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The Jewish Community of Kostyntsi

קוסטינץ

Костинці / Kostyntsi ; ידועה גם בשם Костинецька / Kostinetska; ברומנית: Costești; בגרמנית: Kostestie

כפר במחוז צ'רניבץ (צ'רנוביץ) חבל בוקובינה, אוקראינה. עד 1918 האזור היה חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה, בין שתי מלחמות העולם במחוז סטורוז'ינץ, רומניה.

תחילתה של ההתיישבות היהודית במקום הייתה בסוף המאה ה-19. רוב היהודים התפרנסו מסחר בפירות, מחקלאות ומגידול בהמות. יהודי קוסטשט היו מסופחים לקהילה היה ודית בשטאנשט (Stanesti) אשר סיפקה להם את השירותים הדתיים והקהילתיים. בקוסטשט פעלו שלשה בתי כנסת בנויים מלבנים, מקווה טהרה ושלשה "חדרים" לחינוך הילדים. הפעילות הציונית היחידה במקום היתה של מפלגת "מזרחי" ותנועת הנוער "בני עקיבא". במועצת הכפר כיהנו שלשה נציגים יהודים.

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בכפר 274 יהודים אשר היוו 12.09% מכלל התושבים.

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

בעקבות הסכם ריבנטרופ-מולוטוב מאוגוסט 1939 בין גרמניה הנאצית לברה"מ, אזור צפון בוקובינה, ובכלל זה גם הכפר קוסטשט, סופח לברה"מ ב-28 ביוני 1940. לאחר כניסת השלטונות הסובייטים למקום, נעצרו כמה יהודים וגורשו לסיביר.

ביוני 1941 רומניה הצטרפה אל המלחמה נגד ברית המועצות. יחידה של הצבא הרומני חזרה לכפר, כלאה את כל היהודים לשלשה ימים ולא סיפקה להם אוכל ומים. הם הוסגרו על ידי תושבי הכפר ליחידה צבאית אחרת שעברה בכביש, הובלו על ידה לשדה פתוח, בקרבת ביתו של הכפרי הונצ'רוק ((Honceruk ושם נורו למוות לפחות 360 עד 420 יהודים. רק בודדים הצליחו להמלט. אחד הניצולים שחזר לדירתו נהרג באבנים ובמקלות על ידי תושבי הכפר האוקראינים, שעסקו בשוד הרכוש היהודי. יהודי קוסטשט שנמצאו ביום הטבח מחוץ לכפרם גורשו באוקטובר 1941 לטרנסניסטריה שם נספו כולם.

Place Type:
Village
ID Number:
20676454
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

Ukraine

Україна / Ukrayina

A country in eastern Europe, until 1991 part of the Soviet Union.

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 50,000 out of 42,000,000 (0.1%). Main Jewish organizations:

Єврейська Конфедерація України - Jewish Confederation of Ukraine
Phone: 044 584 49 53
Email: jcu.org.ua@gmail.com
Website: http://jcu.org.ua/en

Ваад (Ассоциация еврейских организаций и общин) Украины (VAAD – Asssociation of Jewish Organizations & Communities of Ukraine)
Voloska St, 8/5
Kyiv, Kyivs’ka
Ukraine 04070
Phone/Fax: 38 (044) 248-36-70, 38 (044) 425-97-57/-58/-59/-60
Email: vaadua.office@gmail.com
Website: http://www.vaadua.org/

Chernivtsi

In Ukrainian: Чернівці / Chernivtsi; in Russian: Chernovtsy; In Romanian: Cernauti, In German and in Jewish sources: Czernowitz צ'רנוביץ
A city in Ukraine. Between the two World Wars in Romania.

Chernovtsy, then Cernauti, was the capital of Bukovina. The area was under Austrian rule in the years 1775-1918.

Both Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews are mentioned in Chernovtsy from 1408. Later the Chernovtsy community assumed a distinctly Ashkenazi character, with Yiddish as the spoken language. The second half of the 17th century brought Jewish immigrants and culture from Poland. The Russian-Turkish wars (1766-74) caused severe hardship and the Jews had to leave Chernovtsy for a time. After the area came under Austrian rule in 1775 the Austrian military regime immediately began a policy of discrimination with the avowed aim of "clearing" Bukovina of Jews.

