Search
Print
Share
Your Selected Item:
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions

The Jewish Community of Parchim

Parchim

A town and seat of the Ludwigslust-Parchim district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. 

The first evidence of Jewish presence in Parchim is a tombstone dating from 1304. Jews had been invited to the Duchy in order to develop the local trade. The Jewish community had a house of prayer in the "Tempelstreet” of the Jewish quarter, which was first mentioned in documents of 1503. In 1350 the Jews were accused of having poisoned wells and were expelled from Parchim. After the period of the "Black Death” they were readmitted to the town. In 1492 all the Jews were expelled from the Duchy of Mecklenburg. Eventually they were readmitted. In official documents of the 18th century there are references to Jews living in the area at that time. The Jews had to send deputies to their country synod ("Judenlandtag”) which registered the Jewish population of Mecklenburg. Contemporary letters of safe conduct ("Schutzbriefe”) indicate that Jews were again living in Parchim. The community was apparently well off; in the 1700s a number of families owned their own Torah scrolls which were later donated to the congregation. 

At the beginning of the 20th century the Jewish community numbered sixteen families of whom the majority were observant Jews. The community kept a cantor, a school and a cemetery. The majority of the Jews were engaged in various fields of trade. On the eve of World War II (September 1939) there were 48 Jews living in Parchim.

The Holocaust Period

The local cemetery fell victim to Nazi vandals in the early years of the Nazi regime, when a schoolmaster with his class one day devastated the place. No other information is available as to the fate of the Jewish community during the Holocaust years or about its present situation.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
220510
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

Schwerin

A city and the capital Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1266; peak Jewish population: 391 in 1875; Jewish population in 1933: 151

A small number of Jews were permitted to live in Schwerin in 1267. After centuries of pogroms, burnings at the stake and expulsions, Jews were permitted to return to Schwerin in 1679, albeit with restrictions: in addition to being forced to pay exorbitant taxes and protection money, they were limited to certain business activities. As a result, the Jewish population of that period never exceeded thirty. When these cumbersome restrictions were relaxed in the mid-1700s, more Jews moved to Schwerin. Although the community received permission to build a synagogue in 1773, it was not able to gather the necessary funds until 1819. Shortly after the inauguration of the synagogue, the anti-Jewish Hep-Hep riots erupted: angry crowds marched in front of the synagogue chanting “Kick out the Jews,” but Schwerin Jews, unlike their contemporaries in other towns and cities, were spared the brunt of the pogrom.

Beginning in 1933, when the Nazis instituted the anti- Jewish boycott, Jews started to leave Schwerin in large numbers. Later, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the interior of the synagogue was ransacked, after which the contents were burned in one of the city’s squares. Forbidden to set the synagogue on fire because of its proximity to many homes, the Nazis forced the Jews to tear down the building themselves. By 1942, Schwerin’s remaining Jews had all been deported. Three years after the war, a group of Jews returned to Schwerin and founded a new Jewish community. By 1947, 100 Jews lived there. After buying two homes on the street on which the old synagogue once stood, the community converted one into a synagogue and the other into a community center. The Jewish population dwindled during the ensuing decades (three members in 1980), but an influx of Jewish arrivals from the former Soviet Union rejuvenated the defunct community.

In 2005, 1,000 Jews lived in Schwerin (more than double the peak pre-war population). In 1951, a memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site, and in 1984, planning commenced for a building that would house a miniature replica of the destroyed synagogue. (The project was funded by the Ford Foundation and the State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.)

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Roebel

A village in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: mid-1300s; peak Jewish population: 104 in 1867; Jewish population in 1933: 20

The Jewish community of Roebel was expelled in 1492, as were many other Jewish communities in Germany. It was not until the early 1700s that Jews were permitted to return in Roebel, after which they established a community and set up a prayer room in a private residence. A small cemetery was consecrated in Roebel in 1720. In 1830, the authorities permitted the community to build a synagogue, a modest building in which local Jews conducted services until after World War I, when most Jews left Roebel. The empty synagogue building was sold in 1930. Although the synagogue building was no longer owned by Jews, SS men set it on fire on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938). As the result of the intervention of a neighbor, who feared for his own house, the synagogue did not burn to the ground. In 2000, the municipality took over the former synagogue building and designated it as a landmark. It now serves as a youth center, alongside which stands a building housing an exhibition on the history of the Jews of Roebel.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Mirow

