Search
Print
Share
Your Selected Item:
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions

The Jewish Community of Neukalen

Neukalen

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

The Jewish community had its prime in the first half of the 19th century, but then decreased in number due to emigration to such an extent that it was dissolved in 1900 at its own will. The synagogue, inaugurated in 1843, was sold in 1899 to the innkeeper Köhler, who had it demolished because it was in a bad condition. The community did not have a Jewish school, but had a mikveh and its own Jewish cemetery in the "Judentannen" of which remains are preserved. After 1900 only three Jewish families lived in Neukalen: the Bragenheim, Löwi and Salender families, in 1935 only the two unmarried sisters Amalie and Bertha Salender. Bertha Salender died in 1937 at the age of 92, Amalie Salender is said to have hanged herself on March 19, 1938 because she could no longer bear the loneliness and abuse.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
21374371
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

Malchin

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Jews sporadically lived in Malchin prior to the Black Death persecutions of 1348/49. Jewish presence in the town was again documented in 1378. However, further evidence of Jews in Malchin stems only from the end of the 17th century. A Judenstrasse (Jews' Street) apparently existed around 1700 (later: Strelitzer Strasse). The Jewish community was probably founded in 1816. At the same time, a Jewish cemetery was opened not far from Muehlentor, outside of the town. The establishment of a new burial ground, purchased in 1850, was never realized. In 1764, a prayer room had already been furnished in the former home of the widow Ahnsehl at 316 Judenstrasse. It was later replaced by a new synagogue in 1837. A small tower adorned the building. A garden led from the street to the synagogue. The Jewish community sporadically hired a teacher who provided religious instruction to Jewish children. He also served as chazzan (cantor). A mikvah (ritual bath) existed in a rented rear house.

Siegfried Samuel Marcus, born in Malchin in 1831, is known as the inventor of the 'First Marcus Car', the first documented gasoline-powered vehicle. A plaque affixed to the house of his birth commemorates him. He died in Vienna in 1898.

In 1830, 128 Jews lived in Malchin. After 1860 many Jewish families left the town. Hence the number of Jewish inhabitants declined to 75 in 1865 and to 13 in 1925. The very low membership led the community to the decision to sell the synagogue building in 1923. Henceforth, the building was used by Malchin's Catholic community. A bit later, in 1925, the Jewish congregation was officially dissolved. The remaining local Jews reluctantly joined the Jewish community of Stavenhagen.

On Pogrom Night on November 9, 1938, police sergeant Bruno Watzke apparently prevented the intended arson of the synagogue building in order to protect the neighboring houses. In spring 1945, the former synagogue building was set on fire and destroyed by Soviet soldiers - along with many streets and buildings in the town. The fate of Malchin's Jewish local residents during the Nazi era is widely unknown to us. In the early 1950s, the Jewish cemetery was leveled to the ground. It was reconstructed in 2005.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Teterow

A town in the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1492; peak Jewish population: 116 in 1845; Jewish population in 1933: 17

The earliest record of the Jews of Teterow is dated 1492, the same year in which five Jews were burned at the stake and the rest were banished. Records do not mention another Jewish presence in Teterow until 1762, when a Jewish community was founded there. Although troops were posted in Teterow to enforce the anti-Jewish ordinances of 1933, the local population ignored them. Eventually, however, the situation deteriorated to such an extent that by 1935, the Jewish community was forced to disband. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the abandoned synagogue was ransacked and the roof trusses were torn down. A few weeks later, the city declared the building unsafe and a danger to pedestrians, after which it was torn down. The Jewish cemetery was left unharmed, as it was located outside the city. A memorial plaque was later unveiled at the site where the synagogue once stood. Another plaque has been placed at the cemetery, which is considered one of the best-preserved Jewish cemeteries in the area.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Malchow

A municipality in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Around the middle of the 18th century, Jewish traders and their families probably settled in Malchow and in the neighboring towns of Röbel and Waren. One of them was Salomon Jakauf, who ran a small business of spinning yarn and woven fabrics, which he passed on to his son Moses in 1760 who later called himself Moses Jakob. In the following generations, the family was called Jacobsohn due to a naming law published in 1813 by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I. The Jacobson family belonged to one of the most important and respected families in Malchow until the Jews were expelled and murdered by the Nazis. This family history was written down by Max Jacobson for his descendants after his liberation from Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp.

From documents in the Mecklenburg State Main Archives it can be seen that the Jews Elias Salomon and Lewin David from Malchow each had to pay 12 Reichsthaler protection money to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1760 and that the protected Jews Michaelsohn Lewinthal, Simon Schmuhl, Salomon Jacob, Joachim Simon, Aaron Seligmann and Hirsch Lewin received the trade privilege. In this context it should be pointed out that the so-called "privileges" granted to Jews were of course actually none such, because every Christian citizen could of course register his trade with the local administrations. "Privileges" and "protection money" are therefore more an indication of the lack of rights of the Jews at that time and were not awarded to all Jews.

