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Solomon Gluck

Solomon (Abraham Solomon) Gluck (1914-1944), physician and member of the French Resistance during WW II, born in Zurich, Switzerland, into a Jewish Hassidic family from Tarnow, Poland (then part of Austria-Hungary). The family settled in Strasbourg, France, in 1921. He attended high schools and then studied medicine at the University of Strasbourg, graduating in 1939. When WW II broke out in 1939, he returned to France from his internship in London and joined the French army. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, but was released in 1941. Despite being forbidden to practice due to the anti-Semitic policies of the Vichy regime, he worked as a physician for an orphanage in Broût-Vernet that was part of a network created by the Œuvre de secours aux enfants, a Jewish organization that was instrumental in rescuing Jewish children and providing health care to persecuted Jews. Gluck settled in in Brive-la-Gaillarde, where along with her wife Antoinette Feuerwerker and her sister Rose Warfman, he joined the Combat French Resistance Movement where he worked together with Edmond Michelet (1899-1970), a future minister of justice in early 1960s, and one of the first leaders of the French Resistance. He was arrested by the French fascist militia in Lyon in 1944. After being detained in a number of prisons, including Drancy camp, he was deported on May 11, 1944, to an unknown destination in either Lithuania or Estonia, where he was murdered.

Date of birth:
1914
Date of death:
1944
ID Number:
22348004
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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GLUCK

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name derives from a personal characteristic or nickname. Gluck is a spelling variant of Glueck, both of them meaning "(good) luck", from which the popular Jewish female personal name Glueck(e)l was developed, and which was a popular name for women since the Middle Ages. Being associated with the German word for "luck" (Glueck), it became a popular matronymic surname (name derived from a maternal ancestor's personal name) among Jews.

The name may also be a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. As a Jewish family name, Glick could also be an abbreviation of Gluecksburg, a town in Schleswig, north Germany, not far from Glueckstadt, where Jews lived since the 17th century.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Gluck include the Romanian-born American soprano, Alma Gluck (1884-1938), who was a star of the New York Metropolitan Opera, and the 20th century Hungarian-born Israeli physicist, Paul Gluck.

Antoinette (Antonia, Toni) Feuerwerker (born Toibe Rochel Gluck) (1912-2003), lawyer, educator and member of the French Resistance during WW II, born in Antwerp, Belgium, into a Jewish Hassidic family from Tarnow, Poland (then part of Austria-Hungary). The family moved to Zurich, Switzerland, and then settled in Strasbourg, France, in 1921. She attended the Lycée des Pontonniers in Strasbourg, and then studied law at the University of Strasbourg graduating in 1936. She moved to Paris, where she married Rabbi David Feuerwerker. In June 1940 the family left Paris and settled in Brive-la-Gaillarde. Along with her husband and sister Rose Warfman, she joined the Combat French Resistance Movement where she worked together with Edmond Michelet (1899-1970), a future minister of justice in early 1960s, and one of the first leaders of the French Resistance. Antoinette Feuerwerker was the only wife of a rabbi to join the French Resistance. While her husband managed to flee to Switzerland, she along with her daughter, the future historian Atara Marmor (born Betty Anne Feuerwerker) (1943-2003), was hidden in a Catholic convent and then by a French teacher in Lyon.

After WW II, she was a collaborator of her husband in Lyon and Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, before moving to Montreal, Canada, in 1966. In Montreal she was a teacher of law and economics at the French college. She immigrated to Israel in 2000 and died in Jerusalem.

Rose Warfman (nee Gluck) (1916-2016), member of the French Resistance during WW II and Holocaust survivor, born in Zurich, Switzerland, into a Jewish Hassidic family who immigrated to Switzerland from Tarnow, Poland (then part of Austria-Hungary). From Switzerland the family moved to Strasbourg, France, in 1921. She attended the Lycée des Pontonniers in Strasbourg and then she studied at Ecole de puériculture in Paris raduating as a nurse.
After the German occupation of France, along with her sister Antoinette Feuerwerker and her husband, Rabbi David Feuerwerker, she joined the Combat French Resistance Movement where she worked together with Edmond Michelet (1899-1970), a future minister of justice in early 1960s, and one of the first leaders of the French Resistance. She was arrested in Brive-la-Gaillarde in April 1944 and deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz. In Auschwitz she survived medical experiences by the notorious Nazi doctor Joseph Mengele and then the Gross-Rosen concentration camp from which she was liberated by the Soviet army in February 1945. After WW II, along with Alexandre Glasberg, she activated on behalf of Jewish refugees trying to immigrate to British Mandate Palestine by providing them with forged documents. She then was the first and only employee of the El Al Israeli Airlines at its office in Paris. Warfman was appointed Officier de la Légion d'honneur in 2009. She died in Manchester, UK, where she lived during her last years, a couple of weeks before her 100th anniversary.

Robert Emmanuel Brunschwig (1888-1944), rabbi, community leader and resistance member during World War 2, born in Altkirch, Alsace, France (Then part of Germany). Brunschwig studied at the Hildesheimer Rabbinal Seminary in Berlin, Germany, and, at the same time, he attended courses at the University of Berlin. His first appointment was that of military chaplain of the Saar region in western Germany, when it was occupied by France after World War I. He resigned from this position in 1920 when he was appointed rabbi of the "Etz Haim" orthodox congregation in Strasbourg. He held the position for twenty years during which time he organized a intensive and well regarded Talmud Torah directed by Salomon Speier, a pupil of Rabbi Salomon Breuer and in 1926, established a branch of the Yechouroun youth movement which had originally been founded by Samson Raphael Hirsch in Germany.

Yechouroun's members included many future leaders of the French Orthodox Jewish community including Samy Klein, Aron Wolf, Théo Klein (1913-2007), Antoinette Feuerwerker, Rose Warfman, Salomon Gluck, Josy Eisenberg, Benjamin Gross, Jacquot Grunewald, Henri Ackermann, Liliane Ackermann, André Neher, Gilles Bernheim and René Gutman.

From 1932 Brunschwig began to send students to the recently founded Yeshiva of Montreux in Switzerland. He was a member of the Agudat Yisrael movement and participated in its third assembly held in Marienbad, now in the Czech Republic, in 1937.

After the armistice in 1940, Rabbi Brunschwig again took up the duties of army chaplain in Vichy France. He went to Lyons where he became rabbi of a small congregation and took care of the needs of the city's Orthodox community and in particular of those who had fled from Paris and the north of France and were now living in many parts of the town. He became an active member of the Resistance movement and was frequently in danger of being arrested. In an effort to protect him, he was given a forged certificate of citizenship of the state of San Salvador. Nevertheless he, together with his wife, were arrested in May 1944. They were killed in Auschwitz within two weeks.

Achille Naftalis (born Ichil Halevi Naftalis) (1909-1984), physician and community leader, born in Bacau, Romania, the seventh of nine siblings. Since the anti-Jewish policy of numerus clausus that limited the number of Jewish students at Romanian universities, he moved to France where he studied medicine at the University of Toulouse and then at Faculté de médecine de Paris graduating in 1936. He was drafted into the French army and became a military physician. He took part in the battles against the invading German army in May-June 1940. He was captured and detained as POW from June 1940 until February 1941. Because the anti-Semitic policy of the collaborationist regime of Vichy that cancellated his French nationality, he left Paris and until the end of the German occupation he lived in a village in the region of Versailles, where he joined the French Resistance.
After WW II he lived in Paris working as a specialist of occupational medicine for several international companies, including American Express, Time Inc., Guaranty Trust, and El Al Israel Airlines. In parallel, Naftalis served as administrator of the Synagogue des Tournelles and then President of the Adath Israel synagogue where he was in charge of its renovation and enlargement and the building of a mikveh. In 1978 he immigrated to Israel and lived in Ramat Gan.

Achile Naftalis was married to Hedwige Hendel Gluck (1913-1984), the sister of Rose Warfman (1916-2016), Antoinette Feuerwerker (1912-2003), and Solomon Gluck (1914-1944) and he was the brother-in-law of Rabbi David Feuerwerker (1912-1980).

Zurich

Capital of the Canton of Zurich, North Switzerland

Jews first arrived in Zurich in 1273, settling in a street that eventually became known as the "Judengasse" (later renamed the "Froschaugasse"). Their taxes were paid to Emperor Rudolf I of Hapsburg, but in many other respects they were dependent on the town, which pledged to protect them and authorized them to engage in moneylending in exchange for a fee of ten marks. The Jews of Zurich were also allowed to acquire property. In spite of this relative openness, they were still forced to comply with rules, such as the compulsion to remain indoors during Holy Week.

The principal occupation of the Jews of Zurich was moneylending, which they practiced successfully; indeed, their borrowers included the municipality and the leading aristocratic families. They also lent considerable sums to towns abroad, such as Wuerzburg, Venice, and Frankfort. Additionally, some of Zurich's Jews engaged in religious scholarship. The Talmudist Moses of Zurich, author of "Glosses on the Semak (Sefer Mitzvot Katan, also known as "Semak Zurich"), lived in Zurich during the early 14th century.

