirer's portrait was painted by renowned artist Max Liebermann in 1918, and later presented to the Tate Gallery in London, England.

ETTENHEIM

A town in the Ortenau district in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 13th century; peak Jewish population: 92 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 31

Ettenheim’s first Jewish community was destroyed in the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. A new community was established there during the 1660s, and although a decree initially forbade Jews from building a synagogue, they were permitted to establish prayer rooms in private residences. They also built a mikveh, but townspeople destroyed it in 1778. The first reference to a synagogue is dated 1816, and we also know that a new house of worship was inaugurated on Alleestrasse in 1881.

By the mid-1920s, as a result of Jewish emigration, the synagogue was no longer in use. In 1933, a teacher from Schmieheim instructed two children in religion. Later, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s interior was destroyed and its contents burned; Jewish homes and businesses were heavily damaged during the pogrom. The synagogue was later sold to a tannery. Five surviving Torah scrolls were transferred to Freiburg im Breisgau in 1947. Although many Jews fled Ettenheim, seven actually moved there after 1933. In all, 25 local Jews emigrated, 12 relocated within Germany and three died in Ettenheim. On October 22, 1940, the town’s last Jewish family was deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. At least four Ettenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. A plaque was unveiled at the town hall in 1969.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

 

IHRINGEN

A town in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district in Baden-Wurrttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1716; peak Jewish population: 263 in 1852; Jewish population in 1933: 98

This Jewish community established a prayer hall (in a private residence) in 1738, a synagogue in 1761, a cemetery in 1810 and a school in the late 1820s or early 1830s, which was closed in 1876. In 1863/64, local Jews inaugurated a new synagogue with 72 seats for men, 72 for women and 35-40 for children. Ihringen was also had a mikveh. In 1933, a teacher/chazzan instructed six schoolchildren in religion. The community maintained a men’s fund for the sick, a women’s association and a charity fund. Jewish children were expelled from the local school in 1936, after which they traveled to Freiburg for their schooling. The synagogue was incinerated on Pogrom Night (Nov 9, 1938), Jews were forced to watch, and several men were deported to Dachau. Thirty-two Jews were forcibly evacuated from Ihringen when war broke out, of whom 13 returned when the expulsion order was revoked. By 1940, 30 had emigrated, 47 had relocated within Germany and nine had died in Ihringen. The last 12, all elderly, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. At least 56 Ihringen Jews perished in the Shoah. In 1980, a memorial stone was unveiled at the former synagogue’s site; a monument was later constructed there. The cemetery was desecrated in 1952, 1990 and 2007.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Villingen

A town in the Schwarzwald-Baar district in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, now part of Villingen-Schwenningen. 

The first documentary evidence for the presence of Jews in Villingen dates from the beginning of the 14th century; in 1324 emperor Louis IV (the Bavarian) granted to the Dukes of Fuerstenberg the revenues from his Villingen Jewry in recognition of their service to him, reserving the right to re-purchase them for 50 silver marks. The Jews lived in a quarter of the upper part of the town, where a synagogue was also located, mentioned for the first time in 1379. In 1342 some Jews of Villingen, together with Jews of Freiburg and Schaffhausen were denounced for stealing church objects. During the Black Death persecutions (1348-1349) Jews were martyred and the community destroyed. Jewish houses in the town were expropriated and sold by Duke Albert of Austria and the synagogue became a hospital. Jews in the town were not mentioned again until 1393, and again in 1420; in 1464 their money-lending activities are noted. In 1504 all the Jewish men were temporarily imprisoned in the town's tower, because of the Freiburg blood libel.

In 1510 all Jews were expelled, after Emperor Maximilian I accused Jewish doctors of mistreating a sick old man, one of his veteran soldiers. Thereafter they could enter the town and trade only when accompanied by the town servant.

Jewish settlement in the town was not renewed until 1862; it grew from 20 in 1875 to 60 in 1933. Of that number 42 managed to emigrate after the Nazi rise to power. The prayer hall was demolished on November 10, 1938. On October 20, 1940 eleven Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France; two returned at the end of the war from Theresienstadt concentration camp.

Breisach

Also: Alt-Breisach

Town on the Rhine, in the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, Germany,

Jews are first mentioned there in 1301. The community was annihilated during the Black Death in 1349.

Subsequently Jews again settled in Breisach but were expelled in 1424. A cemetery was opened in 1550 by the community, and then reestablished. In 1750 a Jew owned a textile factory in Breisach employing 330 weavers. The synagogue, built in 1756, was destroyed in November 1938. The Jewish population numbered 438 in 1825 (14% of the total), 564 in 1880 (17%), but only 231 in 1933. After the outbreak of World War II, the remaining Jews were expelled from Breisach because of its proximity to the frontier, but they were later allowed to return. On Oct. 22, 1940, 34 Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp. In 1967 the sole survivor was a woman who took care of the two cemeteries.

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The Jewish Community of Freiburg im Breisgau

Freiburg im Breisgau

A city in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

Jews were imprisoned there in 1230 by the town's overlord, and released by King Henry VII. Rudolf of Hapsburg levied taxes from the Jews there in 1281. In 1300 the counts of Freiburg ratified the ancient rights of Freiburg Jewry. The rights to their taxes, which had been given for a short time to a Basle burgher, were restored in 1310 to the counts' authority, who granted the Jews a privilege in 1338. About this time the Jews owned 15 houses, near the synagogue and in other streets, shared by several families.

