Search
Your Selected Item:
Photos
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions

Jewish scouts on the way to summer camp in France, Algiers, Algeria 1960

Print
Share
Jewish scouts, ages 8-12, on their way to the summer
camp in Sospel, South of France, waiting for the flight
at "White House" airport in Algiers.
The older scouts went to France by ship,
the sailing lasted 24 hours.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Elise Cohen-Yonatan, Israel)
ID Number:
230762
Image Purchase: For more details about image purchasing Click here, make sure you have the photo ID number (as appear above)
Nearby places:
Related items:

Algiers

In Arabic: الجزائر

Capital of Algeria

Algeria was once home to hundreds of thousands of Jews, most of whom left after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and after Algeria achieved independence from France in 1962. It is difficult to know how many Jews are living in Algeria as of the 21st century; historians estimate that there are a few dozen who practice Judaism in secret so as not to incur the wrath of Islamic extremists.

HISTORY

During the middle of the 13th century, the small Jewish community that had existed in Algiers grew after the expulsion of the Jews from Languedoc and, later, Majorca. Beginning in 1391 Jews from Spain began arriving in the city and began to prosper there. Spanish Jews eventually became the majority within the Jewish community and were the dominant figures in the cultural and economic life of the community. They lived in their own separate quarter, and opened their own synagogue and cemetery. Their first leader was Rabbi Saul HaCohen Astruc.

Under Turkish rule, which began during the 16th century, the Jews were employed as court physicians and advisors, and were also responsible for coining money and for the treasury accounts. In 1706 an outbreak of the plague, combined with a famine, impoverished a not-insignificant proportion of the Jewish community. The community then suffered another economic blow when a huge fine was imposed upon them, and the synagogues were also ordered destroyed; the Jewish community was able to save the synagogues only by paying more money on top of the already exorbitant fine.

Beginning in the 17th century, former Marranos from Portugal emigrated to Algiers in order to return to practicing Judaism openly. They were joined by other immigrants as Jews from Italy, Holland, and Morocco also arrived in the city. Among the European immigrants, called "Juif Francs" or "Francos," because they were free from the obligations of other Jews, and "Christian Jews" because they wore European clothes, were many diplomats who negotiated or signed various peace and trade treaties. Among them were Jacob de Paz, Isaac Sasportas, David Torres, Judah Cohen, and Soliman Jaquete.

Problems began to arise within the Jewish community when kabbalists Rabbi Joshua Sidun, Rabbi Joseph Abulker, and Rabbi Abraham Tubiana introduced new rituals into the synagogue, in accordance with the ideas of Isaac Luria (the famous kabbalist also known as "HaAri") from Safed. For centuries the synagogues of Algiers followed two different ritual traditions: that of the mekubbalim, the kabbalists, and the pashtanim, those who followed the customs of the original arrivals from Barcelona and Majorca.

The Spanish attempted to invade Algiers twice, first in 1541, and then in 1775. After both unsuccessful attempts, Algerian Jews established their own local Purim celebrations. Algerian Jews celebrate Purim-Adom on the 11th of the Jewish month of Cheshvan and on the 4th of the Jewish month of Av in memory of their rescue from the Spanish invasion in 1541 and 1775.

The late 16th until 18th centuries saw the Jewish community of Algiers grow and develop into a major religious and cultural center. This period of blossoming took place under eminent scholars such as Rabbi Abraham Tawa, Rabbi Moses Meshas, Rabbi Doctor Abraham Gavison (who was the physician of the Ottoman governor Euldj Ali), Rabbi Solomon Duran II and his student Rabbi Judah Khallas II, Rabbi Solomon Seror and his grandson Raphael-Jedidiah Seror, Rabbi Judah Ayash, the philosopher Rabbi Mas'ud Guenoun, and the poet Rabbi Nehorai Azubib.

