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The Jewish Community of Ribeauville

ריבוביליי

Ribeauvillé; בגרמנית ראפולטסווילר

עיר במזרח-צרפת.


יישוב יהודי היה בריבוביליי בתחילת המאה ה-14, ונחרב בעקבות גזירות ארמלדר (פרעות ביהודים בשנת 1338) ופרעות "המגיפה השחורה" (1349).

הקהילה התחדשה כעבור עשרות שנים וגורשה וב- 1530 גורשו היהודים מן העיר.

בסוף המאה ה-8ו ישבו בעיר יותר מ-300 יהודים ומספרם גדל והלך במאה ה- 19, אבל מראשית המאה העשרים חלה ירידה הדרגתית, והקהילה חדלה למעשה להתקיים עוד לפני מלחמת- העולם השנייה (ספטמבר 1939).

Place Type:
Village
ID Number:
220669
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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Related items:

Grussenheim

Also known as Grussheim

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace, France. Grussenheim was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

The first Jewish presence in Grussenheim is documented in 1689 when four Jewish families already settled in the village. Jewish community of Grussenheim was established in the early 18th century. The 1784 “Census of Jews tolerated in the Province of Alsace in compliance with the Letters Patent of his Majesty” ordered by the French government recorded 29 Jewish families with 138 individuals in Grussenheim. In 1846 there were 257 Jews in the village and their number increased to a peak of 329 in 1861. During the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century the Jewish population of Grussenheim declined with 274 Jews recorded in 1900, 160 in 1910, 70 in 1926 and 64 in 1936.

The synagogue and the mikve were opened towards the end of the 18th century and were located in the courtyard of the Mathias Geismar building (Vordergasse] at the entrance of the village. It was used until 1850, when a new and larger synagogue was built in mid-19th century. A new Mikvé was opened in the garden of the new synagogue around 1895.

The community of Grussenheim was part of the rabbinate of Bergheim, then of Ribeauvillé and finally of Wintzenheim. The cemetery, located at the exit of Neudorf at the place called Jedewaid (“Meadow of the Jews”) was inaugurated in 1810. Previously, the Jews of Grussenheim buried their dead in the Jewish cemetery of Mackenheim.

During the First World War (1914-1918) seven young Jews were killed in action as soldiers in the German army: the brothers Maurice and Julien Bloch, Léon Heimendinger, Sylvain Heimendinger, the brothers Jules and Fernand Levy, Marcel Wormser. Two families had each lost two sons,

In the early 20th century most Jews of Grussenheim were active as merchants of agricultural products and horses with a few shopkeepers. This was a traditional community with all members observing the Sabbath and the Jewish feast days.

Most Jews left Grussenheim before the German invasion in 1940. During the Nazi occupation, about 20 Jewish residents who remained in the village were expelled to southern France. 24 Jews natives of Grussenheim perished in the Holocaust. The synagogue building was destroyed by the Germans in 1940 and the cemetery was partially devastated.

The Jewish community of Grussenheim was not renewed after 1945.

The Jewish cemetery, containing about 500 graves, is located on rue de la 2ème Division Blindée.

Horbourg

Horbourg-Wihr; in German: Horburg-Weier

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Horbourg was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

The Jewish presence in Horbourg started in 1723, after Duke Leopold Eberhard of Württemberg, the ruler of the region at the time, at the request of the Jew Paul Filgert provided them with letters of protection and allowed them to settle on condition they would pay an annual payment of 10 florins and a fat goose, obey the orders of the duke, and would not to buy any house or property without special permission. Two Jewish families of Raphaël Jacob and Jacob Bolach lived in Horbourg in 1730. After mid-18th century additional Jews were granted permission to live in Horbourg. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Horbourg 18 Jewish families with a total of about 90 individuals. The proximity of Horbourg to the city of Colmar brought about a rapid demographic development of the Jewish community of Horbourg during the first half of the 19th century. In 1846 there were 410 Jews in Horbourg, a relatively high number when compared with most of the other Jewish rural communities in Alsace. Despite the constant decline in the number of the Jewish residents of Horbourg during the second half of the 19th century, the community continued to be one of the largest in the area with 366 members in 1861, 299 in 1876, 205 in 1895, and 134 in 1910. After WW I, the number of Jews in Horbourg decreased dramatically with only 60 Jews recorded in 1936.

The community belonged to the Rabbinate of Bergheim until 1910, then to the Rabbinate of Ribeauville. The local Jews obtained the right to have their own prayer house before the French Revolution, but the synagogue was erected in the mid-1830s. In 1931 it was renovated and re-inaugurated. The Jewish school operated until 1913, when it was closed due to the lack of students. The community also operated a school and a mikveh. The Jews of Horbourg used the Jewish cemetery of Jungholz until early 1870s, when’ along with the Jewish community of Wintzenheim, a local Jewish cemetery was opened; it was enlarged in 1906.

After the German occupation of Alsace in 1940, the remaining Jews of Horbourg were deported to southern France, of them twelve perished in the Holocaust.  

After WW II, a new Jewish community was founded in Horbourg-Wihr. In 1953 there were 20 Jews living in Horbourg.

The preserved synagogue building and the cemetery on the outskirts with around 250 graves still bear witness to Jewish history. A model of the Horbourg synagogue is on display in the Colmar Museum. Address of the synagogue: Rue de la Synagogue, 68180 Horbourg-Wihr.

