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The Jewish Community of Arad, Romania

Arad

A city in south Transylvania, south western Rumania. Until 1918 within the borders of Hungary.
 

21ST CENTURY

The Jewish community only numbers a few hundred and is declining.  There is a functioning Jewish old age home, senior center and soup kitchen. The community has a newsletter and gets together for holiday celebrations.

HISTORY

In a Letter of Protection dated May 1, 1717, Lieutenant General Baron Stefan Cosa, commander of the fortress of Arad and Mures, allowed the first two Jewish families to settle in Arad. Regulations for the burial society were drawn up in 1750 and the first synagogue was built in 1759.  Jewish occupations during this early period were restricted to the production and sale of alcoholic beverages.  Jews were forbidden from become apprentices or joining trade guilds.

The small community became important after 1789 under the leadership of Rabbi Aaron Chorin, who officiated until his death in 1844.  Despite the hostile environment, the Jewish community grew rapidly during the nineteenth century. The population numbered 812 in 1839 and grew to 4,795 in 1891.  Under his leadership, Arad became a center of the nascent reform movement in Judaism. He initiated the construction of a synagogue in 1828, established a small yeshivah, and set up an elementary school.  In 1841 a pipe organ was commissioned for the synagogue. Laws regarding Jewish occupations became more relaxed and Rabbi Chorin encouraged Jewish youth to enter productive occupations. Due to his efforts, there were about 100 highly skilled Jewish artisans in Arad in 1841. By 1848, Jews were active in many crafts and trades (cereals, tobacco, wool, cattle, manufactured goods), banking and leasing. There were ten Jewish doctors in the community.

Even after Chorin's death, the community in Arad long remained a bastion of extreme reform. The rabbis in Arad were early supporters of Magyarization among the Jews and in 1845 Rabbi Jacob Steinhart delivered a sermon in Hungarian.

After Civil Emancipation (1867) and the Congress of the Jews of Hungary and Transylvania (1868-9), the Jews of Arad affiliated as a Neolog community. Many Jews saw themselves as Hungarians of the Mosaic Religion. They took an active part in cultural and public life and there was even a Jewish mayor – Dr. Ferenc Sarkany – who also volunteered for the army in World War I. The Jewish Party received many votes in 1919 for the Romanian Parliament.

An orthodox community was also established in 1904 and synagogues were built in 1912 and 1930. The orthodox rabbis were Rabbi Yehuda Sofer (1909-1912) and Rabbi Yoakhim Schreiber (1913-1949).

The community continued to grow during the twentieth century and numbered 6,430 in 1920 and 9,402 in 1942 (due to the enforced concentration in Arad of Jews from the villages and country towns of the area by the Romanian fascist authorities in 1941-42).

The presence of the Jews in the economic and social life of the city was significant. They were involved in industry (textiles, machine tools, chemicals, paper, timber, liquor, oil, milling, tanning), trade, banking and insurance. Major cultural figures included Gyorgy Szanto (1897-1961) a novelist and editor of the cultural journal Periszkop (1925-27); Adam Raffi (1898-1961) a novelist, translator and editor; Sandor Karoly (1894-1964) a novelist and playwright; Izidor Kaufman (1853-1921) an artist, and Jakub Gutman (1815-1861) a sculptor. The Jewish Filharmonia music society was established in 1890. In 1921, the Jewish Sports Association, Hakoach was formed.  

The Neolog Rabbi, Lajos Vagvolgyi (1909-1940) was favorable towards Zionism. The Zionist movement found support in Arad.  The Tzur Shalom project purchased land in Palestine from the Haifa Bay Authority in the 1920’s. Unfortunately, the Haifa Bay Authority went bankrupt in 1926, and the land received from Karen Kayemet was marshland.  Another smaller parcel of land was proposed, but the money invested by community members was lost and this had a negative effect on the support of Zionism in the community. In 1931, there was a decrease in the number of shekel contributors in Arad.

In the years 1932-36, support for Zionism increased, partially due to the efforts of a dynamic young Habonim leader, Herman Chilewitz.  There were social, sports and cultural activities. He also initiated a religious Zionist group, Mizrahi.  In women’s organization, WIZO, also played an important role in the upswing of support for Zionism in the community. Dror Habonim and Mizrahi each had hachshara programs (farming communities to prepare for Aliyah).  When the fascist regime confiscated all Jewish property, Habonim members became grave diggers so that they could grow vegetables on unused land in the cemetery as part of their hachshara and also have a place to hide their materials. The Zionist youth groups functioned secretly during the war and some managed to get to Palestine.

THE HOLOCAUST
Arad Jews shared the fate of the Jewry of Rumania between the two world wars, suffering from increasing antisemitism and restrictive measures.  The Neolog and orthodox communities worked together to help meet the needs of the community.  Already in 1933 they had an organization to help refugees. Arad was part of the area in Southern Transylvania that remained in Romania when the Nazis and Italians divided the region between Romania and Hungary.  For most of the war, the city was under the dictatorship of Marshall Antonescu, an ally of Hitler. Whereas there were severe anti-Jewish measures such as the removal of Jews from all segments of the national economy, seizure of land and property, forced labor and moving Jews from the rural to urban areas creating crowded and dangerous living conditions, they were not initially sent to the concentration camps. Despite German pressure to deport Jews to the camps, the Romanian authorities procrastinated. The eminent historian, Raul Hilberg wrote that, “Francisc Neumann a leading industrialist was able to use the full potential of his financial and political clout to oppose the resolve of the Romanian authorities in the matter of deportation of all the Jews from Southern Transylvania.” Yet there was tremendous Nazi pressure and the Jews from the Arad district along with the district of Timissoara were slated to be deported to the Belzec extermination camp (or Aushwitz in a different source) in 1942. A clandestine Jewish council was convened composed of the chief Rabbi Dr. Safran, Dr. Fildermann, M. Benvenisti, Froimescu and Schwefelberg. They contacted the Archbishop Balan, head of the Romanian Orthodox Church in Transylvania and begged for his help in preventing the deportation.  Dr. Safran warned him that he would be held accountable for the fate of the Jews who lived in the realm of his guardianship.  The bishop asked for and was granted a meeting with Antonescu on the next day. Antonescu was also influenced by the Vatican visit of Msg. Andrea Cassulo and the message sent (via the Swiss ambassador) from U.S. Secretary of State Hull. The Romanian government did not want to tarnish its reputation in case of an Allied victory.  On October 11 the order was rescinded and the community survived.

One of the amazing stories of Arad is how they sheltered parachutists from the Jewish brigade. On June 4, 1944, two men parachuted in the Curtici-Pecica area -Dan Shaike (Trachtenberg) from kibbutz Nir-Am and Itzhak (Mano) Ben Efraim from kibbutz Shamir. They managed to get to the orthodox synagogue in Arad where they were then sheltered in the store room of the mikvah. On August 1, 1944, another two parachutists were dropped to the same area and sheltered in the same manner -Baruch Camin (Kaminicker) and Dov Harari (Berger).

Emigration activity to Palestine continued in 1943-44 and some young people left on the boats Marita I-II, Milca I-II , Kasbeh, Moreno, Bulbul and Mefkure. The Mefkure was sunk in the Black Sea, probably by a German submarine, and there were few survivors.

On August 23, 1944, the Romanians joined the Allied Powers and on September 12, 1944 the Hungarians invaded Arad. Almost immediately Jews were forced to wear the star of David and a Jewish council was formed and tasked with providing a list of the names and addresses of all Jews in the community for the Nazis. The chief Rabbi, Dr. Schonfeld begged for a delay because of the Rosh Hashana holiday and this was granted. On September 22, Arad was liberated by Soviet and Romanian forces.

POSTWAR

The community numbered 13,200 in 1947. Subsequently, there was a progressive decrease due to the poor economic situation under the communist regime and emigration from the country, mainly to Israel. In 1969 the Jewish population numbered 4,000. In 1993 there were only 500 Jews.

Place Type:
City
ID Number:
207072
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:
Hirschl, Moses (1790-c1860), philanthropist, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). As an officer and judge of the Arad Jewish community, he donated 10,000 golden florins for the erection of a new synagogue and school. These buildings were inaugurated in 1830. Later Hirschl went to live in Vienna, Austria, where he was decorated by King Ferdinand V as a philanthropist who gave generously to both Jewish and non-Jewish poor. When the imperial commissioner Haynau levied an exorbitant tax on the Hungarian Jews because of their participation in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, Hirschl used his influence with the imperial court to alleviate the burden on the Arad and other Jewish communities. He also persuaded the government to contribute to the cost of the establishment of a Jewish junior high school in Arad.
Guttmann, Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course in 1833, he walked to Vienna, Austria, where he obtained a job and learned engraving. A year later he opened his own engraving shop and started to make a reputation for himself.

In 1837 Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with at the Academy's exhibition in 1841 together with busts of Metternich and the mythological figure of Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he awarded Guttmann an annual stipend which permitted him to continue his studies in Italy.

Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844). His monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour was made in 1847. In Italy he produced a striking bust of Pope Pius IX, which was reproduced and thousands of copies were distributed throughout Italy. The original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.

From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, Hungary; he then went to London for about two years. There he sold "Peasant at His Plow", one of his finest creations, but felt that the British did not sufficiently appreciate his talent so in 1853 he moved to Paris, France, where he produced outstanding statues of "Ceres, Faith Hope and Love", and "Dr. Peter Henrik Ling". Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest in 1857, he suffered a nervous collapse and was hospitalised at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.

Bibl: The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia 5/135;
Zsido Lexikon p' 327


ORIGINAL TEXT
Guttmann Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver. Born in Arad (then Hungary), later Romania. The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course, he walked to Vienna (1833), where he obtained a job and learned also engraving. A year later he established his own engraving shop and through notable exhibits soon made friends among the nobility.
Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship (1837-40) to the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with distinction at the Academy's exposition (1841) together with busts of Metternich and the mythological Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he gave Guttmann an annual stipend with which to continue his studies in Italy. Here upon commission by the Rothschilds of Naples, he executed a striking bust of Pope Pius IX (1850), which was reproduced and distributed in thousands of copies throughout Italy. Its original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.
Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844); his monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour (1847). From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, then went to London for about two years. There he sold Peasant at His Plow, one of his finest creations, but felt generally disillusioned about the cold reception accorded him at the British capital. He moved to Paris in 1853, where he wrought such outstanding examples as Ceres, Faith Hope and Love, and Dr. Peter Henrik Ling. Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest, 1957, he suffered a nervous collapse, has been interned at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.
Gal, Gyula (1865-1938), actor, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He started acting on provincial stages, but his talents were soon recognized by drama scouts for the national companies. The Comedy Theatre of Budapest, Hungary, engaged him in 1896 and five years later the National Theatre engaged his services.

Gal was particularly successful in tragic roles, distinguishing himself in classic parts such as King Lear, Shylock, Friar Lawrence, King Richard III, Othello, Hamlet, Henry IV, Helm (Nora), Kent, Menemus and others. He was also acclaimed for his performances in leading roles in plays by Ibsen, as well as in modern works mainly of Magyar origin, including "Ocskay brigaderos", "Becstelenek", and "Elnemult Harangok". Gal became a member of the faculty of the Academy of Theatre Arts, where, for three decades, he exerted a great influence upon a whole generation of young Hungarian actors and actresses. In 1927 a special event marked Gal's fortieth anniversary as an artist and the twenty-fifth anniversary of his career as teacher. Prior to that the National Theatre bestowed upon him the rare honor of life membership. In 1935, at the age of 70, he formally retired from the National Theatre while agreeing to appear from time to time in a number of revivals of dramas in which he had attained renown. Soon thereafter, however, he became seriously ill and never fully recuperated. Gal died in Budapest.

He was author of a number of plays, among them "A vezeklok", "A tunderforras", and "Jol jatszottam?"
Kaufmann, Isidor (1853-1921), painter, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He was a bank clerk who initally took up drawing as a hobby. His copy of a "Head of Moses", after a classical model, was noticed by a senior official of Arad county, and as a result he was sent to the Graphic School in Budapest. After studying there for one year, he became a pupil of the painter Joseph Matthäus Aigner at Vienna.

His first paintings were of historical subjects, but later he turned to Viennese genre and became successful. Kaufmann found his niche when he traveled around Galicia, Moravia and Upper Hungary in quest of types for his Jewish genre pictures. He achieved originality and strength only after discovering the shtetl. Emperor Franz Josef I bought "The Rabbi's Visit" and presented it to Vienna's Museum of Fine Art. His "The Sceptic" (1891) won him a gold medal in Vienna, and another from the German emperor. He was honored even by the Russian czar. After 1888 Kaufmann regularly exhibited at the Kuenstlerhaus of Vienna. He also received a gold medal in Munich, and a medal in Paris, France.

Kaufmann wanted to tell stories or illustrate subjects of everyday Jewish life. His small paintings have definite charm, and his numerous portraits were executed with taste and skill. At the same time, his pictures are of historical value, as they document the folkloristic aspects of the shtetl and the shtibl. With his sensitive brush, he sought to reproduce every nuance of the people and objects he portrayed. His pictures were purchased by the Lichtenstein Gallery and the City Museum, at Vienna, and by the Museum of Fine Arts, at Budapest. Some of the best known include "Sabbath Visit"; "Difficult Talmudic Passage"; "The Gate of the Rabbis"; "Yom Kippur"; "The Lost Lawsuit"; "The Chess Players"; "Business Secrets".
Veszi, Jozsef (1858-1920), editor and journalist, born in Arad (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He studied modern languages at the Universities of Budapest and Leipzig, Germany, and soon after, began contributing to newspapers in Budapest, both in Hungarian and in German. He became a columnist for “Pester Lloyd”, and in 1894 was appointed editor-in-chief of the “Pesti Naplo”. In 1896 he founded the “Budapesti Naplo”, a staunchly liberal daily newspaper and succeeded in gaining its support from young elite Hungarian writers. He had a flawless talent for the discovery of talent. Veszi was one of the first to appreciate the lyrical genius of Endre Ady and he discovered Dezso Kosztolanyi, Ferenc Molnar and Lajos Biro. The latter two later came to become his sons-in-law.

