Search
Print
Share
Your Selected Item:
Personality
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions

Leopold Ornstein

Leopold Yehuda Ornstein (d.1846), community leader, lived in Zagreb, Croatia (then part of the Austrian Empire). Ornstein served as the first president of the orthodox Jewish community of Zagreb from 1840 to 1846. In 1842 he signed a contract along with his son-in-law Samuel Hönigsberg for the purchase of land for the establishment of a Jewish cemetery in Zagreb.

Date of death:
1846
ID Number:
21373014
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:
Related items:
ORNSTEIN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

Literally "ear stone" in German, O(h)r(e)nstein is a spelling variant of the German place name Arnstein. There are several German towns with which Arnstein and Ohrenstein could be associated, among them Arnstein in lower Franconia, north west Bavaria; Arnsdorf in Saxony; Arnsberg in Westphalia; Ahrensburg in Schleswig Holstein; and Arendsee in Saxony. The founder of the Arnstein family of 18th/19th court purveyors and financiers in Vienna was Isaac Aaron Arnstein (1682-1744) who immigrated to the Austrian capital from Arnstein, near Wuerzburg in Germany, in 1705. As a Jewish name, Or(e)n is also one of the equivalents of the Hebrew Aharon/Aaron. Aaron/Aharon, son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, was the elder brother of Moses, the first high priest of the Jews, and the ancestor of the Cohanim. Numerous personal and family names are linked to this brother, spokesman and aide of Moses, among them Aron, Aren, Oren, Horn, Goren, Oron and Baron.

Stein, the second component of the surname Ornstein, literally "stone/rock" in German, is an artificial name that is commonly found in Jewish family names in its own right, or as a prefix (Steinberg) or a suffix (Loewenstein). It was translated by Jews into the Yiddish Shteyn. Moreover, a considerable number of towns and villages have names comprising the term Stein.This term and its equivalents in other languages are frequent family names in their own right or part of such names.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Ornstein include Charles L. Ornstein (1894-1966), an American leader of amateur sports movement and member of the United States Olympic Committee for more than 40 years, and the British-born minister Abraham P. Ornstein (1836-1895).

Zagreb

In German: Agram; in Hungarian: Zágráb 

The capital of Croatia

Zagreb was part of Yugoslavia after World War I (1914-1918). Since 1995 it has been part of independent Croatia. Until the end of WW I it was part of Austria-Hungary.

 

21ST CENTURY

Zagreb’s Jewish community center is located at Palmoticeva 16, and includes a synagogue, an art gallery, a Holocaust research and documentation center, and a library. A second community, Bet Israel, is located at Mazuranicev Trg 6, and includes a synagogue and library.

The Mirogoj Cemetery includes a number of Jewish graves.

The Jewish Museum opened in Zagreb on September 4, 2016. It has exhibitions about the Jewish community of Zagreb.

 

HISTORY

The first Jews known to have lived in Croatia, who probably lived in Zagreb, were Mar Saul and Mar Joseph, the emissaries of King Kresimir to Abd al-Rachman III, the Caliph of Cordoba, during the 10th century.

During the 13th century Jews began arriving in Zagreb from France, Malta, and Albania, and by the end of the 14th century there were a number of Jews who had permanently settled in the city. Zagreb’s city chronicles from 1444 mention a community house or synagogue (domus judaeorum). Most worked as merchants and moneylenders.

In 1526 the Jews were expelled from Croatia. For more than two centuries there was no Jewish presence in Zagreb.

New Jewish settlers arrived in Croatia in the mid-18th century from Bohemia, Moravia, and Hungary. A Jewish community was officially founded in 1806, and by the 1840s Zagreb was home to about 50 Jewish families.

A smaller Orthodox community was founded in Zagreb in 1841. Community institutions that were established during the second half of the 19th century included a chevra kaddisha (1859), and a synagogue (1867). The synagogue was constructed by Franjo (Francis) Klein, one of Zagreb’s most important architects in Croatia, and functioned until 1941, when it was destroyed by the pro-Nazi Ustashe. A cemetery was consecrated in 1876. The philanthropist Ljudevit Schwarz was a major figure in the establishment of a Jewish home for the aged; it still functioned in 1970 as the central Jewish home for the aged in Yugoslavia. Jacques Epstein founded the Association for Humanism, the first public assistance organization in Croatia. 1898 saw the establishment of a union of Jewish high school students, which became a training ground for future community and Zionist leaders.

Zagreb’s first rabbi was Aaron Palota (1809-1849). Rabbi Hosea Jacoby later served the community for 50 years; Jacoby organized religious life in the city, and established a school and a Talmud Torah.