Nevertheless, a number of Jews from Galicia immigrated to Bukovina in this period, and many settled in Chernovtsy. Despite the restrictions still in force the Jews there acquired real property and engaged in large-scale commercial transactions. In 1812, during the Napoleonic wars, Jewish goods and property were plundered by the Russian army.

Tension arose within the community between the Chasidim and Maskilim at the beginning of the 19th century, and later intensified. Cultural life developed after 1848, along with trends toward assimilation and the penetration of Haskalah attitudes to wider circles. The foundation of a university there in 1875 attracted Jewish students throughout Bukovina and had a stimulating and diversifying influence on the social and cultural life of the community.

From the end of the 19th century student organizations played an important part in the Zionist movement in Chernovtsy.

In 1872 the community split into independent orthodox and reform sections. A reform temple opened in 1877 was destroyed by the Nazis in 1944. Zionism made headway in the city despite opposition from the assimilationist and orthodox elements. Jews also took an active part in public affairs. As early as 1897 one of the Jewish leaders, Benno Straucher, was returned to the Austrian parliament as representative for Czernowitz (1897-1914).

During World War I, when the city passed from hand to hand between the Russians and the Austrians, the community suffered great hardship, and many left the city. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918 the soldiers of the Romanian army who entered Chernovtsy behaved brutally toward the Jews and started a wave of persecution. After incorporation of the city into Romania and with the institution of the civil government, the situation of the Jews improved. One of the prominent personalities of Chernovtsy Jewry in general was the Zionist leader Meir Ebner, editor of a German-language newspaper there. Other outstanding personalities who represented the Jews in the Romanian parliament were the historian Manfred Reifer, and the socialist leader Jacob Pistiner. The community numbered 43,701 in 1919 (47.4% of the total population). Hebrew works were printed in Chernovtsy for over a century, from 1835 to 1939, and nearly 340 items were issued by nine publishers and printers. Of these the most important was the house of Eckhardt where, with the help of Jewish experts, there were printed a complete Babylonian Talmud, a bible with standard commentaries, the Mishnah with commentaries, and other important rabbinic Kabbalistic-Chasidic works.

The Holocaust Period
In 1941 the Jewish population numbered 50,000, due to the influx of Jews from the smaller towns and villages in Bukovina.

On the night of June 30, 1941, the Soviet army vacated Chernovtsy and gangs broke into Jewish homes, looting and burning them. On July 5, the first units of the German and Romanian armies entered the town, accompanied by Einsatzkommando 10B, which was a section of Einsatzgruppe D. This unit fulfilled its task of inciting the Romanians against the Jews; on the pretext that the Jews were plotting against the government, they murdered the Jewish Intelligentsia, among them the chief rabbi of Bukovina, Abraham Mark, the chief cantor, and leaders of the community.

On July 30, when the anti-Jewish measures introduced by Antonescu's government went into effect, hostages were taken and Jews were compelled to do forced labor and to wear the yellow badge. The authorities permitted Jews to be seen on hunted down in the streets and houses. On October 11 the Jews were concentrated in a ghetto, their property was confiscated, and deportations to Transnistria began. On October 14, 1941, the chairman of the union of Jewish communities, Wilhelm Filderman, obtained a cessation of deportations, but the decision was carried out only a month later, and by November 15, 1941, about 30,000 Jews had been deported. The mayor of Chernovtsy, Traian Popovici, also attempted to stop deportations, issuing about 4,000 certificates of exemption from deportation, but the officials of the municipality, the police and the gendarmerie extorted enormous sums of money in return for these exemptions. Many Jews were deported even after they paid the ransom. After a short break, deportations were resumed and about 4,000 Jews were deported in three waves between June 17 and 27, 1942. Some of the deportees were taken to camps east of the Bug river (an area occupied by the Germans) where children up to the age of 15, old people, invalids, women, and those unfit for work were systematically murdered. About 60% of the deportees from Chernovtsy to Transnistria perished there. Most survivors who returned did not resettle in Chernovtsy, which had in the meantime been annexed to the Ukrainian republic in the Soviet Union, but went to Romania and from there to Eretz Israel.

In the 1950's the government closed five of the six synagogues and all of the Torah scrolls were placed in a museum. One of the synagogues was made into a sports center and another into a movie theater. The other synagogues became workshops and warehouses. One small synagogue still remains for 50-60 worshippers. In 1970, the Jewish population in Chernovtsy numbered 70,000.