The community, except pregnant women and children, was massacred by burning after one month's imprisonment, during the Black Death (January 1349). Emperor Charles IV permitted the Counts to resettle Jews in Freiburg in 1359. In 1373 a physician, master Gutleben, was admitted.

In 1394 the Austrian overlord ordered that Jews should wear a special garb, with a coat and cap in dull shades; prohibited them from leaving their houses during Holy Week and from watching the religious procession; and set the weekly interest rate at 0.83%. In 1401 the Jews were expelled from the town although individual Jews were admitted from 1411-1423; the expulsion became final in 1424 but Jews continued to live in the nearby villages and towns. In 1453 they were prohibited from doing business in the town.

Some Hebrew works were printed in Freiburg in the 16th century as the result of difficulties with Hebrew printing in Basle. Israel Tzifroni printed a number of Hebrew books for Ambrosius Froben, among them Benjamin of Tudela's "Massa'ot" (1583), Jacob B. Samuel Koppelman's "Ohel Ya'akov", and the first edition of Aaron of Pesaro's "Toledot Aharon", (1583-1584). In 1503 and 1504, editions were issued of Gregorius Reisch's Margarita Philosophica including a page with the Hebrew alphabet in woodcut.

By the early 17th century Jews were able to enter Freiburg business, accompanied by a constable. The first Jew received a medical degree from Freiburg University in 1791.

There were 20 Jews living in Freiburg in 1846. Following the Baden emancipation law of 1862 a congregation was formed in Freiburg in 1863, and a synagogue was consecrated in 1885. It was burned down under the Nazis in 1938. The first rabbi, Adolf Lewin, the historian of Baden Jewry, was succeeded by Max Eschelbacher and Julius Zimmels. The legal historian Heinrich Rosen (1855-1927) was active in Jewish community life. Also of note at Freiburg University were the philosopher Edmund Husserl, the economist Robert Liefmann, the jurist Otto Lenel, Fritz Pringsheim, the classical papyrologist, and the biochemist Siegfried Tannhauser.
From 1933-1935, along with six other professors, they were dismissed (Pringsheim returned from England in 1945). The Jewish population numbered 1,013 in 1903; 1,320 in 1910 (1.58% of the total), 1,399 in 1925 (1.44%), and 1,138 in June 1933 (1.5%). After the Nazi rise to power many left, and 474 remained in May 1939. In 1940, 350 Jews were expelled from Germany and interned by the French in Gurs camp; 41 were deported to Nazi concentration and death camps in Eastern Europe in 1941-1942, as were almost all survivors from Gurs. After the war 15 survivors returned to Freiburg, and 78 displaced persons lived there in 1945.

There were 58 Jews living in Freiburg in 1950, 111 in 1960, and 225 in 1968. A new prayer hall was consecrated in 1953. The university acquired the grounds where the synagogue once stood; it is commemorated by a memorial plaque. The Freiburger Rundbrief, a journal dedicated to Christian-Jewish understanding, is published in Freiburg. 

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Breisach
VILLINGEN
IHRINGEN
ETTENHEIM

Breisach

Also: Alt-Breisach

Town on the Rhine, in the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, Germany,

Jews are first mentioned there in 1301. The community was annihilated during the Black Death in 1349.

Subsequently Jews again settled in Breisach but were expelled in 1424. A cemetery was opened in 1550 by the community, and then reestablished. In 1750 a Jew owned a textile factory in Breisach employing 330 weavers. The synagogue, built in 1756, was destroyed in November 1938. The Jewish population numbered 438 in 1825 (14% of the total), 564 in 1880 (17%), but only 231 in 1933. After the outbreak of World War II, the remaining Jews were expelled from Breisach because of its proximity to the frontier, but they were later allowed to return. On Oct. 22, 1940, 34 Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp. In 1967 the sole survivor was a woman who took care of the two cemeteries.

Villingen

A town in the Schwarzwald-Baar district in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, now part of Villingen-Schwenningen. 

The first documentary evidence for the presence of Jews in Villingen dates from the beginning of the 14th century; in 1324 emperor Louis IV (the Bavarian) granted to the Dukes of Fuerstenberg the revenues from his Villingen Jewry in recognition of their service to him, reserving the right to re-purchase them for 50 silver marks. The Jews lived in a quarter of the upper part of the town, where a synagogue was also located, mentioned for the first time in 1379. In 1342 some Jews of Villingen, together with Jews of Freiburg and Schaffhausen were denounced for stealing church objects. During the Black Death persecutions (1348-1349) Jews were martyred and the community destroyed. Jewish houses in the town were expropriated and sold by Duke Albert of Austria and the synagogue became a hospital. Jews in the town were not mentioned again until 1393, and again in 1420; in 1464 their money-lending activities are noted. In 1504 all the Jewish men were temporarily imprisoned in the town's tower, because of the Freiburg blood libel.

In 1510 all Jews were expelled, after Emperor Maximilian I accused Jewish doctors of mistreating a sick old man, one of his veteran soldiers. Thereafter they could enter the town and trade only when accompanied by the town servant.

Jewish settlement in the town was not renewed until 1862; it grew from 20 in 1875 to 60 in 1933. Of that number 42 managed to emigrate after the Nazi rise to power. The prayer hall was demolished on November 10, 1938. On October 20, 1940 eleven Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France; two returned at the end of the war from Theresienstadt concentration camp.