The Jews of Zagreb, and throughout Croatia, dealt with no small amount of antisemitism. In 1858 there was a blood libel in Zagreb, and the merchant and artisan guilds incited the local population against the Jews. Croatian representatives were opposed to the official recognition of Jewish civil rights, which were not established until 1873.

In spite of the hardships, Zagreb’s Jewish community became the largest in Yugoslavia, and the community was active culturally and politically. Between the two World Wars Zionism became increasingly popular in Croatia, and Zagreb was chosen as the headquarters of the Zionist Federation, led by Alexander Licht. Organizations that were active in Zagreb included a branch of the Maccabi sports club, a choir, women's and youth organizations, and a union of Jewish employees. The leading Jewish newspapers in Yugoslavia, such as the Zionist weekly “Zidov” ("Jew"), were published in the city.

The Jews of Zagreb also contributed significantly to the city’s development. Jews were among the pioneers in the export business, as well as in local industry. Lavoslav (Leopold) Hartmann, Croatia’s first librarian, organized lending libraries, and also founded a printing press. The chairman of the community, Dr. Mavro (Maurice) Sachs, was among the founders of forensic medicine in Croatia; David Schwartz invented the first rigid airship in Zagreb. Rabbis Gavro Schwarz and Shalom Freiberger were major figures in the field of Jewish historical studies.

Other prominent artists included the painter Oscar Hermann; the sculptor Slavko Bril; the pianist Julius Epstein; and the bandmaster Anton Schwarz. A Jewish art monthly magazine, “Ommanut,” was published in Zagreb between 1937 and 1941, ceasing in the wake of the Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia.

 

THE HOLOCAUST

About 12,000 Jews lived in Zagreb in 1941. The vast majority of Croatian Jews were killed during the war.

 

POSTWAR

Between 1948 and 1952 almost half of the survivors from Zagreb’s Jewish community left the country, and by 1970 the Jewish population of the city was 1,200. Yugoslavia’s community government nationalized nearly all of the property owned by the Jewish Community of Zagreb, including the land where the synagogue once stood.

In 1997 there were 2,000 Jews living in Croatia, most of whom lived in Zagreb.

 

our Open Databases
Jewish Genealogy
Family Names
Jewish Communities
Visual Documentation
Jewish Music Center
Personality
אA
אA
אA
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions
Leopold Ornstein

Leopold Yehuda Ornstein (d.1846), community leader, lived in Zagreb, Croatia (then part of the Austrian Empire). Ornstein served as the first president of the orthodox Jewish community of Zagreb from 1840 to 1846. In 1842 he signed a contract along with his son-in-law Samuel Hönigsberg for the purchase of land for the establishment of a Jewish cemetery in Zagreb.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Zagreb

Zagreb

In German: Agram; in Hungarian: Zágráb 

The capital of Croatia

Zagreb was part of Yugoslavia after World War I (1914-1918). Since 1995 it has been part of independent Croatia. Until the end of WW I it was part of Austria-Hungary.

 

21ST CENTURY

Zagreb’s Jewish community center is located at Palmoticeva 16, and includes a synagogue, an art gallery, a Holocaust research and documentation center, and a library. A second community, Bet Israel, is located at Mazuranicev Trg 6, and includes a synagogue and library.

The Mirogoj Cemetery includes a number of Jewish graves.

The Jewish Museum opened in Zagreb on September 4, 2016. It has exhibitions about the Jewish community of Zagreb.

 

HISTORY

The first Jews known to have lived in Croatia, who probably lived in Zagreb, were Mar Saul and Mar Joseph, the emissaries of King Kresimir to Abd al-Rachman III, the Caliph of Cordoba, during the 10th century.

During the 13th century Jews began arriving in Zagreb from France, Malta, and Albania, and by the end of the 14th century there were a number of Jews who had permanently settled in the city. Zagreb’s city chronicles from 1444 mention a community house or synagogue (domus judaeorum). Most worked as merchants and moneylenders.

In 1526 the Jews were expelled from Croatia. For more than two centuries there was no Jewish presence in Zagreb.

New Jewish settlers arrived in Croatia in the mid-18th century from Bohemia, Moravia, and Hungary. A Jewish community was officially founded in 1806, and by the 1840s Zagreb was home to about 50 Jewish families.