From 1899 to 1905 Veszi was a member of the lower chamber of the Hungarian Parliament where he sat in the ranks of the Liberals. He played a notable part in the controversy between the Crown, supported by the Hungarian Liberals, and the often aggressive Magyar Independents. He was a ministerial counselor and head of the press bureau of the Fejervary cabinet of 1905, imposed upon Hungary by the Crown against the will of parliament. Together with the Minister of the Interior, József Kristoffy, Veszi propounded the idea that the king should grant universal suffrage to the population of Hungary as a means of weakening the Magyar super nationalists. The Magyar Independents dropped their unreasonable demands, whereupon a coalition cabinet was formed in which they constituted a majority.

When the ruling classes socially boycotted the former supporters of the Fejervary cabinet, Veszi went into exile to Berlin (1906-1910). There he founded, together with Baron Lajos Hatvany, the review “Jung-Ungarn”, a brilliant though short-lived attempt to present Hungarian cultural values to the wider world. He translated the Hungarian historical play, Jozsef Katona's “Bank Ban”, into German and succeeded in persuading Max Bernhardt to produce it.

On his return to Hungary after the fall of the coalition regime, he founded the “Budapester Presse” (1911). Continuing to lend his support to the idea of universal suffrage, he backed by Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne. After his appointment as editor-in-chief of the semi-official “Pester Lloyd”, Veszi had to show his support of subsequent governments. He was one of the keenest supporters of the alliance with Germany, and during World War I advocated the policy of fighting to the last. Following the period of revolutions and counterrevolutions, he resigned himself to serve the regime of Regent Nicholas Horthy. He was made a member of the upper house of parliament, and represented Hungary in the Assembly of the League of Nations several times.

As a youth Veszi published some lyrical poetry, “A banat dalaibol” ("Songs of Sorrow"; 1879) and “Traviata” (1881). For several years he was president of the association of Budapest newspapermen and secular president of the Hungarian Jewish Literary Society (IMIT). He retired from the editorship of the “Pester Lloyd” in 1938.

Prior to World War I, Veszi was one of the last Jewish journalists to exercise a vital influence upon Hungarian affairs. Although he never adopted a clear-cut stand against the anti-Semitic counterrevolution, he was always active in Jewish affairs and was an honorary executive member of the Jewish community of Pest.
GUTMAN, GUTMANN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name derives from a personal characteristic or nickname.

Gutman(n), meaning "good man" in German, is closely related to the Spanish Buenos Hombres, that is "good people", to the Hebrew male personal name, Shem Tov, and Nome Boneum, literally "good name", and to the biblical name Tobiah, which means "the goodness of God". Shem Tov was also rendered as Kalonymos, the Greek for "beautiful/good name", thereby repeating the link between good and beautiful also found in the Arabic El Maleh/Al Malih, which mean both. Its equivalents comprise the Hebrew Tov and Yaffe, the Spanish Bueno, the Italian Del Bene, the German Gut(h)and the Arabic Tayyeb and Tayib. Like the Greek Kalonymos, literally "good name" (in medieval and modern Greek), and its variants, they are linked to the Hebrew Shem Tov, literally "good name" and also to the biblical name Tobiah. Kalonymos is documented as a Jewish name in 8th century Italy. Its Latin form, Kalonymus, produced Calmus, the Italian Calo and Calimani, and the French Calot. In 11th century Spain, Shem Tov became Nome Boneum.

Central and Eastern Europe developed names based on Cal(I)man(i) such as Kalman/Calman and diverse variants, comprising Kleimann and Klee. Kalo(n), the first part of Kalonymos, is the Greek for "beautiful/handsome", an equivalent of the Hebrew Yaffe. Nome Boneum is recorded in 11th century Spain and El-Maleh is documented as a Jewish family name in 13th century Spain. Bueno and Almari are documented in the 14th century, Maleh and Almale in the 15th century, and El Maleh in the 17th century. Gutmann is recorded as a Jewish surname in Constance, Switzerland, in 1378, and in Prague, Bohemia, in 1699.

Distinguished 20th century bearers of the Jewish family name Gutman include the Polish-born Israeli author and scholar, Israel Gutman.
STEINHART

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name could be a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. It is also an artificial (or ornamental) name (a made-up name often in compound of two words).

The surname Steinhart is associated with the locality Steinhart in Bavaria (Germany).

The literal meaning of the German name is "as hard as stone". Stein, the second part of the name, is the German for "stone/rock". Stein is a common artificial name that can be found in its own right, or as a prefix (for example, Steinberg) or as a suffix (for example, Goldstein). This term and its equivalents in other languages are frequent family names in their own right or part of such names. As an Ashkenazi family name, Steinhart may belong to the group of names based on German word Stein (German for "stone/rock"). Stein is also an artificial name that is commonly found in Jewish family names as a prefix (Steinberg) or a suffix (Loewenstein). Localities called Stein are situated near Nuremberg (Nuernberg in German), Bavaria (Germany); Krems, Niederoesterreich (Austria); and Schaffhausen (Switzerland). Kamnik in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, is Stein in German, and the name of a number of places in Poland called Kamien has been translated by Jews into the Yiddish Shteyn.

Steinhardt is recorded as a Jewish Ashkenazi family name among Jews in Alsace, Germany, Poland, Israel and the U.S.A. since at least the 18th century.

A well-known representative of the Jewish family name Steinhart was the U.S. soldier, diplomat and industrialist Frank Maximilian Steinhart (1864-1939).
CHORIN Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This Polish-Jewish family name could derive from, or be linked to, the town of Korin/Chorin in Moravia, which has produced such family names as Chorin, Choriner, Korinsky and Koritser.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Chorin include the 18th/19th century Hungarian Rabbi Aaron Chorin and the Hungarian writer, newspaper editor and publisher, Zsigmond Chorin (1829-1879).
KAUFMAN, KOIFMAN, KOFMAN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a patronymic, derived from a male ancestor's personal name, in this case of biblical origin.

Literally "merchant/trader" in German, Kaufman(n) is derived from "-cob", the second part of the biblical male personal name, Yaacov (in Latin, Jacob).

Jacob, the third patriarch, was the younger twin son of Isaac and Rebekah. The biblical personal name Jacob has numerous equivalents, all Latin; Jacobo, Jacopo and Giacobbe in Italian; Jacoub in Judeo-Provencal; Yaaqov in Spanish; Jacques in French; Iancu in Romanian; Jakob in German; Jack in English; Jakab in Hungarian; Yaakov in Russian. One of the earliest is recorded with Ibrahim Ibn Jakub, a Spanish Jew who travelled through Germany up to the Baltic Sea in the year 965. In Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviations and diminutives of Jacob originated entire groups of new names based on its two constituent syllables, such as, on the one hand, Yekel, Jekelin, and Jaecklin, and, on the other hand, Copin, Koppelin and Koppelman. Cob, the second part of Jacob, also appeared in the forms Kopp (literally "head" in German) and Kauf (German for "buy"). This developed into Kaufmann (German for "merchant"), actually a combination of Jacob and the biblical Manasse or Menachem.

Another important group of names derived from Jacob grew from the variant Yankel/Jankel.

Distinguished bearers of the German Jewish family name Kaufmann include the Moravian-born Austrian researcher of Jewish history, David Kaufmann (1852-1899); the Austrian portrait painter, Isidor Kaufmann; and the German sculptor, Hugo Kaufmann (1868-1919). Kaufman is recorded as a Jewish family name in 20th century Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
BENVENISTI

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a patronymic, derived from a male ancestor's personal name, in this case of biblical origin.

This name derives from the ancient Spanish votive and personal name meaning "welcome", the Castillian equivalent being Bienvenist. Among Jews, the name was often regarded as an equivalent of Baruch. Baruch ("blessed" in Hebrew), was the son of Neriah, scribe and trusted companion of the prophet Jeremiah, who set down in writing all the latter's prophecies and may have composed the biographical narrative about Jeremiah. In the early biblical period, first names were given names in the full sense of the term, being the exclusive property of the person on whom they were conferred. This tradition was observed for many centuries, until the early Middle Ages when Jews again gave their sons biblical names, among them Baruch. One of the Hebrew votive names personal to a child in order to bring him good fortune in life, Baruch is widespread as a personal name throughout the Diaspora. In medieval Spanish documents, the name is found as Baruch, Abenbaruch, Avinbruch, Avenbruch and Baru. North African families are called Barouche, Barouck, Barouh, Barouk, Barroch, Barruk, Baruk, Bourack, with variants including the suffix "El-" (such as Beruchiel), meaning "God" in Hebrew. In Alsace Baruch became Borach and Borich. In Central and Eastern Europe, Baruch was identified with Berg ("mountain" in German), or Bruck (the German for "bridge"). Other variants were derived from the Latin equivalent Benedict, for example Bendit, Benas, Bondy and Bondo. Translations into German include Seligman(n), into Latin Felix and into Italian Benedett. Germanized forms range from Bernhard(t), Boerne and Borchard to Borg; French variants from Benoit to Bernet. Russian Jews transformed Baruch into Barbakoff (an acronym - a name created from the initial letters of a Hebrew phrase, and which refers to a relative, lineage or occupation - for Ben Baruch Kohen plus the Russian suffix "-off", a Westernized spelling variant of the standard Russian suffix "-ov" for "son of") and their English cousins became Barnet, Barry or Bennet. Benvenisti is recorded in Narbonne in France in the 12th century with Solomon Benvenisti. A French variant of this name is Belvigne, found in 1337 at Peronne, Belgium. Among the many Distinguished bearers of this name is the 20th century Greek-born Israeli geographer and educator David Benvenisti.
SCHONFELD

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. It can also derive from a personal characteristic or nickname, or from an artificial (or ornamental) name (a made-up name often in compound of two words).

Schon is a variant of Schoen, the German for "beautiful/handsome". The Jewish surname Schonfeld can be linked to several towns and villages in Germany called Schoenfeld.

As part of a Jewish name, Schoen is in some cases an acronym (a name created from the initial letters of a Hebrew phrase, and which refers to a relative, lineage or occupation) of the Hebrew 'Shaliah Neeman', meaning "the trusted representative of the community".

Feld, literally "field" in Yiddish and German, is an artificial name that is commonly found in Jewish family names as a prefix (Feldman) or a suffix (Ehrenfeld). In the 20th century, the name Feld has been Hebraicized to Peled, meaning "steel", retaining the same consonants in Hebrew script. Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Schonfeld include the Hungarian rabbi and educator Victor Schonfeld (1880-1930), who was active in Austria, England and Eretz Israel, and the 20th century Yugoslav-born American Rabbi Lazar Schonfeld.
SOFER, SOIFER, SOFEROV, SOFEROF

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name derives from an occupation, profession or trade (also connected with raw material, finished product or implements associated with that trade). In this case it also derives from Jewish communal functionaries or titles.

Sofer is the Hebrew for "scribe/writer/scholar". The Hebrew term is documented as a Jewish family name in the 14th century with Durant Soffer, at Tarascon (France). Hassofer is recorded in 1434 in Marseille (France) with Halafa Hassofer Ben Abraham Hassofer. Soifer is a Yiddish spelling variant. Soferov and Soferof are Slavic variants, in which the Russian suffix "-ov" and its Westernized spelling variant "-of" stand for "son of" or "family of". Other related family names: the German translation, Schreiber, is mentioned as a Jewish family name in 1675 with Herschel Schreiber, of Lissa (Poland). Srajber is recorded in 1725, and Schrayber in 1735. The forms Schriber, Scriber and Sauphar are found in Paris, in 1809. Scriba, Sauphar and Soufir are also documented in 19th century France. The Polish/Yiddish transcription of the German Schreiber is Szriber. Other forms include Schreiberman(n) and Szrajbman, both of them meaning "scribe man".

Distinguished bearers of the family name Sofer include the German-born Hungarian rabbi and halachic authority, Moses Sofer, also known as Schreiber (1763-1839), and the 20th century Israeli geographer and educator, Amon Sofer.
The Reform Synagogue in Arad, Romania.
It was built in 1832 as part of the Jewish Community
center, southern Transylvania.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Hedva Carmeli, Israel)
Pupils of "Bet-Yaakov" girls' school,
Dej, Transylvania, Romania, c1927
Seated on the teacher's right is Rachel Phillip
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Rachel Hayman, Israel)

(COURTESY OF RACHEL HAYMAN, ISRAEL - AR.91.14)
Rachel Phillip (later Hayman) at the Jewish
girls' school, Arad, Romania, 1947
She is sitting on the right, next to the teacher
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Rachel Hayman, Israel)
Veszi, Jozsef (1858-1920), editor and journalist, born in Arad (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He studied modern languages at the Universities of Budapest and Leipzig, Germany, and soon after, began contributing to newspapers in Budapest, both in Hungarian and in German. He became a columnist for “Pester Lloyd”, and in 1894 was appointed editor-in-chief of the “Pesti Naplo”. In 1896 he founded the “Budapesti Naplo”, a staunchly liberal daily newspaper and succeeded in gaining its support from young elite Hungarian writers. He had a flawless talent for the discovery of talent. Veszi was one of the first to appreciate the lyrical genius of Endre Ady and he discovered Dezso Kosztolanyi, Ferenc Molnar and Lajos Biro. The latter two later came to become his sons-in-law.

From 1899 to 1905 Veszi was a member of the lower chamber of the Hungarian Parliament where he sat in the ranks of the Liberals. He played a notable part in the controversy between the Crown, supported by the Hungarian Liberals, and the often aggressive Magyar Independents. He was a ministerial counselor and head of the press bureau of the Fejervary cabinet of 1905, imposed upon Hungary by the Crown against the will of parliament. Together with the Minister of the Interior, József Kristoffy, Veszi propounded the idea that the king should grant universal suffrage to the population of Hungary as a means of weakening the Magyar super nationalists. The Magyar Independents dropped their unreasonable demands, whereupon a coalition cabinet was formed in which they constituted a majority.

When the ruling classes socially boycotted the former supporters of the Fejervary cabinet, Veszi went into exile to Berlin (1906-1910). There he founded, together with Baron Lajos Hatvany, the review “Jung-Ungarn”, a brilliant though short-lived attempt to present Hungarian cultural values to the wider world. He translated the Hungarian historical play, Jozsef Katona's “Bank Ban”, into German and succeeded in persuading Max Bernhardt to produce it.

On his return to Hungary after the fall of the coalition regime, he founded the “Budapester Presse” (1911). Continuing to lend his support to the idea of universal suffrage, he backed by Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne. After his appointment as editor-in-chief of the semi-official “Pester Lloyd”, Veszi had to show his support of subsequent governments. He was one of the keenest supporters of the alliance with Germany, and during World War I advocated the policy of fighting to the last. Following the period of revolutions and counterrevolutions, he resigned himself to serve the regime of Regent Nicholas Horthy. He was made a member of the upper house of parliament, and represented Hungary in the Assembly of the League of Nations several times.