As the Black Death spread through Switzerland, the rumor that the Jews had caused the plague by poisoning the wells reached Zurich at the end of 1348. At first the municipal council attempted to protect the Jews, but it was ultimately forced to surrender to the will of the populace. A number of Jews were burned at the stake on February 22, 1349, and their belongings were confiscated by the municipal council. The emperor promptly protested, demanding compensation; once he had received it, he absolved the council from the charge of murder. In spite of the massacre of 1349, Jews reappeared in the town as early as 1352. Several expulsion orders were issued, in 1425, 1435, and 1436, but the fact that there were a relatively large number of expulsion orders issued indicates that none of them were strictly enforced. However, when the Jew Eiron (Aaron) of Lengnau was executed in Zurich in 1634 for blasphemy, the Jews were fully and absolutely expelled.

After the French Revolution a few Jews attempted to reestablish themselves in Zurich, but it was only after the emancipation of the Jews of Switzerland in 1866 that a new community was established, largely by migrants from Endingen and Lengnau. The first synagogue of the modern community was inaugurated in 1883, and the community grew to become the leading Jewish community of Switzerland.

In 1960 there were 6,143 Jews living in Zurich. The secretariat of the Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund had its headquarters in the town. In 1970 Zurich had three Jewish communities: the moderately Orthodox Israelitische Cultursgemeinde (ICZ), the Orthodox Israelitische Religionsgesellschaft, and Agudas Achim. Each synagogue had its own religious institutions and officials associated with it. A full-time Jewish school was founded and in 1970 it had enrolled more than 145 pupils.

In 1997 there were about 6,800 Jews living in Zurich.

Strasbourg

The capital of Alsace, Eastern France

The earliest evidence of a Jewish presence in Strasbourg dates from 1188; Jews fled from the area during the anti-Jewish persecutions of the Third Crusade, but they appear to have returned after a short while. The size of the Jewish community, as well as its economic power, is reflected in the fact that in 1242 it paid the highest tax of all of the Jewish communities of the empire. In 1306, the Jewish population numbered about 300. Moneylending appears to have been their sole economic activity, and their customers included Christian religious institutions and noblemen.

The patrician municipality sought to protect the Jews during the Black Death persecutions, pogroms in European cities that began in 1348, after rumors spread that Jews were poisoning the wells in order to spread the plague. Unlike the majority of local governments, the city council attempted to protect its Jewish residents. Nonetheless, a new council arose in 1349 after a rebellion by the local population, who became convinced that the previous council was protecting the Jews because the council had been bribed by them. After the coup, the Jews of Strasbourg were no longer protected. Beginning St. Valentine's Day, Saturday, February 14, 1349, and lasting for approximately 6 days, at least 1,000 Jews were killed, many of whom were burned alive. The only people spared were those who chose to accept baptism. Jewish property was distributed among those who carried out the massacre. On September 12, 1349, Emperor Charles IV officially pardoned the town for the massacre of the Jews and the plunder of their possessions. Jews were not allowed to settle in the city. Every evening at 10:00pm the tolling of the cathedral bell and a municipal herald blowing a horn reminded any Jews in the city that it was time to leave.

In spite of the town's decision to prohibit the settlement of Jews, a number of Jews were authorized to reside there from 1369 onward, but only if they paid extremely high fees. The Jewish population numbered at least 25 families when they were again expelled from Strasbourg at the end of 1388. Those who had been banished settled in surrounding villages, where they continued to maintain commercial relations with the inhabitants of Strasbourg.

One of the most important figures from the area is Josel of Rosheim, (also known as Joselin, Joselmann, Yoselmann, Josel von Rosheim in German, Joseph ben Gershon mi-Rosheim or Joseph ben Gershon Loanz in Hebrew), who advocated for the Jews of Germany and Poland, and who was eventually appointed by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I as governor of all Jews of Germany. Among his numerous activities on behalf of the Jews of Alsace in general, and Strasbourg in particular, in 1543 he sent a petition to the magistrate of Strasbourg, in which he comprehensively refuted the assertions made by Martin Luther in his pamphlets "Concerning the Jews and their Lies" and "Concerning the Shem Ha-Meforash." As a result of Josel's efforts, the magistrate blocked the publication of the new edition of Luther's book.

Once the town came under French sovereignty in 1681, the severity of the anti-Jewish measures were eased, or even temporarily suspended; nonetheless, Jews were still prohibited from settled in Strasbourg, and were still subject to special taxes. In fact, a special mention was made of Strasbourg, where "the Jews are subjected to a corporal tax which reduces them to the level of animals." It was not until the French Revolution, 1789-1799, that restrictions on the Jews in France began to be significantly eased; full emancipation was grated to Sephardic Jews in 1790, and to Ashkenazi Jews in 1791. In spite of strong opposition from the local population, immediately after the National Assembly had granted Jews the rights of citizenship, many returned to established themselves in Strasbourg. In 1806, seven delegates represented the 1,500 Jews of Strasbourg at the Assembly of Notables, and that same year Napoleon appointed Rabbi Joseph David Sinzheim, the Chief Rabbi of Strasbourg, as president of the newly created "Great Sanhedrin."

The community, which was constantly growing, soon built a number of important institutions. In addition to synagogues, a vocational school was founded in 1825, and an old age home, "Elisa," was built in 1853. There was even a short-lived rabbinical seminary that was opened in 1885. The German annexation of 1871 was responsible for the departure of a number of Jews for France, though anti-Semitic violence in the town decreased under the new rule.

The interwar period saw a particularly rapid growth in the local population, in spite of the fact that the rate of immigration from abroad was much lower in Strasbourg than in other towns. In 1931, of the almost 8,500 Jews who were living in Strasbourg, over 60% were born in France.

The entire population of Strasbourg was evacuated to the Southwest of France when World War II broke out in September 1939. After the French surrender in June 1940, the Jewish community succeeded in setting up basic provisional arrangements, including setting up a synagogue and a welfare bureau in Perigueux and a synagogue in Limoges. In Strasbourg proper, the Nazis set fire to the Quai Kleber synagogue, which had been erected in 1898 and systematically destroyed all traces of the structure. Strasbourg Jews set up and directed agricultural schools. Under the auspices of OSE (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants, Children's Aid Society), they helped open clinics and children's homes. They also organized rescue missions to Switzerland or to Palestine (via Spain) for infants and older children.

Rabbi Hirschler, Robert Brunschwig, and Elie Cyper, along with youth leader Leo Cohn, were arrested and deported to death camps. Rabbi Samy Klein and Aron Wolf were killed while active in the resistance.

About 10,000 Jews lived in Strasbourg on the eve of World War II. 8,000 returned after the liberation; 1,000 died in concentration camps, and another 1,000 decided to settle elsewhere. In 1965 there were 12,000 Jews in Strasbourg (4.5% of the total population). This increase was the result of natural growth, immigration from smaller Alsatian centers, immigration from Central Europe, and refugees arriving from North Africa. The number of mixed marriages between Jews and non-Jews increased by 40% between 1960 and 1965.

Strasbourg Jewry was one of the most active communities in Europe after World War II, and many of the institutions created since 1945 stressed Jewish education. The University of Strasbourg has a chair of Jewish Studies, which was held by the scholar and philosopher Andre Neher.

Anti-Semitism is still an issue in Strasbourg, though it is generally more latent than it had been throughout the history of the city. The Alsatian population established organizations to prevent the return of Jewish property confiscated in 1940 to the owners, and later banded together to prevent the erection of a synagogue on town land.

London

The capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. 

21ST CENTURY

Behind Israel, the United States, France, and Canada, the United Kingdom boasts the fifth-largest Jewish population worldwide and the second-largest in Europe. Nearly two-thirds of Britain’s Jews live in Greater London, which is three out of every five Jews living in the United Kingdom. The Jewish population is principally concentrated in the northern boroughs of Barnet and Hackney. According to the 2011 UK census, approximately 172,000 Jews live in London, with more than 54,000 living in Barnet alone.

By the end of the 20th century, sizeable Jewish communities had developed in the areas of Golders Green and Stamford Hill. Located in the London Borough of Barnet, Golders Green is an area noted especially for its large Jewish community and for having the largest kosher hub in the entire United Kingdom. The Jews of Barnet account for one in five of all the Jews in England and Wales.

The district of Stamford Hill in Hackney is best known for its population of Hasidic Jews. At approximately 30,000 people, it is the largest concentration of Hasidic Jews in Europe. A once-small religious community that had lived in the area at the end of the 19th century was largely augmented by the influx of pre-war refugees and Holocaust survivors. Since then, the Haredi community has experienced continued growth with arrivals from Israel and North America. Due to the ultra-Orthodox nature of the area, Stamford Hill is often referred to as the “square mile of piety.” In this small geographical area are over 70 synagogues, many of which are associated with congregations which originated in Eastern Europe, including the Satmar and Belz dynasties, two of the largest Jewish sects represented in the community.