A smaller Orthodox community was founded in Zagreb in 1841. Community institutions that were established during the second half of the 19th century included a chevra kaddisha (1859), and a synagogue (1867). The synagogue was constructed by Franjo (Francis) Klein, one of Zagreb’s most important architects in Croatia, and functioned until 1941, when it was destroyed by the pro-Nazi Ustashe. A cemetery was consecrated in 1876. The philanthropist Ljudevit Schwarz was a major figure in the establishment of a Jewish home for the aged; it still functioned in 1970 as the central Jewish home for the aged in Yugoslavia. Jacques Epstein founded the Association for Humanism, the first public assistance organization in Croatia. 1898 saw the establishment of a union of Jewish high school students, which became a training ground for future community and Zionist leaders.

Zagreb’s first rabbi was Aaron Palota (1809-1849). Rabbi Hosea Jacoby later served the community for 50 years; Jacoby organized religious life in the city, and established a school and a Talmud Torah.

The Jews of Zagreb, and throughout Croatia, dealt with no small amount of antisemitism. In 1858 there was a blood libel in Zagreb, and the merchant and artisan guilds incited the local population against the Jews. Croatian representatives were opposed to the official recognition of Jewish civil rights, which were not established until 1873.

In spite of the hardships, Zagreb’s Jewish community became the largest in Yugoslavia, and the community was active culturally and politically. Between the two World Wars Zionism became increasingly popular in Croatia, and Zagreb was chosen as the headquarters of the Zionist Federation, led by Alexander Licht. Organizations that were active in Zagreb included a branch of the Maccabi sports club, a choir, women's and youth organizations, and a union of Jewish employees. The leading Jewish newspapers in Yugoslavia, such as the Zionist weekly “Zidov” ("Jew"), were published in the city.

The Jews of Zagreb also contributed significantly to the city’s development. Jews were among the pioneers in the export business, as well as in local industry. Lavoslav (Leopold) Hartmann, Croatia’s first librarian, organized lending libraries, and also founded a printing press. The chairman of the community, Dr. Mavro (Maurice) Sachs, was among the founders of forensic medicine in Croatia; David Schwartz invented the first rigid airship in Zagreb. Rabbis Gavro Schwarz and Shalom Freiberger were major figures in the field of Jewish historical studies.

Other prominent artists included the painter Oscar Hermann; the sculptor Slavko Bril; the pianist Julius Epstein; and the bandmaster Anton Schwarz. A Jewish art monthly magazine, “Ommanut,” was published in Zagreb between 1937 and 1941, ceasing in the wake of the Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia.

 

THE HOLOCAUST

About 12,000 Jews lived in Zagreb in 1941. The vast majority of Croatian Jews were killed during the war.

 

POSTWAR

Between 1948 and 1952 almost half of the survivors from Zagreb’s Jewish community left the country, and by 1970 the Jewish population of the city was 1,200. Yugoslavia’s community government nationalized nearly all of the property owned by the Jewish Community of Zagreb, including the land where the synagogue once stood.

In 1997 there were 2,000 Jews living in Croatia, most of whom lived in Zagreb.

 

ORNSTEIN
ORNSTEIN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

Literally "ear stone" in German, O(h)r(e)nstein is a spelling variant of the German place name Arnstein. There are several German towns with which Arnstein and Ohrenstein could be associated, among them Arnstein in lower Franconia, north west Bavaria; Arnsdorf in Saxony; Arnsberg in Westphalia; Ahrensburg in Schleswig Holstein; and Arendsee in Saxony. The founder of the Arnstein family of 18th/19th court purveyors and financiers in Vienna was Isaac Aaron Arnstein (1682-1744) who immigrated to the Austrian capital from Arnstein, near Wuerzburg in Germany, in 1705. As a Jewish name, Or(e)n is also one of the equivalents of the Hebrew Aharon/Aaron. Aaron/Aharon, son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, was the elder brother of Moses, the first high priest of the Jews, and the ancestor of the Cohanim. Numerous personal and family names are linked to this brother, spokesman and aide of Moses, among them Aron, Aren, Oren, Horn, Goren, Oron and Baron.

Stein, the second component of the surname Ornstein, literally "stone/rock" in German, is an artificial name that is commonly found in Jewish family names in its own right, or as a prefix (Steinberg) or a suffix (Loewenstein). It was translated by Jews into the Yiddish Shteyn. Moreover, a considerable number of towns and villages have names comprising the term Stein.This term and its equivalents in other languages are frequent family names in their own right or part of such names.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Ornstein include Charles L. Ornstein (1894-1966), an American leader of amateur sports movement and member of the United States Olympic Committee for more than 40 years, and the British-born minister Abraham P. Ornstein (1836-1895).