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The Jewish Community of Frasin

Frasin

In German: Frassin

A town in the district of Suceava in the historical province of Bukovina, Romania

The region was part of Austria-Hungary until 1918.

The town was founded at the start of the 19th century. Most of the first settlers were German lumberjacks. The first Jews, most of whom were immigrants from Galicia and Podolia, reached Frasin in the middle of the 19th century. In 1890, 261 Jews lived in Frasin.

The Jews dealt mostly in trade and handicrafts. In 1916, out of the 31 merchants in Frasin, 30 were Jews. A small number of Jews were sawmill owners. One of the sawmill owners who produced planks for the citrus fruit boxes of the Pardes company in Israel, was the father of Prof. Chaim Sheba, founder of medical service of the Israel Defense Forces and the founder and first director of Tel Hashomer Hospital, now named Sheba Medical Center for him. The emissary who came from the company to supervise the manufacture of the boxes brought books about the history of Zionism with him; he founded a Zionist organization and encouraged Zionist activity in the village. The place also had two Jewish doctors.

The Jews of Frasin belonged to the Jewish community of Gura Humorului which provided  them with Jewish communal services. The village had two synagogues and a mikveh. Two heiderim gave the children a traditional education. Between the two world wars, a Jew served as a member of the village council.

In the 1930 census, 156 Jews were recorded and they were 7.3% of the total population.

 

The Holocaust

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December, 1937, led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September, 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania.  This government included the Iron Guard Party-a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.  This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.

In June, 1941, Romania joined in the war against the USSR. The Jews of the village were ordered to move within a few hours to the town of Gura Humorului. In the fall of 1941, the Jews of Frasin were deported to ghettos and concentration camps in Transnistria.  At the end of 1942, two Jews from among those sent to Transnistria were returned to Frasin by a timber company to work in the local sawmill. The opposition from local residents to the return of these two Jews was so adamant that the company had to post guards for them and finally were forced to transfer them to other places.

In 2002, among the 6,500 residents of Frasin, there was not one Jew.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
20676468
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Suceava

In German: Suczawa

A city in Suceava district, Bukovina, northern Romania. Formerly capital of Moldavia, from 1774 to the end of World War I was part of the Austrian Empire..

Jews lived there from the beginning of the 18th century. In 1774, there were 50 at the beginning of Austrian rule, there were 50 Jewish families (209 persons) living in the town. Although the Jews were oppressed by the Austrian authorities, their number increased as a result of immigration from Galicia and Russia. In 1782, 92 Jews were expelled from Suceava, the Austrian authorities claiming that they were unable to pay the taxes. Representatives of Suceava Jewry took an active part in the struggle of the Jews of Bukovina against the oppressions of the Austrian authorities. There were 160 Jewish families in Suceava in 1791, and 272, with the Jews in the vicinity, according to data of 1817. After 1848 their numbers increased rapidly, and the Jewish population numbered 3,750 (37.1%) in 1880; 6,787 in 1901; and 8,000 on the outbreak of World War I. With the advent of Romanian rule, many Jews moved to Chernovtsy and other places; there remained 3,496 in 1930.

The communal institutions included a Jewish school, opened in 1790. A large synagogue was renovated at the beginning of the 19th century. Jews also prayed in many Battei Midrash and a number of houses of prayer (Kloysen). Chasidic influence in the community was strong. Zionist activity had been initiated during the Chibbat Zion period, and an organization of Zionist students existed in Suceava before the first Zionist congress. A number of smaller Jewish communities were affiliated to the Suceava community until they became independent. Jews engaged in the trade of alcoholic liquor, wine, and beer. The cultural orientation was German. Jews played important roles in both municipal and national political life.

The local Jews were persecuted by the Nazi German and Romanian authorities between 1940 and 1941. When deported to Transnistria in 1941, they numbered 3,253. Only 27 remained in the town.

After World War II, when northern Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union, many Jews from Chernovtsy and other places in northern Bukovina who arrived in Suceava chose to remain there. Their numbers rose to 4,000, and community life was active during that period. The number of Jews subsequently declined as a result of emigration to Israel and other places. In 1971, there were still about 290 Jewish families in the town and Jewish life was maintained to a limited degree. Prayers were held in the central synagogue and a number of other places.