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The Jewish Community of Kostyntsi

קוסטינץ

Костинці / Kostyntsi ; ידועה גם בשם Костинецька / Kostinetska; ברומנית: Costești; בגרמנית: Kostestie

כפר במחוז צ'רניבץ (צ'רנוביץ) חבל בוקובינה, אוקראינה. עד 1918 האזור היה חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה, בין שתי מלחמות העולם במחוז סטורוז'ינץ, רומניה.

תחילתה של ההתיישבות היהודית במקום הייתה בסוף המאה ה-19. רוב היהודים התפרנסו מסחר בפירות, מחקלאות ומגידול בהמות. יהודי קוסטשט היו מסופחים לקהילה היה ודית בשטאנשט (Stanesti) אשר סיפקה להם את השירותים הדתיים והקהילתיים. בקוסטשט פעלו שלשה בתי כנסת בנויים מלבנים, מקווה טהרה ושלשה "חדרים" לחינוך הילדים. הפעילות הציונית היחידה במקום היתה של מפלגת "מזרחי" ותנועת הנוער "בני עקיבא". במועצת הכפר כיהנו שלשה נציגים יהודים.

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בכפר 274 יהודים אשר היוו 12.09% מכלל התושבים.

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה.

בעקבות הסכם ריבנטרופ-מולוטוב מאוגוסט 1939 בין גרמניה הנאצית לברה"מ, אזור צפון בוקובינה, ובכלל זה גם הכפר קוסטשט, סופח לברה"מ ב-28 ביוני 1940. לאחר כניסת השלטונות הסובייטים למקום, נעצרו כמה יהודים וגורשו לסיביר.

ביוני 1941 רומניה הצטרפה אל המלחמה נגד ברית המועצות. יחידה של הצבא הרומני חזרה לכפר, כלאה את כל היהודים לשלשה ימים ולא סיפקה להם אוכל ומים. הם הוסגרו על ידי תושבי הכפר ליחידה צבאית אחרת שעברה בכביש, הובלו על ידה לשדה פתוח, בקרבת ביתו של הכפרי הונצ'רוק ((Honceruk ושם נורו למוות לפחות 360 עד 420 יהודים. רק בודדים הצליחו להמלט. אחד הניצולים שחזר לדירתו נהרג באבנים ובמקלות על ידי תושבי הכפר האוקראינים, שעסקו בשוד הרכוש היהודי. יהודי קוסטשט שנמצאו ביום הטבח מחוץ לכפרם גורשו באוקטובר 1941 לטרנסניסטריה שם נספו כולם.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Chernivtsi
Ukraine

Chernivtsi

In Ukrainian: Чернівці / Chernivtsi; in Russian: Chernovtsy; In Romanian: Cernauti, In German and in Jewish sources: Czernowitz צ'רנוביץ
A city in Ukraine. Between the two World Wars in Romania.

Chernovtsy, then Cernauti, was the capital of Bukovina. The area was under Austrian rule in the years 1775-1918.

Both Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews are mentioned in Chernovtsy from 1408. Later the Chernovtsy community assumed a distinctly Ashkenazi character, with Yiddish as the spoken language. The second half of the 17th century brought Jewish immigrants and culture from Poland. The Russian-Turkish wars (1766-74) caused severe hardship and the Jews had to leave Chernovtsy for a time. After the area came under Austrian rule in 1775 the Austrian military regime immediately began a policy of discrimination with the avowed aim of "clearing" Bukovina of Jews.

Nevertheless, a number of Jews from Galicia immigrated to Bukovina in this period, and many settled in Chernovtsy. Despite the restrictions still in force the Jews there acquired real property and engaged in large-scale commercial transactions. In 1812, during the Napoleonic wars, Jewish goods and property were plundered by the Russian army.

Tension arose within the community between the Chasidim and Maskilim at the beginning of the 19th century, and later intensified. Cultural life developed after 1848, along with trends toward assimilation and the penetration of Haskalah attitudes to wider circles. The foundation of a university there in 1875 attracted Jewish students throughout Bukovina and had a stimulating and diversifying influence on the social and cultural life of the community.

From the end of the 19th century student organizations played an important part in the Zionist movement in Chernovtsy.