IHRINGEN

A town in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district in Baden-Wurrttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1716; peak Jewish population: 263 in 1852; Jewish population in 1933: 98

This Jewish community established a prayer hall (in a private residence) in 1738, a synagogue in 1761, a cemetery in 1810 and a school in the late 1820s or early 1830s, which was closed in 1876. In 1863/64, local Jews inaugurated a new synagogue with 72 seats for men, 72 for women and 35-40 for children. Ihringen was also had a mikveh. In 1933, a teacher/chazzan instructed six schoolchildren in religion. The community maintained a men’s fund for the sick, a women’s association and a charity fund. Jewish children were expelled from the local school in 1936, after which they traveled to Freiburg for their schooling. The synagogue was incinerated on Pogrom Night (Nov 9, 1938), Jews were forced to watch, and several men were deported to Dachau. Thirty-two Jews were forcibly evacuated from Ihringen when war broke out, of whom 13 returned when the expulsion order was revoked. By 1940, 30 had emigrated, 47 had relocated within Germany and nine had died in Ihringen. The last 12, all elderly, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. At least 56 Ihringen Jews perished in the Shoah. In 1980, a memorial stone was unveiled at the former synagogue’s site; a monument was later constructed there. The cemetery was desecrated in 1952, 1990 and 2007.

-------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

ETTENHEIM

A town in the Ortenau district in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 13th century; peak Jewish population: 92 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 31

Ettenheim’s first Jewish community was destroyed in the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. A new community was established there during the 1660s, and although a decree initially forbade Jews from building a synagogue, they were permitted to establish prayer rooms in private residences. They also built a mikveh, but townspeople destroyed it in 1778. The first reference to a synagogue is dated 1816, and we also know that a new house of worship was inaugurated on Alleestrasse in 1881.

By the mid-1920s, as a result of Jewish emigration, the synagogue was no longer in use. In 1933, a teacher from Schmieheim instructed two children in religion. Later, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s interior was destroyed and its contents burned; Jewish homes and businesses were heavily damaged during the pogrom. The synagogue was later sold to a tannery. Five surviving Torah scrolls were transferred to Freiburg im Breisgau in 1947. Although many Jews fled Ettenheim, seven actually moved there after 1933. In all, 25 local Jews emigrated, 12 relocated within Germany and three died in Ettenheim. On October 22, 1940, the town’s last Jewish family was deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. At least four Ettenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. A plaque was unveiled at the town hall in 1969.

-----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

 

Cassirer, Richard
Frommer, Rudolf De Fegyvernek
Husserl, Edmund Gustav Albrecht
Frohlich, Herbert
Marcuse, Herbert
Baer, Yitzhak
Kaufmann, Fritz
Weiss, Bernhard
Licco Amar
Hevesy, George Charles de
Daube, David
Warburg, Otto Heinrich
Haas, Ludwig
Kempner, Robert Max Wasilii
Cassirer, Richard (1868-1925), neurologist, born in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland) who became Professor of Neurology at Berlin University, a position which he continued to hold from 1912 to 1925, the year of his death. Cassirer studied in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. He received his doctorate in 1891 and subsequently was assistant at the psychiatric clinic in Breslau under Karl Wernicke (1848-1905) until 1893. He then went to Vienna, Austria, in order to continue his studies. In 1895 he came to the Berliner Poliklinik für Nervenkranke. With R. Hirschfeld he directed this clinic from 1919 until his death in 1925.

Cassirer chiefly concerned himself with clinical neurology as well as the anatomy of the central nervous system; he investigated the vasomotor-trophical and in this regard succeeded in defining the acroasphyxia chronica. He also investigated the anatomy of the vegetative system, the bulbar and spinal marrow diseases, poliomyelitis chronica, multiple sclerosis, prognoses and indications of the operative treatment of lesions of the peripheral nerves, muscular atrophy, etc. His later years were mainly devoted to writing a new edition of Oppenheimer's textbook.

In 1912 he first described a circulatory disease marked by an association of ovarian insufficiency and acrocyanosis with vasomotor-trophic disturbance of the skin, and disturbances of sensitivity caused by dysregulation of the vegetative nervous system which has been given the eponymic name of "Cassirer's syndrome" or "Crocq-Cassirer syndrome". In 1921, Cassirer was asked to give testimony regarding the mental condition of Soghomon Tehlirian, who was accused of murdering Talaat Pasha. Cassirer maintained that Tehlirian was not sane when he carried out the crime because of his psychotic state caused as a result of his family being victims of a war-time massacre.

Cassirer's portrait was painted by renowned artist Max Liebermann in 1918, and later presented to the Tate Gallery in London, England.
Frommer, Rudolf De Fegyvernek (1868-1936), arms expert, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He graduated in mechanical engineering from the Technical Academy in Budapest. Initially he worked in banking and then in the stock market. In 1896, at the age of 28, he accepted an appointment with the Hungarian Arms Company which had been founded in 1888. Frommer proved himself to be an inventive engineer and quickly rose to a leading position in the company. In 1903 Oscar Epperlein, the president, died unexpectedly and Frommer was chosen to succeed him. He led the company until his semi-retirement in 1930. He was succeeded by his eldedst son Stephen.

A variety of automatic pistols, rifles and machine-guns, designed by Frommer, were widely used by Hungarian and other European law enforcement agencies and armed forces. Many such weapons bore the Frommer name. They included the "Stop," "Liliputian," "Baby," and especially the 7.65 millimeter Frommer-revolver which was the official weapon used by the gendarmerie as well as in various branches of the postal, telegraph, forestry and other government services. Many hundred thousands of Frommer-Stops were used by the Austro-Hungarian, German, Turkish and Bulgarian armies during World War I.

