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The Jewish Community of Breaza (Suceava)

Breaza

A village in the Suceava district in the historical province of Bukovina, Romania. The region was part of Austria-Hungary until the end of WWI.

The village is situated in a mountainous region and its sparse population was multi-national. Its Christian residents were Romanians, Poles, Ukrainians, and Germans who made a living from raising cattle and later on also from trade.

The Jewish settlement in the area started in the second half of the 19th century/ The Jews maintained good relations with the local population until the 1930s.

Trade was the main occupation of the Jews of the village. In the years prior to WWI, out of the 23 merchants in the village, 18 were Jews. Also, Jews owned the sawmill and the dairy. A few were small land-holders who worked the land with the help of hired day laborers. There were also some doctors.

The Jews of Breaza were part of the Jewish community in Campulung which provided the religious and community services. Breaza had a prayer house and a Talmud Torah.

Between the two world wars a branch of the Zionist Federation was active there and fund raising for the national funds was conducted. There were a number of Jewish representatives on the village council.

In the population census of 1930, 140 Jews were registered - they constituted 5.5% of the residents.

 

The Holocaust

The rise to power of the Coga-Cuza government in December, 1937, led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September, 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania.  This government included the Iron Guard Party—a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.  This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.

All Jewish property was confiscated and some Jews were expelled to the Targu-Jiu camp in south-west Romania. The rest of the Jews of the village, after being robbed of their property and subjected to abuse by the local Iron Guards, were expelled on the eve of Rosh Hashana, 1940, to the regional city of Campulung. Together with other Jews from neighboring villages, they were put in a ghetto made up of synagogues.

In June, 1941, Romania joined the war against the Soviet Union. In the fall of 1941, the Jews of Breaza were expelled to Transnistria. They reached Mogilev and from there were forced to continue on foot to Shargorod. Whoever couldn't keep up the pace of the march was shot on the spot. The Jews of Breaza who were held in the Targu-Jiu camp were also expelled to the Vapniarka camp in Transnistria in the summer of 1941.

At the end of the war only 20 of the Jews expelled from Breaza survived and no one returned to the village.

Place Type:
Village
ID Number:
20673593
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

Suceava

In German: Suczawa

A city in Suceava district, Bukovina, northern Romania. Formerly capital of Moldavia, from 1774 to the end of World War I was part of the Austrian Empire..

Jews lived there from the beginning of the 18th century. In 1774, there were 50 at the beginning of Austrian rule, there were 50 Jewish families (209 persons) living in the town. Although the Jews were oppressed by the Austrian authorities, their number increased as a result of immigration from Galicia and Russia. In 1782, 92 Jews were expelled from Suceava, the Austrian authorities claiming that they were unable to pay the taxes. Representatives of Suceava Jewry took an active part in the struggle of the Jews of Bukovina against the oppressions of the Austrian authorities. There were 160 Jewish families in Suceava in 1791, and 272, with the Jews in the vicinity, according to data of 1817. After 1848 their numbers increased rapidly, and the Jewish population numbered 3,750 (37.1%) in 1880; 6,787 in 1901; and 8,000 on the outbreak of World War I. With the advent of Romanian rule, many Jews moved to Chernovtsy and other places; there remained 3,496 in 1930.

The communal institutions included a Jewish school, opened in 1790. A large synagogue was renovated at the beginning of the 19th century. Jews also prayed in many Battei Midrash and a number of houses of prayer (Kloysen). Chasidic influence in the community was strong. Zionist activity had been initiated during the Chibbat Zion period, and an organization of Zionist students existed in Suceava before the first Zionist congress. A number of smaller Jewish communities were affiliated to the Suceava community until they became independent. Jews engaged in the trade of alcoholic liquor, wine, and beer. The cultural orientation was German. Jews played important roles in both municipal and national political life.

The local Jews were persecuted by the Nazi German and Romanian authorities between 1940 and 1941. When deported to Transnistria in 1941, they numbered 3,253. Only 27 remained in the town.