Stamford Hill is also home to a sizeable community of Yemenite Jews, specifically Adeni Jews from the former British protectorate of Aden. Between 1947 and 1967, nearly the entire population emigrated from Aden, settling primarily in Israel and the United Kingdom.

The London Jewish community is served by a wide range of social welfare organizations, including several local councils and international charities. Among them are the Board of Deputies of British Jews, Community Security Trust, the Jewish Learning Exchange, the Jewish Leadership Council, Jewish Women’s Aid, the Jewish Historical Society of England, the London Jewish Forum, the Center for Jewish Life, and the Anglo Jewish Association.

The primary focus of many of these organizations is to organize and fund cultural events and educational programs for families and young adults. Others, like the London Jewish Forum, promote active engagement of the Jewish community with civic life. Since the 1970s, there have been more than sixty Zionist organizations which supported various institutions in Israel.

Philanthropic organizations include the World Jewish Relief, the JNF Charitable Trust and Norwood. World Jewish Relief was established in 1933 as a fund for German Jews which rescued over 100,000 Jews prior to World War II; Norwood is one of the oldest charities in the United Kingdom and is well known for its support of children and people with disabilities. The organization has many celebrity patrons and supporters, including Chief Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, Sir Elton John, and Simon Cowell.

In terms of health and social services, Jewish Care is the largest provider of healthcare for the communities of London and the South East. This organization operates more than seventy centers throughout the United Kingdom.

There are more than 150 active synagogues located throughout Greater London. Several Jewish movements are represented, including Orthodox, Chabad, Masorti, Reform, Liberal, and independent. The number of strictly Orthodox or Haredi synagogues has more than doubled since the 1990s, chiefly due to the growth of Hasidic groups in the district of Stamford Hill. By 2014, the ultra-Orthodox community of London accounted for 18% of the Jewish population. The Belvis Marks Synagogue, built in 1701 by Sephardic Jews from Spain and Portugal, is the oldest synagogue still in use in the United Kingdom.

London is home to about 37 Jewish primary schools, 54 nursery schools, and as many as 14 secondary schools. The majority of Jewish children in the United Kingdom live in Greater London; those from non-Haredi families make up 50% of the children enrolled in Jewish primary schools. According to a 2015 government report, London’s Jewish schools are among the best in England. Many of London’s synagogues provide Jewish education. Outside of the Haredi community, the majority of London’s Jewish students attend schools which are separate from congregations but may be associated with the major streams of Judaism.

One of the most famous Jewish schools in Britain is located in London, the Jews’ Free School (JFS); it was established in 1732 and was at one time the largest Jewish school in Europe. Another well-known Jewish school is the Jewish Community Secondary School; established in 2010 in New Barnet, London; it is state-funded and cross-denominational. A notable institution which provides Jewish educational programs for adults is the London School of Jewish Studies. The roots of the college go back to 1855 when Chief Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler opened the Jews’ College in Finsbury Square. After a rebrand in 1999, the London School of Jewish Studies (LSJS) shifted its focus and become a hub of academic study.

In Greater London are several social associations and community programs dedicated to promoting a Jewish life and advancing Jewish causes. One in particular is Spiro Ark, a charitable organization that organizes Jewish cultural events and educational programs. Another is the Center for Jewish Life, which provides a wide array of social programs, educational events, and activities for Jews to connect with each other. Located at the University College London Union is the JSC, one of the largest Jewish societies for Jewish students in the United Kingdom. There are also fifteen Chabad centers found in central London.

As the nucleus of Jewish cohesion and culture in Britain, the city of London hosts a number of museums and memorials. One of its most famous is the Hyde Park Holocaust Memorial; unveiled in 1983, it was the first Holocaust memorial in Great Britain.

Ben Uri –The London Jewish Museum of Art is a public art gallery that was founded in 1915 and remains Europe’s only Jewish art museum. The Jewish Military Museum commemorates the Jewish contribution to British forces going back three hundred years. Providing an insight into British Jewish history is the Jewish Museum of London. Among its permanent exhibitions is the Holocaust Gallery, Judaism: A Living Faith, The Mikveh, and History: A British Story.

The first Jewish Community Center in London is the London Cultural Center (JW3), which has become the leading center for adult education and for the arts.

The Weiner Library is home to one of the world’s most extensive Holocaust archives. Established in 1933, it includes over one million items, including eyewitness testimony, photos, and published and unpublished works.

Other Jewish landmarks in London include the Rothschild Archive in St. Swithin’s lane, the Freud Museum, the Bevis Marks Synagogue, the statue of Benjamin Disraeli at Parliament Square, and the Jewish East End, site of the historical Jewish Socialist Club. There are also more than twenty kosher restaurants, four kosher hotels, and many Judaica shops found throughout the north of the city.

The largest amount of publications on Jewish topics emanate from London. These include newspapers, magazines, books and other media. Circulating throughout Greater London is The Jewish Chronicle; founded in 1841, it is the oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the world. In 1896, it published Theodor Herzl’s historic article “Solution of the Jewish Question”.

Another weekly published newspaper is The Jewish News. Named Free Newspaper of the Year in 2003 by Press Gazette, it provides local, national and international news and entertainment for the Jewish communities of Greater London, Middlesex, Hertfordshire and Essex.

The Jewish Tribune is a privately owned Haredi weekly newspaper based in Stamford Hill. It is the fourth largest Jewish publication in England.

Broadcasted by the Spectrum Radio Network is Sunday Jewish Radio, a weekly program on Jewish themes.

 

HISTORY

After the Norman conquest of 1066, a few Jews arrived in London from the nearby areas of Europe (chiefly the Duchy of Normandy, including Rouen), attracted mainly by the economic opportunities that the city offered. The earliest recorded mention of the London community dates from the reign of William Rufus (1087-1100), who appears to have favored the Jews to a certain extent.

In 1130, in what was possibly a blood libel, the Jews of London were accused of killing a sick man and were forced to pay an enormous fine. Other outbreaks of antisemitism took place during the coronation of Richard I (September 3,1189) and during the reign of John (1199-1216); John’s reign, and that of his son Henry III (1216-1272) saw the opposition of the barons to the Jews, and there was a baronial attack on London Jewry in 1215. Nonetheless, Jewish intellectual during this period flourished; among other accomplishments, it attracted the Biblical commentator Abraham ibn Ezra, who wrote his Iggeret Ha-Shabbat and his Yesod Mora in London in 1158.

During the reign of Henry III the Jews of London, along with those of the rest of the country, were oppressed. The climax came in 1224 when it was alleged that some gashes found on the body of a dead child were Hebrew letters and the Jews were accused of ritual murder. This resulted in a punitive fine on the Jewish community. In 1232 Henry III confiscated the main London synagogue on the pretext that the chanting could be heard in a neighboring church. In 1278 a number of London Jews were among the 680 who were imprisoned in the tower of London on forgery charges. Nearly 300 are said to have been hanged. Shortly thereafter, in 1283 the Bishop of London ordered that all synagogues in the diocese to be closed (one was later reopened).
In 1290, the Jews were expelled from England and the Jewish community of London ceased to exist.
In 1509, after the expulsions from Spain and Portugal, a few crypto-Jewish refugees settled in London; by the end of Henry VIII’s reign in 1547, there were approximately 37 crypto-Jewish families living in London. However, in 1609 the Portuguese merchants living in London, who were suspected of Judaizing, were expelled. Nevertheless, when the crypto-Jewish community of Ruen was (temporarily) dissolved in 1632, a number of fugitives, including Antonio Fernandez Carvajal, found a home in London. Thus, when Manasseh ben Israel went to England in 1655, there was already an established secret Jewish community in London that became increasingly visible. In March of 1657 a petition was presented to Cromwell asking for protection, and the following December a house was rented and used as a synagogue. A few months later the community purchased land for a cemetery.

After Cromwell's death in 1658 numerous attempts were made to persecute and stem the grown of the community. Charles II, however, intervened in its favor, and bestowed de facto recognition on the community. A synagogue on Cree Church Lane was enlarged and remodeled in 1674, and in 1701 a new place of worship was built in Bevis Marks. As the community was reestablishing itself, considerable numbers of Spanish and Portuguese Jews began arriving from Holland. Ashkenazim soon followed, most of whom arrived via Amsterdam or Hamburg. They organized their own congregation around 1690, and eventually became the more influential and populous Jewish community in London.
The Sephardic and Ashkenazi communities proved able to work together in establishing and running a number of community institutions. The board for kosher slaughter, in which Sephardim and Ashkenazim cooperated, was organized through the advocacy of Baron Lyon de Symons between 1792 and 1804. As early as 1760 the Sephardi community admitted Ashkenazi representatives to their governing committee, which was appointed to deal with the government on behalf of the Jewish community. This ultimately developed into the Board of Deputies of British Jews, which represented the Jewish communities of London until 1838, after which it began to represent Jewish communities outside of London, in addition to the ones within the city.

The Ashkenazi community’s Talmud Torah, which was established in 1732, was reorganized in 1817 as the Jews' Free School. This school eventually developed into one of the largest schools in Europe.