After the conclusion of WWI, most of the company’s previous clients no longer existed or where prohibited from rearming so the company’s production capacity was turned over to household appliances and lamps as well as sporting guns. From 1938 the company reverted to military work, providing the Germany army with many products and the workforce grew to 4500. The factory was destroyed by allied bombing in 1944.

After WWI, in recognition of his patriotic services, Frommer was knighted, the suffix Fegyvernek was added to his name and, in 1928, he was appointed to the Hungarian House of Peers. Living more or less in retirement since 1930, he wrote and published (in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany), an authoritative volume on the impact of the war on Eastern European forests ["Einfluss des Weltkrieges auf die osteuropaische Forstwirtschaft unter besondern Berueksichtigung der Karpaten-forste"].
Philosopher

He was born in Prossnitz and studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Viennareceiving his doctorate in Vienna. While a young adult, he converted to Protestantism. In Vienna Husserl became increasingly interested in philosophy, which he was to teach at the University of Halle (1887-1901), and then at Goettingen (1906-16) and Freiburg (1916-29). He is regarded as one of the outstanding thinkers of the century and the father of phenomenology, which has been called the 'logic' of consciousness and has greatly influenced many aspects of modern culture. After his death, his voluminous manuscripts were secreted out of Nazi Germany. His writings and lectures were published (1950-66) in eleven volumes by the Husserl Archives at the University of Louvain.
Physicist

Born in Rexingen, he taught at Freiburg University before emigrating to England in 1933. There he was a researcher and then reader in theoretical physics at the University of Bristol (1935-1948) and professor of theoretical physics at Liverpool University from 1948. In 1951 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979), philosopher, sociologist and political theorist, born in Berlin, Germany. Marcuse became known as the "Father of the New Left." In 1916 he joined the German Army. He then became a member of a Soldiers' Council that participated in the 1919 aborted socialist Spartacist strike and uprising. He completed his Ph.D. thesis at the University of Freiburg in 1922 on German romantic literature after which he moved back to Berlin, where he worked in a publishing house. He returned to Freiburg in 1928 to study with Edmund Husserl, who developed the method of phenomenology believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, and wrote "Hegel's Ontology and Theory of Historicity". This study was written in the context of the Hegelian renaissance which was taking place in Europe with an emphasis on ontology, which studies the nature of existence of life and history, idealist theory of spirit and dialectic.

After the rise of Nazism, Marcuse emigrated first to Switzerland in 1934 and then to the USA, although he remained associated with the Frankfurt Institute for Social Development and in 1940 he published "Reason and Revolution", a dialectical work which examined G. W. F. Hegel and Karl Marx.

During World War 2, Marcuse first worked for the U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) on anti-Nazi propaganda projects and in 1943 he transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency. His work for the OSS involved research on Nazi Germany and denazification. After the dissolution of the OSS in 1945, Marcuse was until 1951 employed by the US Department of State as head of the Central European section.

In 1952 he began a teaching career as a political theorist, first at Columbia University, then at Harvard University, then at Brandeis University from 1958 to 1965, where he taught philosophy and politics, and finally, at the University of California, San Diego. He was a friend and collaborator of political sociologists and political philosophers and a friend of Columbia University sociology professor C. Wright Mills, one of the founders of the New Left movement. In the post-war period, Marcuse was the most explicitly political and left-wing member of the Frankfurt School and continued to identify himself as a Marxist, a socialist, and a Hegelian. Marcuse's criticism of capitalist society (especially in his 1955 synthesis of Marx and Freud, “Eros and Civilization”, and his 1964 book “One-Dimensional Man”) resonated with the concerns of the student movement in the 1960s. Because of his willingness to speak at student protests, Marcuse soon became known as "the father of the New Left in the United States". His work heavily influenced intellectual discourse on popular culture and scholarly popular culture studies. He was a popular speaker in the US and Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. Marcuse's 1965 essay "Repressive Tolerance", in which he claimed capitalist democracies can have totalitarian aspects, was strongly criticized by conservatives. In it he argued that genuine tolerance does not tolerate support for "repression", since doing so ensures that voices on the margins will remain unheard. He characterizes tolerance of repressive speech as "inauthentic". Instead, he advocates a form of tolerance that is intolerant of right wing political movements. His “An Essay on Liberation” in 1969, celebrating liberation movements such as those in Vietnam, inspired many radicals. In 1972 he wrote "Counterrevolution and Revolt", which argues that the hopes of the 1960s were facing a counterrevolution from the right.

After Brandeis University decided against the renewal of his teaching contract in 1965, Marcuse devoted his life to writing and lecturing around the world. His efforts brought him attention from the media, which claimed that he openly advocated violence, although he often clarified that only "violence of defense" could be appropriate, not "violence of aggression". He continued to promote Marxian theory, with some of his students helping to spread his ideas. Marcuse’s analysis of capitalism derives partially from one of Karl Marx’s main concepts. Marx believed that capitalism was exploiting humans; that the objects produced by laborers became alienated and thus ultimately dehumanized them to functional objects. Marcuse took this belief and expanded it. He argued that capitalism and industrialization pushed laborers so hard that they began to see themselves as extensions of the objects they were producing.
Baer, Yitzhak (1888-1980), historian and expert in Medieval Spanish Jewish history, born in Halberstadt, Germany. He studied history and philosophy at the universities of Berlin, Strasbourg, France, and Freiburg, Germany. In 1919 Baer became research associate of the Akademie fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, under whose auspices he twice visited Spain to obtain material about the history of Jews in Spain under the Christians. In 1930 he emigrated to Palestine in 1930 and he was appointed to lecturere in Medieval Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 1932 he was appointed professor. From 1930 to 1959 he was head of the university's department of Jewish history. In 1945, Baer was awarded the Bialik Prize for Jewish thought and in 1958 he was awarded the Israel Prize in Jewish studies

Baer was one of the founders of the Jewish historical review “Zion”, he was very active in the Israel Historical Society and one of the founder members of the Israel Academy of Sciences. He contributed several important articles to the German Encyclopedia Judaica.