A town in the district of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Mirow, not far from Neustrelitz, had a very small Jewish community with a synagogue on Fischgang, which had been closed since the beginning of the 20th century, and a cemetery that no longer exists. A memorial stone still reminds of the square. Nothing is known about a Jewish school and a mikveh. At the time of Nazi regime there were only a few Jewish residents left in the community: The Rosenberg family had a clothing store and were very popular in Mirow because they were generous and helped many poor residents. The Moses family owned a hat shop at the other end of Schlossstrasse. The clothing store was destroyed on the Pogrom Night of Nov. 9, 1938, the owner Herbert Rosenberg was portrayed as a straw doll and hung up as such, he himself had been able to escape. The intervention of a mailwoman, Anna König, is said to have prevented the Nazis from causing even greater destruction. The building of the former synagogue was not destroyed. Herbert Rosenberg fled to South America, his younger sister Ruth to Israel. A former classmate managed to get in touch with her in the 1990s and invite her to a class reunion in Mirow.

---------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Neustadt-Glewe

A town in the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

A letter of request dated June 10, 1773 provides information about the first Jews who can be verified to have lived in Neustadt: The protected Jew Joseph Hirsch asks Duke Friedrich for help since he is in need because of illness and death. In 1795 there were already five Jewish families living in Neustadt. Their names were Hirsch, Ascher, Weyl, Meyer and Magnus. It was particularly difficult for the poor Jews, who could not buy a protection letter or "privilege". They had to enter service as "Jews servants", i.e. as pack carriers who had to carry the parcels of goods for the protected Jews on their backs from place to place and from market to market. Since the Jews were not allowed to keep horse-drawn vehicles, these services were carried out by the "Jews servants". However, Jews who were not born in Mecklenburg were also not allowed to be employed. This was closely monitored and the offenders were immediately deported abroad to Prussia, Hamburg, Lübeck or Lower Saxony. Anyone who did not have a "privilege" or had no job was not allowed to stay in one place for more than 24 hours and had to move on. For many families this meant hardship, misery and homelessness. They were persecuted as tramps and chased away. 

Around 1850 there were ten families in Neustadt. (Ascher, Weyl, Salomon, Meyer, Simon, Loeser, Aron, Siemon, Wulffsberg and Rosenthal) Apparently there was a lively community life. There was an old synagogue, the location of which is no longer available. In 1826 a new one was planned, which was popularly called "the monastery" and which later burned down. After that the Jewish community used a building at Marktstrasse 4 as synagogue.

"An iron cubit measure attached to the right side of the town hall in Neustadt-Glewe testifies to the lively trading activity in Neustadt from 1820 to 1860, which was used by the market master as an official measure. You can still see it today. Next to it hung on a hook and fastened with a chain his liter measure. According to tradition, the yardstick was also popularly known as the "Jewish yardstick". This is how the share of the Jewish Neustädter resident in the commercial life at that time could be measured." 

The Jewish craftsmen were given the same rights as the Christian craftsmen by Duke Friedrich Franz II in 1836. The letters of protection and protection money were abolished and Jewish apprentices were admitted to vocational training.

On September 10, 1845, the Duke issued the "Municipal Code for the Jewish inhabitants of the city of Neustadt". The Jews were put on an equal footing with the churches and were given civil rights. It was determined that the Jewish community would elect the board and the two heads. A patron appointed by the magistrate was assigned to the board as a supervisor. The women had no right to vote.

( Facsimile of the confirmation of the municipal code of the 10. The Jewish community grew in number in the first half of the 19th century to around 1860 to up to 78 people and then decreased rapidly in the following decades due to emigration because of poor earning opportunities. At the end of the century there were still 5 members. The community had to be dissolved. The members who remained in Neustadt joined the community in Parchim. The property and material assets from the synagogue were also brought to Parchim. Since 1900 the number of the Jewish population in Neustadt increased again for a short time, but then decreased again. In 1925 there were only 7 Jews left in the place. During the Nazi regime, the remaining Jews were harassed by anti-Semitic hate speech and riots. A few such as the Kahn family, had the opportunity to flee abroad. Others tried to find shelter in large cities to avoid the threat of annihilation. Most, however, were deported to concentration camps and murdered there. The Jewish cemetery was on Neuhofer Strasse and was transferred to the Jewish state community of Schwerin when the community was dissolved, with around 80 graves. Unknown people are said to have destroyed it in 1940/41. Today it can no longer be recognized as a cemetery, only the so-called "Jewish oak" reminds us that the burial place was here.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Plau am See