As a youth Veszi published some lyrical poetry, “A banat dalaibol” ("Songs of Sorrow"; 1879) and “Traviata” (1881). For several years he was president of the association of Budapest newspapermen and secular president of the Hungarian Jewish Literary Society (IMIT). He retired from the editorship of the “Pester Lloyd” in 1938.

Prior to World War I, Veszi was one of the last Jewish journalists to exercise a vital influence upon Hungarian affairs. Although he never adopted a clear-cut stand against the anti-Semitic counterrevolution, he was always active in Jewish affairs and was an honorary executive member of the Jewish community of Pest.
Hirschl, Moses (1790-c1860), philanthropist, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). As an officer and judge of the Arad Jewish community, he donated 10,000 golden florins for the erection of a new synagogue and school. These buildings were inaugurated in 1830. Later Hirschl went to live in Vienna, Austria, where he was decorated by King Ferdinand V as a philanthropist who gave generously to both Jewish and non-Jewish poor. When the imperial commissioner Haynau levied an exorbitant tax on the Hungarian Jews because of their participation in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, Hirschl used his influence with the imperial court to alleviate the burden on the Arad and other Jewish communities. He also persuaded the government to contribute to the cost of the establishment of a Jewish junior high school in Arad.
Szanto, Gyorgy (1893-1961), author, born in Vagujhely, Hungary, (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Nove Mesto nad Vahom, Slovakia). He studied painting, and exhibited with success at the National Salon at Budapest. Szanto became the scenery and costume designer at the Romanian Opera House at Kolozsvar, Hungary (now Cluj Napoca, Romania).

A combatant in World War I, he lost his eyesight due to a brain injury. He then turned to writing, and became one of the most popular Hungarian novelists of his time. His novels combine an intensity of passion with strong penchant for the colorful both in action and description. Szanto lived at Arad, Romanian. He published his works in Transylvania until 1947, when he moved to Budapest.

Szanto's works include: "Babel tornya" ("The Tower of Babel"); "Mata Hari"; "Az aranyagacska" ("The Golden Twig": 1935); "Utolso hajnal, elso hajnal" ("Last Dawn, First Dawn"); "Melte" (1938). His somewhat autobiographical "Stradivari" was made into a motion picture by the German UFA Company and his play "A satoros kiraly" was performed by the Hungarian National Theatre (1936). He was author also of a volume of poetry, "Schumannal a Karnevalban" ("With Schumann at the Carnival").
Guttmann, Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course in 1833, he walked to Vienna, Austria, where he obtained a job and learned engraving. A year later he opened his own engraving shop and started to make a reputation for himself.

In 1837 Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with at the Academy's exhibition in 1841 together with busts of Metternich and the mythological figure of Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he awarded Guttmann an annual stipend which permitted him to continue his studies in Italy.

Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844). His monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour was made in 1847. In Italy he produced a striking bust of Pope Pius IX, which was reproduced and thousands of copies were distributed throughout Italy. The original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.

From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, Hungary; he then went to London for about two years. There he sold "Peasant at His Plow", one of his finest creations, but felt that the British did not sufficiently appreciate his talent so in 1853 he moved to Paris, France, where he produced outstanding statues of "Ceres, Faith Hope and Love", and "Dr. Peter Henrik Ling". Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest in 1857, he suffered a nervous collapse and was hospitalised at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.

Bibl: The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia 5/135;
Zsido Lexikon p' 327


ORIGINAL TEXT
Guttmann Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver. Born in Arad (then Hungary), later Romania. The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course, he walked to Vienna (1833), where he obtained a job and learned also engraving. A year later he established his own engraving shop and through notable exhibits soon made friends among the nobility.
Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship (1837-40) to the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with distinction at the Academy's exposition (1841) together with busts of Metternich and the mythological Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he gave Guttmann an annual stipend with which to continue his studies in Italy. Here upon commission by the Rothschilds of Naples, he executed a striking bust of Pope Pius IX (1850), which was reproduced and distributed in thousands of copies throughout Italy. Its original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.
Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844); his monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour (1847). From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, then went to London for about two years. There he sold Peasant at His Plow, one of his finest creations, but felt generally disillusioned about the cold reception accorded him at the British capital. He moved to Paris in 1853, where he wrought such outstanding examples as Ceres, Faith Hope and Love, and Dr. Peter Henrik Ling. Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest, 1957, he suffered a nervous collapse, has been interned at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.
Kaufmann, Isidor (1853-1921), painter, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He was a bank clerk who initally took up drawing as a hobby. His copy of a "Head of Moses", after a classical model, was noticed by a senior official of Arad county, and as a result he was sent to the Graphic School in Budapest. After studying there for one year, he became a pupil of the painter Joseph Matthäus Aigner at Vienna.

His first paintings were of historical subjects, but later he turned to Viennese genre and became successful. Kaufmann found his niche when he traveled around Galicia, Moravia and Upper Hungary in quest of types for his Jewish genre pictures. He achieved originality and strength only after discovering the shtetl. Emperor Franz Josef I bought "The Rabbi's Visit" and presented it to Vienna's Museum of Fine Art. His "The Sceptic" (1891) won him a gold medal in Vienna, and another from the German emperor. He was honored even by the Russian czar. After 1888 Kaufmann regularly exhibited at the Kuenstlerhaus of Vienna. He also received a gold medal in Munich, and a medal in Paris, France.

Kaufmann wanted to tell stories or illustrate subjects of everyday Jewish life. His small paintings have definite charm, and his numerous portraits were executed with taste and skill. At the same time, his pictures are of historical value, as they document the folkloristic aspects of the shtetl and the shtibl. With his sensitive brush, he sought to reproduce every nuance of the people and objects he portrayed. His pictures were purchased by the Lichtenstein Gallery and the City Museum, at Vienna, and by the Museum of Fine Arts, at Budapest. Some of the best known include "Sabbath Visit"; "Difficult Talmudic Passage"; "The Gate of the Rabbis"; "Yom Kippur"; "The Lost Lawsuit"; "The Chess Players"; "Business Secrets".

Groller, Balduin (Baldwin) born Adalbert Goldscheider, also known as Gál Béla) (1848-1916), novelist and short story writer, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He settled in Vienna, Austria, at an early age and chose Groller as his pen-name. Groller attended high school in Dresdan, Germany, then he studied law, philosophy and aesthetics at the University of Vienna. At the start of his career he was influenced by the poet Albert Moser. His first writings dealt with art, and then he turned to fiction. He first attracted attention as a writer of humorous sketches, contributing to the leading dailies and periodicals of Vienna and Budapest. His popularity grew apace as he mastered the technique of full-length novels and novelettes. Groller's best known works were: Ueberspannt; Schuldig; Ganz zufaallig und andere humoristische Novellen; Wie mann Welt-geschichte macht; Aus der weltlichen Komoedie; Major Barsay und sein Kreis; Die Ehre des Hauses; Eine Panik; Das Raatsel des Blutes. Groller was one of the first writers of detective stories in German.  For a number of years, Groller headed the association of journalists and writers Concordia as Vice-President, and as such, he also became a member of the Art Commission of the Austrian Ministry of Culture. When the Central Association for Common Sports was founded in Vienna in 1908, Groller was elected its first president.

Csemegi, Karoly (1826-1899), jurist, born in Csongrad, Hungary (then part of the Autrian Empire). The son of wealthy parents, he received his education at Szeged, Hungary, and Budapest in parochial and secular schools. He fought in the Hungarian Revolution (1848-49) commanding a battalion which he had raised. During the reaction he stayed at Arad (now in Romania), where he functioned as a much sought after lawyer.

Following the peace-treaty, Csemegi, whose fame as lawyer spread throughout the country, was summoned to Budapest by Boldizsar Horvath, Minister of Justice, who made him secretary of state in his cabinet.

Csemegi was a founder of the National University Society and his magnum opus was the compilation of The Criminal Code (1885). He exerted a decisive influence upon the evolution of Hungarian criminal law and was chairman (1879) of the legislative council of the Supreme Court. He organized the Hungarian Bar Association and received an honorary doctorate from the University of Budapest. By this time he converted to Christianity.

Csemegi wrote a number of books on aspects of the Hungarian legal code. His principal works including "A jogvesztes elmelete es az allamjog" (1872), "A magyar buenvadi eljaras szervezetenek indokai" (1882), "Magyar buenvadi eljaras a toervenyszekek eloett" (1883), and "Az egyhazi holtkez" (1897).
Gal, Gyula (1865-1938), actor, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He started acting on provincial stages, but his talents were soon recognized by drama scouts for the national companies. The Comedy Theatre of Budapest, Hungary, engaged him in 1896 and five years later the National Theatre engaged his services.

Gal was particularly successful in tragic roles, distinguishing himself in classic parts such as King Lear, Shylock, Friar Lawrence, King Richard III, Othello, Hamlet, Henry IV, Helm (Nora), Kent, Menemus and others. He was also acclaimed for his performances in leading roles in plays by Ibsen, as well as in modern works mainly of Magyar origin, including "Ocskay brigaderos", "Becstelenek", and "Elnemult Harangok". Gal became a member of the faculty of the Academy of Theatre Arts, where, for three decades, he exerted a great influence upon a whole generation of young Hungarian actors and actresses. In 1927 a special event marked Gal's fortieth anniversary as an artist and the twenty-fifth anniversary of his career as teacher. Prior to that the National Theatre bestowed upon him the rare honor of life membership. In 1935, at the age of 70, he formally retired from the National Theatre while agreeing to appear from time to time in a number of revivals of dramas in which he had attained renown. Soon thereafter, however, he became seriously ill and never fully recuperated. Gal died in Budapest.

He was author of a number of plays, among them "A vezeklok", "A tunderforras", and "Jol jatszottam?"
Rabbi

Born in Hranice, he studied in yeshivot and, after a brief unsuccessful career in business, became rabbi of Arad in 1789, occupying the position until his death. He wrote and preached against customs which he held to be superstitious. His views were founded in Oral Laws but his attacks became growingly radical and governmental intervention was necessary to enable him to retain his post in face of rabbinical opposition. In 1803 he published a work which suggested that spiritual leaders should be allowed to modify traditional enactments. The Orthodox prevented the book from being reprinted. Encouraged by the growth of Reform in Germany, his own reforms included bareheaded worship, services in Hungarian, the abolition of the Kol Nidrei prayer, the playing of the organ in the synagogue and permission to write and travel on the Sabbath. Chorin promoted secular and vocational education for young Jews. However, Chorin received the support of his congregation. He supported the Hungarian reform movement and favored use of the organ and prayers in the vernacular. He was active in efforts for Emancipation and was influential with the State authorities.

Frederick Knefler (1833-1901), U. S. army officer and physician, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He immigrated to the USA in 1849, following the defeat of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849. In the United States he volunteered for the Unionist army in 1861 on the outbreak of the American Civil War. He rose from the rank of private to captain in the 11th Indiana regiment within a year and from captain to colonel within another year. Later he fought under General  W. T. Sherman and was promoted to brevet brigadier general in 1865 shortly before the end of the war. After the American Civil War, he was a lawyer in Indianapolis. He entered local politics and was appointed head of the pension office in Indianapolis by President Rutherford B. Hayes, where he served eight years. 

Eliezer Glanz (1945-?), rabbi, born in Arad, Romania. He graduated from yeshiva of Arad. Between 1964-1973 he served as shochet in the Jewish communities of Deva, Alba Iulia, Arad, Ocna Mures, and Teius, all in Romania. He immigrated to Israel in in 1973, but after two years returned to Romania serving as shochet of the Jewish communities of Timisoara and Cluj. After 1986, he was a shochet in the community of Bucharest and as of 1997 he served as a deputy of Rabbi Menachem Hacohen, the Chief Rabbi of Romania.

Jenő Glück (1927- 2004), historian, born in Arad, Romania. He attended the high school in Arad and in 1952 graduated from Babes Bolyai University of Cluj with a degree in history. He worked for the Arad Museum for ten years and as a teacher in Arad after 1960. 

His articles and studies were published in various periodicals, among them Nicolae Bălcescu, Cultura, Revista Arhivelor, Ziridava, Volk und Kultur, Forschungen zur Volks und Landeskunde, Studia et Acta Musei. His research was focused mainly on local history, particularly the history of the city of Arad and other places in its region, among then Ineu (Borosjenő, in Hungarian) and Lipova (Lippa, in Hungarian) as well as biographies of the leaders of the 1848 Revolution and other Romanian and Hungarian politicians. Glück studied the way the Romanian War of Independence of 1877–1878 was perceived in the Banat region, then part of Austria-Hungary. He added local documentation to the study of the classics of Romanian literature and contributed to a number of memorial books dedicated to Romanian writers - Xenopol (1970), Alecsandri, Macedonski and Sadoveanu (1971), Slavici (1973). He described the history of the Ady Endre Society in Arad (1981) and was co-author of the Arad County Tourist Guide (1974). Glück is the author of a biography of Teréz Ocskó (Romanian edition 1972, Hungarian edition 1978) and along with Al. Roz of Aradul muncitoresc (“The working class Arad”, 1983).

Ernest Neumann (1917-2004), rabbi and community leader, born in Ceica, Romania (then part of Austria-Hungary). He attended an Orthodox Jewish gymnasium in Oradea and then the Samuil Vulcan high school in Beius, Romania. He studied at the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest, Hungary, from 1935 to 1941, and in parallel he studied philosophy, Semitic languages ​​and oriental history at the University of Budapest, earning a doctorate in philology and ancient history in 1940. 

In 1941 he returned to Timisoara, Romania, and started working for the local Jewish community serving as a teacher at the Liceul Israelit Jewish high school and as rabbi of the status quo synagogue in the Fabric district of the city. Neumann was one of the leaders of the Jewish community during the Holocaust, when a group of 150 yoing Jews were deported from Timisoara to Transnistria, of them only 25 survived, and all adult Jewish males were sent to forced labor.  

In 1949 he was elected Chief Rabbi of the Neologue community of Timisoara.

During the years of the Communist regime in Romania, Neumann was instrumental in the dissemination of Hebrew language and Israel's heritage among the local Jewish youth and organized numerous Jewish cultural activities. He regularly visited other Jewish communities in Transylvania, particularly those of Cluj, Oradea, Satu Mare, and Arad. Neumann was the only rabbi who could speak in Hungarian to the mostly Hungarian-speaking Jewish communities in Transylvania. In addition to Hungarian, he spoke Romanian, Yiddish, German, English and French.