As a result of his research into the history of Spanish Jewry he wrote "Studien zur Geschichte der Juden im Konigreich Aragonien: wahrend des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts" (Berlin, 1913), "Untersuchungen über Quellen und Komposition des Schebet Jehuda" (1923), and "History of Jews in Christian Spain" (Tel Aviv 1945), which is regarded as the standard work on the subject. Important amongst his studies of the development and history of Jewish communal organizations in the Middle Ages are "Das Protokollbuch der Landjudenschaft des Herzogtums Kleve: erster Teil: die Geschichte des Landjudenschaft Herzogtums Kleve" (1922) and "Galut" (1936). His method tried to bring out the internal forces which fashioned the Jewish communities within the framework of general history. He believed that the main features of Jewish communal organization were largely established during the 2nd Temple period. In “Peoples of Israel: Studies in the History of the Second Temple Period of the Mishna, the Foundations of Law and Faith. Jerusalem” (1955) Baer also investigated the spiritual and religious world of the the Jewish people. He concluded that the driving force of Jewish history lay in the continuing socioreligious activities of groups of pious men of faith who aimed at perfecting the world. Among his other numerous works is “Studies and Essays in the History of Israel” (1985, in Hebrew).

Baer is recognized as one of the most fruitful students and teachers of Jewish history in modern times
Kaufmann, Fritz (1891-1958), philosopher, born in Leipzig, Germany. Kaufmann was the assistant of philosopher and mathematician Edmund Husserl who founded the school of phenomenology at Freiburg, Germany. In 1936 Kaufmann went to Berlin to join the Hochschule fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums.

Two years later he fled from Nazi Germany and went to the USA where he was appointed to the faculty of Northwestern University and the University of Buffalo. He wrote several books on phenomenology and helped to popularise its teachings in America. He also wrote short biographies on Martin Buber, Cassirer, Thomas Mann, Nietzche, Goethe, Flaubert and has teacher Husserl.
Weiss, Bernhard (1880-1951), jurist and vice-president of Berlin police until the establishment of the German Nazi state, born in Berlin, Germany. Weiss studied law at the University of Berlin, University of Freiburg i.B., Germany, University of Wuerzburg, Germany, earning a doctorate in law. In 1908 he was commissioned as an officer in the Royal Bavarian Army, in WW1 he was promoted captain and was awarded the Iron Cross First Class. His three brothers and cousin also fought in the war, one was killed and another seriously injured.

Weiss made a name as an exceptionally efficient lawyer and judge before being the first Jew to enter the Home Service of pre-Weimar Gemany. He was appointed Deputy Chief of the Berlin Criminal Police in 1918, and became its head in 1925, then he was appointed Vice President of the Berlin police force in 1927. Dr Drews, the minister who appointed him said in 1932, when Weiss’s government career was ending, that “when we decided to appoint for the Home Service a Jew who was not baptized, we knew that the first had to be the best. It was you I chose and I am glad to say that you lived up to our expectations”. Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and then Vice-Chancellor when Adolf Hitler came to power, had Weiss and his superior arrested, albeit for one day only.

While in office, Weiss was the target of a constant campaign of vilification organized by Joseph Goebbels who nicknamed Weiss “Isidore” and the Weimar Republic as “The Jews Republic”. Weiss sued Goebbels for libel and won his case. Goebbels did not refrain and Weiss was not intimidated so in the end Weiss sued Goebbels over 40 times. The name of Dr. Weiss is clearly associated with the history of the Weimar Republic. From the days when he produced evidence of the subversive activities of the Russian trade delegation in Berlin to the hunt for the murderers of Walter Rathenau, the Jewish industrialist and politician who served the Weimar governments in several capacities including that of Foreign Minister in 1922, or in the struggles against the Communists and the Nazis alike Weiss was in the forefront of the efforts to preserve democracy in Germany.

Weiss finally decided to flee Germany a just few days before Hitler was made Chancellor. When his police force was ordered to arrest Weiss and Hermann Goering had offered to pay a reward for anyone who assisted in his capture, a friend drove him out of the country to Czechoslovakia. He then went to England where he opened a printing and stationery business and lived out the remainder of his life. After World War II he applied for his German nationality, of which he had been stripped in 1933, to be restored, he planned to go back and live in Berlin. On the way to a London hospital, a few days before he died of cancer, he was informed that his request for the restoration of his Germany nationality had been granted . Weiss died at the age of 71 in London.