After World War II, when northern Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union, many Jews from Chernovtsy and other places in northern Bukovina who arrived in Suceava chose to remain there. Their numbers rose to 4,000, and community life was active during that period. The number of Jews subsequently declined as a result of emigration to Israel and other places. In 1971, there were still about 290 Jewish families in the town and Jewish life was maintained to a limited degree. Prayers were held in the central synagogue and a number of other places.

Brodina

A village in the Suceava county in the historical province of Bukovina, Romania.

The region was part of the Austria-Hungary until 1918.

Jews settled in the village at the beginning of the 20th century. Most of them made a living from the timber trade, agriculture and handicrafts. Jewish laborers and clerks were employed in three sawmills owned by Jews.

The Jews of Brodina shared in the religious-communal services of the Jewish community of Seletin (now Selyatyn, in Ukraine) located 20km away. Brodina had a synagogue, a rabbi and a shochet. The 1930 census recorded 231 Jews, 12% of the residents.

 

The Holocaust

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December, 1937, led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

Following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of August, 1939, between Nazi Germany and the USSR, the northern part of Bukovina was annexed to the USSR on June 28, 1940. The proximity of the village to the new border was used as a security reason for transferring the Jewish residents to Suceava.

In September, 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania. This government included the Iron Guard Party-a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism.  Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.

A year later, in June, 1941, Romania joined in the war against the USSR. In the fall of 1941, the Jews were expelled to ghettoes and concentration camps in Transnistria. Not one of the few who survived ever returned to Brodina.

קארליבאבא 

Carlibaba
(בגרמנית KIRLIBABA)

עיירה בדרום בוקובינה, מחוז קאמפולונג, רומניה.
העיירה מורכבת משני כפרים; קארליבאבא החדשה (CARLIBABA NOUA) וקארליבאבא הישנה (CARLIBABA VECHE).

בימי שלטון אוסטריה-הונגריה שנמשך עד סוף מלחמת העולם הראשונה, קארליבאבא החדשה השתייכה לטראנסילוואניה בצד ההונגרי וקארליבאבא הישנה לבוקובינה בצד האוסטרי. חלוקה זאת נמשכה גם בימי השלטון הרומני, אחרי שבסוף מלחמת העולם הראשונה, בוקובינה וטראנסילוואניה סופחו לרומניה.

יהודי העיירה התפרנסו מתעשיית העץ וחלקם היו חנוונים. קהילת ואטרה-דורניי (VATRA-DORNEI), אליה היו מסונפים, סיפקה את השירותים הדתיים-קהילתיים. בעיירה היה בית כנסת מעץ שנבנה ב- 1910 ובו כמה ספרי תורה, ובית עלמין.במקום פעל סניף של ההסתדרות הציונית ורוב פעיליו היו חברי "מזרחי". במועצת העיירה היו נציגים יהודים. ב- 1930 היו בקארליבאבא 154 יהודים (13.2% מכלל התושבים).


תקופת השואה

על יסוד תכתיב וינה מ- 1940, שנכפה על רומניה על ידי גרמניה, סופח צפון טראנסילוואניה, כולל קארליבאבא החדשה, להונגריה. הצעירים היהודים נשלחו ב- 1942 לעבודת כפייה באוקראינה ורק מעטים שרדו. הנותרים גורשו ב- 1944 לאושוויץ, שם נספו.

קדארליבאבא הישנה נשארה בגבולות רומניה, אבל האנטישמיות הגואה אחרי עלית הגנרל אנטונסקו לשלטון בספטמבר 1940, אילצה את היהודים לחפש מקלט מחוץ לכפרם. ביוני 1941 פרצה המלחמה נגד ברית המועצות ופליטי קארליבאבא ממקומות פזוריהם החדשים גורשו לטראנסניסטריה. מחציתם נספו.

אחרי השחרור איש מהניצולים לא חזר לקארליבאבא.

Câmpulung Moldovenesc

In German: Kimpulung

A a city in Suceava Count, Bukovina, north Romania.

The city is a summer resort and center of the timber processing industry.