 

19TH CENTURY

The struggle for Jewish emancipation in England centered in London, and was a process that developed in stages throughout the years. Beginning in 1830 the city of London had shown its support of parliamentary emancipation, most notably by electing Baron Lionel de Rothschild, in spite of the fact that he could not take his seat because of the statutory oath. Nonetheless, this became very influential when it came to the ultimate admission of Jews to the Parliament in 1858. In 1831 Jews were granted the privilege of being able to engage in retail trade, from which they had hitherto been barred. In 1835, David Salomons was elected a sheriff of the city, the first Jewish person to serve in that office. In 1847 Salomons became the first Jewish alderman, and in 1855 the first Jewish Lord Mayor of London.
The growing Anglicization of London Jewry led to a number of community developments. A Reform congregation was established in 1840. Sephardi and Ashkenazi congregations established branch synagogues in the West End. A modern theological seminary, Jews' College, was founded in 1855, and a charitable organization, the Board of Guardians for the Relief of the Jewish Poor, was established in 1859. The United Synagogue, an umbrella organization for the major Ashkenazi congregations in London, was established in 1870. In 1887 Sir Samuel Montagu (later Lord Swaythling) created the Federation of Synagogues in order to coordinate the various religious activities that took place in the different synagogues.
The mass emigration from Russia that began in 1881 led to a mass influx of Eastern European Jews to London. As a result, the next 25 years saw London’s Jewish population rise from about 47,000 to approximately 150,000. Most of the new immigrants worked as tailors, shoemakers, and cabinetmakers. A Yiddish press and an active trade union movement were established to meet the needs of this growing immigrant population.

 

20TH CENTURY

The Aliens Act of 1905 limited immigration, though smaller numbers of Jewish immigrants continued to arrive until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Later, a considerable number of refugees arrived from Germany after the Nazi rise to power in 1933.

As Jews became more established in London, they tended to move. East End Jews who managed to work their way up the socioeconomic ladder tended to move to the newer suburbs, particularly those in the northeast of the city, to Stamford Hill, and the northwest, to Golders Green). The interwar period saw significant numbers of London’s Jews moving from the East End to the northern suburbs, as many within the community became well-established and successful. This movement led to the establishment of a number of Jewish institutions in the suburbs. A Jewish museum and a community center for the major Jewish institutions of London were established at Woburn House in the Bloomsbury area.
The total Jewish population of greater London in 1970 was estimated at 280,000. In 1997 it was estimated at 300,000.

 

Lyon

Lyons

The capital of the Rhone Department, East Central France

According to a medieval Jewish legend, Jews first arrived at Lyons when one of the three boats loaded with Jews who were taken captive during the fall of Jerusalem docked at Lyons. A well-known figure who did arrive in Lyons from the Land of Israel was Herod Antipas, a son of Herod and the Tetrarch of the Galilee, who was exiled to the city by the Roman Emperor Caligula in 39 C.E. Lyons seems to have had a Jewish population in the 2nd century, but little is known about the community, or the extent of the Jewish presence there, until the beginning of the 9th century where there is evidence of a large, prosperous, and powerful Jewish community in the city. The Jews there owned slaves and employed a number of Christian laborers in their homes and commercial or agricultural businesses. The wine they produced was sold to Jews and Christians, and both communities were also customers of the Jewish butchers. The Jews who were connected to the imperial palace received gifts of luxurious clothing from the ladies of the court for their wives. Some Jews were employed in public service, especially as tax collectors. Their religious services also appear to have been attended by Christians, who declared that they preferred the preaching of the Jews to that of the Catholic priests.

Such attitudes could have only served to irritate the local bishop, Bishop Agobard, who had hoped to find the local Jews receptive to Christianity. An attempt in 820 to convert Jewish children encountered determined resistance from the parents and required the intervention of the emperor. Louis the Pious had to intervene on several other occasions against Bishop Agobard, sometimes dispatching his special envoys in charge of Jewish affairs, the Magister Judaeorum, to keep the peace. Amulo, Agobard's successor, also attempted to work against the Jews of Lyons, but without success.

During the Middle Ages, the Jews lived on the Rue Juiverie at the foot of Fourviere Hill. When they were expelled in 1250 they were living on the present-day Rue Ferrachat. During the following century Jews only visited Lyons for short periods, but during the second half of the 14th century there were, once again, Jewish settlers in the city; they contributed municipal taxes and special officials were appointed who had authority over them. Since the city was not part of the Kingdom of France, this new community was not affected by the expulsion order of 1394. They were, nevertheless, expelled some years later, around 1420, and most moved to the neighboring Trevoux.

During the 16th century, groups of Jews would sporadically appear in Lyon, before leaving or being forced out; for example, a group of Jews arrived in Lyons in 1548 (probably from Spain and Portugal), but they were ultimately forced to leave. Joseph Nasi allegedly opened a bank in Lyon that was eventually closed down by Henri II. A more permanent community formed more gradually, consisting of families from Comtat Venaissin, Alsace, and Bordeaux, but mainly from Avignon. In 1775, the community officially requested permission to open a cemetery. At first they were assigned space on grounds next to the city hospital; twenty years later they were able to purchase a cemetery at La Guillotiere. Nevertheless, the number of Jews in the city remained small, and they had no synagogue or permanent prayer room.

The community became part of the consistory (a group governing the Jewish congregations of an area) of Marseilles in 1808. Though it was a small community, with the influx of people from Alsace and Lorraine the number of Jews in Lyon rose to 300 in 1830, and 700 in 1840. The majority were lower or middle class and they inhabited two main quarters on the Rue Lanterne and Rue de la Barre. A prosperous industrialist, Samuel Heyman de Ricqles, became a leader of the community around 1838. He attempted to organize the Jewish community, and initiate institutional reforms. His authoritative style and manner, however, did not endear him to the community, and in 1842 he stepped down. The Great Synagogue of Lyons was built in 1864 on the Quai Tilsitt.

The number of Jews grew to 1,000 in 1848, and 1,200 in 1854. The community hired a salaried rabbi in 1850, and in 1857 it formed its own consistory. This new consistory also included Saint-Etienne (Jewish population: 116), Chalon-Sur-Saone (Jewish pop.: 125), Besancon (Jewish pop.: 379), and Montbeliard (Jewish pop.: 202). Among its presidents were Solomon Reinach and Generals Levy and Worms, and Solomon Munk represented Lyons at the Central Consistory.

At the beginning of the 20th century, with the arrival of immigrants from the Mediterranean region, a Sephardi community was formed in the suburb of Saint-Fons. On the eve of World War II Lyons had 500-600 Jewish families.

During World War II, after the Franco-German agreement of June 1940, Lyons was a "free" city. It therefore became a refuge for Jews and Jewish organizations, particularly the Central Consistory and philanthropic and Zionist institutions; a large number of Jewish leaders were ultimately arrested there. Official and unofficial information, instructions to Jewish communities in France, protests against anti-Jewish measures, and secret orders of the resistance all emanated from Lyons. A center for Jewish Studies was created for refugee intellectuals; the conductor and composer Leon Algazi was one of the more well-known contributors to this initiative. Additionally, the OSE (Oeuvre de secours aux enfants, a French Jewish humanitarian organization) set up a reception center for Jewish.

During the occupation Lyon provided sanctuary to large numbers of Jews. It was also a large center of the Jewish Resistance Movement, which often operated in total isolation, but sometimes had the support of Catholic and Protestant groups or the civil and administrative authorities. Catholic resistance to Nazi persecution was uncharacteristically strong in the area, perhaps as a result of the pastoral letter by Cardinal Pierre-Marie Gerlier on September 6, 1942, which was read in all churches in Lyons and his diocese.

The chief of the Gestapo, Klaus Barbie, directed the repression against the resistance and against the Jews of the area. The arrests, torture, and deportations peaked in August 1944. Prisoners from the "Jewish Quarters" in the Monluc Fort Prison were taken to Bron Airfield to de-mine the area after a bombardment. The remains of 109 bodies of men and women were found after the war.

After the war, many Jewish refugees settled permanently in Lyons but the community, with an estimated 7,000 Jews, was barely larger than it had been in 1939. With the economic expansion of the city and an influx of immigrants from North Africa, the Jewish population increased to over 20,000 in 1969.

In 1961 one of the first, and most prominent, community centers in France was opened in Lyons; a regional consistory was also founded that year. The community also managed to maintain a full-time school. The various communal bodies, Orthodox, Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Consistorial, worked closely together. A new synagogue was opened in 1966 in La Duchere, a new quarter of the city.

The general area contained a number of synagogues notably at Villeurbanne, with a Jewish population of 1,800. In 1965, a synagogue was built with the help of Akton Suehnezeichen ("Repentance Society"), a group of young Germans anxious to expiate Nazi crimes. A synagogue and community center was also established at Saint Fons-Venissieux, which had a Jewish population of about 1,200 industrial workers, most of whom arrived there from North Africa between the World Wars.

In 1995 a car bomb exploded near the entrance to a Jewish school in Villeurbanne, injuring 14 people. An investigation revealed it to be an act of terrorism.