He participated in numerous rabbinical congresses in Israel, at the centenary of the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest in 1977 and at the Congress of the Judeo-Christian Movement in Budapest in 1988. Neumann was one of the promoters of the ecumenical movement in Timisoara and maintained a dialogue with representatives of other religions in the city, particularly with Nicolae Corneanu (1923-2014), Metropolitan of the Romanian Orthodox church in Banat region.

In 2002 Neumann was named Honorary Citizen of Timisoara and in the same year was made an honorary member of the Association of Romanian Writers. At a 2010 ceremony in his memory attened by local and national leaders a street in Timisoara was named Ernest Neumann street.  In 2016, the name of the same street was changed to Rabbi Oppenheimer Street and the name of Rabbi Neumann was given to the synagogue street in the Fabric district of Timisoara.

Timisoara

Timisoara, Hung. Temesvar

A city in the Banat region, western Romania.

Between 1552 and 1716 an important center of the Turkish administration; subsequently within Hungary until 1918. The town comprises several quarters, whose individual development is still evident and affected the history of the local Jews who established separate communal organizations in them. The first Jews arrived in Timisoara before the Turkish conquest by the trade route between turkey and central Europe. At first they came temporarily, on business, but by the first half of the 16th century there were permanent Jewish settlers. The oldest tombstone in the Jewish cemetery dates from 1636 commemorating the "rabbi and surgeon" Azriel Asael. The beginnings of communal organization date from that era. When the Austrians captured the town from the Turks in 1716, the peace treaty included a provision permitting the Jews there to choose either to retreat with the Turks or to remain under the Austrians. Some chose to remain. There were then about 12 Turkish-Sephardi families. In 1736 r.
Meir amigo of Constantinople and four other Sephardi Jews were authorized to settle in the town. Amigo organized communal life and did much to help the Jews of Timisoara. As the economic situation of Timisoara began to improve, Jews were attracted to the town from other parts of Hungary and as far away as Austria and Moravia. They mainly engaged in commerce.

When under direct Austrian rule, however, the situation of the Jews in Timisoara was more difficult than in any other part of Hungary. The Jewish legislation (Judenordnung) of 1776 for Jews in the Banat region placed many restrictions on the Jews of Timisoara, but their situation improved when the region was returned to Hungary in 1779.

Two synagogues, one Sephardi and one Ashkenazi, were built in 1762. The Sephardi congregation continued to exist independently until after World War II. A magnificent synagogue was erected for the main Ashkenazi congregation in 1862. After the Hungarian general Jewish congress of 1868--69, the community of Timisoara declared itself Neologist. A separate orthodox congregation was formed in 1871. An orthodox synagogue was built in 1895. After World War II the congregations were unified by government order.

The Jewish population numbered 155 in 1716; 220 in 1739; 72 families in 1781; 1,200 persons in 1840; 2,202 in 1858; 4,870 (c. 15% of the total population) in 1890; 6,728 (9.2%) in 1910; and 9,368 (10%) in 1930.

In general, the Jews of Timisoara were well-to-do and were able to finance ample communal activities. A ramified educational network was established. Efforts were made to found a Jewish school in 1825. Two schools were opened in different quarters of the town in the 1840s. Between the two world wars, under Romanian administration, two Jewish high schools were established, one general and one commercial. The language of instruction was Romanian, although Hebrew was also taught. The Jews continued to speak Hungarian and German in Timisoara, where German culture was more widespread than in the other towns of Transylvania.

Timisoara was an important Zionist center. A Zionist organization was founded there between the two world wars.

Timisoara was the headquarters of the Zionist organization, Jewish national fund (Keren kayemet le-Israel), and Palestine foundation fund (Keren hayesod) in Transylvania.

The national Jewish party was active in the town, and won support in the elections. Between 1920 and 1940 the periodical of the Transylvanian Zionist organization, uj kor, was published in Timisoara. These organizations tried to continue after World War II but in 1947--48 they were forced to disband.

Throughout the period between the two world wars the community suffered from anti-Semitism. In 1936 the iron guard attacked a Jewish theater audience, exploding a bomb in their midst; two Jews were killed and many were wounded. From 1940 the position of the Jews deteriorated, because of economic restrictions and confiscations. In 1941 many Jewish men were sent to forced labor. The Jewish population, which numbered 10,950 in 1940, increased to 11,788 in 1942 because many Jews from the surrounding areas were concentrated in Timisoara, the local Jewish community having to support them. Later all the communal property was confiscated, including land. Until 1945 Timisoara was the center of the German organizations of the Banat region. In 1944 the local German civilian organization also took action against the Jews, but in September of that year the red army entered the town.

After the war the national Jewish organization, formed to assist the communist party program, established a branch in Timisoara, and its leaders attempted to liquidate Zionism and impose communism. Jews were accused of underground Zionist activity, and some were imprisoned, including the author Ezra Fleischer. There were 13,600 Jews in Timisoara in 1947, but their number gradually decreased through emigration to Israel and other countries; 3,000 Jews remained in 1971. The communal organizations still functioned, there was a rabbi, and religious services were held.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

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The Jewish Community of Arad, Romania

Arad

A city in south Transylvania, south western Rumania. Until 1918 within the borders of Hungary.
 

21ST CENTURY

The Jewish community only numbers a few hundred and is declining.  There is a functioning Jewish old age home, senior center and soup kitchen. The community has a newsletter and gets together for holiday celebrations.

HISTORY

In a Letter of Protection dated May 1, 1717, Lieutenant General Baron Stefan Cosa, commander of the fortress of Arad and Mures, allowed the first two Jewish families to settle in Arad. Regulations for the burial society were drawn up in 1750 and the first synagogue was built in 1759.  Jewish occupations during this early period were restricted to the production and sale of alcoholic beverages.  Jews were forbidden from become apprentices or joining trade guilds.

The small community became important after 1789 under the leadership of Rabbi Aaron Chorin, who officiated until his death in 1844.  Despite the hostile environment, the Jewish community grew rapidly during the nineteenth century. The population numbered 812 in 1839 and grew to 4,795 in 1891.  Under his leadership, Arad became a center of the nascent reform movement in Judaism. He initiated the construction of a synagogue in 1828, established a small yeshivah, and set up an elementary school.  In 1841 a pipe organ was commissioned for the synagogue. Laws regarding Jewish occupations became more relaxed and Rabbi Chorin encouraged Jewish youth to enter productive occupations. Due to his efforts, there were about 100 highly skilled Jewish artisans in Arad in 1841. By 1848, Jews were active in many crafts and trades (cereals, tobacco, wool, cattle, manufactured goods), banking and leasing. There were ten Jewish doctors in the community.

Even after Chorin's death, the community in Arad long remained a bastion of extreme reform. The rabbis in Arad were early supporters of Magyarization among the Jews and in 1845 Rabbi Jacob Steinhart delivered a sermon in Hungarian.

After Civil Emancipation (1867) and the Congress of the Jews of Hungary and Transylvania (1868-9), the Jews of Arad affiliated as a Neolog community. Many Jews saw themselves as Hungarians of the Mosaic Religion. They took an active part in cultural and public life and there was even a Jewish mayor – Dr. Ferenc Sarkany – who also volunteered for the army in World War I. The Jewish Party received many votes in 1919 for the Romanian Parliament.

An orthodox community was also established in 1904 and synagogues were built in 1912 and 1930. The orthodox rabbis were Rabbi Yehuda Sofer (1909-1912) and Rabbi Yoakhim Schreiber (1913-1949).

The community continued to grow during the twentieth century and numbered 6,430 in 1920 and 9,402 in 1942 (due to the enforced concentration in Arad of Jews from the villages and country towns of the area by the Romanian fascist authorities in 1941-42).

The presence of the Jews in the economic and social life of the city was significant. They were involved in industry (textiles, machine tools, chemicals, paper, timber, liquor, oil, milling, tanning), trade, banking and insurance. Major cultural figures included Gyorgy Szanto (1897-1961) a novelist and editor of the cultural journal Periszkop (1925-27); Adam Raffi (1898-1961) a novelist, translator and editor; Sandor Karoly (1894-1964) a novelist and playwright; Izidor Kaufman (1853-1921) an artist, and Jakub Gutman (1815-1861) a sculptor. The Jewish Filharmonia music society was established in 1890. In 1921, the Jewish Sports Association, Hakoach was formed.  

The Neolog Rabbi, Lajos Vagvolgyi (1909-1940) was favorable towards Zionism. The Zionist movement found support in Arad.  The Tzur Shalom project purchased land in Palestine from the Haifa Bay Authority in the 1920’s. Unfortunately, the Haifa Bay Authority went bankrupt in 1926, and the land received from Karen Kayemet was marshland.  Another smaller parcel of land was proposed, but the money invested by community members was lost and this had a negative effect on the support of Zionism in the community. In 1931, there was a decrease in the number of shekel contributors in Arad.

In the years 1932-36, support for Zionism increased, partially due to the efforts of a dynamic young Habonim leader, Herman Chilewitz.  There were social, sports and cultural activities. He also initiated a religious Zionist group, Mizrahi.  In women’s organization, WIZO, also played an important role in the upswing of support for Zionism in the community. Dror Habonim and Mizrahi each had hachshara programs (farming communities to prepare for Aliyah).  When the fascist regime confiscated all Jewish property, Habonim members became grave diggers so that they could grow vegetables on unused land in the cemetery as part of their hachshara and also have a place to hide their materials. The Zionist youth groups functioned secretly during the war and some managed to get to Palestine.

THE HOLOCAUST
Arad Jews shared the fate of the Jewry of Rumania between the two world wars, suffering from increasing antisemitism and restrictive measures.  The Neolog and orthodox communities worked together to help meet the needs of the community.  Already in 1933 they had an organization to help refugees. Arad was part of the area in Southern Transylvania that remained in Romania when the Nazis and Italians divided the region between Romania and Hungary.  For most of the war, the city was under the dictatorship of Marshall Antonescu, an ally of Hitler. Whereas there were severe anti-Jewish measures such as the removal of Jews from all segments of the national economy, seizure of land and property, forced labor and moving Jews from the rural to urban areas creating crowded and dangerous living conditions, they were not initially sent to the concentration camps. Despite German pressure to deport Jews to the camps, the Romanian authorities procrastinated. The eminent historian, Raul Hilberg wrote that, “Francisc Neumann a leading industrialist was able to use the full potential of his financial and political clout to oppose the resolve of the Romanian authorities in the matter of deportation of all the Jews from Southern Transylvania.” Yet there was tremendous Nazi pressure and the Jews from the Arad district along with the district of Timissoara were slated to be deported to the Belzec extermination camp (or Aushwitz in a different source) in 1942. A clandestine Jewish council was convened composed of the chief Rabbi Dr. Safran, Dr. Fildermann, M. Benvenisti, Froimescu and Schwefelberg. They contacted the Archbishop Balan, head of the Romanian Orthodox Church in Transylvania and begged for his help in preventing the deportation.  Dr. Safran warned him that he would be held accountable for the fate of the Jews who lived in the realm of his guardianship.  The bishop asked for and was granted a meeting with Antonescu on the next day. Antonescu was also influenced by the Vatican visit of Msg. Andrea Cassulo and the message sent (via the Swiss ambassador) from U.S. Secretary of State Hull. The Romanian government did not want to tarnish its reputation in case of an Allied victory.  On October 11 the order was rescinded and the community survived.

One of the amazing stories of Arad is how they sheltered parachutists from the Jewish brigade. On June 4, 1944, two men parachuted in the Curtici-Pecica area -Dan Shaike (Trachtenberg) from kibbutz Nir-Am and Itzhak (Mano) Ben Efraim from kibbutz Shamir. They managed to get to the orthodox synagogue in Arad where they were then sheltered in the store room of the mikvah. On August 1, 1944, another two parachutists were dropped to the same area and sheltered in the same manner -Baruch Camin (Kaminicker) and Dov Harari (Berger).

Emigration activity to Palestine continued in 1943-44 and some young people left on the boats Marita I-II, Milca I-II , Kasbeh, Moreno, Bulbul and Mefkure. The Mefkure was sunk in the Black Sea, probably by a German submarine, and there were few survivors.

On August 23, 1944, the Romanians joined the Allied Powers and on September 12, 1944 the Hungarians invaded Arad. Almost immediately Jews were forced to wear the star of David and a Jewish council was formed and tasked with providing a list of the names and addresses of all Jews in the community for the Nazis. The chief Rabbi, Dr. Schonfeld begged for a delay because of the Rosh Hashana holiday and this was granted. On September 22, Arad was liberated by Soviet and Romanian forces.

POSTWAR

The community numbered 13,200 in 1947. Subsequently, there was a progressive decrease due to the poor economic situation under the communist regime and emigration from the country, mainly to Israel. In 1969 the Jewish population numbered 4,000. In 1993 there were only 500 Jews.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Romania
Timisoara

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Timisoara

Timisoara, Hung. Temesvar

A city in the Banat region, western Romania.

Between 1552 and 1716 an important center of the Turkish administration; subsequently within Hungary until 1918. The town comprises several quarters, whose individual development is still evident and affected the history of the local Jews who established separate communal organizations in them. The first Jews arrived in Timisoara before the Turkish conquest by the trade route between turkey and central Europe. At first they came temporarily, on business, but by the first half of the 16th century there were permanent Jewish settlers. The oldest tombstone in the Jewish cemetery dates from 1636 commemorating the "rabbi and surgeon" Azriel Asael. The beginnings of communal organization date from that era. When the Austrians captured the town from the Turks in 1716, the peace treaty included a provision permitting the Jews there to choose either to retreat with the Turks or to remain under the Austrians. Some chose to remain. There were then about 12 Turkish-Sephardi families. In 1736 r.
Meir amigo of Constantinople and four other Sephardi Jews were authorized to settle in the town. Amigo organized communal life and did much to help the Jews of Timisoara. As the economic situation of Timisoara began to improve, Jews were attracted to the town from other parts of Hungary and as far away as Austria and Moravia. They mainly engaged in commerce.

When under direct Austrian rule, however, the situation of the Jews in Timisoara was more difficult than in any other part of Hungary. The Jewish legislation (Judenordnung) of 1776 for Jews in the Banat region placed many restrictions on the Jews of Timisoara, but their situation improved when the region was returned to Hungary in 1779.