Bucșoaia

A village, today a municipal section of the town of Frasin in Suceava district in the historical region of Bucovina, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary.

The beginnings of the Jewish settlement in Bucșoaia are not known. The 1930 census recorded 11 Jews who constituted 0.8% of the total population in Bucșoaia.

Most of the village's Jews traded in wood, one Jew owned a sawmill and another Jew named Ettl Sharf owned a mill. Ella Binner and Strul (Israel) Haim Friedman owned a grocery store, and Nathan Tobak owned a pub. No community has been established in Bucsoaia. The Jews of the village belonged to the Jewish community in the town of Gura-Humorului which provided them with religious and community services. The Jews of Bucșoaia prayed in the synagogue of Frasin, then a village near Bucșoaia. A Jew of Bucșoaia served as the gabbay of the Great Synagogue in Frasin. The shochet of Frasin also served the Jews of Bucșoaia until the late 1930s, when a local shochet was appointed.

The Holocaust

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania. This government included the Iron Guard Party - a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.

After Romania joined the war against the USSR in June 1941, the Jews of Bucșoaia were evacuated to Gura Humorului. In the fall of 1941, they were deported to Transnistria together with the Jews of Gura Humoruloi.

Gura Humorului

In German: Gura Humora

A town in Suceava County in the historic region of Bukovina, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary.

Frescos with a tableau of the "day of judgment" painted between 1547 and 1550 depicting among others Turkish and Jewish figures are found in the Voronet monastery there. Jewish settlement began in Gura Humorului under Austrian rule in 1835, with five Jewish families (in a total population of 700). They increased to 20 by 1848 and formed an organized community. Prayers were first held in a private house. The first synagogue was erected in 1869, and the great synagogue in 1871. As in the other communities of Bukovina, the influence of Chasidism was strong. At first occupied as craftsmen, merchants, and purveyors to the Austrian army, Jews later established workshops for wood processing and lumber mills. At the close of the 19th century, they played an important role in the industrialization of the town. The community numbered 130 persons in 1856, 190 in 1867, 800 in 1869, 1,206 in 1890, 2,050 in 1910, and 1,951 in 1927.

After the town passed to Romania at the end of World War I, and throughout the period between the two World Wars, the authorities endeavored to restrict the Jews in their economic activities while there were also occasional anti-Semitic outbreaks. The Zionist movement, formed locally at the beginning of the 20th century, had a large following. Aliyah to Eretz Israel began during the 1930s. At the time of the persecutions by the Romanian fascists, 2,954 local Jews and others who had gathered there from the surrounding area were deported in a single day (October 10, 1941) to Transnistria, where most of them died. After the end of World War II, the survivors returned to the town; they were joined by other Jewish inhabitants of the region who returned from their places of deportation, and numbered 1,158 in 1948. Nearly all the Jews there immigrated to Israel between 1948 and 1951.

in 1997 only 10 Jews lived in Gura-Humorului, with a synagogue.

סטולפיקאן

Stulpicani

עיירה במחוז סוצ'יאווה בחבל בוקובינה, רומניה. עד 1918 האזור היה חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה.

רוב היהודים התפרנסו ממסחר זעיר. מעוטם היו בעלי מלאכה וביניהם נפח, מקצוע נדיר בין יהודי בוקובינה,  בונה כרכרות מעולה היה בעל מוניטין בכל הסביבה. שתי מנסרות היו בבעלות יהודית.

במקום לא התקיימה קהילה יהודית עצמאית ויהודי סטולפיקאן השתייכו לקהילה היהודית בגורה הומורולוי אשר סיפקה להם שירותים דתיים וקהילתיים. במקום פעלו שני בתי כנסת, אליהם הגיעו להתפלל גם יהודי הכפרים הסמוכים, מקווה טהרה ושוחט. 

במפקד האוכלוסין משנת 1930 נרשמו ב סטולפיקאן 151 יהודים אשר היוו 5.4% מכלל האוכלוסייה.

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם.

ביוני 1941 רומניה הצטרפה אל המלחמה נגד ברית המועצות. עם פרוץ המלחמה יהודי סטולפיקאן גורשו לעיירה גורה הומורולוי ומשם בסתיו 1941 אל הגטאות ומחנות הריכוז בטרנסניסטריה. רובם נספו.