At the beginning of the 19th century probably due to the immigration of further Jews in Malchow, a Jewish community was formed, which elected a board to exercise its rights towards the city and the federal state government. The Malchow city archive shows that in 1812 the protected Jews Joseph Moses and Salomon Jakob were the principles. With the establishment of the Jewish community, the cemetery was also laid out. 48 Jews lived in Malchow between 1811 and 1819. (A census list of Jews of both genders and children under 15 from 1818 is on p. 9 in the brochure of Karl-Heinz Oelke, Aus der Geschichte der jüdischen Gemeinde in Malchow (Meckl.), 1994 published by the city of Malchow) The synagogue was built between 1820 and 1825 at Langen Strasse 64. It was similar to the synagogues in Röbel and Waren: a long rectangular building with bricked-up compartments and a heavy tiled roof, the long sides with three stripes, on the front side, directly under the eaves, a small row of windows, probably for the women's gallery. From 1775 there was a regulation that synagogues could only be built on side streets and set back behind the street front. As in other Jewish communities, the synagogue in Malchow was the center of the religious and social life of the Jews. In 1828 the Jews in Mecklenburg were given the right to purchase their own property, which several families in Malchow and the Jewish community itself used between 1834 and 1838 to purchase houses.

The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Friedrich-Franz I issued an ordinance in 1843 in which he instructed various Jewish communities, including Malchow, to set up religious schools for school-age children. It was only allowed to employ teachers who had attended a German teachers' seminar and passed a teacher examination and had been approved by the regional rabbi. The children of the Jewish faith were obliged to attend religious school from the age of 6 to 14. Subjects were religion, Biblical history, Jewish writing, Hebrew prayer translation, Hebrew reading. For Jewish boys attending grammar school, religious lessons were limited to four hours a week.

By 1858 the number of Jewish residents in Malchow had increased to about 110 and continued to increase, albeit only slightly until 1882. A decline in the number of Jewish families can only be recorded from 1900, i.e. later than in other small towns in Mecklenburg, where emigration usually began in the 1960s for political and economic reasons, which of course also decreased the income from the contributions of the members. In 1912 there were still 8 male and 5 female contributors living in Malchow, 8 of whom were older than 55 years. The synagogue was no longer used for the Shabbat service, the community members only gathered here on the three highest Jewish holidays. In 1935 the synagogue building which was no longer in use, was sold to master carpenter Kroschel, who had also acquired property in Langen Strasse 103 from the Jewish community in previous years. In 1992 the synagogue building was demolished by the owner because it was in disrepair.

From the childhood memories of Max Jacobson mentioned above, who wrote down his family history after the liberation from Theresienstadt, the picture emerges that Jews and Christians lived peacefully together in Malchow in the 19th century.

"On Saturday I had no school, because then I had to go to the synagogue, quite apart from the fact that I was not allowed to write on Shabbos. In general one day passed like another in my hometown. The inhabitants of the small country town, farmers, small traders, craftsmen and merchants grew their cabbage and potatoes themselves and were satisfied, upright and sincere people. The eldest son of the family usually inherited the house and property, the other children became craftsmen or merchants and often married into another family. This was especially the case when there were no male heirs in a family. – Two doctors and a dentist took care of the city's health. They, the mayor councilor Rettberg, the district judge, the pastor, pharmacist and candidate for higher civil service, as well as the director of the rather important cloth factory made up the city's dignitaries. At the art-loving pharmacist’s home, literary evenings were held weekly which my mother also attended, and for music my parents' house was the center of all music lovers. I had a happy and undisturbed youth with my siblings and schoolmates. The annual gymnastics event, the folk festival in June and the children's festival in July, at which all schools participated, as well as the autumn market were highlights in the life of the town. On these festive days there was a parade ride on the lake with fireworks and decorated boats and in winter a big ice festival ... On October 12, 1894 I joined the 8th Würtemberg Infantry Regiment No. 126 in Strasbourg in Alsace. Raised in a patriotic spirit by my parents and school, I was a soldier with body and soul. Neither from the side of superiors nor from comrades was there a trace of anti-Semitism ..." (ibid. p. 21) In the First World War he was initially a sergeant and was made an officer in September 1917. He received various orders of merit and, like several other Malchow Jews was honored for bravery. Another member of the large Jacobson family, Isidor Jacobson, was a successful businessman, head of the Jewish community and a volunteer in various committees and associations in the city and regarded as an equal citizen. The same can be said of various members of the Levy, Löwenthal and Schlomann merchant families over several generations.