Jews were living there in 1684. They engaged in trade and agriculture, and some kept hostels. In 1769, 21 Jews were forced to leave the town. After the Austrian conquest of Bukovina in 1775, the situation of the Jews deteriorated; the Austrian authorities restricted their economic activities. In 1785 the community of Campulung Moldovenesc was placed under the jurisdiction of the community of Suceava, situated 42 miles (67 kms) Away. A request in 1794 for permission to form an independent community was refused, and the community did not receive independent status until 1859. From the end of the 19th century the number of Jews in Campulung Moldovenesc increased. They played an important role in trade, crafts, and banking, and later in other professions. When Bukovina was annexed by Romania in 1918 the Jews were subjected to the same restrictions as the rest of Romanian Jewry.

Zionism gained many adherents. The community numbered 49 in 1789; 799 in 1880 (14.4% of the total population); 3,500 in 1913; 1,488 in 1930 (14.9%), and 1,681 in 1941. During World War II the Jews at first suffered from economic restrictions. Trading licenses were canceled, their real property was confiscated, and their belongings looted. In 1940 the valuable Judaica Library of Rabbi Joseph Rubin was dispersed and nearly totally destroyed. The synagogues were also pillaged. Jews were sent to do forced labor. In 1941 they were deported to Transnistria with the rest of the Jewish population of the region. By 1942, after the deportations, only 28 Jews remained in the town. After the war the survivors returned. The Jewish population numbered 1,350 in 1947 and 270 in 1970.

Vatra Dornei

A town in Suceava county, northern Romania.

Vatra Dornei was a way station on the trade route between Transylvania and Moldavia and was visited by Jewish merchants in the 14th and 15th centuries. Intensive Jewish settlement, however, did not begin until the late 17th century, when the town was still under Moldavian control. In 1774, under Austrian rule, census officials counted 45 Jews in the town. There were 494 Jews (12. 4% of the total population) in 1880; 1, 921 (12. 3%) in 1910; and 1,737 (22. 3%) in 1930. In 1908 the Austrian authorities expelled six Jews from the town, claiming that they did not contribute to its agricultural development. In the second half of the 19th century, Jewish hotel managers helped to develop Vatra Dornei as a therapeutic and vacation center.

The Romanian annexation of Vatra Dornei in 1918 inaugurated a difficult period for Jews. One Jew was killed and Jewish homes were burned. From 1930 the town became the regional center for anti-semitic activities. When the Goga-Cuza regime assumed power in 1938, the Jewish situation became critical. In its religious life, the Jewish community was associated with that of Campulung, the previous capital of the region. In 1896 the Vatra Dornei community became independent. A large synagogue was built at the start of the 20th century.

Vishnitz (Vizhnitsa) chasidim maintained a prayer house and had considerable influence in the community. Zionist organizations were founded in the town in 1900 and later organized a private elementary school associated with the government school. In 1941 the Jews of the region were concentrated in a ghetto in Vatra Dornei, and in October of that year they were deported to camps in Transnistria.

After 2,029 Jews were moved from the town, only 21 remained. About 1, 500 Jews lived in the town in 1947, including refugees from areas annexed to the Soviet Union.

Subsequent emigration to Israel and other countries depleted the Jewish population.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

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The Jewish Community of Breaza (Suceava)

Breaza

A village in the Suceava district in the historical province of Bukovina, Romania. The region was part of Austria-Hungary until the end of WWI.

The village is situated in a mountainous region and its sparse population was multi-national. Its Christian residents were Romanians, Poles, Ukrainians, and Germans who made a living from raising cattle and later on also from trade.

The Jewish settlement in the area started in the second half of the 19th century/ The Jews maintained good relations with the local population until the 1930s.

Trade was the main occupation of the Jews of the village. In the years prior to WWI, out of the 23 merchants in the village, 18 were Jews. Also, Jews owned the sawmill and the dairy. A few were small land-holders who worked the land with the help of hired day laborers. There were also some doctors.