ואמה

Vama

בגרמנית: Wama 

מועצה מקומית במחוז סוצ'יאווה בחבל בוקובינה, רומניה. עד שנת 1918 האזור היה חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה.

הנוכחות היהודית הראשונה בואמה מתועדת במפרד אוכלוסין שנערך בסוף המאה ה-18 לאחר שבוקובינה סופחה לאימפריה האוסטרית. בשנת 1784, ישראל ברל החוכר של בית המרזח, נקנס ע"י רשויות המס של הקיסרות האוסטרית. היהודים התחילו להתיישב בוואמה במחצית השנייה של המאה ה-19. בשנת 1890 נרשמו בוואמה 501 יהודים ובשנת 1910 התגוררו במקום 618 יהודים. במקום הוקמה קהילה יהודית מאורגנת אשאר הפעילה שני בתי כנסת, מקווה טהרה ובית קברות.

רוב היהודים עסקו במסחר, בנוסף היו מספר בעלי מנסרות וטחנות ושמונה בעלי מקצועות חופשיים, רופאים ועורכי דין. בשנת 1924 היו בואמה שלושה בעלי בתי מארזח: אהרון אלפר ALPER Aron, סבינה דרוקמן DRUCKMAN Sabina וחיים ויינינגר WEININGER Ch; שמונה סוחרים שונים: הינדה ויוסף אשכנזי, יוסל בורג, דוד ויוסף פלדשטיין, ראלי קיסמן, וולף שפר, אנצ'ל וחיים שלגל; שלושה בעלי איטליז, האחים פלדהמר ויואל גולדהגן. 

בין שתי מלחמות העולם פעלו בואמה סניף של ההסתדרות הציונית ושל תנועות נוער וכמו כן הוקמה חוות הכשרה חלוצית. יהודי אחד או שניים כיהנו מדי פעם כחברים במועצת העירייה.

במפקג האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בוואמה 392 יהודים אשר היוו 7.5% מכלל התושבים. וב- 1941, שנת הגירוש היו בה 42 יהודים (1%  מכלל האוכלוסייה).

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

ההסתה האנטישמית החריפה לאחר סיפוח צפון בוקובינה לברית המועצות ביוני 1940 בעקבות הסכם ריבנטרופ-מולוטוב מאוגוסט  1939 בין גרמניה הנאצית לברה"מ.

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם. ממשלה זאת איפשרה את הגברת הרדיפות נגד היהודים ולביטויי האיבה של האוכלוסייה המקומית. ב-18 בנובמבר אנשי "משמר הברזל" אילצו בכוח את היהודים לעוב את בתיהם תוך עד חמישה ימים. כל הרכוש, שכלל בתי צלאכה, אדמות חקלאיות, חנויות, בתים על תכולתם ועוד, נשדד או הועבר אל בעלות המדינה. רוב יהודי וואמה נאלצו לעבור תוך שעות ספורות לעיירה גורה-הומורולוי במרחק 19 ק"מ.

ביוני 1941 רומניה הצטרפה אל המלחמה נגד ברית המועצות. פליטי ואמה בגורה-הומורולוי יחד עם יהודי  המקום גורשו ב-13 באוקטובר 1941 לגטאות ומחנות הריכוז בטרנסניסטריה. באותה תקופה גורשו גם 42 היהודים האחרונים שנותרו בוואמה.

אחרי המלחמה פחות ממחצית המגורשים חזרו לכפר. בשנים 1944-1946, על פי רשומי הארגון היהודי האמריקאי "ג'וינט" אשר תמך בשורדי השואה, כ-150 יהודים בוואמה והסביבה הועברו אל ברה"מ. בשנת 1947 התגוררו בוואמה 160 יהודים. היהודיה האחרונה בוואמה, ברתה לרר Bertha Lehrer נפטרה בשנת 1984.

בתי הכנסת לא קיימים עוד, אחרון נהרב בשנות ה-1970. בבית הקברות, אשר הוקם בשנת 1874, יש מצבות החל מהמאה ה-19 עם כתובותבעברית, גרמנית ורומנית.