"He was a man of extremes, a Jew imbibed with Prussian virtues, small of stature, large in responsible behavior and a staunch Democrat," wrote Uwe Dannenbaum in the "Die Welt" newspaper to mark the naming of the forecourt at the Friedrichstrasse Station in Berlin after the former police chief . The movie picture "The Man who Drove Goebbels" (2005) by Reiner Mathias Brueckner portrays Weiss as a resolute defender of the republican order. In 2007 the German Federation of Jewish soldiers started to award in his honour a medal for fellow Germans who had worked for understanding and tolerance.

Licco Amar  (1873-1959), violinist, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), he moved to Germany, where he studied the violin with Henri Marteau and became second violinist in his teacher’s quartet. Amar served as concertmaster of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra from 1915 until 1920 and of the National Theater Orchestra of Mannheim from 1920 until 1923. In 1921 he founded the Amar String Quartet which existed until 1929. The Quartet, in which Paul Hindemith played the viola, devoted itself mainly to the performance of new music. In 1933 Amar was forced to leave Germany and went to Turkey, where he taught from 1935 at the Ankara Conservatory. In 1957 he resettled in Germany and taught in Freiburg.
He died in Freiburg, Germany.

Hevesy, George Charles de (1885-1966), chemist, isotopes pioneer, and Nobel Prize winner, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), to a Roman Catholic family of Hungarian Jewish descent. He studied in Budapest and in Freiburg. In 1908, after obtaining his doctorate at Freiburg, he worked with Lorenz at the Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerlan, with Haber at Karlsruhe, and with Rutherford in Manchester, England. In 1913 he started to work with F. Paneth in Vienna, Austria, on radioactive isotopes. This was the beginning of the use of radioactive tracers or "labeled atoms," an important tool in chemical and biological research. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hevesy joined the Austro-Hungarian army as technical supervisor of the state electrochemical plant in the Carpathians. After the war he returned to Budapest and during the revolution of 1918-19 he resumed his studies of isotope tracers.

In 1920 he joined Niels Bohr at the new institute of theoretical physics in Copenhagen. There, together with D. Coster, he discovered a new element, no. 72, which he called hafnium. In 1923 he revealed in a paper the first use of radioactive tracers in a biological problem and in 1924 their first use in animal physiology. In 1926 Hevesy became professor at Freiburg, Germany; there he added a new field – X-ray fluorescence – as a method of analysis of trace materials in minerals, rocks, and meteorites.

In 1930 to 1931 Hevesy was one of the two George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturers in Chemistry at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N.Y. He lectured on analysis by means of X-ray, the discovery and character of hafnium, and the chemical composition of the earth and the comic abundance of the elements.

In 1934 he was forced to resign from his position at Freiburg on account of his Jewish originsand returned to the Copenhagen institute. The discovery of artificial radioactive elements immensely enhanced the utility of the tracer technique in research work. After 1938 Hevesy gave his whole attention to the use of this tool in biochemical research. When Copenhagen was no longer safe he escaped to Sweden where he continued his work. In 1943 he was awarded the Nobel Prize "for the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes." After World War II, Hevesy remained in Stockholm, Sweden, as professor in the institute of organic chemistry of the university. His biological work continued, largely on nucleic acids, the metabolism of iron and calcium, cancer anemia, and effects of radiation. Among Hevesy's other awards and honors were the "Pour le Merite" from the German president Heuss and the Atoms for Peace Award (New York, 1959).

His major published works are: "Recherches sur les proprietes du hafnium" (1925); "A Manual of Radiactivity" (co-author, Fritz Paneth, two additions); "Das Alter der Grundstoffe" (1929); "Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and Its Applications" (1932; translated also into Russian, 1935); "Artificial Radioactivity of Scandium" (1935); "Action of Neutrons on the Rare Earth Elements" (Hilde Levi, co-author, 1936); "Excretion of Phosphorus" (Ladislau Hahn and O. Rebbe, co-authors, 1939).
Legal scholar

Born in Freiburg, he was early a scholar of the classics and Talmud. He studied music and literature in Paris and Roman law in Freiburg and Goettingen. Daube taught law at Cambridge, England, 1938-51, was professor of jurisprudence at Aberdeen 1951-55 and Regius Professor of Civil Law at Oxford from 1955 to 1970 when he went as professor to the University of California at Berkeley. A world authority on Roman law, he also wrote important studies on biblical and talmudic law.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich (1883-1970), physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate, deciphered the chemical processes involved in respiration, born in Freiburg, Germany in 1883.

Warburg studied in Berlin and then at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, earning a Doctor of Medicine in 1911.

He was awarded the 1931 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine, "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme." Warburg also developed the manometric method for measurement of the products of biological processes.

During the Nazi regime in Germany, he was considered "half-Jew" by the racist law. As such, he managed to stay in Berlin, and then in a small village where he moved his laboratory in order to escape the air-raids during WW2.
Haas, Ludwig (1875-1930), politician, born and educated in Freiburg, Germany. He founded a Jewish students society in the town. He practiced law in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he was also elected to be a city councillor in 1908. He was to be a member of the city council until 1919. In 1912 he was elected a member of the Reichstag to represent the Progressive People's Party. Haas served in the German army during World War I and was decorated for his bravery on the Western Front. At the end of 1915 he became head of the Jewish section of the German military government of occupied Poland and worked to reorganize the Polish Jewish community and to formalize its relationship with the central government.