In the Weimar Republic, there were anti-Semitic riots in Malchow for the first time. In the federal state elections of June 1926 the NSDAP received 6 votes in town, in May 1927, 13 votes and in June 1929, 37 voters voted for the NSDAP. With the transfer of power by President of the Reich von Hindenburg to Hitler on January 30, 1933, the discrimination and persecution of Jewish citizens began in Malchow as well. There were a few Christian residents, such as the families of the goods merchant Carl Stein, the hairdresser and master rope maker Lehrmann, and the master shoemaker Schmidt who helped Jews. "In his letter, Karl Schmidt shares a story about the name Schlomann that may have happened many times in the small towns, almost a peripheral occurrence, a gesture of obvious neighborly solidarity. Richard Schlomann, probably a son of the aforementioned Hermann Schlomann, served in the First World War and bearer of the Iron Cross, was an itinerant dealer. He carried his goods to his customers in the village and town on a bicycle with a large luggage rack. The commentator's grandfather, a master shoemaker, was friends with Schlomann. When more and more restrictions were imposed on the Jews and it was literally made difficult for them to buy bread and groceries, the master shoemaker often met with Schlomann in the cemetery to give him a briefcase with groceries. Schlomann could no longer come to the shoemaker's workshop. The city policeman Maack had already warned: One ought to be careful, people are watching... I still remember the conversation my father had with my mother after he returned from Rostock. Schlomanns were waiting for the transport to Poland. Father wanted to encourage him and said: Maybe they'll finally leave you alone and Richard replied: No, no, Karl, they're killing us all." (Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkastens andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, S. 115)

Otto Löwenthal was one of the Jews who foresaw the disastrous development and moved to Berlin with his wife and daughter at the end of December 1935, and from there probably fled to Palestine. Betty Jacobson, Isidor's wife, who died before 1938 and was buried in Malchow, was deported to Theresienstadt in 1942 and perished there in 1943. The daughter Anne was able to save herself to Palestine with her husband Kurt Hesse and their son Peter. Likewise Norbert Schlomann, who could not bring his parents Richard and Hedwig Schlomann later on. In the foreclosure auction procedure, Jewish residential properties were handed over to new, presumably Nazi oriented owners. On the Pogrom Night in 1938, only the Jewish cemetery in Malchow was still owned by Jews. Except for the Schlomann gravestone with the inscription: " Hermann Schlomann, died in 1913 " it was devastated. Today there is a sign directing to the Jewish cemetery near the entrance.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Waren

A town, climatic spa and seat of the Müritzin district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Jews probably lived in Waren in the decades and centuries before the Jews were expelled from Mecklenburg at the end of the 15th century following accusations of alleged desecration of the host and poisoning of wells. 