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Solomon Gluck

Solomon (Abraham Solomon) Gluck (1914-1944), physician and member of the French Resistance during WW II, born in Zurich, Switzerland, into a Jewish Hassidic family from Tarnow, Poland (then part of Austria-Hungary). The family settled in Strasbourg, France, in 1921. He attended high schools and then studied medicine at the University of Strasbourg, graduating in 1939. When WW II broke out in 1939, he returned to France from his internship in London and joined the French army. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, but was released in 1941. Despite being forbidden to practice due to the anti-Semitic policies of the Vichy regime, he worked as a physician for an orphanage in Broût-Vernet that was part of a network created by the Œuvre de secours aux enfants, a Jewish organization that was instrumental in rescuing Jewish children and providing health care to persecuted Jews. Gluck settled in in Brive-la-Gaillarde, where along with her wife Antoinette Feuerwerker and her sister Rose Warfman, he joined the Combat French Resistance Movement where he worked together with Edmond Michelet (1899-1970), a future minister of justice in early 1960s, and one of the first leaders of the French Resistance. He was arrested by the French fascist militia in Lyon in 1944. After being detained in a number of prisons, including Drancy camp, he was deported on May 11, 1944, to an unknown destination in either Lithuania or Estonia, where he was murdered.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
GLUCK
GLUCK

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name derives from a personal characteristic or nickname. Gluck is a spelling variant of Glueck, both of them meaning "(good) luck", from which the popular Jewish female personal name Glueck(e)l was developed, and which was a popular name for women since the Middle Ages. Being associated with the German word for "luck" (Glueck), it became a popular matronymic surname (name derived from a maternal ancestor's personal name) among Jews.

The name may also be a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. As a Jewish family name, Glick could also be an abbreviation of Gluecksburg, a town in Schleswig, north Germany, not far from Glueckstadt, where Jews lived since the 17th century.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Gluck include the Romanian-born American soprano, Alma Gluck (1884-1938), who was a star of the New York Metropolitan Opera, and the 20th century Hungarian-born Israeli physicist, Paul Gluck.
Antoinette Feuerwerker

Antoinette (Antonia, Toni) Feuerwerker (born Toibe Rochel Gluck) (1912-2003), lawyer, educator and member of the French Resistance during WW II, born in Antwerp, Belgium, into a Jewish Hassidic family from Tarnow, Poland (then part of Austria-Hungary). The family moved to Zurich, Switzerland, and then settled in Strasbourg, France, in 1921. She attended the Lycée des Pontonniers in Strasbourg, and then studied law at the University of Strasbourg graduating in 1936. She moved to Paris, where she married Rabbi David Feuerwerker. In June 1940 the family left Paris and settled in Brive-la-Gaillarde. Along with her husband and sister Rose Warfman, she joined the Combat French Resistance Movement where she worked together with Edmond Michelet (1899-1970), a future minister of justice in early 1960s, and one of the first leaders of the French Resistance. Antoinette Feuerwerker was the only wife of a rabbi to join the French Resistance. While her husband managed to flee to Switzerland, she along with her daughter, the future historian Atara Marmor (born Betty Anne Feuerwerker) (1943-2003), was hidden in a Catholic convent and then by a French teacher in Lyon.

After WW II, she was a collaborator of her husband in Lyon and Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, before moving to Montreal, Canada, in 1966. In Montreal she was a teacher of law and economics at the French college. She immigrated to Israel in 2000 and died in Jerusalem.

Rose Warfman

Rose Warfman (nee Gluck) (1916-2016), member of the French Resistance during WW II and Holocaust survivor, born in Zurich, Switzerland, into a Jewish Hassidic family who immigrated to Switzerland from Tarnow, Poland (then part of Austria-Hungary). From Switzerland the family moved to Strasbourg, France, in 1921. She attended the Lycée des Pontonniers in Strasbourg and then she studied at Ecole de puériculture in Paris raduating as a nurse.
After the German occupation of France, along with her sister Antoinette Feuerwerker and her husband, Rabbi David Feuerwerker, she joined the Combat French Resistance Movement where she worked together with Edmond Michelet (1899-1970), a future minister of justice in early 1960s, and one of the first leaders of the French Resistance. She was arrested in Brive-la-Gaillarde in April 1944 and deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz. In Auschwitz she survived medical experiences by the notorious Nazi doctor Joseph Mengele and then the Gross-Rosen concentration camp from which she was liberated by the Soviet army in February 1945. After WW II, along with Alexandre Glasberg, she activated on behalf of Jewish refugees trying to immigrate to British Mandate Palestine by providing them with forged documents. She then was the first and only employee of the El Al Israeli Airlines at its office in Paris. Warfman was appointed Officier de la Légion d'honneur in 2009. She died in Manchester, UK, where she lived during her last years, a couple of weeks before her 100th anniversary.

Robert Emmanuel Brunschwig

Robert Emmanuel Brunschwig (1888-1944), rabbi, community leader and resistance member during World War 2, born in Altkirch, Alsace, France (Then part of Germany). Brunschwig studied at the Hildesheimer Rabbinal Seminary in Berlin, Germany, and, at the same time, he attended courses at the University of Berlin. His first appointment was that of military chaplain of the Saar region in western Germany, when it was occupied by France after World War I. He resigned from this position in 1920 when he was appointed rabbi of the "Etz Haim" orthodox congregation in Strasbourg. He held the position for twenty years during which time he organized a intensive and well regarded Talmud Torah directed by Salomon Speier, a pupil of Rabbi Salomon Breuer and in 1926, established a branch of the Yechouroun youth movement which had originally been founded by Samson Raphael Hirsch in Germany.

Yechouroun's members included many future leaders of the French Orthodox Jewish community including Samy Klein, Aron Wolf, Théo Klein (1913-2007), Antoinette Feuerwerker, Rose Warfman, Salomon Gluck, Josy Eisenberg, Benjamin Gross, Jacquot Grunewald, Henri Ackermann, Liliane Ackermann, André Neher, Gilles Bernheim and René Gutman.

From 1932 Brunschwig began to send students to the recently founded Yeshiva of Montreux in Switzerland. He was a member of the Agudat Yisrael movement and participated in its third assembly held in Marienbad, now in the Czech Republic, in 1937.

After the armistice in 1940, Rabbi Brunschwig again took up the duties of army chaplain in Vichy France. He went to Lyons where he became rabbi of a small congregation and took care of the needs of the city's Orthodox community and in particular of those who had fled from Paris and the north of France and were now living in many parts of the town. He became an active member of the Resistance movement and was frequently in danger of being arrested. In an effort to protect him, he was given a forged certificate of citizenship of the state of San Salvador. Nevertheless he, together with his wife, were arrested in May 1944. They were killed in Auschwitz within two weeks.

Achille Naftalis

Achille Naftalis (born Ichil Halevi Naftalis) (1909-1984), physician and community leader, born in Bacau, Romania, the seventh of nine siblings. Since the anti-Jewish policy of numerus clausus that limited the number of Jewish students at Romanian universities, he moved to France where he studied medicine at the University of Toulouse and then at Faculté de médecine de Paris graduating in 1936. He was drafted into the French army and became a military physician. He took part in the battles against the invading German army in May-June 1940. He was captured and detained as POW from June 1940 until February 1941. Because the anti-Semitic policy of the collaborationist regime of Vichy that cancellated his French nationality, he left Paris and until the end of the German occupation he lived in a village in the region of Versailles, where he joined the French Resistance.
After WW II he lived in Paris working as a specialist of occupational medicine for several international companies, including American Express, Time Inc., Guaranty Trust, and El Al Israel Airlines. In parallel, Naftalis served as administrator of the Synagogue des Tournelles and then President of the Adath Israel synagogue where he was in charge of its renovation and enlargement and the building of a mikveh. In 1978 he immigrated to Israel and lived in Ramat Gan.

Achile Naftalis was married to Hedwige Hendel Gluck (1913-1984), the sister of Rose Warfman (1916-2016), Antoinette Feuerwerker (1912-2003), and Solomon Gluck (1914-1944) and he was the brother-in-law of Rabbi David Feuerwerker (1912-1980).

Zurich
Zurich

Capital of the Canton of Zurich, North Switzerland

Jews first arrived in Zurich in 1273, settling in a street that eventually became known as the "Judengasse" (later renamed the "Froschaugasse"). Their taxes were paid to Emperor Rudolf I of Hapsburg, but in many other respects they were dependent on the town, which pledged to protect them and authorized them to engage in moneylending in exchange for a fee of ten marks. The Jews of Zurich were also allowed to acquire property. In spite of this relative openness, they were still forced to comply with rules, such as the compulsion to remain indoors during Holy Week.

The principal occupation of the Jews of Zurich was moneylending, which they practiced successfully; indeed, their borrowers included the municipality and the leading aristocratic families. They also lent considerable sums to towns abroad, such as Wuerzburg, Venice, and Frankfort. Additionally, some of Zurich's Jews engaged in religious scholarship. The Talmudist Moses of Zurich, author of "Glosses on the Semak (Sefer Mitzvot Katan, also known as "Semak Zurich"), lived in Zurich during the early 14th century.