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The Jewish Community of Ribeauville

ריבוביליי

Ribeauvillé; בגרמנית ראפולטסווילר

עיר במזרח-צרפת.


יישוב יהודי היה בריבוביליי בתחילת המאה ה-14, ונחרב בעקבות גזירות ארמלדר (פרעות ביהודים בשנת 1338) ופרעות "המגיפה השחורה" (1349).

הקהילה התחדשה כעבור עשרות שנים וגורשה וב- 1530 גורשו היהודים מן העיר.

בסוף המאה ה-8ו ישבו בעיר יותר מ-300 יהודים ומספרם גדל והלך במאה ה- 19, אבל מראשית המאה העשרים חלה ירידה הדרגתית, והקהילה חדלה למעשה להתקיים עוד לפני מלחמת- העולם השנייה (ספטמבר 1939).

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Horbourg
Grussenheim

Horbourg

Horbourg-Wihr; in German: Horburg-Weier

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in the historical region of Alsace, France. Horbourg was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

The Jewish presence in Horbourg started in 1723, after Duke Leopold Eberhard of Württemberg, the ruler of the region at the time, at the request of the Jew Paul Filgert provided them with letters of protection and allowed them to settle on condition they would pay an annual payment of 10 florins and a fat goose, obey the orders of the duke, and would not to buy any house or property without special permission. Two Jewish families of Raphaël Jacob and Jacob Bolach lived in Horbourg in 1730. After mid-18th century additional Jews were granted permission to live in Horbourg. The 1784 general census of the Jewish population in Alsace recorded in Horbourg 18 Jewish families with a total of about 90 individuals. The proximity of Horbourg to the city of Colmar brought about a rapid demographic development of the Jewish community of Horbourg during the first half of the 19th century. In 1846 there were 410 Jews in Horbourg, a relatively high number when compared with most of the other Jewish rural communities in Alsace. Despite the constant decline in the number of the Jewish residents of Horbourg during the second half of the 19th century, the community continued to be one of the largest in the area with 366 members in 1861, 299 in 1876, 205 in 1895, and 134 in 1910. After WW I, the number of Jews in Horbourg decreased dramatically with only 60 Jews recorded in 1936.

The community belonged to the Rabbinate of Bergheim until 1910, then to the Rabbinate of Ribeauville. The local Jews obtained the right to have their own prayer house before the French Revolution, but the synagogue was erected in the mid-1830s. In 1931 it was renovated and re-inaugurated. The Jewish school operated until 1913, when it was closed due to the lack of students. The community also operated a school and a mikveh. The Jews of Horbourg used the Jewish cemetery of Jungholz until early 1870s, when’ along with the Jewish community of Wintzenheim, a local Jewish cemetery was opened; it was enlarged in 1906.

After the German occupation of Alsace in 1940, the remaining Jews of Horbourg were deported to southern France, of them twelve perished in the Holocaust.  

After WW II, a new Jewish community was founded in Horbourg-Wihr. In 1953 there were 20 Jews living in Horbourg.

The preserved synagogue building and the cemetery on the outskirts with around 250 graves still bear witness to Jewish history. A model of the Horbourg synagogue is on display in the Colmar Museum. Address of the synagogue: Rue de la Synagogue, 68180 Horbourg-Wihr.

Grussenheim

Also known as Grussheim

A commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace, France. Grussenheim was annexed by Germany between 1871-1918.

The first Jewish presence in Grussenheim is documented in 1689 when four Jewish families already settled in the village. Jewish community of Grussenheim was established in the early 18th century. The 1784 “Census of Jews tolerated in the Province of Alsace in compliance with the Letters Patent of his Majesty” ordered by the French government recorded 29 Jewish families with 138 individuals in Grussenheim. In 1846 there were 257 Jews in the village and their number increased to a peak of 329 in 1861. During the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century the Jewish population of Grussenheim declined with 274 Jews recorded in 1900, 160 in 1910, 70 in 1926 and 64 in 1936.

The synagogue and the mikve were opened towards the end of the 18th century and were located in the courtyard of the Mathias Geismar building (Vordergasse] at the entrance of the village. It was used until 1850, when a new and larger synagogue was built in mid-19th century. A new Mikvé was opened in the garden of the new synagogue around 1895.

The community of Grussenheim was part of the rabbinate of Bergheim, then of Ribeauvillé and finally of Wintzenheim. The cemetery, located at the exit of Neudorf at the place called Jedewaid (“Meadow of the Jews”) was inaugurated in 1810. Previously, the Jews of Grussenheim buried their dead in the Jewish cemetery of Mackenheim.

During the First World War (1914-1918) seven young Jews were killed in action as soldiers in the German army: the brothers Maurice and Julien Bloch, Léon Heimendinger, Sylvain Heimendinger, the brothers Jules and Fernand Levy, Marcel Wormser. Two families had each lost two sons,

In the early 20th century most Jews of Grussenheim were active as merchants of agricultural products and horses with a few shopkeepers. This was a traditional community with all members observing the Sabbath and the Jewish feast days.

Most Jews left Grussenheim before the German invasion in 1940. During the Nazi occupation, about 20 Jewish residents who remained in the village were expelled to southern France. 24 Jews natives of Grussenheim perished in the Holocaust. The synagogue building was destroyed by the Germans in 1940 and the cemetery was partially devastated.

The Jewish community of Grussenheim was not renewed after 1945.

The Jewish cemetery, containing about 500 graves, is located on rue de la 2ème Division Blindée.