In the 18th century, Jews were resettled, to whom the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin granted concessions and privileges for residential and commercial rights, for which the so-called "protective Jews" had to pay taxes. At the same time, the sovereign assured the cities, "... that they should have no cause to complain about their number, which is too large. Just as the Jews are hereby forbidden from taking peculiar reasons for themselves." (Quoted from Arne Benkendorf, goods, in: "Guide through the Jewish Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania", Berlin 1998, 295) So received, among others Wulff Salomon from Waren on June 3, 1755 a concession to trade haberdashery. Most of the Jews did not trade in shops at first, but rather as "flying trade" and moved across the country from goods with junk and haberdashery. A list obtained from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend of August 14, 1809: and moved across the country from goods with junk and haberdashery. A list obtained from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend of August 14, 1809: and set out from goods with junk and haberdashery across the country. A list from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809: At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809: At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809:
"You, the Protective Jew Elias Berend, are free to make use of your privilege, which has been rewritten to trade from the open shop today, in connection with your son-in-law or for yourself. But since this is only granted to you for life, it goes without saying that with your present demise such connection will cease and will not extend to your future heir. " (quoted from Arne Benkendorf, op. cit. p. 296)
"The liberalization that occurred as a result of the French Revolution made it possible for 26 Waren Jews to acquire citizenship and thus equality with their Christian fellow citizens for a short period of 4 years, which means that officially recognized family names prevail, including the Jews in the This "Constitution for the determination of an appropriate constitution for Jewish co-religionists in local countries" of February 22nd, 1813 was deleted on September 11th, 1817 without replacement by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I, yielding to pressure from the knighthood and the cities.
Before the two Mecklenburg Grand Duchies joined the North German Confederation in 1867 and were fully emancipated in this confederation in 1869, Jews were only allowed to acquire citizenship in the years 1848/49. With these exceptions in the years 1813-1817 and 1848/49, the Jews still had to apply for special privileges. Like all other privileged craft offices or individuals, they had to have all granted or purchased rights reaffirmed by the government of the new Grand Duke against payment of a not small sum at every change of government. "(Op. Cit., P. 298)
The increase in numbers of the Jewish community and increasing prosperity made it possible in 1796 to build a synagogue in the courtyard of the house acquired by Elias Behrend in what was then Langen Strasse 113, and very close by to build a ritual bath, the mikveh.
"It is not known whether the building of the synagogue, as in other cities, was supported by the sovereign. The synagogue building was similar to that of the Röbeler. It was a hall building with a hipped roof on all sides, which leaned against the old city wall in the north Inside there was a gallery and on the east side a niche for the Torah shrine.According to the family of the carpenter Zelms, who came into possession of the house in 1936, to the left of this niche was a painted representation of plants and those nourishing them Bees. The ceiling was decorated with stars. " (loc. cit. p. 304)
The son of the master carpenter, Kurt Zelm, was often in his father's workshop as a child and, as an architect, of course has the necessary appreciation of old buildings, describes the synagogue in his memory as follows and should be quoted additionally:
but the bees flew away, weighted with honey. In the middle of the sacred space there was a raised platform with a balustrade, from where the prayer was held ... "(quoted from Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkasten andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, p. 95)
The Waren cemetery was built around 1800. A sovereign ordinance on the attitude of a religious school by the Israelite community to Waren was dated April 1843. Classes were held in classrooms made available by the magistrate. Since the equality of Jews after 1869 and the founding of the Reich in 1871, the number of community members in Waren has also decreased. In 1850 the Jewish community still had 155 members, in 1875 there were 99, in 1900 only 89 and in 1925 only 35 people. The Jews were given the right to freely choose their profession and place of residence or settlement. They became more and more integrated into the economic and social life of society. The big cities with their modern economies offered them more opportunities so that they could break out of the narrow confines of small-town Jewish communities. At the same time, the contrast between liberal reform Jews and conservative Orthodox Jews increased. The liberal Jews assimilated themselves, took up new professions such as teachers, lawyers, doctors, were baptized, married Christian spouses, broke away from Jewish traditions, got involved in cultural associations, Jewish children attended city schools up to and including high school, Christian and Jewish residents looked after normal everyday interaction with one another. In 1871, Dr. Jacobi Selig Rosenthal granted honorary citizenship to a Jew. The Warener Zeitung of November 18, 1871 finishes its article in which it details the award of honorary citizenship and the career of Dr. Rosenthal describes
"We wish the worthy jubilee that he may have many more cheerful days to the delight of his dear relatives and numerous admirers." (Quoted from Arne Benkendorf loc. Cit. P. 306) In July 1877, Dr. Rosenthal in goods. In 1990 a street leading to the Jewish cemetery was named after him. The Jewish brothers Karl and Otto Loewenberg also took part in the First World War. They fell in 1915 and 1918 and are named on the memorial plaque for those who fell in this war in the George Church.
With the National Socialist rule, repression and persecution began. The Jewish community was forced to remove the synagogue because it was in a state of disrepair. More and more Jews fled from the anti-Semitic harassment and riots. In 1935 there were 29 Jews living in Waren, in 1937 only 24 and in April 1938 the number had dropped to 9. These moved to the larger cities, where they hoped to be more secure in anonymity or from where they tried to flee abroad. Only a few of them managed to do this, mention should be made of Alfred Leopold's spectacular escape, which took six years before he was safe in Switzerland. Others like the married couple Loewenberg vom Neuen Markt with their two children Karl Otto and Ruth no longer succeeded in following their daughter Gerda from Hamburg to the USA. They were deported to Minsk and are missing there. Erich and Toni Jacob from Lloydstr. 4 were deported from Berlin to Auschwitz with their sons Alfred and Günther, only Günther survived. The Leopold family from Neuen Markt 13 was also deported from Berlin to Theresienstadt and Auschwitz.
The Jewish cemetery was destroyed in the the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), a memorial stone was placed in 1967 and a memorial plaque was placed at the entrance in 1985. The synagogue building was spared during the riots, as the Jewish community had given it up in 1936 and - as already mentioned - sold it to a carpenter as a workshop. It was finally demolished in 1954, the photos of the demolition are the last documents in the history of the house. In 1991 a memorial stone was erected.
"A few steps away from the synagogue, outside the city wall, directly on Lake Tiefwarensee, at Grosse Mauerplatz 3, was the Jewish bathhouse. Like the whole district, it has disappeared without a trace. People's life has taken place here for several centuries. Christians and Jews lived close together.

---------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Güstrow 

A town and capital of the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish presence: late 1200s; peak Jewish population: 223 in 1860; Jewish population in 1933: 118

When Jews first settled in Guestrow in the late 1200s, they built a synagogue and consecrated a cemetery. The anti-Jewish host desecration trials, in which Jews were prosecuted for refusing to convert to Christianity, took place in Guestrow in 1330: 20 Jews were burned at the stake, their belongings were confiscated and the synagogue was converted into a church. It was not until 1819 that a considerable number of Jews were permitted to settle in Guestrow, after which the Jewish population grew quickly, reaching its peak of 223 in 1860. The community’s prayer rooms were unable to accommodate the growing congregation, and in 1829, two days before the Jewish New Year, a new synagogue was inaugurated in the town. Adjacent to the building were a community center and a school. In 1910, the Jewish population of Guestrow began to dwindle, so that it stood at 118 in 1933 (50 in 1937). On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), droves of local residents destroyed the synagogue. Wanting to ensure the complete destruction of the building, they not only doused the interior with fuel, but also sprayed the outside walls; the ensuing fire was so intense that the building burned for over 36 hours. The mob also burned down the Tahara hall in the cemetery and desecrated the headstones. In 1988, a memorial plaque was unveiled at the cemetery.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

our Open Databases
Jewish Genealogy
Family Names
Jewish Communities
Visual Documentation
Jewish Music Center
Place
אA
אA
אA
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions
The Jewish Community of Neukalen