As the Black Death spread through Switzerland, the rumor that the Jews had caused the plague by poisoning the wells reached Zurich at the end of 1348. At first the municipal council attempted to protect the Jews, but it was ultimately forced to surrender to the will of the populace. A number of Jews were burned at the stake on February 22, 1349, and their belongings were confiscated by the municipal council. The emperor promptly protested, demanding compensation; once he had received it, he absolved the council from the charge of murder. In spite of the massacre of 1349, Jews reappeared in the town as early as 1352. Several expulsion orders were issued, in 1425, 1435, and 1436, but the fact that there were a relatively large number of expulsion orders issued indicates that none of them were strictly enforced. However, when the Jew Eiron (Aaron) of Lengnau was executed in Zurich in 1634 for blasphemy, the Jews were fully and absolutely expelled.

After the French Revolution a few Jews attempted to reestablish themselves in Zurich, but it was only after the emancipation of the Jews of Switzerland in 1866 that a new community was established, largely by migrants from Endingen and Lengnau. The first synagogue of the modern community was inaugurated in 1883, and the community grew to become the leading Jewish community of Switzerland.

In 1960 there were 6,143 Jews living in Zurich. The secretariat of the Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund had its headquarters in the town. In 1970 Zurich had three Jewish communities: the moderately Orthodox Israelitische Cultursgemeinde (ICZ), the Orthodox Israelitische Religionsgesellschaft, and Agudas Achim. Each synagogue had its own religious institutions and officials associated with it. A full-time Jewish school was founded and in 1970 it had enrolled more than 145 pupils.

In 1997 there were about 6,800 Jews living in Zurich.

Strasbourg
Strasbourg

The capital of Alsace, Eastern France

The earliest evidence of a Jewish presence in Strasbourg dates from 1188; Jews fled from the area during the anti-Jewish persecutions of the Third Crusade, but they appear to have returned after a short while. The size of the Jewish community, as well as its economic power, is reflected in the fact that in 1242 it paid the highest tax of all of the Jewish communities of the empire. In 1306, the Jewish population numbered about 300. Moneylending appears to have been their sole economic activity, and their customers included Christian religious institutions and noblemen.

The patrician municipality sought to protect the Jews during the Black Death persecutions, pogroms in European cities that began in 1348, after rumors spread that Jews were poisoning the wells in order to spread the plague. Unlike the majority of local governments, the city council attempted to protect its Jewish residents. Nonetheless, a new council arose in 1349 after a rebellion by the local population, who became convinced that the previous council was protecting the Jews because the council had been bribed by them. After the coup, the Jews of Strasbourg were no longer protected. Beginning St. Valentine's Day, Saturday, February 14, 1349, and lasting for approximately 6 days, at least 1,000 Jews were killed, many of whom were burned alive. The only people spared were those who chose to accept baptism. Jewish property was distributed among those who carried out the massacre. On September 12, 1349, Emperor Charles IV officially pardoned the town for the massacre of the Jews and the plunder of their possessions. Jews were not allowed to settle in the city. Every evening at 10:00pm the tolling of the cathedral bell and a municipal herald blowing a horn reminded any Jews in the city that it was time to leave.

In spite of the town's decision to prohibit the settlement of Jews, a number of Jews were authorized to reside there from 1369 onward, but only if they paid extremely high fees. The Jewish population numbered at least 25 families when they were again expelled from Strasbourg at the end of 1388. Those who had been banished settled in surrounding villages, where they continued to maintain commercial relations with the inhabitants of Strasbourg.

One of the most important figures from the area is Josel of Rosheim, (also known as Joselin, Joselmann, Yoselmann, Josel von Rosheim in German, Joseph ben Gershon mi-Rosheim or Joseph ben Gershon Loanz in Hebrew), who advocated for the Jews of Germany and Poland, and who was eventually appointed by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I as governor of all Jews of Germany. Among his numerous activities on behalf of the Jews of Alsace in general, and Strasbourg in particular, in 1543 he sent a petition to the magistrate of Strasbourg, in which he comprehensively refuted the assertions made by Martin Luther in his pamphlets "Concerning the Jews and their Lies" and "Concerning the Shem Ha-Meforash." As a result of Josel's efforts, the magistrate blocked the publication of the new edition of Luther's book.

Once the town came under French sovereignty in 1681, the severity of the anti-Jewish measures were eased, or even temporarily suspended; nonetheless, Jews were still prohibited from settled in Strasbourg, and were still subject to special taxes. In fact, a special mention was made of Strasbourg, where "the Jews are subjected to a corporal tax which reduces them to the level of animals." It was not until the French Revolution, 1789-1799, that restrictions on the Jews in France began to be significantly eased; full emancipation was grated to Sephardic Jews in 1790, and to Ashkenazi Jews in 1791. In spite of strong opposition from the local population, immediately after the National Assembly had granted Jews the rights of citizenship, many returned to established themselves in Strasbourg. In 1806, seven delegates represented the 1,500 Jews of Strasbourg at the Assembly of Notables, and that same year Napoleon appointed Rabbi Joseph David Sinzheim, the Chief Rabbi of Strasbourg, as president of the newly created "Great Sanhedrin."

The community, which was constantly growing, soon built a number of important institutions. In addition to synagogues, a vocational school was founded in 1825, and an old age home, "Elisa," was built in 1853. There was even a short-lived rabbinical seminary that was opened in 1885. The German annexation of 1871 was responsible for the departure of a number of Jews for France, though anti-Semitic violence in the town decreased under the new rule.

The interwar period saw a particularly rapid growth in the local population, in spite of the fact that the rate of immigration from abroad was much lower in Strasbourg than in other towns. In 1931, of the almost 8,500 Jews who were living in Strasbourg, over 60% were born in France.

The entire population of Strasbourg was evacuated to the Southwest of France when World War II broke out in September 1939. After the French surrender in June 1940, the Jewish community succeeded in setting up basic provisional arrangements, including setting up a synagogue and a welfare bureau in Perigueux and a synagogue in Limoges. In Strasbourg proper, the Nazis set fire to the Quai Kleber synagogue, which had been erected in 1898 and systematically destroyed all traces of the structure. Strasbourg Jews set up and directed agricultural schools. Under the auspices of OSE (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants, Children's Aid Society), they helped open clinics and children's homes. They also organized rescue missions to Switzerland or to Palestine (via Spain) for infants and older children.

Rabbi Hirschler, Robert Brunschwig, and Elie Cyper, along with youth leader Leo Cohn, were arrested and deported to death camps. Rabbi Samy Klein and Aron Wolf were killed while active in the resistance.

About 10,000 Jews lived in Strasbourg on the eve of World War II. 8,000 returned after the liberation; 1,000 died in concentration camps, and another 1,000 decided to settle elsewhere. In 1965 there were 12,000 Jews in Strasbourg (4.5% of the total population). This increase was the result of natural growth, immigration from smaller Alsatian centers, immigration from Central Europe, and refugees arriving from North Africa. The number of mixed marriages between Jews and non-Jews increased by 40% between 1960 and 1965.

Strasbourg Jewry was one of the most active communities in Europe after World War II, and many of the institutions created since 1945 stressed Jewish education. The University of Strasbourg has a chair of Jewish Studies, which was held by the scholar and philosopher Andre Neher.

Anti-Semitism is still an issue in Strasbourg, though it is generally more latent than it had been throughout the history of the city. The Alsatian population established organizations to prevent the return of Jewish property confiscated in 1940 to the owners, and later banded together to prevent the erection of a synagogue on town land.

London, UK

London

The capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. 

21ST CENTURY

Behind Israel, the United States, France, and Canada, the United Kingdom boasts the fifth-largest Jewish population worldwide and the second-largest in Europe. Nearly two-thirds of Britain’s Jews live in Greater London, which is three out of every five Jews living in the United Kingdom. The Jewish population is principally concentrated in the northern boroughs of Barnet and Hackney. According to the 2011 UK census, approximately 172,000 Jews live in London, with more than 54,000 living in Barnet alone.

By the end of the 20th century, sizeable Jewish communities had developed in the areas of Golders Green and Stamford Hill. Located in the London Borough of Barnet, Golders Green is an area noted especially for its large Jewish community and for having the largest kosher hub in the entire United Kingdom. The Jews of Barnet account for one in five of all the Jews in England and Wales.

The district of Stamford Hill in Hackney is best known for its population of Hasidic Jews. At approximately 30,000 people, it is the largest concentration of Hasidic Jews in Europe. A once-small religious community that had lived in the area at the end of the 19th century was largely augmented by the influx of pre-war refugees and Holocaust survivors. Since then, the Haredi community has experienced continued growth with arrivals from Israel and North America. Due to the ultra-Orthodox nature of the area, Stamford Hill is often referred to as the “square mile of piety.” In this small geographical area are over 70 synagogues, many of which are associated with congregations which originated in Eastern Europe, including the Satmar and Belz dynasties, two of the largest Jewish sects represented in the community.