Băișești 

Formerly Baiașești, in German: Bajaszestie

Until 1918 the region was part of Austria-Hungary.

A village in the commune of Cornu Luncii in Suceava County in the historical region of Bucovina, Romania.

In 1924 there were three Jewish grocers: Volf Cohn, Avram Raicher, and Haim Raicher. In addition, there were two innkeepers: Osias Tennehaus and Golde Voghel, and on butcher, Iacob Raicher.  According to the census of 1930 there were 42 Jews in Baisesti that constituted 2.9% of the total population.

Capu Câmpului

In German: Kapukimpolui

A village in Suceava County in the historical region of Bukovina, Romania.

Until 1918 the region was part of Austria-Hungary.

There was no organized Jewish community in Capu Campului. The local Jews belonged to the Jewish community of Gura Humorului. In 1924 there were three Jewish merchants in Capu Campului: the innkeeper Simon Kissman and two retail traders - Reeli Kissman and Leizer Lanzet.

The census of 1930 recorded 23 Jews in Capu Campului, 1.4% of the total population.

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania. This government included the Iron Guard Party - a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.  

In the fall of 1941 the Jews of Capu Campului were deported to the ghettoes and concentration camps of Transnistria, of them at least 7 people perished.

Capu Codrului

In German: Kapukodrolui

A village in Suceava County in the historical region of Bukovina, Romania.

Until 1918 the region was part of Austria-Hungary.

There was no organized Jewish community in Capu Codrului. The local Jews belonged to the Jewish community of Gura Humorului. In 1924 there were six Jewish business persons in Capu Codrului: three millers – Iosif Fuchs, Klara Kissman, and Iacob Kissman; two innkeeprs – David Heller and Schaie Zinn, and one grocer – Moses Safir.

The census of 1930 recorded 51 Jews in Capu Codrului that constituted 2.5% of the total population.

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania. This government included the Iron Guard Party - a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.     

In the fall of 1941 the Jews of Capu Codrului were deported to the ghettoes and concentration camps of Transnistria.

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The Jewish Community of Frasin

Frasin

In German: Frassin

A town in the district of Suceava in the historical province of Bukovina, Romania

The region was part of Austria-Hungary until 1918.

The town was founded at the start of the 19th century. Most of the first settlers were German lumberjacks. The first Jews, most of whom were immigrants from Galicia and Podolia, reached Frasin in the middle of the 19th century. In 1890, 261 Jews lived in Frasin.

The Jews dealt mostly in trade and handicrafts. In 1916, out of the 31 merchants in Frasin, 30 were Jews. A small number of Jews were sawmill owners. One of the sawmill owners who produced planks for the citrus fruit boxes of the Pardes company in Israel, was the father of Prof. Chaim Sheba, founder of medical service of the Israel Defense Forces and the founder and first director of Tel Hashomer Hospital, now named Sheba Medical Center for him. The emissary who came from the company to supervise the manufacture of the boxes brought books about the history of Zionism with him; he founded a Zionist organization and encouraged Zionist activity in the village. The place also had two Jewish doctors.

The Jews of Frasin belonged to the Jewish community of Gura Humorului which provided  them with Jewish communal services. The village had two synagogues and a mikveh. Two heiderim gave the children a traditional education. Between the two world wars, a Jew served as a member of the village council.

In the 1930 census, 156 Jews were recorded and they were 7.3% of the total population.

 

The Holocaust

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December, 1937, led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September, 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania.  This government included the Iron Guard Party-a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.  This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.

In June, 1941, Romania joined in the war against the USSR. The Jews of the village were ordered to move within a few hours to the town of Gura Humorului. In the fall of 1941, the Jews of Frasin were deported to ghettos and concentration camps in Transnistria.  At the end of 1942, two Jews from among those sent to Transnistria were returned to Frasin by a timber company to work in the local sawmill. The opposition from local residents to the return of these two Jews was so adamant that the company had to post guards for them and finally were forced to transfer them to other places.

In 2002, among the 6,500 residents of Frasin, there was not one Jew.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Capu Codrului
Capu Campului
Baisesti 
Vama
Stulpicani
Gura Humorului
Bucsoaia
Suceava
Romania

Capu Codrului

In German: Kapukodrolui

A village in Suceava County in the historical region of Bukovina, Romania.