Two synagogues, one Sephardi and one Ashkenazi, were built in 1762. The Sephardi congregation continued to exist independently until after World War II. A magnificent synagogue was erected for the main Ashkenazi congregation in 1862. After the Hungarian general Jewish congress of 1868--69, the community of Timisoara declared itself Neologist. A separate orthodox congregation was formed in 1871. An orthodox synagogue was built in 1895. After World War II the congregations were unified by government order.

The Jewish population numbered 155 in 1716; 220 in 1739; 72 families in 1781; 1,200 persons in 1840; 2,202 in 1858; 4,870 (c. 15% of the total population) in 1890; 6,728 (9.2%) in 1910; and 9,368 (10%) in 1930.

In general, the Jews of Timisoara were well-to-do and were able to finance ample communal activities. A ramified educational network was established. Efforts were made to found a Jewish school in 1825. Two schools were opened in different quarters of the town in the 1840s. Between the two world wars, under Romanian administration, two Jewish high schools were established, one general and one commercial. The language of instruction was Romanian, although Hebrew was also taught. The Jews continued to speak Hungarian and German in Timisoara, where German culture was more widespread than in the other towns of Transylvania.

Timisoara was an important Zionist center. A Zionist organization was founded there between the two world wars.

Timisoara was the headquarters of the Zionist organization, Jewish national fund (Keren kayemet le-Israel), and Palestine foundation fund (Keren hayesod) in Transylvania.

The national Jewish party was active in the town, and won support in the elections. Between 1920 and 1940 the periodical of the Transylvanian Zionist organization, uj kor, was published in Timisoara. These organizations tried to continue after World War II but in 1947--48 they were forced to disband.

Throughout the period between the two world wars the community suffered from anti-Semitism. In 1936 the iron guard attacked a Jewish theater audience, exploding a bomb in their midst; two Jews were killed and many were wounded. From 1940 the position of the Jews deteriorated, because of economic restrictions and confiscations. In 1941 many Jewish men were sent to forced labor. The Jewish population, which numbered 10,950 in 1940, increased to 11,788 in 1942 because many Jews from the surrounding areas were concentrated in Timisoara, the local Jewish community having to support them. Later all the communal property was confiscated, including land. Until 1945 Timisoara was the center of the German organizations of the Banat region. In 1944 the local German civilian organization also took action against the Jews, but in September of that year the red army entered the town.

After the war the national Jewish organization, formed to assist the communist party program, established a branch in Timisoara, and its leaders attempted to liquidate Zionism and impose communism. Jews were accused of underground Zionist activity, and some were imprisoned, including the author Ezra Fleischer. There were 13,600 Jews in Timisoara in 1947, but their number gradually decreased through emigration to Israel and other countries; 3,000 Jews remained in 1971. The communal organizations still functioned, there was a rabbi, and religious services were held.

Ernest Neumann
Jeno Gluck
Eliezer Glanz
Frederick Knefler
Chorin, Aaron
Csemegi, Karoly
Groller, Balduin (Baldwin)
Szanto, Gyorgy
Veszi, Jozsef
Kaufmann, Isidor
Gal, Gyula
Guttmann, Jakob
Hirschl, Moses

Ernest Neumann (1917-2004), rabbi and community leader, born in Ceica, Romania (then part of Austria-Hungary). He attended an Orthodox Jewish gymnasium in Oradea and then the Samuil Vulcan high school in Beius, Romania. He studied at the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest, Hungary, from 1935 to 1941, and in parallel he studied philosophy, Semitic languages ​​and oriental history at the University of Budapest, earning a doctorate in philology and ancient history in 1940. 

In 1941 he returned to Timisoara, Romania, and started working for the local Jewish community serving as a teacher at the Liceul Israelit Jewish high school and as rabbi of the status quo synagogue in the Fabric district of the city. Neumann was one of the leaders of the Jewish community during the Holocaust, when a group of 150 yoing Jews were deported from Timisoara to Transnistria, of them only 25 survived, and all adult Jewish males were sent to forced labor.  

In 1949 he was elected Chief Rabbi of the Neologue community of Timisoara.

During the years of the Communist regime in Romania, Neumann was instrumental in the dissemination of Hebrew language and Israel's heritage among the local Jewish youth and organized numerous Jewish cultural activities. He regularly visited other Jewish communities in Transylvania, particularly those of Cluj, Oradea, Satu Mare, and Arad. Neumann was the only rabbi who could speak in Hungarian to the mostly Hungarian-speaking Jewish communities in Transylvania. In addition to Hungarian, he spoke Romanian, Yiddish, German, English and French.

He participated in numerous rabbinical congresses in Israel, at the centenary of the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest in 1977 and at the Congress of the Judeo-Christian Movement in Budapest in 1988. Neumann was one of the promoters of the ecumenical movement in Timisoara and maintained a dialogue with representatives of other religions in the city, particularly with Nicolae Corneanu (1923-2014), Metropolitan of the Romanian Orthodox church in Banat region.

In 2002 Neumann was named Honorary Citizen of Timisoara and in the same year was made an honorary member of the Association of Romanian Writers. At a 2010 ceremony in his memory attened by local and national leaders a street in Timisoara was named Ernest Neumann street.  In 2016, the name of the same street was changed to Rabbi Oppenheimer Street and the name of Rabbi Neumann was given to the synagogue street in the Fabric district of Timisoara.

Jenő Glück (1927- 2004), historian, born in Arad, Romania. He attended the high school in Arad and in 1952 graduated from Babes Bolyai University of Cluj with a degree in history. He worked for the Arad Museum for ten years and as a teacher in Arad after 1960. 

His articles and studies were published in various periodicals, among them Nicolae Bălcescu, Cultura, Revista Arhivelor, Ziridava, Volk und Kultur, Forschungen zur Volks und Landeskunde, Studia et Acta Musei. His research was focused mainly on local history, particularly the history of the city of Arad and other places in its region, among then Ineu (Borosjenő, in Hungarian) and Lipova (Lippa, in Hungarian) as well as biographies of the leaders of the 1848 Revolution and other Romanian and Hungarian politicians. Glück studied the way the Romanian War of Independence of 1877–1878 was perceived in the Banat region, then part of Austria-Hungary. He added local documentation to the study of the classics of Romanian literature and contributed to a number of memorial books dedicated to Romanian writers - Xenopol (1970), Alecsandri, Macedonski and Sadoveanu (1971), Slavici (1973). He described the history of the Ady Endre Society in Arad (1981) and was co-author of the Arad County Tourist Guide (1974). Glück is the author of a biography of Teréz Ocskó (Romanian edition 1972, Hungarian edition 1978) and along with Al. Roz of Aradul muncitoresc (“The working class Arad”, 1983).

Eliezer Glanz (1945-?), rabbi, born in Arad, Romania. He graduated from yeshiva of Arad. Between 1964-1973 he served as shochet in the Jewish communities of Deva, Alba Iulia, Arad, Ocna Mures, and Teius, all in Romania. He immigrated to Israel in in 1973, but after two years returned to Romania serving as shochet of the Jewish communities of Timisoara and Cluj. After 1986, he was a shochet in the community of Bucharest and as of 1997 he served as a deputy of Rabbi Menachem Hacohen, the Chief Rabbi of Romania.

Frederick Knefler (1833-1901), U. S. army officer and physician, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He immigrated to the USA in 1849, following the defeat of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849. In the United States he volunteered for the Unionist army in 1861 on the outbreak of the American Civil War. He rose from the rank of private to captain in the 11th Indiana regiment within a year and from captain to colonel within another year. Later he fought under General  W. T. Sherman and was promoted to brevet brigadier general in 1865 shortly before the end of the war. After the American Civil War, he was a lawyer in Indianapolis. He entered local politics and was appointed head of the pension office in Indianapolis by President Rutherford B. Hayes, where he served eight years. 

Rabbi

Born in Hranice, he studied in yeshivot and, after a brief unsuccessful career in business, became rabbi of Arad in 1789, occupying the position until his death. He wrote and preached against customs which he held to be superstitious. His views were founded in Oral Laws but his attacks became growingly radical and governmental intervention was necessary to enable him to retain his post in face of rabbinical opposition. In 1803 he published a work which suggested that spiritual leaders should be allowed to modify traditional enactments. The Orthodox prevented the book from being reprinted. Encouraged by the growth of Reform in Germany, his own reforms included bareheaded worship, services in Hungarian, the abolition of the Kol Nidrei prayer, the playing of the organ in the synagogue and permission to write and travel on the Sabbath. Chorin promoted secular and vocational education for young Jews. However, Chorin received the support of his congregation. He supported the Hungarian reform movement and favored use of the organ and prayers in the vernacular. He was active in efforts for Emancipation and was influential with the State authorities.
Csemegi, Karoly (1826-1899), jurist, born in Csongrad, Hungary (then part of the Autrian Empire). The son of wealthy parents, he received his education at Szeged, Hungary, and Budapest in parochial and secular schools. He fought in the Hungarian Revolution (1848-49) commanding a battalion which he had raised. During the reaction he stayed at Arad (now in Romania), where he functioned as a much sought after lawyer.

Following the peace-treaty, Csemegi, whose fame as lawyer spread throughout the country, was summoned to Budapest by Boldizsar Horvath, Minister of Justice, who made him secretary of state in his cabinet.

Csemegi was a founder of the National University Society and his magnum opus was the compilation of The Criminal Code (1885). He exerted a decisive influence upon the evolution of Hungarian criminal law and was chairman (1879) of the legislative council of the Supreme Court. He organized the Hungarian Bar Association and received an honorary doctorate from the University of Budapest. By this time he converted to Christianity.

Csemegi wrote a number of books on aspects of the Hungarian legal code. His principal works including "A jogvesztes elmelete es az allamjog" (1872), "A magyar buenvadi eljaras szervezetenek indokai" (1882), "Magyar buenvadi eljaras a toervenyszekek eloett" (1883), and "Az egyhazi holtkez" (1897).

Groller, Balduin (Baldwin) born Adalbert Goldscheider, also known as Gál Béla) (1848-1916), novelist and short story writer, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He settled in Vienna, Austria, at an early age and chose Groller as his pen-name. Groller attended high school in Dresdan, Germany, then he studied law, philosophy and aesthetics at the University of Vienna. At the start of his career he was influenced by the poet Albert Moser. His first writings dealt with art, and then he turned to fiction. He first attracted attention as a writer of humorous sketches, contributing to the leading dailies and periodicals of Vienna and Budapest. His popularity grew apace as he mastered the technique of full-length novels and novelettes. Groller's best known works were: Ueberspannt; Schuldig; Ganz zufaallig und andere humoristische Novellen; Wie mann Welt-geschichte macht; Aus der weltlichen Komoedie; Major Barsay und sein Kreis; Die Ehre des Hauses; Eine Panik; Das Raatsel des Blutes. Groller was one of the first writers of detective stories in German.  For a number of years, Groller headed the association of journalists and writers Concordia as Vice-President, and as such, he also became a member of the Art Commission of the Austrian Ministry of Culture. When the Central Association for Common Sports was founded in Vienna in 1908, Groller was elected its first president.

Szanto, Gyorgy (1893-1961), author, born in Vagujhely, Hungary, (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Nove Mesto nad Vahom, Slovakia). He studied painting, and exhibited with success at the National Salon at Budapest. Szanto became the scenery and costume designer at the Romanian Opera House at Kolozsvar, Hungary (now Cluj Napoca, Romania).

A combatant in World War I, he lost his eyesight due to a brain injury. He then turned to writing, and became one of the most popular Hungarian novelists of his time. His novels combine an intensity of passion with strong penchant for the colorful both in action and description. Szanto lived at Arad, Romanian. He published his works in Transylvania until 1947, when he moved to Budapest.

Szanto's works include: "Babel tornya" ("The Tower of Babel"); "Mata Hari"; "Az aranyagacska" ("The Golden Twig": 1935); "Utolso hajnal, elso hajnal" ("Last Dawn, First Dawn"); "Melte" (1938). His somewhat autobiographical "Stradivari" was made into a motion picture by the German UFA Company and his play "A satoros kiraly" was performed by the Hungarian National Theatre (1936). He was author also of a volume of poetry, "Schumannal a Karnevalban" ("With Schumann at the Carnival").
Veszi, Jozsef (1858-1920), editor and journalist, born in Arad (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He studied modern languages at the Universities of Budapest and Leipzig, Germany, and soon after, began contributing to newspapers in Budapest, both in Hungarian and in German. He became a columnist for “Pester Lloyd”, and in 1894 was appointed editor-in-chief of the “Pesti Naplo”. In 1896 he founded the “Budapesti Naplo”, a staunchly liberal daily newspaper and succeeded in gaining its support from young elite Hungarian writers. He had a flawless talent for the discovery of talent. Veszi was one of the first to appreciate the lyrical genius of Endre Ady and he discovered Dezso Kosztolanyi, Ferenc Molnar and Lajos Biro. The latter two later came to become his sons-in-law.

From 1899 to 1905 Veszi was a member of the lower chamber of the Hungarian Parliament where he sat in the ranks of the Liberals. He played a notable part in the controversy between the Crown, supported by the Hungarian Liberals, and the often aggressive Magyar Independents. He was a ministerial counselor and head of the press bureau of the Fejervary cabinet of 1905, imposed upon Hungary by the Crown against the will of parliament. Together with the Minister of the Interior, József Kristoffy, Veszi propounded the idea that the king should grant universal suffrage to the population of Hungary as a means of weakening the Magyar super nationalists. The Magyar Independents dropped their unreasonable demands, whereupon a coalition cabinet was formed in which they constituted a majority.

When the ruling classes socially boycotted the former supporters of the Fejervary cabinet, Veszi went into exile to Berlin (1906-1910). There he founded, together with Baron Lajos Hatvany, the review “Jung-Ungarn”, a brilliant though short-lived attempt to present Hungarian cultural values to the wider world. He translated the Hungarian historical play, Jozsef Katona's “Bank Ban”, into German and succeeded in persuading Max Bernhardt to produce it.

On his return to Hungary after the fall of the coalition regime, he founded the “Budapester Presse” (1911). Continuing to lend his support to the idea of universal suffrage, he backed by Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne. After his appointment as editor-in-chief of the semi-official “Pester Lloyd”, Veszi had to show his support of subsequent governments. He was one of the keenest supporters of the alliance with Germany, and during World War I advocated the policy of fighting to the last. Following the period of revolutions and counterrevolutions, he resigned himself to serve the regime of Regent Nicholas Horthy. He was made a member of the upper house of parliament, and represented Hungary in the Assembly of the League of Nations several times.