Neukalen

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

The Jewish community had its prime in the first half of the 19th century, but then decreased in number due to emigration to such an extent that it was dissolved in 1900 at its own will. The synagogue, inaugurated in 1843, was sold in 1899 to the innkeeper Köhler, who had it demolished because it was in a bad condition. The community did not have a Jewish school, but had a mikveh and its own Jewish cemetery in the "Judentannen" of which remains are preserved. After 1900 only three Jewish families lived in Neukalen: the Bragenheim, Löwi and Salender families, in 1935 only the two unmarried sisters Amalie and Bertha Salender. Bertha Salender died in 1937 at the age of 92, Amalie Salender is said to have hanged herself on March 19, 1938 because she could no longer bear the loneliness and abuse.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Guestrow
Waren
Malchow
Teterow
Malchin

Güstrow 

A town and capital of the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish presence: late 1200s; peak Jewish population: 223 in 1860; Jewish population in 1933: 118

When Jews first settled in Guestrow in the late 1200s, they built a synagogue and consecrated a cemetery. The anti-Jewish host desecration trials, in which Jews were prosecuted for refusing to convert to Christianity, took place in Guestrow in 1330: 20 Jews were burned at the stake, their belongings were confiscated and the synagogue was converted into a church. It was not until 1819 that a considerable number of Jews were permitted to settle in Guestrow, after which the Jewish population grew quickly, reaching its peak of 223 in 1860. The community’s prayer rooms were unable to accommodate the growing congregation, and in 1829, two days before the Jewish New Year, a new synagogue was inaugurated in the town. Adjacent to the building were a community center and a school. In 1910, the Jewish population of Guestrow began to dwindle, so that it stood at 118 in 1933 (50 in 1937). On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), droves of local residents destroyed the synagogue. Wanting to ensure the complete destruction of the building, they not only doused the interior with fuel, but also sprayed the outside walls; the ensuing fire was so intense that the building burned for over 36 hours. The mob also burned down the Tahara hall in the cemetery and desecrated the headstones. In 1988, a memorial plaque was unveiled at the cemetery.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Waren

A town, climatic spa and seat of the Müritzin district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Jews probably lived in Waren in the decades and centuries before the Jews were expelled from Mecklenburg at the end of the 15th century following accusations of alleged desecration of the host and poisoning of wells. 