Until 1918 the region was part of Austria-Hungary.

There was no organized Jewish community in Capu Codrului. The local Jews belonged to the Jewish community of Gura Humorului. In 1924 there were six Jewish business persons in Capu Codrului: three millers – Iosif Fuchs, Klara Kissman, and Iacob Kissman; two innkeeprs – David Heller and Schaie Zinn, and one grocer – Moses Safir.

The census of 1930 recorded 51 Jews in Capu Codrului that constituted 2.5% of the total population.

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania. This government included the Iron Guard Party - a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.     

In the fall of 1941 the Jews of Capu Codrului were deported to the ghettoes and concentration camps of Transnistria.

Capu Câmpului

In German: Kapukimpolui

A village in Suceava County in the historical region of Bukovina, Romania.

Until 1918 the region was part of Austria-Hungary.

There was no organized Jewish community in Capu Campului. The local Jews belonged to the Jewish community of Gura Humorului. In 1924 there were three Jewish merchants in Capu Campului: the innkeeper Simon Kissman and two retail traders - Reeli Kissman and Leizer Lanzet.

The census of 1930 recorded 23 Jews in Capu Campului, 1.4% of the total population.

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania. This government included the Iron Guard Party - a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.  

In the fall of 1941 the Jews of Capu Campului were deported to the ghettoes and concentration camps of Transnistria, of them at least 7 people perished.

Băișești 

Formerly Baiașești, in German: Bajaszestie

Until 1918 the region was part of Austria-Hungary.

A village in the commune of Cornu Luncii in Suceava County in the historical region of Bucovina, Romania.

In 1924 there were three Jewish grocers: Volf Cohn, Avram Raicher, and Haim Raicher. In addition, there were two innkeepers: Osias Tennehaus and Golde Voghel, and on butcher, Iacob Raicher.  According to the census of 1930 there were 42 Jews in Baisesti that constituted 2.9% of the total population.

ואמה

Vama

בגרמנית: Wama 

מועצה מקומית במחוז סוצ'יאווה בחבל בוקובינה, רומניה. עד שנת 1918 האזור היה חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה.

הנוכחות היהודית הראשונה בואמה מתועדת במפרד אוכלוסין שנערך בסוף המאה ה-18 לאחר שבוקובינה סופחה לאימפריה האוסטרית. בשנת 1784, ישראל ברל החוכר של בית המרזח, נקנס ע"י רשויות המס של הקיסרות האוסטרית. היהודים התחילו להתיישב בוואמה במחצית השנייה של המאה ה-19. בשנת 1890 נרשמו בוואמה 501 יהודים ובשנת 1910 התגוררו במקום 618 יהודים. במקום הוקמה קהילה יהודית מאורגנת אשאר הפעילה שני בתי כנסת, מקווה טהרה ובית קברות.

רוב היהודים עסקו במסחר, בנוסף היו מספר בעלי מנסרות וטחנות ושמונה בעלי מקצועות חופשיים, רופאים ועורכי דין. בשנת 1924 היו בואמה שלושה בעלי בתי מארזח: אהרון אלפר ALPER Aron, סבינה דרוקמן DRUCKMAN Sabina וחיים ויינינגר WEININGER Ch; שמונה סוחרים שונים: הינדה ויוסף אשכנזי, יוסל בורג, דוד ויוסף פלדשטיין, ראלי קיסמן, וולף שפר, אנצ'ל וחיים שלגל; שלושה בעלי איטליז, האחים פלדהמר ויואל גולדהגן. 

בין שתי מלחמות העולם פעלו בואמה סניף של ההסתדרות הציונית ושל תנועות נוער וכמו כן הוקמה חוות הכשרה חלוצית. יהודי אחד או שניים כיהנו מדי פעם כחברים במועצת העירייה.

במפקג האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בוואמה 392 יהודים אשר היוו 7.5% מכלל התושבים. וב- 1941, שנת הגירוש היו בה 42 יהודים (1%  מכלל האוכלוסייה).