Stamford Hill is also home to a sizeable community of Yemenite Jews, specifically Adeni Jews from the former British protectorate of Aden. Between 1947 and 1967, nearly the entire population emigrated from Aden, settling primarily in Israel and the United Kingdom.

The London Jewish community is served by a wide range of social welfare organizations, including several local councils and international charities. Among them are the Board of Deputies of British Jews, Community Security Trust, the Jewish Learning Exchange, the Jewish Leadership Council, Jewish Women’s Aid, the Jewish Historical Society of England, the London Jewish Forum, the Center for Jewish Life, and the Anglo Jewish Association.

The primary focus of many of these organizations is to organize and fund cultural events and educational programs for families and young adults. Others, like the London Jewish Forum, promote active engagement of the Jewish community with civic life. Since the 1970s, there have been more than sixty Zionist organizations which supported various institutions in Israel.

Philanthropic organizations include the World Jewish Relief, the JNF Charitable Trust and Norwood. World Jewish Relief was established in 1933 as a fund for German Jews which rescued over 100,000 Jews prior to World War II; Norwood is one of the oldest charities in the United Kingdom and is well known for its support of children and people with disabilities. The organization has many celebrity patrons and supporters, including Chief Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, Sir Elton John, and Simon Cowell.

In terms of health and social services, Jewish Care is the largest provider of healthcare for the communities of London and the South East. This organization operates more than seventy centers throughout the United Kingdom.

There are more than 150 active synagogues located throughout Greater London. Several Jewish movements are represented, including Orthodox, Chabad, Masorti, Reform, Liberal, and independent. The number of strictly Orthodox or Haredi synagogues has more than doubled since the 1990s, chiefly due to the growth of Hasidic groups in the district of Stamford Hill. By 2014, the ultra-Orthodox community of London accounted for 18% of the Jewish population. The Belvis Marks Synagogue, built in 1701 by Sephardic Jews from Spain and Portugal, is the oldest synagogue still in use in the United Kingdom.

London is home to about 37 Jewish primary schools, 54 nursery schools, and as many as 14 secondary schools. The majority of Jewish children in the United Kingdom live in Greater London; those from non-Haredi families make up 50% of the children enrolled in Jewish primary schools. According to a 2015 government report, London’s Jewish schools are among the best in England. Many of London’s synagogues provide Jewish education. Outside of the Haredi community, the majority of London’s Jewish students attend schools which are separate from congregations but may be associated with the major streams of Judaism.

One of the most famous Jewish schools in Britain is located in London, the Jews’ Free School (JFS); it was established in 1732 and was at one time the largest Jewish school in Europe. Another well-known Jewish school is the Jewish Community Secondary School; established in 2010 in New Barnet, London; it is state-funded and cross-denominational. A notable institution which provides Jewish educational programs for adults is the London School of Jewish Studies. The roots of the college go back to 1855 when Chief Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler opened the Jews’ College in Finsbury Square. After a rebrand in 1999, the London School of Jewish Studies (LSJS) shifted its focus and become a hub of academic study.

In Greater London are several social associations and community programs dedicated to promoting a Jewish life and advancing Jewish causes. One in particular is Spiro Ark, a charitable organization that organizes Jewish cultural events and educational programs. Another is the Center for Jewish Life, which provides a wide array of social programs, educational events, and activities for Jews to connect with each other. Located at the University College London Union is the JSC, one of the largest Jewish societies for Jewish students in the United Kingdom. There are also fifteen Chabad centers found in central London.

As the nucleus of Jewish cohesion and culture in Britain, the city of London hosts a number of museums and memorials. One of its most famous is the Hyde Park Holocaust Memorial; unveiled in 1983, it was the first Holocaust memorial in Great Britain.

Ben Uri –The London Jewish Museum of Art is a public art gallery that was founded in 1915 and remains Europe’s only Jewish art museum. The Jewish Military Museum commemorates the Jewish contribution to British forces going back three hundred years. Providing an insight into British Jewish history is the Jewish Museum of London. Among its permanent exhibitions is the Holocaust Gallery, Judaism: A Living Faith, The Mikveh, and History: A British Story.

The first Jewish Community Center in London is the London Cultural Center (JW3), which has become the leading center for adult education and for the arts.

The Weiner Library is home to one of the world’s most extensive Holocaust archives. Established in 1933, it includes over one million items, including eyewitness testimony, photos, and published and unpublished works.

Other Jewish landmarks in London include the Rothschild Archive in St. Swithin’s lane, the Freud Museum, the Bevis Marks Synagogue, the statue of Benjamin Disraeli at Parliament Square, and the Jewish East End, site of the historical Jewish Socialist Club. There are also more than twenty kosher restaurants, four kosher hotels, and many Judaica shops found throughout the north of the city.

The largest amount of publications on Jewish topics emanate from London. These include newspapers, magazines, books and other media. Circulating throughout Greater London is The Jewish Chronicle; founded in 1841, it is the oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the world. In 1896, it published Theodor Herzl’s historic article “Solution of the Jewish Question”.

Another weekly published newspaper is The Jewish News. Named Free Newspaper of the Year in 2003 by Press Gazette, it provides local, national and international news and entertainment for the Jewish communities of Greater London, Middlesex, Hertfordshire and Essex.

The Jewish Tribune is a privately owned Haredi weekly newspaper based in Stamford Hill. It is the fourth largest Jewish publication in England.

Broadcasted by the Spectrum Radio Network is Sunday Jewish Radio, a weekly program on Jewish themes.

 

HISTORY

After the Norman conquest of 1066, a few Jews arrived in London from the nearby areas of Europe (chiefly the Duchy of Normandy, including Rouen), attracted mainly by the economic opportunities that the city offered. The earliest recorded mention of the London community dates from the reign of William Rufus (1087-1100), who appears to have favored the Jews to a certain extent.

In 1130, in what was possibly a blood libel, the Jews of London were accused of killing a sick man and were forced to pay an enormous fine. Other outbreaks of antisemitism took place during the coronation of Richard I (September 3,1189) and during the reign of John (1199-1216); John’s reign, and that of his son Henry III (1216-1272) saw the opposition of the barons to the Jews, and there was a baronial attack on London Jewry in 1215. Nonetheless, Jewish intellectual during this period flourished; among other accomplishments, it attracted the Biblical commentator Abraham ibn Ezra, who wrote his Iggeret Ha-Shabbat and his Yesod Mora in London in 1158.

During the reign of Henry III the Jews of London, along with those of the rest of the country, were oppressed. The climax came in 1224 when it was alleged that some gashes found on the body of a dead child were Hebrew letters and the Jews were accused of ritual murder. This resulted in a punitive fine on the Jewish community. In 1232 Henry III confiscated the main London synagogue on the pretext that the chanting could be heard in a neighboring church. In 1278 a number of London Jews were among the 680 who were imprisoned in the tower of London on forgery charges. Nearly 300 are said to have been hanged. Shortly thereafter, in 1283 the Bishop of London ordered that all synagogues in the diocese to be closed (one was later reopened).
In 1290, the Jews were expelled from England and the Jewish community of London ceased to exist.
In 1509, after the expulsions from Spain and Portugal, a few crypto-Jewish refugees settled in London; by the end of Henry VIII’s reign in 1547, there were approximately 37 crypto-Jewish families living in London. However, in 1609 the Portuguese merchants living in London, who were suspected of Judaizing, were expelled. Nevertheless, when the crypto-Jewish community of Ruen was (temporarily) dissolved in 1632, a number of fugitives, including Antonio Fernandez Carvajal, found a home in London. Thus, when Manasseh ben Israel went to England in 1655, there was already an established secret Jewish community in London that became increasingly visible. In March of 1657 a petition was presented to Cromwell asking for protection, and the following December a house was rented and used as a synagogue. A few months later the community purchased land for a cemetery.

After Cromwell's death in 1658 numerous attempts were made to persecute and stem the grown of the community. Charles II, however, intervened in its favor, and bestowed de facto recognition on the community. A synagogue on Cree Church Lane was enlarged and remodeled in 1674, and in 1701 a new place of worship was built in Bevis Marks. As the community was reestablishing itself, considerable numbers of Spanish and Portuguese Jews began arriving from Holland. Ashkenazim soon followed, most of whom arrived via Amsterdam or Hamburg. They organized their own congregation around 1690, and eventually became the more influential and populous Jewish community in London.
The Sephardic and Ashkenazi communities proved able to work together in establishing and running a number of community institutions. The board for kosher slaughter, in which Sephardim and Ashkenazim cooperated, was organized through the advocacy of Baron Lyon de Symons between 1792 and 1804. As early as 1760 the Sephardi community admitted Ashkenazi representatives to their governing committee, which was appointed to deal with the government on behalf of the Jewish community. This ultimately developed into the Board of Deputies of British Jews, which represented the Jewish communities of London until 1838, after which it began to represent Jewish communities outside of London, in addition to the ones within the city.

The Ashkenazi community’s Talmud Torah, which was established in 1732, was reorganized in 1817 as the Jews' Free School. This school eventually developed into one of the largest schools in Europe.