In the 18th century, Jews were resettled, to whom the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin granted concessions and privileges for residential and commercial rights, for which the so-called "protective Jews" had to pay taxes. At the same time, the sovereign assured the cities, "... that they should have no cause to complain about their number, which is too large. Just as the Jews are hereby forbidden from taking peculiar reasons for themselves." (Quoted from Arne Benkendorf, goods, in: "Guide through the Jewish Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania", Berlin 1998, 295) So received, among others Wulff Salomon from Waren on June 3, 1755 a concession to trade haberdashery. Most of the Jews did not trade in shops at first, but rather as "flying trade" and moved across the country from goods with junk and haberdashery. A list obtained from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend of August 14, 1809: and moved across the country from goods with junk and haberdashery. A list obtained from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend of August 14, 1809: and set out from goods with junk and haberdashery across the country. A list from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809: At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809: At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809:
"You, the Protective Jew Elias Berend, are free to make use of your privilege, which has been rewritten to trade from the open shop today, in connection with your son-in-law or for yourself. But since this is only granted to you for life, it goes without saying that with your present demise such connection will cease and will not extend to your future heir. " (quoted from Arne Benkendorf, op. cit. p. 296)
"The liberalization that occurred as a result of the French Revolution made it possible for 26 Waren Jews to acquire citizenship and thus equality with their Christian fellow citizens for a short period of 4 years, which means that officially recognized family names prevail, including the Jews in the This "Constitution for the determination of an appropriate constitution for Jewish co-religionists in local countries" of February 22nd, 1813 was deleted on September 11th, 1817 without replacement by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I, yielding to pressure from the knighthood and the cities.
Before the two Mecklenburg Grand Duchies joined the North German Confederation in 1867 and were fully emancipated in this confederation in 1869, Jews were only allowed to acquire citizenship in the years 1848/49. With these exceptions in the years 1813-1817 and 1848/49, the Jews still had to apply for special privileges. Like all other privileged craft offices or individuals, they had to have all granted or purchased rights reaffirmed by the government of the new Grand Duke against payment of a not small sum at every change of government. "(Op. Cit., P. 298)
The increase in numbers of the Jewish community and increasing prosperity made it possible in 1796 to build a synagogue in the courtyard of the house acquired by Elias Behrend in what was then Langen Strasse 113, and very close by to build a ritual bath, the mikveh.
"It is not known whether the building of the synagogue, as in other cities, was supported by the sovereign. The synagogue building was similar to that of the Röbeler. It was a hall building with a hipped roof on all sides, which leaned against the old city wall in the north Inside there was a gallery and on the east side a niche for the Torah shrine.According to the family of the carpenter Zelms, who came into possession of the house in 1936, to the left of this niche was a painted representation of plants and those nourishing them Bees. The ceiling was decorated with stars. " (loc. cit. p. 304)
The son of the master carpenter, Kurt Zelm, was often in his father's workshop as a child and, as an architect, of course has the necessary appreciation of old buildings, describes the synagogue in his memory as follows and should be quoted additionally:
but the bees flew away, weighted with honey. In the middle of the sacred space there was a raised platform with a balustrade, from where the prayer was held ... "(quoted from Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkasten andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, p. 95)
The Waren cemetery was built around 1800. A sovereign ordinance on the attitude of a religious school by the Israelite community to Waren was dated April 1843. Classes were held in classrooms made available by the magistrate. Since the equality of Jews after 1869 and the founding of the Reich in 1871, the number of community members in Waren has also decreased. In 1850 the Jewish community still had 155 members, in 1875 there were 99, in 1900 only 89 and in 1925 only 35 people. The Jews were given the right to freely choose their profession and place of residence or settlement. They became more and more integrated into the economic and social life of society. The big cities with their modern economies offered them more opportunities so that they could break out of the narrow confines of small-town Jewish communities. At the same time, the contrast between liberal reform Jews and conservative Orthodox Jews increased. The liberal Jews assimilated themselves, took up new professions such as teachers, lawyers, doctors, were baptized, married Christian spouses, broke away from Jewish traditions, got involved in cultural associations, Jewish children attended city schools up to and including high school, Christian and Jewish residents looked after normal everyday interaction with one another. In 1871, Dr. Jacobi Selig Rosenthal granted honorary citizenship to a Jew. The Warener Zeitung of November 18, 1871 finishes its article in which it details the award of honorary citizenship and the career of Dr. Rosenthal describes
"We wish the worthy jubilee that he may have many more cheerful days to the delight of his dear relatives and numerous admirers." (Quoted from Arne Benkendorf loc. Cit. P. 306) In July 1877, Dr. Rosenthal in goods. In 1990 a street leading to the Jewish cemetery was named after him. The Jewish brothers Karl and Otto Loewenberg also took part in the First World War. They fell in 1915 and 1918 and are named on the memorial plaque for those who fell in this war in the George Church.
With the National Socialist rule, repression and persecution began. The Jewish community was forced to remove the synagogue because it was in a state of disrepair. More and more Jews fled from the anti-Semitic harassment and riots. In 1935 there were 29 Jews living in Waren, in 1937 only 24 and in April 1938 the number had dropped to 9. These moved to the larger cities, where they hoped to be more secure in anonymity or from where they tried to flee abroad. Only a few of them managed to do this, mention should be made of Alfred Leopold's spectacular escape, which took six years before he was safe in Switzerland. Others like the married couple Loewenberg vom Neuen Markt with their two children Karl Otto and Ruth no longer succeeded in following their daughter Gerda from Hamburg to the USA. They were deported to Minsk and are missing there. Erich and Toni Jacob from Lloydstr. 4 were deported from Berlin to Auschwitz with their sons Alfred and Günther, only Günther survived. The Leopold family from Neuen Markt 13 was also deported from Berlin to Theresienstadt and Auschwitz.
The Jewish cemetery was destroyed in the the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), a memorial stone was placed in 1967 and a memorial plaque was placed at the entrance in 1985. The synagogue building was spared during the riots, as the Jewish community had given it up in 1936 and - as already mentioned - sold it to a carpenter as a workshop. It was finally demolished in 1954, the photos of the demolition are the last documents in the history of the house. In 1991 a memorial stone was erected.
"A few steps away from the synagogue, outside the city wall, directly on Lake Tiefwarensee, at Grosse Mauerplatz 3, was the Jewish bathhouse. Like the whole district, it has disappeared without a trace. People's life has taken place here for several centuries. Christians and Jews lived close together.

---------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Malchow

A municipality in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Around the middle of the 18th century, Jewish traders and their families probably settled in Malchow and in the neighboring towns of Röbel and Waren. One of them was Salomon Jakauf, who ran a small business of spinning yarn and woven fabrics, which he passed on to his son Moses in 1760 who later called himself Moses Jakob. In the following generations, the family was called Jacobsohn due to a naming law published in 1813 by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I. The Jacobson family belonged to one of the most important and respected families in Malchow until the Jews were expelled and murdered by the Nazis. This family history was written down by Max Jacobson for his descendants after his liberation from Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp.

From documents in the Mecklenburg State Main Archives it can be seen that the Jews Elias Salomon and Lewin David from Malchow each had to pay 12 Reichsthaler protection money to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1760 and that the protected Jews Michaelsohn Lewinthal, Simon Schmuhl, Salomon Jacob, Joachim Simon, Aaron Seligmann and Hirsch Lewin received the trade privilege. In this context it should be pointed out that the so-called "privileges" granted to Jews were of course actually none such, because every Christian citizen could of course register his trade with the local administrations. "Privileges" and "protection money" are therefore more an indication of the lack of rights of the Jews at that time and were not awarded to all Jews.

