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The Jewish Community of RECKLINGHAUSEN

Recklinghausen

A town and capital of the Recklinghausen district in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

The presence of Jews is attested as early as 1305. The financier, Gottschalk of Recklinghausen, who carried on extensive business from Lochern (in Dutch Gelderland), was killed during the disturbances caused by the Black Death in 1349--50. No organized community, however, came into being in medieval times, and there is no record of one in Recklinghausen until 1828. In the course of time an active Jewish life developed and the community established a synagogue, communal center, elementary school, mikveh, and a variety of Jewish societies. Eastern European immigrants founded their own society and minyan. The Jewish population of Recklinghausen grew from 72 in 1880 to 298 in 1905. It dropped to 280 (5% of the population) in 1933.

From 1903 until 1922 and again from 1934 to 1938, Recklinghausen was the seat of a district rabbi. The last incumbent was Selig Auerbach who later emigrated to the U.S.

During the Nazi persecutions many members of the community succeeded in emigrating from Recklinghausen, principally to Holland. On November 9--10, 1938 ("Kristallnacht") the synagogue was destroyed and subsequent deportations of the remaining Jews brought the community to an end.

A new community of 52 Jews was established in Recklinghausen after World War II in conjunction with Bochum and Herne, numbering 76 persons in 1962. In 1960 and 1961 the "Synagoga" exhibition of Jewish art and folklore was held in Recklinghausen and was subsequently shown throughout Germany.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
219461
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:
Train station.
Recklinghausen, Germany 1930.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Zippi Rosenne,Israel)
The Neumann couple on their wedding day.
Recklinghausen, Germany 23.10.1938
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Zippi Rosenne,Israel)

Raesfeld

A municipality in the Borken district of in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1575; peak Jewish population: 43 in 1849; Jewish population in 1933: unknown (22 in 1932)

Two Jewish families were expelled from Raesfeld in 1683. A Jewish community was later established there without the required permission of the authorities, an offense for which the entire community was imprisoned in 1740. In 1750, however, a Jewish man named Israel Jost received a letter of protection from the authorities, which was renewed when he died in 1807; his descendants would form the bulk of Raesfeld’s future Jewish community. The Jewish population (most local Jews were cattle dealers) grew while Raesfeld was under French rule. In 1812, the community converted a barn into a prayer hall and classroom. Later, in 1863, a synagogue—it housed a mikveh and classrooms—was built in Raesfeld. Local Jews operated an elementary school from 1835 until 1880, after which (until 1900) children received religious instruction from teachers who served Raesfeld and its surrounding Jewish communities. Rabbis from Borken or Recklinghausen officiated at weddings and funerals. Few Jews lived in Raesfeld in 1933, and the local authorities, probably out of regard for their amiable relationship with the town’s Jews, did not enforce the boycott. The synagogue was nevertheless vandalized and looted by local SA men on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938). The cemetery was desecrated in 1940, and the remaining Jews were deported in 1941/1942. Approximately 36 Raesfeld Jews were murdered in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was unveiled in the town after the war.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

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The Jewish Community of RECKLINGHAUSEN

Recklinghausen

A town and capital of the Recklinghausen district in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

The presence of Jews is attested as early as 1305. The financier, Gottschalk of Recklinghausen, who carried on extensive business from Lochern (in Dutch Gelderland), was killed during the disturbances caused by the Black Death in 1349--50. No organized community, however, came into being in medieval times, and there is no record of one in Recklinghausen until 1828. In the course of time an active Jewish life developed and the community established a synagogue, communal center, elementary school, mikveh, and a variety of Jewish societies. Eastern European immigrants founded their own society and minyan. The Jewish population of Recklinghausen grew from 72 in 1880 to 298 in 1905. It dropped to 280 (5% of the population) in 1933.

From 1903 until 1922 and again from 1934 to 1938, Recklinghausen was the seat of a district rabbi. The last incumbent was Selig Auerbach who later emigrated to the U.S.

During the Nazi persecutions many members of the community succeeded in emigrating from Recklinghausen, principally to Holland. On November 9--10, 1938 ("Kristallnacht") the synagogue was destroyed and subsequent deportations of the remaining Jews brought the community to an end.

A new community of 52 Jews was established in Recklinghausen after World War II in conjunction with Bochum and Herne, numbering 76 persons in 1962. In 1960 and 1961 the "Synagoga" exhibition of Jewish art and folklore was held in Recklinghausen and was subsequently shown throughout Germany.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Raesfeld

Raesfeld

A municipality in the Borken district of in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1575; peak Jewish population: 43 in 1849; Jewish population in 1933: unknown (22 in 1932)

Two Jewish families were expelled from Raesfeld in 1683. A Jewish community was later established there without the required permission of the authorities, an offense for which the entire community was imprisoned in 1740. In 1750, however, a Jewish man named Israel Jost received a letter of protection from the authorities, which was renewed when he died in 1807; his descendants would form the bulk of Raesfeld’s future Jewish community. The Jewish population (most local Jews were cattle dealers) grew while Raesfeld was under French rule. In 1812, the community converted a barn into a prayer hall and classroom. Later, in 1863, a synagogue—it housed a mikveh and classrooms—was built in Raesfeld. Local Jews operated an elementary school from 1835 until 1880, after which (until 1900) children received religious instruction from teachers who served Raesfeld and its surrounding Jewish communities. Rabbis from Borken or Recklinghausen officiated at weddings and funerals. Few Jews lived in Raesfeld in 1933, and the local authorities, probably out of regard for their amiable relationship with the town’s Jews, did not enforce the boycott. The synagogue was nevertheless vandalized and looted by local SA men on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938). The cemetery was desecrated in 1940, and the remaining Jews were deported in 1941/1942. Approximately 36 Raesfeld Jews were murdered in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was unveiled in the town after the war.

-------------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

The Neumann Couple on their Wedding Day. Recklinghausen, Germany 23.10.1938
Train Station. Recklinghausen, Germany 1930
The Neumann couple on their wedding day.
Recklinghausen, Germany 23.10.1938
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Zippi Rosenne,Israel)
Train station.
Recklinghausen, Germany 1930.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Zippi Rosenne,Israel)