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Salomon Herxheimer

Salomon Herxheimer (1801-1884) Rabbi.

Born in Dotzheim, age 13 he entered the yeshiva in Mainz, also studying secular subjects. From 1818 to1824 he was a private tutor at Herborn and then attended the universities of Marburg and Goettingen. He was appointed religious instructor in Eschwege where he became district rabbi in 1830. Later Herzheimer was rabbi of Anhalt-Bernburg. He was a supporter of moderate Reform and an advocate of confirmation. He encouraged the development of agriculture among Jews and supported Jews living in Erets Israel. His writings include a translation of the Bible into Germany, with commentary, a popular work of religious instruction,and a Hebrew grammar.

Date of birth:
1801
Date of death:
1884
Personality type:
Rabbis
ID Number:
219364
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:
Related items:
HERXHEIMER

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

Herxheimer, in which the German ending "-er" means "of/from", is based on the German towns of Herxheim near Ludwigshafen or Herxheim near Karlsruhe.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish surname Herxheimer include the German rabbi, Bible translator and author Solomon Herxheimer (1801-1884).

Bernburg

First Jewish presence: 17th century; peak Jewish population: 405 in 1864; Jewish population in 1933: 195

Jews established a significant presence in Bernburg during the 17th and 18th centuries. Although Bernburg Jews were highly influential in the courts, in business and in the professions, the government forced them to pay “protection money.” Among the town’s prominent Jewish residents was Rabbi Dr. Salomon Herxheimer, whose prolific work included a translation of the Hebrew Bible into German. The community conducted services in a synagogue (established in 1731) until a larger house of worship was consecrated some 100 years later. Two hundred Jews lived in Bernburg in the early 1930s, but that number dwindled considerably after the Nazis implemented their boycott of Jewish-owned businesses (1933). On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue was plundered and torched, Jewish-owned business and homes were destroyed and Jewish men were sent to Buchenwald Nazi concentration camp. Of the 16 Bernburg Jews who were sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1942, only two survived. Bernburg was the site of a notorious psychiatric hospital where approximately 5,000 individuals, mostly Jews from the concentration camps, were “euthanized” with carbon monoxide gas. The synagogue ruins were demolished soon after Pogrom Night.

On November 9, 2000, a memorial dedicated to the former synagogue was unveiled in Bernburg.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Eschwege

A small town in the district of Kassel in the state of Hessen, Germany.

Until the unification of Germany in 1990, in Western Germany.

Eschwege was one of the most ancient Jewish communities in Germany. Jews have settled in the town already in the 13th century, and a document dated 1398 mentioned a Jewish banker in Eschwege by the name of Hazen (hazzan-cantor).

From the beginning of the 16th century most of the Jews lived in  Kniegasse. In 1835, 220 out of the total 236 Jews in town still lived in the old Jewish quarter.

The first synagogue in Eschwege was built in 1687, and in 1838 a new and larger synagogue,  seating 200 persons, was built.

At the beginning of the 20th century most of the community members were of the liberal persuation, but the rabbi was orthodox and followed the orthodox service in the synagogue.

There was a "Talmud Torah" and a Jewish elementary school between the years 1839-1940.

The community had its own cemetery only from 1860; before that time they used the cemetery of Jestadt.

The Jews of Eschwege earned a living as cattle merchants and as tradesmen. Later they were active in textile and leather dressing. There was also a cigar factory and two banks owned by Jews.

In 1905 the Jews of Eschwege numbered 517 persons, and in 1933 their number was 390.

 

The Holocaust Period

After the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, the majority of the Jews left Eschwege. Most of them moved to other towns in Germany, such as Frankfurt am main and Berlin; others emigrated overseas, to countries in America and Africa and only a few went on aliyah to Erez Israel.

During the riots of the Pogrom Night on November 10, 1938, the interior of the synagogue was destroyed. Later the building was converted into a workshop. In the years 1941-1942 a hundred Jews were deported from Eschwege on the orders of the Gestapo.

After the war the synagogue building was handed over to the neo-apostolic church.

In 1945 only two Jewish women returned to the town, but they left in 1946 and imigrated to the United States.

 

Herxheim

Herxheim bei Landau

A municipality in the Südliche Weinstraße district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1681; peak Jewish population: 162 in 1848; Jewish population in 1933: approximately 19

The Jews of Herxheim conducted services in a prayer room on Holzgasse until 1797, when they established a synagogue and a school in an existing building located on what would later become the Judengasse (“Jews’ alley”). In 1842, a larger synagogue was built at 18 Obere Hauptstrasse; adjoining the new synagogue, at the front were a school and an apartment for the teacher. The building was partially renovated at the end of the 19th century; in 1923/24, the school and apartment were converted into a residential property. We also know that the community consecrated a cemetery in the 1870s. In 1933, Herxheim’s Jewish schoolchildren received religious instruction in Landau. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), rioters used an axe to destroy the synagogue’s interior. Furniture, ritual objects and holy books were stacked up and burned, but neighboring residents, fearing for the safety of their own homes, prevented the incineration of the synagogue. Approximately 50 people plundered the building. After the pogrom, Herxheim’s local authorities seized the synagogue site as “payment” for demolishing the ruins. The Jewish cemetery was cleared and leveled during the Nazi period, its gravestones used to pave a road. Herxheim’s last Jews left in September 1939. At least three local Jews perished in the Shoah. The cemetery was converted into a park after the war, and a memorial stone was later unveiled there. The school and the teacher’s apartment survived the pogrom and, until 1959, functioned as Herxheim’s municipal hall (this building was demolished in 1993). In 1984, an ornamental stone from the original synagogue was unveiled as a memorial on the former synagogue’s site.