At the beginning of the 19th century probably due to the immigration of further Jews in Malchow, a Jewish community was formed, which elected a board to exercise its rights towards the city and the federal state government. The Malchow city archive shows that in 1812 the protected Jews Joseph Moses and Salomon Jakob were the principles. With the establishment of the Jewish community, the cemetery was also laid out. 48 Jews lived in Malchow between 1811 and 1819. (A census list of Jews of both genders and children under 15 from 1818 is on p. 9 in the brochure of Karl-Heinz Oelke, Aus der Geschichte der jüdischen Gemeinde in Malchow (Meckl.), 1994 published by the city of Malchow) The synagogue was built between 1820 and 1825 at Langen Strasse 64. It was similar to the synagogues in Röbel and Waren: a long rectangular building with bricked-up compartments and a heavy tiled roof, the long sides with three stripes, on the front side, directly under the eaves, a small row of windows, probably for the women's gallery. From 1775 there was a regulation that synagogues could only be built on side streets and set back behind the street front. As in other Jewish communities, the synagogue in Malchow was the center of the religious and social life of the Jews. In 1828 the Jews in Mecklenburg were given the right to purchase their own property, which several families in Malchow and the Jewish community itself used between 1834 and 1838 to purchase houses.

The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Friedrich-Franz I issued an ordinance in 1843 in which he instructed various Jewish communities, including Malchow, to set up religious schools for school-age children. It was only allowed to employ teachers who had attended a German teachers' seminar and passed a teacher examination and had been approved by the regional rabbi. The children of the Jewish faith were obliged to attend religious school from the age of 6 to 14. Subjects were religion, Biblical history, Jewish writing, Hebrew prayer translation, Hebrew reading. For Jewish boys attending grammar school, religious lessons were limited to four hours a week.

By 1858 the number of Jewish residents in Malchow had increased to about 110 and continued to increase, albeit only slightly until 1882. A decline in the number of Jewish families can only be recorded from 1900, i.e. later than in other small towns in Mecklenburg, where emigration usually began in the 1960s for political and economic reasons, which of course also decreased the income from the contributions of the members. In 1912 there were still 8 male and 5 female contributors living in Malchow, 8 of whom were older than 55 years. The synagogue was no longer used for the Shabbat service, the community members only gathered here on the three highest Jewish holidays. In 1935 the synagogue building which was no longer in use, was sold to master carpenter Kroschel, who had also acquired property in Langen Strasse 103 from the Jewish community in previous years. In 1992 the synagogue building was demolished by the owner because it was in disrepair.

From the childhood memories of Max Jacobson mentioned above, who wrote down his family history after the liberation from Theresienstadt, the picture emerges that Jews and Christians lived peacefully together in Malchow in the 19th century.

"On Saturday I had no school, because then I had to go to the synagogue, quite apart from the fact that I was not allowed to write on Shabbos. In general one day passed like another in my hometown. The inhabitants of the small country town, farmers, small traders, craftsmen and merchants grew their cabbage and potatoes themselves and were satisfied, upright and sincere people. The eldest son of the family usually inherited the house and property, the other children became craftsmen or merchants and often married into another family. This was especially the case when there were no male heirs in a family. – Two doctors and a dentist took care of the city's health. They, the mayor councilor Rettberg, the district judge, the pastor, pharmacist and candidate for higher civil service, as well as the director of the rather important cloth factory made up the city's dignitaries. At the art-loving pharmacist’s home, literary evenings were held weekly which my mother also attended, and for music my parents' house was the center of all music lovers. I had a happy and undisturbed youth with my siblings and schoolmates. The annual gymnastics event, the folk festival in June and the children's festival in July, at which all schools participated, as well as the autumn market were highlights in the life of the town. On these festive days there was a parade ride on the lake with fireworks and decorated boats and in winter a big ice festival ... On October 12, 1894 I joined the 8th Würtemberg Infantry Regiment No. 126 in Strasbourg in Alsace. Raised in a patriotic spirit by my parents and school, I was a soldier with body and soul. Neither from the side of superiors nor from comrades was there a trace of anti-Semitism ..." (ibid. p. 21) In the First World War he was initially a sergeant and was made an officer in September 1917. He received various orders of merit and, like several other Malchow Jews was honored for bravery. Another member of the large Jacobson family, Isidor Jacobson, was a successful businessman, head of the Jewish community and a volunteer in various committees and associations in the city and regarded as an equal citizen. The same can be said of various members of the Levy, Löwenthal and Schlomann merchant families over several generations.