After the 1918 revolution in Germany, Haas became minister of the interior of the first republican government of Baden. He became chairman of the Progressive People's Party in the Reichstag in 1929. He was active in the Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, an organization dedicated to protecting the civil and social rights of Jews in Germany while at the same time, cultivating their German identity. The organization tried to combat anti-Semitism by showing that Jews were merely a religious group with no national characteristics or ambitions.
Jurist

Born in Freiburg. in 1926 he became assistant to the state attorney in Berlin, then a judge, and was a senior adviser in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. He demanded that Hitler be tried for treason and that the Nazi party be disbanded. When Hitler came to power, Kempner was arrested and on his release went to Italy where he taught until 1939. Then going to the United States, Kempner became a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania and worked on the Manhattan (atom bomb) Project. From 1946 to 1949 he was chief prosecutor of the Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. Thereafter he devoted himself to Holocaust research and helped the Israel government assemble evidence against Adolf Eichmann. He wrote many books on the Nazi era and connected post-War subjects.
HAYAH,HINDA FREIBURG
BENJAMIN,ERIC FREIBURGER
Husserl, Edmund Gustav Albrecht
Philosopher

He was born in Prossnitz and studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Viennareceiving his doctorate in Vienna. While a young adult, he converted to Protestantism. In Vienna Husserl became increasingly interested in philosophy, which he was to teach at the University of Halle (1887-1901), and then at Goettingen (1906-16) and Freiburg (1916-29). He is regarded as one of the outstanding thinkers of the century and the father of phenomenology, which has been called the 'logic' of consciousness and has greatly influenced many aspects of modern culture. After his death, his voluminous manuscripts were secreted out of Nazi Germany. His writings and lectures were published (1950-66) in eleven volumes by the Husserl Archives at the University of Louvain.
Elsa Levi-Muehsam reading her father's works, Freiburg, Germany, 1984
Stone commemorating the Freiburg synagogue, Germany, 1981
The synagogue of Freiburg, Germany, 1920-1930
Elsa Levi-Muehsam reading the literary works
of her father, the Jewish-Germant writer Paul Muehsam,
in Walterari Bookshop, Freiburg, Germany, 1984
Photo: Anne-Marie Brumm, Germany
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Anne-Marie Brumm, Germany)
Commemoration stone in the place where the synagogue of Freiburg in Breigau stood.
Germany, 1981.
The synagogue was built in 1870
and destroyed by the Nazis in 1938.
Photo: Robert F. Speyer, Germany.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
Courtesy of Robert F. Speyer, Germany)
The synagogue of Freiburg, built in 1870, Germany,
The synagogue destroyed during Kristallnacht
on November 9-10, 1938.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Robert F. Speyer, Germany)
FREIBURG
FREIBURG, FRIBOURG

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. This name has two possible sources. The name may derive from the city of Freiburg in Breisgau, Baden, in Germany, where Jews are known to have lived from the 13th century; or from the capital of the Swiss canton of Friburg, where Jews lived since the 14th century. The name may also be associated with Frei, the German for "freedom", which is one of the fundamental principles of Judaism. It is re-asserted year after year at Passover celebrating the Exodus from "the House of Bondage".

In the Diaspora, the term "Free" also had other connotations. In Jewish communities, a 'Free Man' was an unmarried man, a bachelor, which meant that he could be a potential Freier, that is a "suitor". Another meaning of the Yiddish and Hebrew slang word Freier/Fraier is "simpleton/sucker".

A number of Jewish family names comprising the word Frei can also be toponymics with connections to several place names. Freiberg, the German for "free mountain", is a town in Saxony (Germany) and the German name of Pribor, central Silesia (Czech Republic), as well as of Swiebodzice, lower Silesia (Poland), also known as Frybork and Freiburg. Freiburg ("free fortress/town") in Breisgau, Baden (Germany) is known to have had Jewish inhabitants since the 12th century and the Swiss town Freiburg (Fribourg) permitted Jews to settle there in the 14th century. Freistadt ("free town") is a town near Linz (Austria); Freistadt/Frystat, in Silesia, has become part of Karvina/Karwina/Karwin. Freistett is a locality in Baden (Germany), and Freistadl (literally "free small town"), is the German name of Hlohovec, Slovakia, known as Galgoc when it belonged to Hungary, where Jews lived since the 16th century. The adjective "Free" is documented as a family name in the form of Fray in Paris in 1789. Frey is recorded in France in 1792, Frei in Budapest (Hungary) in 1872. In 1957, a man called Frajermann Frenchified his name to Frajert.
Hauser, Franz
Licco Amar
Hevesy, George Charles de

Hauser, Franz (1794-1870), singer and teacher, born in Krasovice (Kraschowitz in German), near Prague,  Bohemia, Czech Republic (then part of the Austrian Empire). Over a period of many years he sang leading baritone roles in major opera houses throughout Europe, including those of Vienna (1828), London (1832), and Berlin (1835). In 1837 he settled in Vienna, where he became well-known as a teacher of singing. In 1846, he was appointed director of the Munich Conservatory, a post he held to 1865, when he was pensioned. He wrote a treatise on singing Gesanglehre.
Hauser died in Freiburg, Germany.

 

Licco Amar  (1873-1959), violinist, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), he moved to Germany, where he studied the violin with Henri Marteau and became second violinist in his teacher’s quartet. Amar served as concertmaster of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra from 1915 until 1920 and of the National Theater Orchestra of Mannheim from 1920 until 1923. In 1921 he founded the Amar String Quartet which existed until 1929. The Quartet, in which Paul Hindemith played the viola, devoted itself mainly to the performance of new music. In 1933 Amar was forced to leave Germany and went to Turkey, where he taught from 1935 at the Ankara Conservatory. In 1957 he resettled in Germany and taught in Freiburg.
He died in Freiburg, Germany.