In 1805 Naphtali Busnach, the head of the Jewish community and the advisor to the governor, was assassinated after the government decided that the support he enjoyed of the wealthy Jews of Algiers made him too powerful. Riots broke out against the Jews the day after the assassination and several hundred were killed. David Bakri became the next head of the community; he too was beheaded in 1811. Bakri was replaced by David Duran, who did not even last out the year before he, too, was also beheaded. Joseph Bacri was appointed as the next head of the community. When Rabbi Isaac Abulker protested against what he claimed were abuses by Bakri, he governor had him, along with six others, burned at the stake in 1815. After the French colonized Algiers in 1830, Joseph Bakri became "Chef de la Nation Israelite."

In 1830 there were approximately 5,000 Jews living in Algiers.

In 1870, Algerian Jews received full French citizenship and the rights that came with it. Waves of pogroms broke out shortly thereafter and the Jews of Algiers found themselves caught between the anti-Jewish sentiments of Algerian Muslims, who resented that the Jews were granted an equal status, and the French, who did not see the Jews as being "truly" French.

After World War I, a Zionist conference was organized in Algiers, the first in the state.

After 1900, the Jewish community of Algiers grew significantly, from 11,000 at the turn of the 20th century to 25,500 in 1941. Additionally, during World War II Algiers received over 1,000 Jewish refugees from Europe.

During World War II, the Jews of Algeria were stripped of their French citizenship by the Vichy government. They were also dismissed from public service jobs, and suffered from other forms of official discrimination. Their citizenship was restored in 1943.

The community suffered greatly during the Algerian War of Independence, during which most of the Jewish community supported the French who had emancipated them, as well as during its aftermath. In 1960, the Great Synagogue in Algiers was destroyed. The Maimonides rabbinical college was also closed. With the departure of the French, Algerian rule ushered in a period of militant Arab nationalism, growing Islamization, and anti-Zionism. When independence was declared in 1962, over 30,000 Jews left the city; by the end of the year only about 2,500 remained. Unusual among Jews emigrating from Arab countries, the vast majority of the Jews of Algeria left for France, not Israel.

our Open Databases
Jewish Genealogy
Family Names
Jewish Communities
Visual Documentation
Jewish Music Center
Photos
אA
אA
אA
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions
Jewish scouts on the way to summer camp in France, Algiers, Algeria 1960
Jewish scouts, ages 8-12, on their way to the summer
camp in Sospel, South of France, waiting for the flight
at "White House" airport in Algiers.
The older scouts went to France by ship,
the sailing lasted 24 hours.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Elise Cohen-Yonatan, Israel)
Image Purchase: For more details about image purchasing Click here, make sure you have the photo ID number (as appear above)

Algiers

Algiers

In Arabic: الجزائر

Capital of Algeria

Algeria was once home to hundreds of thousands of Jews, most of whom left after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and after Algeria achieved independence from France in 1962. It is difficult to know how many Jews are living in Algeria as of the 21st century; historians estimate that there are a few dozen who practice Judaism in secret so as not to incur the wrath of Islamic extremists.

HISTORY

During the middle of the 13th century, the small Jewish community that had existed in Algiers grew after the expulsion of the Jews from Languedoc and, later, Majorca. Beginning in 1391 Jews from Spain began arriving in the city and began to prosper there. Spanish Jews eventually became the majority within the Jewish community and were the dominant figures in the cultural and economic life of the community. They lived in their own separate quarter, and opened their own synagogue and cemetery. Their first leader was Rabbi Saul HaCohen Astruc.

Under Turkish rule, which began during the 16th century, the Jews were employed as court physicians and advisors, and were also responsible for coining money and for the treasury accounts. In 1706 an outbreak of the plague, combined with a famine, impoverished a not-insignificant proportion of the Jewish community. The community then suffered another economic blow when a huge fine was imposed upon them, and the synagogues were also ordered destroyed; the Jewish community was able to save the synagogues only by paying more money on top of the already exorbitant fine.

