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The Jewish Community of Ciucea

Ciucea

In Hungarian: Csucsa; in German: Tschötsch

A commune in the Cluj County in the historical region of Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary, between 1940-1944 was annexed by Hungary.

Jews started to settle in Ciucea during the first half of the 19th century. In 1857 there were 17 Jewish inhabitants in the village. The 1930 census recorded 134 Jews out of the general population of 1,777

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania. After his dismissal as Prime Minister of Romania in February 1938, Octavian Goga, a notorious anti-Semite, spent his last month of life at his estate in Ciucea. 

In August 1940 Northern Transylvania, including Ciucea, was annexed by Hungary. The anti-Semitic policy of the Hungarian government was implemented immediately. In May 1944 the Jews of Ciucea were arrested and taken to the ghetto in Cluj, and from there were deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz in early June 1944.

Ther Jewish cemetery in Ciucea is located on Crasnei Str., at the exit from the village towards Vanatori village.

Ciucea is the birth place of Dezső David Friedmann (1880-1939), the father of the war photographer and journalist Robert Capa (born Endre Ernő Friedmann) (1913-1954).

Place Type:
Village
ID Number:
21660569
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Huedin

In Hungarian: Bánffyhunyad; in German: Heynod

A city in the Cluj County in the historical region of Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary, between 1940-1944 was annexed by Hungary.

Jews started to settle in Huedin during the first half of the 19th century. In 1877 there were 243 Jews living in the town and in 1910 their number increased to 1,073 that constituted about 22% of the general population. The increase in the size of the Jewish population was partly due to immigration from rural communities. After the annexation of Transylvania by Romania at the end of WW I, the Jewish population stood at 260 in 1920 while the 1930 census recorded 960 Jewish inhabitants in Huedin.

The community opened its first synagogue was built in 1852. It also maintained a yeshiva. In 1927 the local synagogue was attacked by a group of anti-Semitic students.

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania. 

In August 1940 Northern Transylvania, including Bontida, was annexed by Hungary. The anti-Semitic policy of the Hungarian government was implemented immediately.

The Jews of Huedin were arrested by the Hungarian police on May 3, 1944 and held in the local synagogue, where they were tortured and underwent humiliating body searches to reveal where they hid their gold and other valuables. After a few days they were transferred to the ghetto of Cluj, and from there they were deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz in May-June 1944.

After WW II, some Holocaust survivors returned to Huedin. In 1947 the Jewish population numbered 345 people. In the years that followed most of them left the city with many immigrating to Israel. The remaining Jews were organized in a local community, member of the Federation of the Jewish Communities of Romania.

In 2014 there was only one Jew living in Huedin.

Marghita

In Hungarian: Margitta, also Margita

A town in north Transylvania, western Romania.

Until the end of World War I and between 1940 and 1945 it formed part of Hungary.

Jews began to settle there during the 18th century. A geographical-historical description of Hungary which was published in 1799 mentions Jewish inhabitants among the Hungarians and Romanians. The first Jewish settlers appear to have come from the neighboring village Petra. A community headed by a rabbi has probably existed by the close of the 18th century. The synagogue was consecrated in 1862. In 1885 the community also became a center for the Jews of the surrounding region. The Jewish population numbered 944 (18% of the total population) in 1900 and 1,623 (26.7%) in 1930.

From its inception the community was an orthodox one. The influence of chasidism was felt, particularly between the two world wars. The rabbis of the community included Rabbi Joshua Aaron Tzevi Weinberger, author of the Mahariatz Responsa (first half of the 19th century); his descendants succeeded him in the rabbinical office until the liquidation of the community. For a short period, from 1850, Rabbi Hillel Lichtenstein was rabbi of the town. The students of the community's yeshivah included some who came from far away, and their numbers occasionally rose to 350. The last rabbi, who perished in the holocaust, was Rabbi Mordecai Azriel Weinberger; he was also the last head of the yeshivah. A Jewish press functioned in Marghita between the two world wars.

At the time of the holocaust, in the summer of 1944, the local Jews were taken to the district capital of Oradeamare and deported from there to Auschwitz. After the war some Jews returned to the town, numbering about 500 in 1947. Their numbers gradually decreased through emigration to Israel and other countries, so that they were finally reduced to 10 families in 1970 (out of a total population of 12,000).

Zimbor

Additional names: Zimborul-Mare, Zimborul, Zimboru; in Hungarian: Magyarzsombor, also Kolozs Zsombor

A village and a commune in the Salaj County in the historical region of Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary, between 1940-1944 was annexed by Hungary.

Jews settled in Zimbor during the early half of the 19th century. In 1877 there were 83 Jews living in the village.

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania. 

In August 1940 Northern Transylvania, including Zimbor, was annexed by Hungary. The anti-Semitic policy of the Hungarian government was implemented immediately. The Jews of Zimbor were deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz in May-June 1944, where most of them were murdered.

There is a Jewish cemetery in Zimbor that has been taken care of by the Jewish community of Zalau.