As a youth Veszi published some lyrical poetry, “A banat dalaibol” ("Songs of Sorrow"; 1879) and “Traviata” (1881). For several years he was president of the association of Budapest newspapermen and secular president of the Hungarian Jewish Literary Society (IMIT). He retired from the editorship of the “Pester Lloyd” in 1938.

Prior to World War I, Veszi was one of the last Jewish journalists to exercise a vital influence upon Hungarian affairs. Although he never adopted a clear-cut stand against the anti-Semitic counterrevolution, he was always active in Jewish affairs and was an honorary executive member of the Jewish community of Pest.
Kaufmann, Isidor (1853-1921), painter, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He was a bank clerk who initally took up drawing as a hobby. His copy of a "Head of Moses", after a classical model, was noticed by a senior official of Arad county, and as a result he was sent to the Graphic School in Budapest. After studying there for one year, he became a pupil of the painter Joseph Matthäus Aigner at Vienna.

His first paintings were of historical subjects, but later he turned to Viennese genre and became successful. Kaufmann found his niche when he traveled around Galicia, Moravia and Upper Hungary in quest of types for his Jewish genre pictures. He achieved originality and strength only after discovering the shtetl. Emperor Franz Josef I bought "The Rabbi's Visit" and presented it to Vienna's Museum of Fine Art. His "The Sceptic" (1891) won him a gold medal in Vienna, and another from the German emperor. He was honored even by the Russian czar. After 1888 Kaufmann regularly exhibited at the Kuenstlerhaus of Vienna. He also received a gold medal in Munich, and a medal in Paris, France.

Kaufmann wanted to tell stories or illustrate subjects of everyday Jewish life. His small paintings have definite charm, and his numerous portraits were executed with taste and skill. At the same time, his pictures are of historical value, as they document the folkloristic aspects of the shtetl and the shtibl. With his sensitive brush, he sought to reproduce every nuance of the people and objects he portrayed. His pictures were purchased by the Lichtenstein Gallery and the City Museum, at Vienna, and by the Museum of Fine Arts, at Budapest. Some of the best known include "Sabbath Visit"; "Difficult Talmudic Passage"; "The Gate of the Rabbis"; "Yom Kippur"; "The Lost Lawsuit"; "The Chess Players"; "Business Secrets".
Gal, Gyula (1865-1938), actor, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He started acting on provincial stages, but his talents were soon recognized by drama scouts for the national companies. The Comedy Theatre of Budapest, Hungary, engaged him in 1896 and five years later the National Theatre engaged his services.

Gal was particularly successful in tragic roles, distinguishing himself in classic parts such as King Lear, Shylock, Friar Lawrence, King Richard III, Othello, Hamlet, Henry IV, Helm (Nora), Kent, Menemus and others. He was also acclaimed for his performances in leading roles in plays by Ibsen, as well as in modern works mainly of Magyar origin, including "Ocskay brigaderos", "Becstelenek", and "Elnemult Harangok". Gal became a member of the faculty of the Academy of Theatre Arts, where, for three decades, he exerted a great influence upon a whole generation of young Hungarian actors and actresses. In 1927 a special event marked Gal's fortieth anniversary as an artist and the twenty-fifth anniversary of his career as teacher. Prior to that the National Theatre bestowed upon him the rare honor of life membership. In 1935, at the age of 70, he formally retired from the National Theatre while agreeing to appear from time to time in a number of revivals of dramas in which he had attained renown. Soon thereafter, however, he became seriously ill and never fully recuperated. Gal died in Budapest.

He was author of a number of plays, among them "A vezeklok", "A tunderforras", and "Jol jatszottam?"
Guttmann, Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course in 1833, he walked to Vienna, Austria, where he obtained a job and learned engraving. A year later he opened his own engraving shop and started to make a reputation for himself.

In 1837 Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with at the Academy's exhibition in 1841 together with busts of Metternich and the mythological figure of Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he awarded Guttmann an annual stipend which permitted him to continue his studies in Italy.

Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844). His monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour was made in 1847. In Italy he produced a striking bust of Pope Pius IX, which was reproduced and thousands of copies were distributed throughout Italy. The original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.

From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, Hungary; he then went to London for about two years. There he sold "Peasant at His Plow", one of his finest creations, but felt that the British did not sufficiently appreciate his talent so in 1853 he moved to Paris, France, where he produced outstanding statues of "Ceres, Faith Hope and Love", and "Dr. Peter Henrik Ling". Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest in 1857, he suffered a nervous collapse and was hospitalised at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.

Bibl: The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia 5/135;
Zsido Lexikon p' 327


ORIGINAL TEXT
Guttmann Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver. Born in Arad (then Hungary), later Romania. The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course, he walked to Vienna (1833), where he obtained a job and learned also engraving. A year later he established his own engraving shop and through notable exhibits soon made friends among the nobility.
Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship (1837-40) to the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with distinction at the Academy's exposition (1841) together with busts of Metternich and the mythological Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he gave Guttmann an annual stipend with which to continue his studies in Italy. Here upon commission by the Rothschilds of Naples, he executed a striking bust of Pope Pius IX (1850), which was reproduced and distributed in thousands of copies throughout Italy. Its original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.
Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844); his monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour (1847). From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, then went to London for about two years. There he sold Peasant at His Plow, one of his finest creations, but felt generally disillusioned about the cold reception accorded him at the British capital. He moved to Paris in 1853, where he wrought such outstanding examples as Ceres, Faith Hope and Love, and Dr. Peter Henrik Ling. Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest, 1957, he suffered a nervous collapse, has been interned at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.
Hirschl, Moses (1790-c1860), philanthropist, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). As an officer and judge of the Arad Jewish community, he donated 10,000 golden florins for the erection of a new synagogue and school. These buildings were inaugurated in 1830. Later Hirschl went to live in Vienna, Austria, where he was decorated by King Ferdinand V as a philanthropist who gave generously to both Jewish and non-Jewish poor. When the imperial commissioner Haynau levied an exorbitant tax on the Hungarian Jews because of their participation in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, Hirschl used his influence with the imperial court to alleviate the burden on the Arad and other Jewish communities. He also persuaded the government to contribute to the cost of the establishment of a Jewish junior high school in Arad.
Jacob Steinhart
Jewish girls' school, Arad, Romania, 1947
Pupils of "Bet-Yaakov" girls' school, Dej, Transylvania, Romania, c1927
The Reform Synagogue in Arad, Romania, built in 1832
Rachel Phillip (later Hayman) at the Jewish
girls' school, Arad, Romania, 1947
She is sitting on the right, next to the teacher
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Rachel Hayman, Israel)
Pupils of "Bet-Yaakov" girls' school,
Dej, Transylvania, Romania, c1927
Seated on the teacher's right is Rachel Phillip
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Rachel Hayman, Israel)

(COURTESY OF RACHEL HAYMAN, ISRAEL - AR.91.14)
The Reform Synagogue in Arad, Romania.
It was built in 1832 as part of the Jewish Community
center, southern Transylvania.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Hedva Carmeli, Israel)
SOFER
SCHONFELD
BENVENISTI
KAUFMAN
CHORIN
STEINHART
GUTMAN
SOFER, SOIFER, SOFEROV, SOFEROF

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name derives from an occupation, profession or trade (also connected with raw material, finished product or implements associated with that trade). In this case it also derives from Jewish communal functionaries or titles.

Sofer is the Hebrew for "scribe/writer/scholar". The Hebrew term is documented as a Jewish family name in the 14th century with Durant Soffer, at Tarascon (France). Hassofer is recorded in 1434 in Marseille (France) with Halafa Hassofer Ben Abraham Hassofer. Soifer is a Yiddish spelling variant. Soferov and Soferof are Slavic variants, in which the Russian suffix "-ov" and its Westernized spelling variant "-of" stand for "son of" or "family of". Other related family names: the German translation, Schreiber, is mentioned as a Jewish family name in 1675 with Herschel Schreiber, of Lissa (Poland). Srajber is recorded in 1725, and Schrayber in 1735. The forms Schriber, Scriber and Sauphar are found in Paris, in 1809. Scriba, Sauphar and Soufir are also documented in 19th century France. The Polish/Yiddish transcription of the German Schreiber is Szriber. Other forms include Schreiberman(n) and Szrajbman, both of them meaning "scribe man".

Distinguished bearers of the family name Sofer include the German-born Hungarian rabbi and halachic authority, Moses Sofer, also known as Schreiber (1763-1839), and the 20th century Israeli geographer and educator, Amon Sofer.
SCHONFELD

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. It can also derive from a personal characteristic or nickname, or from an artificial (or ornamental) name (a made-up name often in compound of two words).

Schon is a variant of Schoen, the German for "beautiful/handsome". The Jewish surname Schonfeld can be linked to several towns and villages in Germany called Schoenfeld.

As part of a Jewish name, Schoen is in some cases an acronym (a name created from the initial letters of a Hebrew phrase, and which refers to a relative, lineage or occupation) of the Hebrew 'Shaliah Neeman', meaning "the trusted representative of the community".

Feld, literally "field" in Yiddish and German, is an artificial name that is commonly found in Jewish family names as a prefix (Feldman) or a suffix (Ehrenfeld). In the 20th century, the name Feld has been Hebraicized to Peled, meaning "steel", retaining the same consonants in Hebrew script. Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Schonfeld include the Hungarian rabbi and educator Victor Schonfeld (1880-1930), who was active in Austria, England and Eretz Israel, and the 20th century Yugoslav-born American Rabbi Lazar Schonfeld.
BENVENISTI

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a patronymic, derived from a male ancestor's personal name, in this case of biblical origin.

This name derives from the ancient Spanish votive and personal name meaning "welcome", the Castillian equivalent being Bienvenist. Among Jews, the name was often regarded as an equivalent of Baruch. Baruch ("blessed" in Hebrew), was the son of Neriah, scribe and trusted companion of the prophet Jeremiah, who set down in writing all the latter's prophecies and may have composed the biographical narrative about Jeremiah. In the early biblical period, first names were given names in the full sense of the term, being the exclusive property of the person on whom they were conferred. This tradition was observed for many centuries, until the early Middle Ages when Jews again gave their sons biblical names, among them Baruch. One of the Hebrew votive names personal to a child in order to bring him good fortune in life, Baruch is widespread as a personal name throughout the Diaspora. In medieval Spanish documents, the name is found as Baruch, Abenbaruch, Avinbruch, Avenbruch and Baru. North African families are called Barouche, Barouck, Barouh, Barouk, Barroch, Barruk, Baruk, Bourack, with variants including the suffix "El-" (such as Beruchiel), meaning "God" in Hebrew. In Alsace Baruch became Borach and Borich. In Central and Eastern Europe, Baruch was identified with Berg ("mountain" in German), or Bruck (the German for "bridge"). Other variants were derived from the Latin equivalent Benedict, for example Bendit, Benas, Bondy and Bondo. Translations into German include Seligman(n), into Latin Felix and into Italian Benedett. Germanized forms range from Bernhard(t), Boerne and Borchard to Borg; French variants from Benoit to Bernet. Russian Jews transformed Baruch into Barbakoff (an acronym - a name created from the initial letters of a Hebrew phrase, and which refers to a relative, lineage or occupation - for Ben Baruch Kohen plus the Russian suffix "-off", a Westernized spelling variant of the standard Russian suffix "-ov" for "son of") and their English cousins became Barnet, Barry or Bennet. Benvenisti is recorded in Narbonne in France in the 12th century with Solomon Benvenisti. A French variant of this name is Belvigne, found in 1337 at Peronne, Belgium. Among the many Distinguished bearers of this name is the 20th century Greek-born Israeli geographer and educator David Benvenisti.
KAUFMAN, KOIFMAN, KOFMAN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a patronymic, derived from a male ancestor's personal name, in this case of biblical origin.

Literally "merchant/trader" in German, Kaufman(n) is derived from "-cob", the second part of the biblical male personal name, Yaacov (in Latin, Jacob).

Jacob, the third patriarch, was the younger twin son of Isaac and Rebekah. The biblical personal name Jacob has numerous equivalents, all Latin; Jacobo, Jacopo and Giacobbe in Italian; Jacoub in Judeo-Provencal; Yaaqov in Spanish; Jacques in French; Iancu in Romanian; Jakob in German; Jack in English; Jakab in Hungarian; Yaakov in Russian. One of the earliest is recorded with Ibrahim Ibn Jakub, a Spanish Jew who travelled through Germany up to the Baltic Sea in the year 965. In Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviations and diminutives of Jacob originated entire groups of new names based on its two constituent syllables, such as, on the one hand, Yekel, Jekelin, and Jaecklin, and, on the other hand, Copin, Koppelin and Koppelman. Cob, the second part of Jacob, also appeared in the forms Kopp (literally "head" in German) and Kauf (German for "buy"). This developed into Kaufmann (German for "merchant"), actually a combination of Jacob and the biblical Manasse or Menachem.

Another important group of names derived from Jacob grew from the variant Yankel/Jankel.

Distinguished bearers of the German Jewish family name Kaufmann include the Moravian-born Austrian researcher of Jewish history, David Kaufmann (1852-1899); the Austrian portrait painter, Isidor Kaufmann; and the German sculptor, Hugo Kaufmann (1868-1919). Kaufman is recorded as a Jewish family name in 20th century Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
CHORIN Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This Polish-Jewish family name could derive from, or be linked to, the town of Korin/Chorin in Moravia, which has produced such family names as Chorin, Choriner, Korinsky and Koritser.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Chorin include the 18th/19th century Hungarian Rabbi Aaron Chorin and the Hungarian writer, newspaper editor and publisher, Zsigmond Chorin (1829-1879).
STEINHART

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name could be a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. It is also an artificial (or ornamental) name (a made-up name often in compound of two words).

The surname Steinhart is associated with the locality Steinhart in Bavaria (Germany).

The literal meaning of the German name is "as hard as stone". Stein, the second part of the name, is the German for "stone/rock". Stein is a common artificial name that can be found in its own right, or as a prefix (for example, Steinberg) or as a suffix (for example, Goldstein). This term and its equivalents in other languages are frequent family names in their own right or part of such names. As an Ashkenazi family name, Steinhart may belong to the group of names based on German word Stein (German for "stone/rock"). Stein is also an artificial name that is commonly found in Jewish family names as a prefix (Steinberg) or a suffix (Loewenstein). Localities called Stein are situated near Nuremberg (Nuernberg in German), Bavaria (Germany); Krems, Niederoesterreich (Austria); and Schaffhausen (Switzerland). Kamnik in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, is Stein in German, and the name of a number of places in Poland called Kamien has been translated by Jews into the Yiddish Shteyn.