 

19TH CENTURY

The struggle for Jewish emancipation in England centered in London, and was a process that developed in stages throughout the years. Beginning in 1830 the city of London had shown its support of parliamentary emancipation, most notably by electing Baron Lionel de Rothschild, in spite of the fact that he could not take his seat because of the statutory oath. Nonetheless, this became very influential when it came to the ultimate admission of Jews to the Parliament in 1858. In 1831 Jews were granted the privilege of being able to engage in retail trade, from which they had hitherto been barred. In 1835, David Salomons was elected a sheriff of the city, the first Jewish person to serve in that office. In 1847 Salomons became the first Jewish alderman, and in 1855 the first Jewish Lord Mayor of London.
The growing Anglicization of London Jewry led to a number of community developments. A Reform congregation was established in 1840. Sephardi and Ashkenazi congregations established branch synagogues in the West End. A modern theological seminary, Jews' College, was founded in 1855, and a charitable organization, the Board of Guardians for the Relief of the Jewish Poor, was established in 1859. The United Synagogue, an umbrella organization for the major Ashkenazi congregations in London, was established in 1870. In 1887 Sir Samuel Montagu (later Lord Swaythling) created the Federation of Synagogues in order to coordinate the various religious activities that took place in the different synagogues.
The mass emigration from Russia that began in 1881 led to a mass influx of Eastern European Jews to London. As a result, the next 25 years saw London’s Jewish population rise from about 47,000 to approximately 150,000. Most of the new immigrants worked as tailors, shoemakers, and cabinetmakers. A Yiddish press and an active trade union movement were established to meet the needs of this growing immigrant population.

 

20TH CENTURY

The Aliens Act of 1905 limited immigration, though smaller numbers of Jewish immigrants continued to arrive until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Later, a considerable number of refugees arrived from Germany after the Nazi rise to power in 1933.

As Jews became more established in London, they tended to move. East End Jews who managed to work their way up the socioeconomic ladder tended to move to the newer suburbs, particularly those in the northeast of the city, to Stamford Hill, and the northwest, to Golders Green). The interwar period saw significant numbers of London’s Jews moving from the East End to the northern suburbs, as many within the community became well-established and successful. This movement led to the establishment of a number of Jewish institutions in the suburbs. A Jewish museum and a community center for the major Jewish institutions of London were established at Woburn House in the Bloomsbury area.
The total Jewish population of greater London in 1970 was estimated at 280,000. In 1997 it was estimated at 300,000.

 

Lyon

Lyon

Lyons

The capital of the Rhone Department, East Central France

According to a medieval Jewish legend, Jews first arrived at Lyons when one of the three boats loaded with Jews who were taken captive during the fall of Jerusalem docked at Lyons. A well-known figure who did arrive in Lyons from the Land of Israel was Herod Antipas, a son of Herod and the Tetrarch of the Galilee, who was exiled to the city by the Roman Emperor Caligula in 39 C.E. Lyons seems to have had a Jewish population in the 2nd century, but little is known about the community, or the extent of the Jewish presence there, until the beginning of the 9th century where there is evidence of a large, prosperous, and powerful Jewish community in the city. The Jews there owned slaves and employed a number of Christian laborers in their homes and commercial or agricultural businesses. The wine they produced was sold to Jews and Christians, and both communities were also customers of the Jewish butchers. The Jews who were connected to the imperial palace received gifts of luxurious clothing from the ladies of the court for their wives. Some Jews were employed in public service, especially as tax collectors. Their religious services also appear to have been attended by Christians, who declared that they preferred the preaching of the Jews to that of the Catholic priests.

Such attitudes could have only served to irritate the local bishop, Bishop Agobard, who had hoped to find the local Jews receptive to Christianity. An attempt in 820 to convert Jewish children encountered determined resistance from the parents and required the intervention of the emperor. Louis the Pious had to intervene on several other occasions against Bishop Agobard, sometimes dispatching his special envoys in charge of Jewish affairs, the Magister Judaeorum, to keep the peace. Amulo, Agobard's successor, also attempted to work against the Jews of Lyons, but without success.

During the Middle Ages, the Jews lived on the Rue Juiverie at the foot of Fourviere Hill. When they were expelled in 1250 they were living on the present-day Rue Ferrachat. During the following century Jews only visited Lyons for short periods, but during the second half of the 14th century there were, once again, Jewish settlers in the city; they contributed municipal taxes and special officials were appointed who had authority over them. Since the city was not part of the Kingdom of France, this new community was not affected by the expulsion order of 1394. They were, nevertheless, expelled some years later, around 1420, and most moved to the neighboring Trevoux.

During the 16th century, groups of Jews would sporadically appear in Lyon, before leaving or being forced out; for example, a group of Jews arrived in Lyons in 1548 (probably from Spain and Portugal), but they were ultimately forced to leave. Joseph Nasi allegedly opened a bank in Lyon that was eventually closed down by Henri II. A more permanent community formed more gradually, consisting of families from Comtat Venaissin, Alsace, and Bordeaux, but mainly from Avignon. In 1775, the community officially requested permission to open a cemetery. At first they were assigned space on grounds next to the city hospital; twenty years later they were able to purchase a cemetery at La Guillotiere. Nevertheless, the number of Jews in the city remained small, and they had no synagogue or permanent prayer room.

The community became part of the consistory (a group governing the Jewish congregations of an area) of Marseilles in 1808. Though it was a small community, with the influx of people from Alsace and Lorraine the number of Jews in Lyon rose to 300 in 1830, and 700 in 1840. The majority were lower or middle class and they inhabited two main quarters on the Rue Lanterne and Rue de la Barre. A prosperous industrialist, Samuel Heyman de Ricqles, became a leader of the community around 1838. He attempted to organize the Jewish community, and initiate institutional reforms. His authoritative style and manner, however, did not endear him to the community, and in 1842 he stepped down. The Great Synagogue of Lyons was built in 1864 on the Quai Tilsitt.

The number of Jews grew to 1,000 in 1848, and 1,200 in 1854. The community hired a salaried rabbi in 1850, and in 1857 it formed its own consistory. This new consistory also included Saint-Etienne (Jewish population: 116), Chalon-Sur-Saone (Jewish pop.: 125), Besancon (Jewish pop.: 379), and Montbeliard (Jewish pop.: 202). Among its presidents were Solomon Reinach and Generals Levy and Worms, and Solomon Munk represented Lyons at the Central Consistory.

At the beginning of the 20th century, with the arrival of immigrants from the Mediterranean region, a Sephardi community was formed in the suburb of Saint-Fons. On the eve of World War II Lyons had 500-600 Jewish families.

During World War II, after the Franco-German agreement of June 1940, Lyons was a "free" city. It therefore became a refuge for Jews and Jewish organizations, particularly the Central Consistory and philanthropic and Zionist institutions; a large number of Jewish leaders were ultimately arrested there. Official and unofficial information, instructions to Jewish communities in France, protests against anti-Jewish measures, and secret orders of the resistance all emanated from Lyons. A center for Jewish Studies was created for refugee intellectuals; the conductor and composer Leon Algazi was one of the more well-known contributors to this initiative. Additionally, the OSE (Oeuvre de secours aux enfants, a French Jewish humanitarian organization) set up a reception center for Jewish.

During the occupation Lyon provided sanctuary to large numbers of Jews. It was also a large center of the Jewish Resistance Movement, which often operated in total isolation, but sometimes had the support of Catholic and Protestant groups or the civil and administrative authorities. Catholic resistance to Nazi persecution was uncharacteristically strong in the area, perhaps as a result of the pastoral letter by Cardinal Pierre-Marie Gerlier on September 6, 1942, which was read in all churches in Lyons and his diocese.

The chief of the Gestapo, Klaus Barbie, directed the repression against the resistance and against the Jews of the area. The arrests, torture, and deportations peaked in August 1944. Prisoners from the "Jewish Quarters" in the Monluc Fort Prison were taken to Bron Airfield to de-mine the area after a bombardment. The remains of 109 bodies of men and women were found after the war.

After the war, many Jewish refugees settled permanently in Lyons but the community, with an estimated 7,000 Jews, was barely larger than it had been in 1939. With the economic expansion of the city and an influx of immigrants from North Africa, the Jewish population increased to over 20,000 in 1969.

In 1961 one of the first, and most prominent, community centers in France was opened in Lyons; a regional consistory was also founded that year. The community also managed to maintain a full-time school. The various communal bodies, Orthodox, Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Consistorial, worked closely together. A new synagogue was opened in 1966 in La Duchere, a new quarter of the city.

The general area contained a number of synagogues notably at Villeurbanne, with a Jewish population of 1,800. In 1965, a synagogue was built with the help of Akton Suehnezeichen ("Repentance Society"), a group of young Germans anxious to expiate Nazi crimes. A synagogue and community center was also established at Saint Fons-Venissieux, which had a Jewish population of about 1,200 industrial workers, most of whom arrived there from North Africa between the World Wars.

In 1995 a car bomb exploded near the entrance to a Jewish school in Villeurbanne, injuring 14 people. An investigation revealed it to be an act of terrorism.