A town in the Ludwigslust-Parchim district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany

There is no information about a Jewish community in Plau in the late Middle Ages. The first evidence is in the middle of the 18th century. The number of Jews in Plau was not large: in 1769 there were five protected Jews and their families, in 1792 six protected Jews and their families, in 1810 there were 53 people (without small children), in 1830 63 people, in 1890 only 36, in 1925 13 and at the end of 1938 there were no more Jews living in Plau.

Also in Plau the prime of the Jewish community was in the first half of the 19th century, after which the number fell steadily due to emigration to the larger cities. The first synagogue was built in Judengasse, the second in Rosenwinkel. The last service took place in September 1902 in the new synagogue, which was inaugurated on October 23, 1840, with a classicistic arched style, as had been established in secular and sacred buildings since the 1830s. It and was then sold to the Catholic community in 1921 and today it is still a Catholic church without any major structural changes outside and inside, albeit with considerable structural damage. (According to the questionnaire "today" was in 1998; it should be checked whether this is still the case. Photos can be made available on request.) The Jewish community did not have its own school or mikve, but had its own cemetery on Klüschenberg, which was laid out in the 1750s and expanded several times and which today is still in a good condition with 10 preserved gravesites. The last burial was in 1955, the oldest gravesite is from 1794 (?), the oldest stone is said to date from 1740, which was used for the enclosure. Gravestones were partially knocked over during the Nazi era, but were preserved. The grave monuments were cleaned and repaired in September 2008, and a memorial stone was erected on September 16, 2008. In 1933 there were four Jews living in Plau, in 1938 only one, probably the widow Elkan, who had lost her son in World War I and whose house was confiscated by the NSDAP in 1935.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

our Open Databases
Jewish Genealogy
Family Names
Jewish Communities
Visual Documentation
Jewish Music Center
Place
אA
אA
אA
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions
The Jewish Community of Parchim

Parchim

A town and seat of the Ludwigslust-Parchim district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. 

The first evidence of Jewish presence in Parchim is a tombstone dating from 1304. Jews had been invited to the Duchy in order to develop the local trade. The Jewish community had a house of prayer in the "Tempelstreet” of the Jewish quarter, which was first mentioned in documents of 1503. In 1350 the Jews were accused of having poisoned wells and were expelled from Parchim. After the period of the "Black Death” they were readmitted to the town. In 1492 all the Jews were expelled from the Duchy of Mecklenburg. Eventually they were readmitted. In official documents of the 18th century there are references to Jews living in the area at that time. The Jews had to send deputies to their country synod ("Judenlandtag”) which registered the Jewish population of Mecklenburg. Contemporary letters of safe conduct ("Schutzbriefe”) indicate that Jews were again living in Parchim. The community was apparently well off; in the 1700s a number of families owned their own Torah scrolls which were later donated to the congregation. 

At the beginning of the 20th century the Jewish community numbered sixteen families of whom the majority were observant Jews. The community kept a cantor, a school and a cemetery. The majority of the Jews were engaged in various fields of trade. On the eve of World War II (September 1939) there were 48 Jews living in Parchim.

The Holocaust Period

The local cemetery fell victim to Nazi vandals in the early years of the Nazi regime, when a schoolmaster with his class one day devastated the place. No other information is available as to the fate of the Jewish community during the Holocaust years or about its present situation.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Plau am See
Neustadt-Glewe
Mirow
Roebel
Schwerin

Plau am See

A town in the Ludwigslust-Parchim district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany

There is no information about a Jewish community in Plau in the late Middle Ages. The first evidence is in the middle of the 18th century. The number of Jews in Plau was not large: in 1769 there were five protected Jews and their families, in 1792 six protected Jews and their families, in 1810 there were 53 people (without small children), in 1830 63 people, in 1890 only 36, in 1925 13 and at the end of 1938 there were no more Jews living in Plau.