Steinhardt is recorded as a Jewish Ashkenazi family name among Jews in Alsace, Germany, Poland, Israel and the U.S.A. since at least the 18th century.

A well-known representative of the Jewish family name Steinhart was the U.S. soldier, diplomat and industrialist Frank Maximilian Steinhart (1864-1939).
GUTMAN, GUTMANN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name derives from a personal characteristic or nickname.

Gutman(n), meaning "good man" in German, is closely related to the Spanish Buenos Hombres, that is "good people", to the Hebrew male personal name, Shem Tov, and Nome Boneum, literally "good name", and to the biblical name Tobiah, which means "the goodness of God". Shem Tov was also rendered as Kalonymos, the Greek for "beautiful/good name", thereby repeating the link between good and beautiful also found in the Arabic El Maleh/Al Malih, which mean both. Its equivalents comprise the Hebrew Tov and Yaffe, the Spanish Bueno, the Italian Del Bene, the German Gut(h)and the Arabic Tayyeb and Tayib. Like the Greek Kalonymos, literally "good name" (in medieval and modern Greek), and its variants, they are linked to the Hebrew Shem Tov, literally "good name" and also to the biblical name Tobiah. Kalonymos is documented as a Jewish name in 8th century Italy. Its Latin form, Kalonymus, produced Calmus, the Italian Calo and Calimani, and the French Calot. In 11th century Spain, Shem Tov became Nome Boneum.

Central and Eastern Europe developed names based on Cal(I)man(i) such as Kalman/Calman and diverse variants, comprising Kleimann and Klee. Kalo(n), the first part of Kalonymos, is the Greek for "beautiful/handsome", an equivalent of the Hebrew Yaffe. Nome Boneum is recorded in 11th century Spain and El-Maleh is documented as a Jewish family name in 13th century Spain. Bueno and Almari are documented in the 14th century, Maleh and Almale in the 15th century, and El Maleh in the 17th century. Gutmann is recorded as a Jewish surname in Constance, Switzerland, in 1378, and in Prague, Bohemia, in 1699.

Distinguished 20th century bearers of the Jewish family name Gutman include the Polish-born Israeli author and scholar, Israel Gutman.
SCHONFELD
SCHONFELD

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. It can also derive from a personal characteristic or nickname, or from an artificial (or ornamental) name (a made-up name often in compound of two words).

Schon is a variant of Schoen, the German for "beautiful/handsome". The Jewish surname Schonfeld can be linked to several towns and villages in Germany called Schoenfeld.

As part of a Jewish name, Schoen is in some cases an acronym (a name created from the initial letters of a Hebrew phrase, and which refers to a relative, lineage or occupation) of the Hebrew 'Shaliah Neeman', meaning "the trusted representative of the community".

Feld, literally "field" in Yiddish and German, is an artificial name that is commonly found in Jewish family names as a prefix (Feldman) or a suffix (Ehrenfeld). In the 20th century, the name Feld has been Hebraicized to Peled, meaning "steel", retaining the same consonants in Hebrew script. Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Schonfeld include the Hungarian rabbi and educator Victor Schonfeld (1880-1930), who was active in Austria, England and Eretz Israel, and the 20th century Yugoslav-born American Rabbi Lazar Schonfeld.
BENVENISTI
BENVENISTI

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a patronymic, derived from a male ancestor's personal name, in this case of biblical origin.

This name derives from the ancient Spanish votive and personal name meaning "welcome", the Castillian equivalent being Bienvenist. Among Jews, the name was often regarded as an equivalent of Baruch. Baruch ("blessed" in Hebrew), was the son of Neriah, scribe and trusted companion of the prophet Jeremiah, who set down in writing all the latter's prophecies and may have composed the biographical narrative about Jeremiah. In the early biblical period, first names were given names in the full sense of the term, being the exclusive property of the person on whom they were conferred. This tradition was observed for many centuries, until the early Middle Ages when Jews again gave their sons biblical names, among them Baruch. One of the Hebrew votive names personal to a child in order to bring him good fortune in life, Baruch is widespread as a personal name throughout the Diaspora. In medieval Spanish documents, the name is found as Baruch, Abenbaruch, Avinbruch, Avenbruch and Baru. North African families are called Barouche, Barouck, Barouh, Barouk, Barroch, Barruk, Baruk, Bourack, with variants including the suffix "El-" (such as Beruchiel), meaning "God" in Hebrew. In Alsace Baruch became Borach and Borich. In Central and Eastern Europe, Baruch was identified with Berg ("mountain" in German), or Bruck (the German for "bridge"). Other variants were derived from the Latin equivalent Benedict, for example Bendit, Benas, Bondy and Bondo. Translations into German include Seligman(n), into Latin Felix and into Italian Benedett. Germanized forms range from Bernhard(t), Boerne and Borchard to Borg; French variants from Benoit to Bernet. Russian Jews transformed Baruch into Barbakoff (an acronym - a name created from the initial letters of a Hebrew phrase, and which refers to a relative, lineage or occupation - for Ben Baruch Kohen plus the Russian suffix "-off", a Westernized spelling variant of the standard Russian suffix "-ov" for "son of") and their English cousins became Barnet, Barry or Bennet. Benvenisti is recorded in Narbonne in France in the 12th century with Solomon Benvenisti. A French variant of this name is Belvigne, found in 1337 at Peronne, Belgium. Among the many Distinguished bearers of this name is the 20th century Greek-born Israeli geographer and educator David Benvenisti.
KAUFMAN
KAUFMAN, KOIFMAN, KOFMAN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a patronymic, derived from a male ancestor's personal name, in this case of biblical origin.

Literally "merchant/trader" in German, Kaufman(n) is derived from "-cob", the second part of the biblical male personal name, Yaacov (in Latin, Jacob).

Jacob, the third patriarch, was the younger twin son of Isaac and Rebekah. The biblical personal name Jacob has numerous equivalents, all Latin; Jacobo, Jacopo and Giacobbe in Italian; Jacoub in Judeo-Provencal; Yaaqov in Spanish; Jacques in French; Iancu in Romanian; Jakob in German; Jack in English; Jakab in Hungarian; Yaakov in Russian. One of the earliest is recorded with Ibrahim Ibn Jakub, a Spanish Jew who travelled through Germany up to the Baltic Sea in the year 965. In Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviations and diminutives of Jacob originated entire groups of new names based on its two constituent syllables, such as, on the one hand, Yekel, Jekelin, and Jaecklin, and, on the other hand, Copin, Koppelin and Koppelman. Cob, the second part of Jacob, also appeared in the forms Kopp (literally "head" in German) and Kauf (German for "buy"). This developed into Kaufmann (German for "merchant"), actually a combination of Jacob and the biblical Manasse or Menachem.

Another important group of names derived from Jacob grew from the variant Yankel/Jankel.

Distinguished bearers of the German Jewish family name Kaufmann include the Moravian-born Austrian researcher of Jewish history, David Kaufmann (1852-1899); the Austrian portrait painter, Isidor Kaufmann; and the German sculptor, Hugo Kaufmann (1868-1919). Kaufman is recorded as a Jewish family name in 20th century Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
CHORIN
CHORIN Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This Polish-Jewish family name could derive from, or be linked to, the town of Korin/Chorin in Moravia, which has produced such family names as Chorin, Choriner, Korinsky and Koritser.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Chorin include the 18th/19th century Hungarian Rabbi Aaron Chorin and the Hungarian writer, newspaper editor and publisher, Zsigmond Chorin (1829-1879).
STEINHART
STEINHART

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name could be a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives. It is also an artificial (or ornamental) name (a made-up name often in compound of two words).

The surname Steinhart is associated with the locality Steinhart in Bavaria (Germany).

The literal meaning of the German name is "as hard as stone". Stein, the second part of the name, is the German for "stone/rock". Stein is a common artificial name that can be found in its own right, or as a prefix (for example, Steinberg) or as a suffix (for example, Goldstein). This term and its equivalents in other languages are frequent family names in their own right or part of such names. As an Ashkenazi family name, Steinhart may belong to the group of names based on German word Stein (German for "stone/rock"). Stein is also an artificial name that is commonly found in Jewish family names as a prefix (Steinberg) or a suffix (Loewenstein). Localities called Stein are situated near Nuremberg (Nuernberg in German), Bavaria (Germany); Krems, Niederoesterreich (Austria); and Schaffhausen (Switzerland). Kamnik in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, is Stein in German, and the name of a number of places in Poland called Kamien has been translated by Jews into the Yiddish Shteyn.

Steinhardt is recorded as a Jewish Ashkenazi family name among Jews in Alsace, Germany, Poland, Israel and the U.S.A. since at least the 18th century.

A well-known representative of the Jewish family name Steinhart was the U.S. soldier, diplomat and industrialist Frank Maximilian Steinhart (1864-1939).
GUTMAN
GUTMAN, GUTMANN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name derives from a personal characteristic or nickname.

Gutman(n), meaning "good man" in German, is closely related to the Spanish Buenos Hombres, that is "good people", to the Hebrew male personal name, Shem Tov, and Nome Boneum, literally "good name", and to the biblical name Tobiah, which means "the goodness of God". Shem Tov was also rendered as Kalonymos, the Greek for "beautiful/good name", thereby repeating the link between good and beautiful also found in the Arabic El Maleh/Al Malih, which mean both. Its equivalents comprise the Hebrew Tov and Yaffe, the Spanish Bueno, the Italian Del Bene, the German Gut(h)and the Arabic Tayyeb and Tayib. Like the Greek Kalonymos, literally "good name" (in medieval and modern Greek), and its variants, they are linked to the Hebrew Shem Tov, literally "good name" and also to the biblical name Tobiah. Kalonymos is documented as a Jewish name in 8th century Italy. Its Latin form, Kalonymus, produced Calmus, the Italian Calo and Calimani, and the French Calot. In 11th century Spain, Shem Tov became Nome Boneum.

Central and Eastern Europe developed names based on Cal(I)man(i) such as Kalman/Calman and diverse variants, comprising Kleimann and Klee. Kalo(n), the first part of Kalonymos, is the Greek for "beautiful/handsome", an equivalent of the Hebrew Yaffe. Nome Boneum is recorded in 11th century Spain and El-Maleh is documented as a Jewish family name in 13th century Spain. Bueno and Almari are documented in the 14th century, Maleh and Almale in the 15th century, and El Maleh in the 17th century. Gutmann is recorded as a Jewish surname in Constance, Switzerland, in 1378, and in Prague, Bohemia, in 1699.

Distinguished 20th century bearers of the Jewish family name Gutman include the Polish-born Israeli author and scholar, Israel Gutman.
Veszi, Jozsef
Kaufmann, Isidor
Gal, Gyula
Guttmann, Jakob
Hirschl, Moses
Veszi, Jozsef (1858-1920), editor and journalist, born in Arad (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He studied modern languages at the Universities of Budapest and Leipzig, Germany, and soon after, began contributing to newspapers in Budapest, both in Hungarian and in German. He became a columnist for “Pester Lloyd”, and in 1894 was appointed editor-in-chief of the “Pesti Naplo”. In 1896 he founded the “Budapesti Naplo”, a staunchly liberal daily newspaper and succeeded in gaining its support from young elite Hungarian writers. He had a flawless talent for the discovery of talent. Veszi was one of the first to appreciate the lyrical genius of Endre Ady and he discovered Dezso Kosztolanyi, Ferenc Molnar and Lajos Biro. The latter two later came to become his sons-in-law.

From 1899 to 1905 Veszi was a member of the lower chamber of the Hungarian Parliament where he sat in the ranks of the Liberals. He played a notable part in the controversy between the Crown, supported by the Hungarian Liberals, and the often aggressive Magyar Independents. He was a ministerial counselor and head of the press bureau of the Fejervary cabinet of 1905, imposed upon Hungary by the Crown against the will of parliament. Together with the Minister of the Interior, József Kristoffy, Veszi propounded the idea that the king should grant universal suffrage to the population of Hungary as a means of weakening the Magyar super nationalists. The Magyar Independents dropped their unreasonable demands, whereupon a coalition cabinet was formed in which they constituted a majority.

When the ruling classes socially boycotted the former supporters of the Fejervary cabinet, Veszi went into exile to Berlin (1906-1910). There he founded, together with Baron Lajos Hatvany, the review “Jung-Ungarn”, a brilliant though short-lived attempt to present Hungarian cultural values to the wider world. He translated the Hungarian historical play, Jozsef Katona's “Bank Ban”, into German and succeeded in persuading Max Bernhardt to produce it.

On his return to Hungary after the fall of the coalition regime, he founded the “Budapester Presse” (1911). Continuing to lend his support to the idea of universal suffrage, he backed by Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne. After his appointment as editor-in-chief of the semi-official “Pester Lloyd”, Veszi had to show his support of subsequent governments. He was one of the keenest supporters of the alliance with Germany, and during World War I advocated the policy of fighting to the last. Following the period of revolutions and counterrevolutions, he resigned himself to serve the regime of Regent Nicholas Horthy. He was made a member of the upper house of parliament, and represented Hungary in the Assembly of the League of Nations several times.

As a youth Veszi published some lyrical poetry, “A banat dalaibol” ("Songs of Sorrow"; 1879) and “Traviata” (1881). For several years he was president of the association of Budapest newspapermen and secular president of the Hungarian Jewish Literary Society (IMIT). He retired from the editorship of the “Pester Lloyd” in 1938.

Prior to World War I, Veszi was one of the last Jewish journalists to exercise a vital influence upon Hungarian affairs. Although he never adopted a clear-cut stand against the anti-Semitic counterrevolution, he was always active in Jewish affairs and was an honorary executive member of the Jewish community of Pest.
Kaufmann, Isidor (1853-1921), painter, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He was a bank clerk who initally took up drawing as a hobby. His copy of a "Head of Moses", after a classical model, was noticed by a senior official of Arad county, and as a result he was sent to the Graphic School in Budapest. After studying there for one year, he became a pupil of the painter Joseph Matthäus Aigner at Vienna.