Hevesy, George Charles de (1885-1966), chemist, isotopes pioneer, and Nobel Prize winner, born in Budapest, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary), to a Roman Catholic family of Hungarian Jewish descent. He studied in Budapest and in Freiburg. In 1908, after obtaining his doctorate at Freiburg, he worked with Lorenz at the Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerlan, with Haber at Karlsruhe, and with Rutherford in Manchester, England. In 1913 he started to work with F. Paneth in Vienna, Austria, on radioactive isotopes. This was the beginning of the use of radioactive tracers or "labeled atoms," an important tool in chemical and biological research. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hevesy joined the Austro-Hungarian army as technical supervisor of the state electrochemical plant in the Carpathians. After the war he returned to Budapest and during the revolution of 1918-19 he resumed his studies of isotope tracers.

In 1920 he joined Niels Bohr at the new institute of theoretical physics in Copenhagen. There, together with D. Coster, he discovered a new element, no. 72, which he called hafnium. In 1923 he revealed in a paper the first use of radioactive tracers in a biological problem and in 1924 their first use in animal physiology. In 1926 Hevesy became professor at Freiburg, Germany; there he added a new field – X-ray fluorescence – as a method of analysis of trace materials in minerals, rocks, and meteorites.

In 1930 to 1931 Hevesy was one of the two George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturers in Chemistry at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N.Y. He lectured on analysis by means of X-ray, the discovery and character of hafnium, and the chemical composition of the earth and the comic abundance of the elements.

In 1934 he was forced to resign from his position at Freiburg on account of his Jewish originsand returned to the Copenhagen institute. The discovery of artificial radioactive elements immensely enhanced the utility of the tracer technique in research work. After 1938 Hevesy gave his whole attention to the use of this tool in biochemical research. When Copenhagen was no longer safe he escaped to Sweden where he continued his work. In 1943 he was awarded the Nobel Prize "for the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes." After World War II, Hevesy remained in Stockholm, Sweden, as professor in the institute of organic chemistry of the university. His biological work continued, largely on nucleic acids, the metabolism of iron and calcium, cancer anemia, and effects of radiation. Among Hevesy's other awards and honors were the "Pour le Merite" from the German president Heuss and the Atoms for Peace Award (New York, 1959).

His major published works are: "Recherches sur les proprietes du hafnium" (1925); "A Manual of Radiactivity" (co-author, Fritz Paneth, two additions); "Das Alter der Grundstoffe" (1929); "Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and Its Applications" (1932; translated also into Russian, 1935); "Artificial Radioactivity of Scandium" (1935); "Action of Neutrons on the Rare Earth Elements" (Hilde Levi, co-author, 1936); "Excretion of Phosphorus" (Ladislau Hahn and O. Rebbe, co-authors, 1939).
Daube, David
Warburg, Otto Heinrich
Haas, Ludwig
Kempner, Robert Max Wasilii
Legal scholar

Born in Freiburg, he was early a scholar of the classics and Talmud. He studied music and literature in Paris and Roman law in Freiburg and Goettingen. Daube taught law at Cambridge, England, 1938-51, was professor of jurisprudence at Aberdeen 1951-55 and Regius Professor of Civil Law at Oxford from 1955 to 1970 when he went as professor to the University of California at Berkeley. A world authority on Roman law, he also wrote important studies on biblical and talmudic law.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich (1883-1970), physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate, deciphered the chemical processes involved in respiration, born in Freiburg, Germany in 1883.

Warburg studied in Berlin and then at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, earning a Doctor of Medicine in 1911.

He was awarded the 1931 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine, "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme." Warburg also developed the manometric method for measurement of the products of biological processes.

During the Nazi regime in Germany, he was considered "half-Jew" by the racist law. As such, he managed to stay in Berlin, and then in a small village where he moved his laboratory in order to escape the air-raids during WW2.
Haas, Ludwig (1875-1930), politician, born and educated in Freiburg, Germany. He founded a Jewish students society in the town. He practiced law in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he was also elected to be a city councillor in 1908. He was to be a member of the city council until 1919. In 1912 he was elected a member of the Reichstag to represent the Progressive People's Party. Haas served in the German army during World War I and was decorated for his bravery on the Western Front. At the end of 1915 he became head of the Jewish section of the German military government of occupied Poland and worked to reorganize the Polish Jewish community and to formalize its relationship with the central government.

After the 1918 revolution in Germany, Haas became minister of the interior of the first republican government of Baden. He became chairman of the Progressive People's Party in the Reichstag in 1929. He was active in the Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, an organization dedicated to protecting the civil and social rights of Jews in Germany while at the same time, cultivating their German identity. The organization tried to combat anti-Semitism by showing that Jews were merely a religious group with no national characteristics or ambitions.
Jurist

Born in Freiburg. in 1926 he became assistant to the state attorney in Berlin, then a judge, and was a senior adviser in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. He demanded that Hitler be tried for treason and that the Nazi party be disbanded. When Hitler came to power, Kempner was arrested and on his release went to Italy where he taught until 1939. Then going to the United States, Kempner became a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania and worked on the Manhattan (atom bomb) Project. From 1946 to 1949 he was chief prosecutor of the Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. Thereafter he devoted himself to Holocaust research and helped the Israel government assemble evidence against Adolf Eichmann. He wrote many books on the Nazi era and connected post-War subjects.