Beginning in the 17th century, former Marranos from Portugal emigrated to Algiers in order to return to practicing Judaism openly. They were joined by other immigrants as Jews from Italy, Holland, and Morocco also arrived in the city. Among the European immigrants, called "Juif Francs" or "Francos," because they were free from the obligations of other Jews, and "Christian Jews" because they wore European clothes, were many diplomats who negotiated or signed various peace and trade treaties. Among them were Jacob de Paz, Isaac Sasportas, David Torres, Judah Cohen, and Soliman Jaquete.

Problems began to arise within the Jewish community when kabbalists Rabbi Joshua Sidun, Rabbi Joseph Abulker, and Rabbi Abraham Tubiana introduced new rituals into the synagogue, in accordance with the ideas of Isaac Luria (the famous kabbalist also known as "HaAri") from Safed. For centuries the synagogues of Algiers followed two different ritual traditions: that of the mekubbalim, the kabbalists, and the pashtanim, those who followed the customs of the original arrivals from Barcelona and Majorca.

The Spanish attempted to invade Algiers twice, first in 1541, and then in 1775. After both unsuccessful attempts, Algerian Jews established their own local Purim celebrations. Algerian Jews celebrate Purim-Adom on the 11th of the Jewish month of Cheshvan and on the 4th of the Jewish month of Av in memory of their rescue from the Spanish invasion in 1541 and 1775.

The late 16th until 18th centuries saw the Jewish community of Algiers grow and develop into a major religious and cultural center. This period of blossoming took place under eminent scholars such as Rabbi Abraham Tawa, Rabbi Moses Meshas, Rabbi Doctor Abraham Gavison (who was the physician of the Ottoman governor Euldj Ali), Rabbi Solomon Duran II and his student Rabbi Judah Khallas II, Rabbi Solomon Seror and his grandson Raphael-Jedidiah Seror, Rabbi Judah Ayash, the philosopher Rabbi Mas'ud Guenoun, and the poet Rabbi Nehorai Azubib.

In 1805 Naphtali Busnach, the head of the Jewish community and the advisor to the governor, was assassinated after the government decided that the support he enjoyed of the wealthy Jews of Algiers made him too powerful. Riots broke out against the Jews the day after the assassination and several hundred were killed. David Bakri became the next head of the community; he too was beheaded in 1811. Bakri was replaced by David Duran, who did not even last out the year before he, too, was also beheaded. Joseph Bacri was appointed as the next head of the community. When Rabbi Isaac Abulker protested against what he claimed were abuses by Bakri, he governor had him, along with six others, burned at the stake in 1815. After the French colonized Algiers in 1830, Joseph Bakri became "Chef de la Nation Israelite."

In 1830 there were approximately 5,000 Jews living in Algiers.

In 1870, Algerian Jews received full French citizenship and the rights that came with it. Waves of pogroms broke out shortly thereafter and the Jews of Algiers found themselves caught between the anti-Jewish sentiments of Algerian Muslims, who resented that the Jews were granted an equal status, and the French, who did not see the Jews as being "truly" French.

After World War I, a Zionist conference was organized in Algiers, the first in the state.

After 1900, the Jewish community of Algiers grew significantly, from 11,000 at the turn of the 20th century to 25,500 in 1941. Additionally, during World War II Algiers received over 1,000 Jewish refugees from Europe.

During World War II, the Jews of Algeria were stripped of their French citizenship by the Vichy government. They were also dismissed from public service jobs, and suffered from other forms of official discrimination. Their citizenship was restored in 1943.

The community suffered greatly during the Algerian War of Independence, during which most of the Jewish community supported the French who had emancipated them, as well as during its aftermath. In 1960, the Great Synagogue in Algiers was destroyed. The Maimonides rabbinical college was also closed. With the departure of the French, Algerian rule ushered in a period of militant Arab nationalism, growing Islamization, and anti-Zionism. When independence was declared in 1962, over 30,000 Jews left the city; by the end of the year only about 2,500 remained. Unusual among Jews emigrating from Arab countries, the vast majority of the Jews of Algeria left for France, not Israel.