In the Weimar Republic, there were anti-Semitic riots in Malchow for the first time. In the federal state elections of June 1926 the NSDAP received 6 votes in town, in May 1927, 13 votes and in June 1929, 37 voters voted for the NSDAP. With the transfer of power by President of the Reich von Hindenburg to Hitler on January 30, 1933, the discrimination and persecution of Jewish citizens began in Malchow as well. There were a few Christian residents, such as the families of the goods merchant Carl Stein, the hairdresser and master rope maker Lehrmann, and the master shoemaker Schmidt who helped Jews. "In his letter, Karl Schmidt shares a story about the name Schlomann that may have happened many times in the small towns, almost a peripheral occurrence, a gesture of obvious neighborly solidarity. Richard Schlomann, probably a son of the aforementioned Hermann Schlomann, served in the First World War and bearer of the Iron Cross, was an itinerant dealer. He carried his goods to his customers in the village and town on a bicycle with a large luggage rack. The commentator's grandfather, a master shoemaker, was friends with Schlomann. When more and more restrictions were imposed on the Jews and it was literally made difficult for them to buy bread and groceries, the master shoemaker often met with Schlomann in the cemetery to give him a briefcase with groceries. Schlomann could no longer come to the shoemaker's workshop. The city policeman Maack had already warned: One ought to be careful, people are watching... I still remember the conversation my father had with my mother after he returned from Rostock. Schlomanns were waiting for the transport to Poland. Father wanted to encourage him and said: Maybe they'll finally leave you alone and Richard replied: No, no, Karl, they're killing us all." (Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkastens andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, S. 115)

Otto Löwenthal was one of the Jews who foresaw the disastrous development and moved to Berlin with his wife and daughter at the end of December 1935, and from there probably fled to Palestine. Betty Jacobson, Isidor's wife, who died before 1938 and was buried in Malchow, was deported to Theresienstadt in 1942 and perished there in 1943. The daughter Anne was able to save herself to Palestine with her husband Kurt Hesse and their son Peter. Likewise Norbert Schlomann, who could not bring his parents Richard and Hedwig Schlomann later on. In the foreclosure auction procedure, Jewish residential properties were handed over to new, presumably Nazi oriented owners. On the Pogrom Night in 1938, only the Jewish cemetery in Malchow was still owned by Jews. Except for the Schlomann gravestone with the inscription: " Hermann Schlomann, died in 1913 " it was devastated. Today there is a sign directing to the Jewish cemetery near the entrance.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Teterow

A town in the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1492; peak Jewish population: 116 in 1845; Jewish population in 1933: 17

The earliest record of the Jews of Teterow is dated 1492, the same year in which five Jews were burned at the stake and the rest were banished. Records do not mention another Jewish presence in Teterow until 1762, when a Jewish community was founded there. Although troops were posted in Teterow to enforce the anti-Jewish ordinances of 1933, the local population ignored them. Eventually, however, the situation deteriorated to such an extent that by 1935, the Jewish community was forced to disband. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the abandoned synagogue was ransacked and the roof trusses were torn down. A few weeks later, the city declared the building unsafe and a danger to pedestrians, after which it was torn down. The Jewish cemetery was left unharmed, as it was located outside the city. A memorial plaque was later unveiled at the site where the synagogue once stood. Another plaque has been placed at the cemetery, which is considered one of the best-preserved Jewish cemeteries in the area.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Malchin

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Jews sporadically lived in Malchin prior to the Black Death persecutions of 1348/49. Jewish presence in the town was again documented in 1378. However, further evidence of Jews in Malchin stems only from the end of the 17th century. A Judenstrasse (Jews' Street) apparently existed around 1700 (later: Strelitzer Strasse). The Jewish community was probably founded in 1816. At the same time, a Jewish cemetery was opened not far from Muehlentor, outside of the town. The establishment of a new burial ground, purchased in 1850, was never realized. In 1764, a prayer room had already been furnished in the former home of the widow Ahnsehl at 316 Judenstrasse. It was later replaced by a new synagogue in 1837. A small tower adorned the building. A garden led from the street to the synagogue. The Jewish community sporadically hired a teacher who provided religious instruction to Jewish children. He also served as chazzan (cantor). A mikvah (ritual bath) existed in a rented rear house.

Siegfried Samuel Marcus, born in Malchin in 1831, is known as the inventor of the 'First Marcus Car', the first documented gasoline-powered vehicle. A plaque affixed to the house of his birth commemorates him. He died in Vienna in 1898.

In 1830, 128 Jews lived in Malchin. After 1860 many Jewish families left the town. Hence the number of Jewish inhabitants declined to 75 in 1865 and to 13 in 1925. The very low membership led the community to the decision to sell the synagogue building in 1923. Henceforth, the building was used by Malchin's Catholic community. A bit later, in 1925, the Jewish congregation was officially dissolved. The remaining local Jews reluctantly joined the Jewish community of Stavenhagen.

On Pogrom Night on November 9, 1938, police sergeant Bruno Watzke apparently prevented the intended arson of the synagogue building in order to protect the neighboring houses. In spring 1945, the former synagogue building was set on fire and destroyed by Soviet soldiers - along with many streets and buildings in the town. The fate of Malchin's Jewish local residents during the Nazi era is widely unknown to us. In the early 1950s, the Jewish cemetery was leveled to the ground. It was reconstructed in 2005.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.