In 1872 the community split into independent orthodox and reform sections. A reform temple opened in 1877 was destroyed by the Nazis in 1944. Zionism made headway in the city despite opposition from the assimilationist and orthodox elements. Jews also took an active part in public affairs. As early as 1897 one of the Jewish leaders, Benno Straucher, was returned to the Austrian parliament as representative for Czernowitz (1897-1914).

During World War I, when the city passed from hand to hand between the Russians and the Austrians, the community suffered great hardship, and many left the city. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918 the soldiers of the Romanian army who entered Chernovtsy behaved brutally toward the Jews and started a wave of persecution. After incorporation of the city into Romania and with the institution of the civil government, the situation of the Jews improved. One of the prominent personalities of Chernovtsy Jewry in general was the Zionist leader Meir Ebner, editor of a German-language newspaper there. Other outstanding personalities who represented the Jews in the Romanian parliament were the historian Manfred Reifer, and the socialist leader Jacob Pistiner. The community numbered 43,701 in 1919 (47.4% of the total population). Hebrew works were printed in Chernovtsy for over a century, from 1835 to 1939, and nearly 340 items were issued by nine publishers and printers. Of these the most important was the house of Eckhardt where, with the help of Jewish experts, there were printed a complete Babylonian Talmud, a bible with standard commentaries, the Mishnah with commentaries, and other important rabbinic Kabbalistic-Chasidic works.

The Holocaust Period
In 1941 the Jewish population numbered 50,000, due to the influx of Jews from the smaller towns and villages in Bukovina.

On the night of June 30, 1941, the Soviet army vacated Chernovtsy and gangs broke into Jewish homes, looting and burning them. On July 5, the first units of the German and Romanian armies entered the town, accompanied by Einsatzkommando 10B, which was a section of Einsatzgruppe D. This unit fulfilled its task of inciting the Romanians against the Jews; on the pretext that the Jews were plotting against the government, they murdered the Jewish Intelligentsia, among them the chief rabbi of Bukovina, Abraham Mark, the chief cantor, and leaders of the community.

On July 30, when the anti-Jewish measures introduced by Antonescu's government went into effect, hostages were taken and Jews were compelled to do forced labor and to wear the yellow badge. The authorities permitted Jews to be seen on hunted down in the streets and houses. On October 11 the Jews were concentrated in a ghetto, their property was confiscated, and deportations to Transnistria began. On October 14, 1941, the chairman of the union of Jewish communities, Wilhelm Filderman, obtained a cessation of deportations, but the decision was carried out only a month later, and by November 15, 1941, about 30,000 Jews had been deported. The mayor of Chernovtsy, Traian Popovici, also attempted to stop deportations, issuing about 4,000 certificates of exemption from deportation, but the officials of the municipality, the police and the gendarmerie extorted enormous sums of money in return for these exemptions. Many Jews were deported even after they paid the ransom. After a short break, deportations were resumed and about 4,000 Jews were deported in three waves between June 17 and 27, 1942. Some of the deportees were taken to camps east of the Bug river (an area occupied by the Germans) where children up to the age of 15, old people, invalids, women, and those unfit for work were systematically murdered. About 60% of the deportees from Chernovtsy to Transnistria perished there. Most survivors who returned did not resettle in Chernovtsy, which had in the meantime been annexed to the Ukrainian republic in the Soviet Union, but went to Romania and from there to Eretz Israel.

In the 1950's the government closed five of the six synagogues and all of the Torah scrolls were placed in a museum. One of the synagogues was made into a sports center and another into a movie theater. The other synagogues became workshops and warehouses. One small synagogue still remains for 50-60 worshippers. In 1970, the Jewish population in Chernovtsy numbered 70,000.

Ukraine

Україна / Ukrayina

A country in eastern Europe, until 1991 part of the Soviet Union.

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 50,000 out of 42,000,000 (0.1%). Main Jewish organizations:

Єврейська Конфедерація України - Jewish Confederation of Ukraine
Phone: 044 584 49 53
Email: jcu.org.ua@gmail.com
Website: http://jcu.org.ua/en

Ваад (Ассоциация еврейских организаций и общин) Украины (VAAD – Asssociation of Jewish Organizations & Communities of Ukraine)
Voloska St, 8/5
Kyiv, Kyivs’ka
Ukraine 04070
Phone/Fax: 38 (044) 248-36-70, 38 (044) 425-97-57/-58/-59/-60
Email: vaadua.office@gmail.com
Website: http://www.vaadua.org/