Also in Plau the prime of the Jewish community was in the first half of the 19th century, after which the number fell steadily due to emigration to the larger cities. The first synagogue was built in Judengasse, the second in Rosenwinkel. The last service took place in September 1902 in the new synagogue, which was inaugurated on October 23, 1840, with a classicistic arched style, as had been established in secular and sacred buildings since the 1830s. It and was then sold to the Catholic community in 1921 and today it is still a Catholic church without any major structural changes outside and inside, albeit with considerable structural damage. (According to the questionnaire "today" was in 1998; it should be checked whether this is still the case. Photos can be made available on request.) The Jewish community did not have its own school or mikve, but had its own cemetery on Klüschenberg, which was laid out in the 1750s and expanded several times and which today is still in a good condition with 10 preserved gravesites. The last burial was in 1955, the oldest gravesite is from 1794 (?), the oldest stone is said to date from 1740, which was used for the enclosure. Gravestones were partially knocked over during the Nazi era, but were preserved. The grave monuments were cleaned and repaired in September 2008, and a memorial stone was erected on September 16, 2008. In 1933 there were four Jews living in Plau, in 1938 only one, probably the widow Elkan, who had lost her son in World War I and whose house was confiscated by the NSDAP in 1935.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Neustadt-Glewe

A town in the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

A letter of request dated June 10, 1773 provides information about the first Jews who can be verified to have lived in Neustadt: The protected Jew Joseph Hirsch asks Duke Friedrich for help since he is in need because of illness and death. In 1795 there were already five Jewish families living in Neustadt. Their names were Hirsch, Ascher, Weyl, Meyer and Magnus. It was particularly difficult for the poor Jews, who could not buy a protection letter or "privilege". They had to enter service as "Jews servants", i.e. as pack carriers who had to carry the parcels of goods for the protected Jews on their backs from place to place and from market to market. Since the Jews were not allowed to keep horse-drawn vehicles, these services were carried out by the "Jews servants". However, Jews who were not born in Mecklenburg were also not allowed to be employed. This was closely monitored and the offenders were immediately deported abroad to Prussia, Hamburg, Lübeck or Lower Saxony. Anyone who did not have a "privilege" or had no job was not allowed to stay in one place for more than 24 hours and had to move on. For many families this meant hardship, misery and homelessness. They were persecuted as tramps and chased away. 

Around 1850 there were ten families in Neustadt. (Ascher, Weyl, Salomon, Meyer, Simon, Loeser, Aron, Siemon, Wulffsberg and Rosenthal) Apparently there was a lively community life. There was an old synagogue, the location of which is no longer available. In 1826 a new one was planned, which was popularly called "the monastery" and which later burned down. After that the Jewish community used a building at Marktstrasse 4 as synagogue.

"An iron cubit measure attached to the right side of the town hall in Neustadt-Glewe testifies to the lively trading activity in Neustadt from 1820 to 1860, which was used by the market master as an official measure. You can still see it today. Next to it hung on a hook and fastened with a chain his liter measure. According to tradition, the yardstick was also popularly known as the "Jewish yardstick". This is how the share of the Jewish Neustädter resident in the commercial life at that time could be measured." 

The Jewish craftsmen were given the same rights as the Christian craftsmen by Duke Friedrich Franz II in 1836. The letters of protection and protection money were abolished and Jewish apprentices were admitted to vocational training.

On September 10, 1845, the Duke issued the "Municipal Code for the Jewish inhabitants of the city of Neustadt". The Jews were put on an equal footing with the churches and were given civil rights. It was determined that the Jewish community would elect the board and the two heads. A patron appointed by the magistrate was assigned to the board as a supervisor. The women had no right to vote.

( Facsimile of the confirmation of the municipal code of the 10. The Jewish community grew in number in the first half of the 19th century to around 1860 to up to 78 people and then decreased rapidly in the following decades due to emigration because of poor earning opportunities. At the end of the century there were still 5 members. The community had to be dissolved. The members who remained in Neustadt joined the community in Parchim. The property and material assets from the synagogue were also brought to Parchim. Since 1900 the number of the Jewish population in Neustadt increased again for a short time, but then decreased again. In 1925 there were only 7 Jews left in the place. During the Nazi regime, the remaining Jews were harassed by anti-Semitic hate speech and riots. A few such as the Kahn family, had the opportunity to flee abroad. Others tried to find shelter in large cities to avoid the threat of annihilation. Most, however, were deported to concentration camps and murdered there. The Jewish cemetery was on Neuhofer Strasse and was transferred to the Jewish state community of Schwerin when the community was dissolved, with around 80 graves. Unknown people are said to have destroyed it in 1940/41. Today it can no longer be recognized as a cemetery, only the so-called "Jewish oak" reminds us that the burial place was here.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Mirow