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

ההסתה האנטישמית החריפה לאחר סיפוח צפון בוקובינה לברית המועצות ביוני 1940 בעקבות הסכם ריבנטרופ-מולוטוב מאוגוסט  1939 בין גרמניה הנאצית לברה"מ.

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם. ממשלה זאת איפשרה את הגברת הרדיפות נגד היהודים ולביטויי האיבה של האוכלוסייה המקומית. ב-18 בנובמבר אנשי "משמר הברזל" אילצו בכוח את היהודים לעוב את בתיהם תוך עד חמישה ימים. כל הרכוש, שכלל בתי צלאכה, אדמות חקלאיות, חנויות, בתים על תכולתם ועוד, נשדד או הועבר אל בעלות המדינה. רוב יהודי וואמה נאלצו לעבור תוך שעות ספורות לעיירה גורה-הומורולוי במרחק 19 ק"מ.

ביוני 1941 רומניה הצטרפה אל המלחמה נגד ברית המועצות. פליטי ואמה בגורה-הומורולוי יחד עם יהודי  המקום גורשו ב-13 באוקטובר 1941 לגטאות ומחנות הריכוז בטרנסניסטריה. באותה תקופה גורשו גם 42 היהודים האחרונים שנותרו בוואמה.

אחרי המלחמה פחות ממחצית המגורשים חזרו לכפר. בשנים 1944-1946, על פי רשומי הארגון היהודי האמריקאי "ג'וינט" אשר תמך בשורדי השואה, כ-150 יהודים בוואמה והסביבה הועברו אל ברה"מ. בשנת 1947 התגוררו בוואמה 160 יהודים. היהודיה האחרונה בוואמה, ברתה לרר Bertha Lehrer נפטרה בשנת 1984.

בתי הכנסת לא קיימים עוד, אחרון נהרב בשנות ה-1970. בבית הקברות, אשר הוקם בשנת 1874, יש מצבות החל מהמאה ה-19 עם כתובותבעברית, גרמנית ורומנית.

סטולפיקאן

Stulpicani

עיירה במחוז סוצ'יאווה בחבל בוקובינה, רומניה. עד 1918 האזור היה חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה.

רוב היהודים התפרנסו ממסחר זעיר. מעוטם היו בעלי מלאכה וביניהם נפח, מקצוע נדיר בין יהודי בוקובינה,  בונה כרכרות מעולה היה בעל מוניטין בכל הסביבה. שתי מנסרות היו בבעלות יהודית.

במקום לא התקיימה קהילה יהודית עצמאית ויהודי סטולפיקאן השתייכו לקהילה היהודית בגורה הומורולוי אשר סיפקה להם שירותים דתיים וקהילתיים. במקום פעלו שני בתי כנסת, אליהם הגיעו להתפלל גם יהודי הכפרים הסמוכים, מקווה טהרה ושוחט. 

במפקד האוכלוסין משנת 1930 נרשמו ב סטולפיקאן 151 יהודים אשר היוו 5.4% מכלל האוכלוסייה.

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם.

ביוני 1941 רומניה הצטרפה אל המלחמה נגד ברית המועצות. עם פרוץ המלחמה יהודי סטולפיקאן גורשו לעיירה גורה הומורולוי ומשם בסתיו 1941 אל הגטאות ומחנות הריכוז בטרנסניסטריה. רובם נספו.

Gura Humorului

In German: Gura Humora

A town in Suceava County in the historic region of Bukovina, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary.

Frescos with a tableau of the "day of judgment" painted between 1547 and 1550 depicting among others Turkish and Jewish figures are found in the Voronet monastery there. Jewish settlement began in Gura Humorului under Austrian rule in 1835, with five Jewish families (in a total population of 700). They increased to 20 by 1848 and formed an organized community. Prayers were first held in a private house. The first synagogue was erected in 1869, and the great synagogue in 1871. As in the other communities of Bukovina, the influence of Chasidism was strong. At first occupied as craftsmen, merchants, and purveyors to the Austrian army, Jews later established workshops for wood processing and lumber mills. At the close of the 19th century, they played an important role in the industrialization of the town. The community numbered 130 persons in 1856, 190 in 1867, 800 in 1869, 1,206 in 1890, 2,050 in 1910, and 1,951 in 1927.