His first paintings were of historical subjects, but later he turned to Viennese genre and became successful. Kaufmann found his niche when he traveled around Galicia, Moravia and Upper Hungary in quest of types for his Jewish genre pictures. He achieved originality and strength only after discovering the shtetl. Emperor Franz Josef I bought "The Rabbi's Visit" and presented it to Vienna's Museum of Fine Art. His "The Sceptic" (1891) won him a gold medal in Vienna, and another from the German emperor. He was honored even by the Russian czar. After 1888 Kaufmann regularly exhibited at the Kuenstlerhaus of Vienna. He also received a gold medal in Munich, and a medal in Paris, France.

Kaufmann wanted to tell stories or illustrate subjects of everyday Jewish life. His small paintings have definite charm, and his numerous portraits were executed with taste and skill. At the same time, his pictures are of historical value, as they document the folkloristic aspects of the shtetl and the shtibl. With his sensitive brush, he sought to reproduce every nuance of the people and objects he portrayed. His pictures were purchased by the Lichtenstein Gallery and the City Museum, at Vienna, and by the Museum of Fine Arts, at Budapest. Some of the best known include "Sabbath Visit"; "Difficult Talmudic Passage"; "The Gate of the Rabbis"; "Yom Kippur"; "The Lost Lawsuit"; "The Chess Players"; "Business Secrets".
Gal, Gyula (1865-1938), actor, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He started acting on provincial stages, but his talents were soon recognized by drama scouts for the national companies. The Comedy Theatre of Budapest, Hungary, engaged him in 1896 and five years later the National Theatre engaged his services.

Gal was particularly successful in tragic roles, distinguishing himself in classic parts such as King Lear, Shylock, Friar Lawrence, King Richard III, Othello, Hamlet, Henry IV, Helm (Nora), Kent, Menemus and others. He was also acclaimed for his performances in leading roles in plays by Ibsen, as well as in modern works mainly of Magyar origin, including "Ocskay brigaderos", "Becstelenek", and "Elnemult Harangok". Gal became a member of the faculty of the Academy of Theatre Arts, where, for three decades, he exerted a great influence upon a whole generation of young Hungarian actors and actresses. In 1927 a special event marked Gal's fortieth anniversary as an artist and the twenty-fifth anniversary of his career as teacher. Prior to that the National Theatre bestowed upon him the rare honor of life membership. In 1935, at the age of 70, he formally retired from the National Theatre while agreeing to appear from time to time in a number of revivals of dramas in which he had attained renown. Soon thereafter, however, he became seriously ill and never fully recuperated. Gal died in Budapest.

He was author of a number of plays, among them "A vezeklok", "A tunderforras", and "Jol jatszottam?"
Guttmann, Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course in 1833, he walked to Vienna, Austria, where he obtained a job and learned engraving. A year later he opened his own engraving shop and started to make a reputation for himself.

In 1837 Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with at the Academy's exhibition in 1841 together with busts of Metternich and the mythological figure of Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he awarded Guttmann an annual stipend which permitted him to continue his studies in Italy.

Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844). His monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour was made in 1847. In Italy he produced a striking bust of Pope Pius IX, which was reproduced and thousands of copies were distributed throughout Italy. The original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.

From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, Hungary; he then went to London for about two years. There he sold "Peasant at His Plow", one of his finest creations, but felt that the British did not sufficiently appreciate his talent so in 1853 he moved to Paris, France, where he produced outstanding statues of "Ceres, Faith Hope and Love", and "Dr. Peter Henrik Ling". Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest in 1857, he suffered a nervous collapse and was hospitalised at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.

Bibl: The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia 5/135;
Zsido Lexikon p' 327


ORIGINAL TEXT
Guttmann Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver. Born in Arad (then Hungary), later Romania. The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course, he walked to Vienna (1833), where he obtained a job and learned also engraving. A year later he established his own engraving shop and through notable exhibits soon made friends among the nobility.
Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship (1837-40) to the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with distinction at the Academy's exposition (1841) together with busts of Metternich and the mythological Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he gave Guttmann an annual stipend with which to continue his studies in Italy. Here upon commission by the Rothschilds of Naples, he executed a striking bust of Pope Pius IX (1850), which was reproduced and distributed in thousands of copies throughout Italy. Its original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.
Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844); his monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour (1847). From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, then went to London for about two years. There he sold Peasant at His Plow, one of his finest creations, but felt generally disillusioned about the cold reception accorded him at the British capital. He moved to Paris in 1853, where he wrought such outstanding examples as Ceres, Faith Hope and Love, and Dr. Peter Henrik Ling. Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest, 1957, he suffered a nervous collapse, has been interned at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.
Hirschl, Moses (1790-c1860), philanthropist, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). As an officer and judge of the Arad Jewish community, he donated 10,000 golden florins for the erection of a new synagogue and school. These buildings were inaugurated in 1830. Later Hirschl went to live in Vienna, Austria, where he was decorated by King Ferdinand V as a philanthropist who gave generously to both Jewish and non-Jewish poor. When the imperial commissioner Haynau levied an exorbitant tax on the Hungarian Jews because of their participation in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, Hirschl used his influence with the imperial court to alleviate the burden on the Arad and other Jewish communities. He also persuaded the government to contribute to the cost of the establishment of a Jewish junior high school in Arad.
Veszi, Jozsef
Veszi, Jozsef (1858-1920), editor and journalist, born in Arad (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He studied modern languages at the Universities of Budapest and Leipzig, Germany, and soon after, began contributing to newspapers in Budapest, both in Hungarian and in German. He became a columnist for “Pester Lloyd”, and in 1894 was appointed editor-in-chief of the “Pesti Naplo”. In 1896 he founded the “Budapesti Naplo”, a staunchly liberal daily newspaper and succeeded in gaining its support from young elite Hungarian writers. He had a flawless talent for the discovery of talent. Veszi was one of the first to appreciate the lyrical genius of Endre Ady and he discovered Dezso Kosztolanyi, Ferenc Molnar and Lajos Biro. The latter two later came to become his sons-in-law.

From 1899 to 1905 Veszi was a member of the lower chamber of the Hungarian Parliament where he sat in the ranks of the Liberals. He played a notable part in the controversy between the Crown, supported by the Hungarian Liberals, and the often aggressive Magyar Independents. He was a ministerial counselor and head of the press bureau of the Fejervary cabinet of 1905, imposed upon Hungary by the Crown against the will of parliament. Together with the Minister of the Interior, József Kristoffy, Veszi propounded the idea that the king should grant universal suffrage to the population of Hungary as a means of weakening the Magyar super nationalists. The Magyar Independents dropped their unreasonable demands, whereupon a coalition cabinet was formed in which they constituted a majority.

When the ruling classes socially boycotted the former supporters of the Fejervary cabinet, Veszi went into exile to Berlin (1906-1910). There he founded, together with Baron Lajos Hatvany, the review “Jung-Ungarn”, a brilliant though short-lived attempt to present Hungarian cultural values to the wider world. He translated the Hungarian historical play, Jozsef Katona's “Bank Ban”, into German and succeeded in persuading Max Bernhardt to produce it.

On his return to Hungary after the fall of the coalition regime, he founded the “Budapester Presse” (1911). Continuing to lend his support to the idea of universal suffrage, he backed by Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne. After his appointment as editor-in-chief of the semi-official “Pester Lloyd”, Veszi had to show his support of subsequent governments. He was one of the keenest supporters of the alliance with Germany, and during World War I advocated the policy of fighting to the last. Following the period of revolutions and counterrevolutions, he resigned himself to serve the regime of Regent Nicholas Horthy. He was made a member of the upper house of parliament, and represented Hungary in the Assembly of the League of Nations several times.

As a youth Veszi published some lyrical poetry, “A banat dalaibol” ("Songs of Sorrow"; 1879) and “Traviata” (1881). For several years he was president of the association of Budapest newspapermen and secular president of the Hungarian Jewish Literary Society (IMIT). He retired from the editorship of the “Pester Lloyd” in 1938.

Prior to World War I, Veszi was one of the last Jewish journalists to exercise a vital influence upon Hungarian affairs. Although he never adopted a clear-cut stand against the anti-Semitic counterrevolution, he was always active in Jewish affairs and was an honorary executive member of the Jewish community of Pest.
Kaufmann, Isidor
Kaufmann, Isidor (1853-1921), painter, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). He was a bank clerk who initally took up drawing as a hobby. His copy of a "Head of Moses", after a classical model, was noticed by a senior official of Arad county, and as a result he was sent to the Graphic School in Budapest. After studying there for one year, he became a pupil of the painter Joseph Matthäus Aigner at Vienna.

His first paintings were of historical subjects, but later he turned to Viennese genre and became successful. Kaufmann found his niche when he traveled around Galicia, Moravia and Upper Hungary in quest of types for his Jewish genre pictures. He achieved originality and strength only after discovering the shtetl. Emperor Franz Josef I bought "The Rabbi's Visit" and presented it to Vienna's Museum of Fine Art. His "The Sceptic" (1891) won him a gold medal in Vienna, and another from the German emperor. He was honored even by the Russian czar. After 1888 Kaufmann regularly exhibited at the Kuenstlerhaus of Vienna. He also received a gold medal in Munich, and a medal in Paris, France.

Kaufmann wanted to tell stories or illustrate subjects of everyday Jewish life. His small paintings have definite charm, and his numerous portraits were executed with taste and skill. At the same time, his pictures are of historical value, as they document the folkloristic aspects of the shtetl and the shtibl. With his sensitive brush, he sought to reproduce every nuance of the people and objects he portrayed. His pictures were purchased by the Lichtenstein Gallery and the City Museum, at Vienna, and by the Museum of Fine Arts, at Budapest. Some of the best known include "Sabbath Visit"; "Difficult Talmudic Passage"; "The Gate of the Rabbis"; "Yom Kippur"; "The Lost Lawsuit"; "The Chess Players"; "Business Secrets".
Gal, Gyula
Gal, Gyula (1865-1938), actor, born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). He started acting on provincial stages, but his talents were soon recognized by drama scouts for the national companies. The Comedy Theatre of Budapest, Hungary, engaged him in 1896 and five years later the National Theatre engaged his services.

Gal was particularly successful in tragic roles, distinguishing himself in classic parts such as King Lear, Shylock, Friar Lawrence, King Richard III, Othello, Hamlet, Henry IV, Helm (Nora), Kent, Menemus and others. He was also acclaimed for his performances in leading roles in plays by Ibsen, as well as in modern works mainly of Magyar origin, including "Ocskay brigaderos", "Becstelenek", and "Elnemult Harangok". Gal became a member of the faculty of the Academy of Theatre Arts, where, for three decades, he exerted a great influence upon a whole generation of young Hungarian actors and actresses. In 1927 a special event marked Gal's fortieth anniversary as an artist and the twenty-fifth anniversary of his career as teacher. Prior to that the National Theatre bestowed upon him the rare honor of life membership. In 1935, at the age of 70, he formally retired from the National Theatre while agreeing to appear from time to time in a number of revivals of dramas in which he had attained renown. Soon thereafter, however, he became seriously ill and never fully recuperated. Gal died in Budapest.

He was author of a number of plays, among them "A vezeklok", "A tunderforras", and "Jol jatszottam?"
Guttmann, Jakob
Guttmann, Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver born in Arad, Romania (then part of the Austrian Empire). The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course in 1833, he walked to Vienna, Austria, where he obtained a job and learned engraving. A year later he opened his own engraving shop and started to make a reputation for himself.

In 1837 Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with at the Academy's exhibition in 1841 together with busts of Metternich and the mythological figure of Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he awarded Guttmann an annual stipend which permitted him to continue his studies in Italy.

Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844). His monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour was made in 1847. In Italy he produced a striking bust of Pope Pius IX, which was reproduced and thousands of copies were distributed throughout Italy. The original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.

From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, Hungary; he then went to London for about two years. There he sold "Peasant at His Plow", one of his finest creations, but felt that the British did not sufficiently appreciate his talent so in 1853 he moved to Paris, France, where he produced outstanding statues of "Ceres, Faith Hope and Love", and "Dr. Peter Henrik Ling". Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest in 1857, he suffered a nervous collapse and was hospitalised at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.

Bibl: The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia 5/135;
Zsido Lexikon p' 327


ORIGINAL TEXT
Guttmann Jakob (1815-1858), sculptor and engraver. Born in Arad (then Hungary), later Romania. The son of poor parents, Jakob was apprenticed to a gunsmith at the age of thirteen. Upon completion of his course, he walked to Vienna (1833), where he obtained a job and learned also engraving. A year later he established his own engraving shop and through notable exhibits soon made friends among the nobility.
Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, awarded him a scholarship (1837-40) to the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a prize for his wax plaque of Joseph II. This was exhibited with distinction at the Academy's exposition (1841) together with busts of Metternich and the mythological Paris. In 1843 he made a bronze statue of Baron Solomon de Rothschild, who was so pleased that he gave Guttmann an annual stipend with which to continue his studies in Italy. Here upon commission by the Rothschilds of Naples, he executed a striking bust of Pope Pius IX (1850), which was reproduced and distributed in thousands of copies throughout Italy. Its original was subsequently acquired by the Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. Guttmann lived in Italy until 1850.
Best known among his early sculptures are his bronze busts of Saphir, the court jester, and Bauerle, the playwright (1844); his monumental representation, in marble and bronze, of Moses, Samson and Delilah, Genius, Psyche and Amour (1847). From 1850 to 1852 he lived and worked at Budapest, then went to London for about two years. There he sold Peasant at His Plow, one of his finest creations, but felt generally disillusioned about the cold reception accorded him at the British capital. He moved to Paris in 1853, where he wrought such outstanding examples as Ceres, Faith Hope and Love, and Dr. Peter Henrik Ling. Paris, however, proved to be his undoing, for he fell hopelessly in love with actress Rachel, whose failure to reciprocate made Guttmann despondent. Within a year after his return to Budapest, 1957, he suffered a nervous collapse, has been interned at the Dobling mental institute, where he passed away.
Hirschl, Moses
Hirschl, Moses (1790-c1860), philanthropist, born in Arad, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Romania). As an officer and judge of the Arad Jewish community, he donated 10,000 golden florins for the erection of a new synagogue and school. These buildings were inaugurated in 1830. Later Hirschl went to live in Vienna, Austria, where he was decorated by King Ferdinand V as a philanthropist who gave generously to both Jewish and non-Jewish poor. When the imperial commissioner Haynau levied an exorbitant tax on the Hungarian Jews because of their participation in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, Hirschl used his influence with the imperial court to alleviate the burden on the Arad and other Jewish communities. He also persuaded the government to contribute to the cost of the establishment of a Jewish junior high school in Arad.