A town in the district of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Mirow, not far from Neustrelitz, had a very small Jewish community with a synagogue on Fischgang, which had been closed since the beginning of the 20th century, and a cemetery that no longer exists. A memorial stone still reminds of the square. Nothing is known about a Jewish school and a mikveh. At the time of Nazi regime there were only a few Jewish residents left in the community: The Rosenberg family had a clothing store and were very popular in Mirow because they were generous and helped many poor residents. The Moses family owned a hat shop at the other end of Schlossstrasse. The clothing store was destroyed on the Pogrom Night of Nov. 9, 1938, the owner Herbert Rosenberg was portrayed as a straw doll and hung up as such, he himself had been able to escape. The intervention of a mailwoman, Anna König, is said to have prevented the Nazis from causing even greater destruction. The building of the former synagogue was not destroyed. Herbert Rosenberg fled to South America, his younger sister Ruth to Israel. A former classmate managed to get in touch with her in the 1990s and invite her to a class reunion in Mirow.

---------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Roebel

A village in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: mid-1300s; peak Jewish population: 104 in 1867; Jewish population in 1933: 20

The Jewish community of Roebel was expelled in 1492, as were many other Jewish communities in Germany. It was not until the early 1700s that Jews were permitted to return in Roebel, after which they established a community and set up a prayer room in a private residence. A small cemetery was consecrated in Roebel in 1720. In 1830, the authorities permitted the community to build a synagogue, a modest building in which local Jews conducted services until after World War I, when most Jews left Roebel. The empty synagogue building was sold in 1930. Although the synagogue building was no longer owned by Jews, SS men set it on fire on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938). As the result of the intervention of a neighbor, who feared for his own house, the synagogue did not burn to the ground. In 2000, the municipality took over the former synagogue building and designated it as a landmark. It now serves as a youth center, alongside which stands a building housing an exhibition on the history of the Jews of Roebel.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Schwerin

A city and the capital Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1266; peak Jewish population: 391 in 1875; Jewish population in 1933: 151

A small number of Jews were permitted to live in Schwerin in 1267. After centuries of pogroms, burnings at the stake and expulsions, Jews were permitted to return to Schwerin in 1679, albeit with restrictions: in addition to being forced to pay exorbitant taxes and protection money, they were limited to certain business activities. As a result, the Jewish population of that period never exceeded thirty. When these cumbersome restrictions were relaxed in the mid-1700s, more Jews moved to Schwerin. Although the community received permission to build a synagogue in 1773, it was not able to gather the necessary funds until 1819. Shortly after the inauguration of the synagogue, the anti-Jewish Hep-Hep riots erupted: angry crowds marched in front of the synagogue chanting “Kick out the Jews,” but Schwerin Jews, unlike their contemporaries in other towns and cities, were spared the brunt of the pogrom.

Beginning in 1933, when the Nazis instituted the anti- Jewish boycott, Jews started to leave Schwerin in large numbers. Later, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the interior of the synagogue was ransacked, after which the contents were burned in one of the city’s squares. Forbidden to set the synagogue on fire because of its proximity to many homes, the Nazis forced the Jews to tear down the building themselves. By 1942, Schwerin’s remaining Jews had all been deported. Three years after the war, a group of Jews returned to Schwerin and founded a new Jewish community. By 1947, 100 Jews lived there. After buying two homes on the street on which the old synagogue once stood, the community converted one into a synagogue and the other into a community center. The Jewish population dwindled during the ensuing decades (three members in 1980), but an influx of Jewish arrivals from the former Soviet Union rejuvenated the defunct community.

In 2005, 1,000 Jews lived in Schwerin (more than double the peak pre-war population). In 1951, a memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site, and in 1984, planning commenced for a building that would house a miniature replica of the destroyed synagogue. (The project was funded by the Ford Foundation and the State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.)

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Oleg PARCHIM
Alex PARCHIM