After the town passed to Romania at the end of World War I, and throughout the period between the two World Wars, the authorities endeavored to restrict the Jews in their economic activities while there were also occasional anti-Semitic outbreaks. The Zionist movement, formed locally at the beginning of the 20th century, had a large following. Aliyah to Eretz Israel began during the 1930s. At the time of the persecutions by the Romanian fascists, 2,954 local Jews and others who had gathered there from the surrounding area were deported in a single day (October 10, 1941) to Transnistria, where most of them died. After the end of World War II, the survivors returned to the town; they were joined by other Jewish inhabitants of the region who returned from their places of deportation, and numbered 1,158 in 1948. Nearly all the Jews there immigrated to Israel between 1948 and 1951.

in 1997 only 10 Jews lived in Gura-Humorului, with a synagogue.

Bucșoaia

A village, today a municipal section of the town of Frasin in Suceava district in the historical region of Bucovina, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary.

The beginnings of the Jewish settlement in Bucșoaia are not known. The 1930 census recorded 11 Jews who constituted 0.8% of the total population in Bucșoaia.

Most of the village's Jews traded in wood, one Jew owned a sawmill and another Jew named Ettl Sharf owned a mill. Ella Binner and Strul (Israel) Haim Friedman owned a grocery store, and Nathan Tobak owned a pub. No community has been established in Bucsoaia. The Jews of the village belonged to the Jewish community in the town of Gura-Humorului which provided them with religious and community services. The Jews of Bucșoaia prayed in the synagogue of Frasin, then a village near Bucșoaia. A Jew of Bucșoaia served as the gabbay of the Great Synagogue in Frasin. The shochet of Frasin also served the Jews of Bucșoaia until the late 1930s, when a local shochet was appointed.

The Holocaust

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania. This government included the Iron Guard Party - a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.

After Romania joined the war against the USSR in June 1941, the Jews of Bucșoaia were evacuated to Gura Humorului. In the fall of 1941, they were deported to Transnistria together with the Jews of Gura Humoruloi.

Suceava

In German: Suczawa

A city in Suceava district, Bukovina, northern Romania. Formerly capital of Moldavia, from 1774 to the end of World War I was part of the Austrian Empire..

Jews lived there from the beginning of the 18th century. In 1774, there were 50 at the beginning of Austrian rule, there were 50 Jewish families (209 persons) living in the town. Although the Jews were oppressed by the Austrian authorities, their number increased as a result of immigration from Galicia and Russia. In 1782, 92 Jews were expelled from Suceava, the Austrian authorities claiming that they were unable to pay the taxes. Representatives of Suceava Jewry took an active part in the struggle of the Jews of Bukovina against the oppressions of the Austrian authorities. There were 160 Jewish families in Suceava in 1791, and 272, with the Jews in the vicinity, according to data of 1817. After 1848 their numbers increased rapidly, and the Jewish population numbered 3,750 (37.1%) in 1880; 6,787 in 1901; and 8,000 on the outbreak of World War I. With the advent of Romanian rule, many Jews moved to Chernovtsy and other places; there remained 3,496 in 1930.

The communal institutions included a Jewish school, opened in 1790. A large synagogue was renovated at the beginning of the 19th century. Jews also prayed in many Battei Midrash and a number of houses of prayer (Kloysen). Chasidic influence in the community was strong. Zionist activity had been initiated during the Chibbat Zion period, and an organization of Zionist students existed in Suceava before the first Zionist congress. A number of smaller Jewish communities were affiliated to the Suceava community until they became independent. Jews engaged in the trade of alcoholic liquor, wine, and beer. The cultural orientation was German. Jews played important roles in both municipal and national political life.

The local Jews were persecuted by the Nazi German and Romanian authorities between 1940 and 1941. When deported to Transnistria in 1941, they numbered 3,253. Only 27 remained in the town.

After World War II, when northern Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union, many Jews from Chernovtsy and other places in northern Bukovina who arrived in Suceava chose to remain there. Their numbers rose to 4,000, and community life was active during that period. The number of Jews subsequently declined as a result of emigration to Israel and other places. In 1971, there were still about 290 Jewish families in the town and Jewish life was maintained to a limited degree. Prayers were held in the central synagogue and a number of other places.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro