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The Jewish Community of Krumbach Huerben

Krumbach Huerben

Krumbach Hürben

A town in the district Günzburg in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany

Already at the beginning of the 16th century four Jewish families lived in the village of Huerben. Until the mid-century the number of Jews increased, due to the influx of Jewish families expelled from Donauwoerth and Neuburg a.d. Kammel.

At that time the community already had its own cemetery, which was consecrated in 1608 or in 1628. A synagogue was built in 1675 and next to it was the rabbi's apartment, and there was also a mikveh.

During the 18th century the community increased considerably, as Jews driven out from nearby settlements joined it. At the beginning of the 19th century some 400 Jews lived in Huerben, amounting to about half of the total population. In 1819 the synagogue was rebuilt. In 1839 Huerben had 129 Jewish families, e.g. 576 persons. At that time Huerben was considered one of the largest Jewish communities in Bavaria.

The Huerben Jewish community had two outstanding personalities; the community's rabbi, Chaim Schwartz, who wrote the ethical book "Oroth Chaim" and the orientalist Shmuel Landauer, (1846-1937) who was a professor at the University of Strassburg until 1918.

In 1790 the community opened an elementary school. In the mid-19th century 24 pupils studied there, and an additional 138 pupils received Bible lessons. The school was closed in 1925, but the Bible lessons continued. The community initiated a mikveh and operated two hevroth kaddishah for men and women, respectively. They also had charity funds and organizations to help the poor and needy.

At the beginning of the 19th century a few Jews settled in nearby Krumbach. In 1902 this village was annexed by the town and a united Krumbach-Huerben community was founded. Its members occupied honorable positions in the town, even in the town council.

Jews of the Krumbach-Huerben community contributed much to the economic development of the town. They were mostly merchants (56 merchants and 11 peddlers) and 47 of its members were artisans. At the beginning of the 20th century merchants were still the majority, but there was also a Jewish banker and a Jewish dairy owner. At the beginning of the 20th century there was a branch of the Zionist Organization.

In 1900 three Jews lived in Krumbach (0.2% of the total population), and 123 in Huerben, where they accounted for 9.9% of the total population. In 1933 only 65 Jews were left in the united community of Krumbach-Huerben, some 1.8% of the total population.

 

The Holocaust Period

With the rise of the Nazis to power in 1933 the Jews of Krumbach-Huerben suffered the economic boycott and other persecutions. In 1937 the cemetery was desecrated, and eight of its tombstones overturned.

Between the years 1933-1938 a Jewish charity organization from Munich organized summer camps in Krumbach-Huerben for Jewish children. In the spring of 1938 they accommodated for the last time 60 children and youngsters from various Bavarian communities.

During the Pogrom Night riots (Nov.  9, 1938) the local synagogue was not put to the torch, but all its contents were destroyed and only a single Torah scroll was saved. After these riots the local Jews were forced to transfer their businesses into "Aryan" hands.

During the years 1939-1941 some 21 Jews left the town, in addition to 24 who departed between 1933-1939. One Jew emigrated to Eretz Israel, 17 left for the United States, and the rest to other countries or to other towns in Germany.

The last 16 Jews were deported from Krumbach-Huerben. They were added to a transport which left Munich for Piaski near Lublin in German-occupied Poland on April 3, 1942. On August 10, 1942 the only remaining Jew in Krumbach-Huerben was deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto.
 

One single Jew returned to the town after the war. The local Jewish cemetery is being cared for by the Association of Bavarian Jewish Communities.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
217043
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions
The Jewish Community of Krumbach Huerben

Krumbach Huerben

Krumbach Hürben

A town in the district Günzburg in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany

Already at the beginning of the 16th century four Jewish families lived in the village of Huerben. Until the mid-century the number of Jews increased, due to the influx of Jewish families expelled from Donauwoerth and Neuburg a.d. Kammel.

At that time the community already had its own cemetery, which was consecrated in 1608 or in 1628. A synagogue was built in 1675 and next to it was the rabbi's apartment, and there was also a mikveh.

During the 18th century the community increased considerably, as Jews driven out from nearby settlements joined it. At the beginning of the 19th century some 400 Jews lived in Huerben, amounting to about half of the total population. In 1819 the synagogue was rebuilt. In 1839 Huerben had 129 Jewish families, e.g. 576 persons. At that time Huerben was considered one of the largest Jewish communities in Bavaria.

The Huerben Jewish community had two outstanding personalities; the community's rabbi, Chaim Schwartz, who wrote the ethical book "Oroth Chaim" and the orientalist Shmuel Landauer, (1846-1937) who was a professor at the University of Strassburg until 1918.

In 1790 the community opened an elementary school. In the mid-19th century 24 pupils studied there, and an additional 138 pupils received Bible lessons. The school was closed in 1925, but the Bible lessons continued. The community initiated a mikveh and operated two hevroth kaddishah for men and women, respectively. They also had charity funds and organizations to help the poor and needy.

At the beginning of the 19th century a few Jews settled in nearby Krumbach. In 1902 this village was annexed by the town and a united Krumbach-Huerben community was founded. Its members occupied honorable positions in the town, even in the town council.

Jews of the Krumbach-Huerben community contributed much to the economic development of the town. They were mostly merchants (56 merchants and 11 peddlers) and 47 of its members were artisans. At the beginning of the 20th century merchants were still the majority, but there was also a Jewish banker and a Jewish dairy owner. At the beginning of the 20th century there was a branch of the Zionist Organization.

In 1900 three Jews lived in Krumbach (0.2% of the total population), and 123 in Huerben, where they accounted for 9.9% of the total population. In 1933 only 65 Jews were left in the united community of Krumbach-Huerben, some 1.8% of the total population.

 

The Holocaust Period

With the rise of the Nazis to power in 1933 the Jews of Krumbach-Huerben suffered the economic boycott and other persecutions. In 1937 the cemetery was desecrated, and eight of its tombstones overturned.

Between the years 1933-1938 a Jewish charity organization from Munich organized summer camps in Krumbach-Huerben for Jewish children. In the spring of 1938 they accommodated for the last time 60 children and youngsters from various Bavarian communities.

During the Pogrom Night riots (Nov.  9, 1938) the local synagogue was not put to the torch, but all its contents were destroyed and only a single Torah scroll was saved. After these riots the local Jews were forced to transfer their businesses into "Aryan" hands.

During the years 1939-1941 some 21 Jews left the town, in addition to 24 who departed between 1933-1939. One Jew emigrated to Eretz Israel, 17 left for the United States, and the rest to other countries or to other towns in Germany.

The last 16 Jews were deported from Krumbach-Huerben. They were added to a transport which left Munich for Piaski near Lublin in German-occupied Poland on April 3, 1942. On August 10, 1942 the only remaining Jew in Krumbach-Huerben was deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto.
 

One single Jew returned to the town after the war. The local Jewish cemetery is being cared for by the Association of Bavarian Jewish Communities.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People