--------------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

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Salomon Herxheimer

Salomon Herxheimer (1801-1884) Rabbi.

Born in Dotzheim, age 13 he entered the yeshiva in Mainz, also studying secular subjects. From 1818 to1824 he was a private tutor at Herborn and then attended the universities of Marburg and Goettingen. He was appointed religious instructor in Eschwege where he became district rabbi in 1830. Later Herzheimer was rabbi of Anhalt-Bernburg. He was a supporter of moderate Reform and an advocate of confirmation. He encouraged the development of agriculture among Jews and supported Jews living in Erets Israel. His writings include a translation of the Bible into Germany, with commentary, a popular work of religious instruction,and a Hebrew grammar.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
HERXHEIMER
HERXHEIMER

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

Herxheimer, in which the German ending "-er" means "of/from", is based on the German towns of Herxheim near Ludwigshafen or Herxheim near Karlsruhe.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish surname Herxheimer include the German rabbi, Bible translator and author Solomon Herxheimer (1801-1884).

Bernburg

Bernburg

First Jewish presence: 17th century; peak Jewish population: 405 in 1864; Jewish population in 1933: 195

Jews established a significant presence in Bernburg during the 17th and 18th centuries. Although Bernburg Jews were highly influential in the courts, in business and in the professions, the government forced them to pay “protection money.” Among the town’s prominent Jewish residents was Rabbi Dr. Salomon Herxheimer, whose prolific work included a translation of the Hebrew Bible into German. The community conducted services in a synagogue (established in 1731) until a larger house of worship was consecrated some 100 years later. Two hundred Jews lived in Bernburg in the early 1930s, but that number dwindled considerably after the Nazis implemented their boycott of Jewish-owned businesses (1933). On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue was plundered and torched, Jewish-owned business and homes were destroyed and Jewish men were sent to Buchenwald Nazi concentration camp. Of the 16 Bernburg Jews who were sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1942, only two survived. Bernburg was the site of a notorious psychiatric hospital where approximately 5,000 individuals, mostly Jews from the concentration camps, were “euthanized” with carbon monoxide gas. The synagogue ruins were demolished soon after Pogrom Night.

On November 9, 2000, a memorial dedicated to the former synagogue was unveiled in Bernburg.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

ESCHWEGE

Eschwege

A small town in the district of Kassel in the state of Hessen, Germany.

Until the unification of Germany in 1990, in Western Germany.

Eschwege was one of the most ancient Jewish communities in Germany. Jews have settled in the town already in the 13th century, and a document dated 1398 mentioned a Jewish banker in Eschwege by the name of Hazen (hazzan-cantor).

From the beginning of the 16th century most of the Jews lived in  Kniegasse. In 1835, 220 out of the total 236 Jews in town still lived in the old Jewish quarter.

The first synagogue in Eschwege was built in 1687, and in 1838 a new and larger synagogue,  seating 200 persons, was built.

At the beginning of the 20th century most of the community members were of the liberal persuation, but the rabbi was orthodox and followed the orthodox service in the synagogue.

There was a "Talmud Torah" and a Jewish elementary school between the years 1839-1940.

The community had its own cemetery only from 1860; before that time they used the cemetery of Jestadt.

The Jews of Eschwege earned a living as cattle merchants and as tradesmen. Later they were active in textile and leather dressing. There was also a cigar factory and two banks owned by Jews.

In 1905 the Jews of Eschwege numbered 517 persons, and in 1933 their number was 390.

 

The Holocaust Period

After the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, the majority of the Jews left Eschwege. Most of them moved to other towns in Germany, such as Frankfurt am main and Berlin; others emigrated overseas, to countries in America and Africa and only a few went on aliyah to Erez Israel.

During the riots of the Pogrom Night on November 10, 1938, the interior of the synagogue was destroyed. Later the building was converted into a workshop. In the years 1941-1942 a hundred Jews were deported from Eschwege on the orders of the Gestapo.

After the war the synagogue building was handed over to the neo-apostolic church.

In 1945 only two Jewish women returned to the town, but they left in 1946 and imigrated to the United States.

 

Herxheim

Herxheim

Herxheim bei Landau

A municipality in the Südliche Weinstraße district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1681; peak Jewish population: 162 in 1848; Jewish population in 1933: approximately 19

The Jews of Herxheim conducted services in a prayer room on Holzgasse until 1797, when they established a synagogue and a school in an existing building located on what would later become the Judengasse (“Jews’ alley”). In 1842, a larger synagogue was built at 18 Obere Hauptstrasse; adjoining the new synagogue, at the front were a school and an apartment for the teacher. The building was partially renovated at the end of the 19th century; in 1923/24, the school and apartment were converted into a residential property. We also know that the community consecrated a cemetery in the 1870s. In 1933, Herxheim’s Jewish schoolchildren received religious instruction in Landau. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), rioters used an axe to destroy the synagogue’s interior. Furniture, ritual objects and holy books were stacked up and burned, but neighboring residents, fearing for the safety of their own homes, prevented the incineration of the synagogue. Approximately 50 people plundered the building. After the pogrom, Herxheim’s local authorities seized the synagogue site as “payment” for demolishing the ruins. The Jewish cemetery was cleared and leveled during the Nazi period, its gravestones used to pave a road. Herxheim’s last Jews left in September 1939. At least three local Jews perished in the Shoah. The cemetery was converted into a park after the war, and a memorial stone was later unveiled there. The school and the teacher’s apartment survived the pogrom and, until 1959, functioned as Herxheim’s municipal hall (this building was demolished in 1993). In 1984, an ornamental stone from the original synagogue was unveiled as a memorial on the former synagogue’s site.

--------------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.