The Jews of Breaza were part of the Jewish community in Campulung which provided the religious and community services. Breaza had a prayer house and a Talmud Torah.

Between the two world wars a branch of the Zionist Federation was active there and fund raising for the national funds was conducted. There were a number of Jewish representatives on the village council.

In the population census of 1930, 140 Jews were registered - they constituted 5.5% of the residents.

 

The Holocaust

The rise to power of the Coga-Cuza government in December, 1937, led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

In September, 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania.  This government included the Iron Guard Party—a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism. Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.  This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.

All Jewish property was confiscated and some Jews were expelled to the Targu-Jiu camp in south-west Romania. The rest of the Jews of the village, after being robbed of their property and subjected to abuse by the local Iron Guards, were expelled on the eve of Rosh Hashana, 1940, to the regional city of Campulung. Together with other Jews from neighboring villages, they were put in a ghetto made up of synagogues.

In June, 1941, Romania joined the war against the Soviet Union. In the fall of 1941, the Jews of Breaza were expelled to Transnistria. They reached Mogilev and from there were forced to continue on foot to Shargorod. Whoever couldn't keep up the pace of the march was shot on the spot. The Jews of Breaza who were held in the Targu-Jiu camp were also expelled to the Vapniarka camp in Transnistria in the summer of 1941.

At the end of the war only 20 of the Jews expelled from Breaza survived and no one returned to the village.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Romania
Vatra Dornei
Campulung Moldovenesc
Carlibaba
Brodina
Suceava

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Vatra Dornei

A town in Suceava county, northern Romania.

Vatra Dornei was a way station on the trade route between Transylvania and Moldavia and was visited by Jewish merchants in the 14th and 15th centuries. Intensive Jewish settlement, however, did not begin until the late 17th century, when the town was still under Moldavian control. In 1774, under Austrian rule, census officials counted 45 Jews in the town. There were 494 Jews (12. 4% of the total population) in 1880; 1, 921 (12. 3%) in 1910; and 1,737 (22. 3%) in 1930. In 1908 the Austrian authorities expelled six Jews from the town, claiming that they did not contribute to its agricultural development. In the second half of the 19th century, Jewish hotel managers helped to develop Vatra Dornei as a therapeutic and vacation center.

The Romanian annexation of Vatra Dornei in 1918 inaugurated a difficult period for Jews. One Jew was killed and Jewish homes were burned. From 1930 the town became the regional center for anti-semitic activities. When the Goga-Cuza regime assumed power in 1938, the Jewish situation became critical. In its religious life, the Jewish community was associated with that of Campulung, the previous capital of the region. In 1896 the Vatra Dornei community became independent. A large synagogue was built at the start of the 20th century.

Vishnitz (Vizhnitsa) chasidim maintained a prayer house and had considerable influence in the community. Zionist organizations were founded in the town in 1900 and later organized a private elementary school associated with the government school. In 1941 the Jews of the region were concentrated in a ghetto in Vatra Dornei, and in October of that year they were deported to camps in Transnistria.

After 2,029 Jews were moved from the town, only 21 remained. About 1, 500 Jews lived in the town in 1947, including refugees from areas annexed to the Soviet Union.

Subsequent emigration to Israel and other countries depleted the Jewish population.

Câmpulung Moldovenesc

In German: Kimpulung

A a city in Suceava Count, Bukovina, north Romania.

The city is a summer resort and center of the timber processing industry.

Jews were living there in 1684. They engaged in trade and agriculture, and some kept hostels. In 1769, 21 Jews were forced to leave the town. After the Austrian conquest of Bukovina in 1775, the situation of the Jews deteriorated; the Austrian authorities restricted their economic activities. In 1785 the community of Campulung Moldovenesc was placed under the jurisdiction of the community of Suceava, situated 42 miles (67 kms) Away. A request in 1794 for permission to form an independent community was refused, and the community did not receive independent status until 1859. From the end of the 19th century the number of Jews in Campulung Moldovenesc increased. They played an important role in trade, crafts, and banking, and later in other professions. When Bukovina was annexed by Romania in 1918 the Jews were subjected to the same restrictions as the rest of Romanian Jewry.

Zionism gained many adherents. The community numbered 49 in 1789; 799 in 1880 (14.4% of the total population); 3,500 in 1913; 1,488 in 1930 (14.9%), and 1,681 in 1941. During World War II the Jews at first suffered from economic restrictions. Trading licenses were canceled, their real property was confiscated, and their belongings looted. In 1940 the valuable Judaica Library of Rabbi Joseph Rubin was dispersed and nearly totally destroyed. The synagogues were also pillaged. Jews were sent to do forced labor. In 1941 they were deported to Transnistria with the rest of the Jewish population of the region. By 1942, after the deportations, only 28 Jews remained in the town. After the war the survivors returned. The Jewish population numbered 1,350 in 1947 and 270 in 1970.

קארליבאבא 

Carlibaba
(בגרמנית KIRLIBABA)

עיירה בדרום בוקובינה, מחוז קאמפולונג, רומניה.
העיירה מורכבת משני כפרים; קארליבאבא החדשה (CARLIBABA NOUA) וקארליבאבא הישנה (CARLIBABA VECHE).

בימי שלטון אוסטריה-הונגריה שנמשך עד סוף מלחמת העולם הראשונה, קארליבאבא החדשה השתייכה לטראנסילוואניה בצד ההונגרי וקארליבאבא הישנה לבוקובינה בצד האוסטרי. חלוקה זאת נמשכה גם בימי השלטון הרומני, אחרי שבסוף מלחמת העולם הראשונה, בוקובינה וטראנסילוואניה סופחו לרומניה.

יהודי העיירה התפרנסו מתעשיית העץ וחלקם היו חנוונים. קהילת ואטרה-דורניי (VATRA-DORNEI), אליה היו מסונפים, סיפקה את השירותים הדתיים-קהילתיים. בעיירה היה בית כנסת מעץ שנבנה ב- 1910 ובו כמה ספרי תורה, ובית עלמין.במקום פעל סניף של ההסתדרות הציונית ורוב פעיליו היו חברי "מזרחי". במועצת העיירה היו נציגים יהודים. ב- 1930 היו בקארליבאבא 154 יהודים (13.2% מכלל התושבים).


תקופת השואה

על יסוד תכתיב וינה מ- 1940, שנכפה על רומניה על ידי גרמניה, סופח צפון טראנסילוואניה, כולל קארליבאבא החדשה, להונגריה. הצעירים היהודים נשלחו ב- 1942 לעבודת כפייה באוקראינה ורק מעטים שרדו. הנותרים גורשו ב- 1944 לאושוויץ, שם נספו.

קדארליבאבא הישנה נשארה בגבולות רומניה, אבל האנטישמיות הגואה אחרי עלית הגנרל אנטונסקו לשלטון בספטמבר 1940, אילצה את היהודים לחפש מקלט מחוץ לכפרם. ביוני 1941 פרצה המלחמה נגד ברית המועצות ופליטי קארליבאבא ממקומות פזוריהם החדשים גורשו לטראנסניסטריה. מחציתם נספו.

אחרי השחרור איש מהניצולים לא חזר לקארליבאבא.

Brodina

A village in the Suceava county in the historical province of Bukovina, Romania.

The region was part of the Austria-Hungary until 1918.

Jews settled in the village at the beginning of the 20th century. Most of them made a living from the timber trade, agriculture and handicrafts. Jewish laborers and clerks were employed in three sawmills owned by Jews.

The Jews of Brodina shared in the religious-communal services of the Jewish community of Seletin (now Selyatyn, in Ukraine) located 20km away. Brodina had a synagogue, a rabbi and a shochet. The 1930 census recorded 231 Jews, 12% of the residents.

 

The Holocaust

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December, 1937, led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania.

Following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of August, 1939, between Nazi Germany and the USSR, the northern part of Bukovina was annexed to the USSR on June 28, 1940. The proximity of the village to the new border was used as a security reason for transferring the Jewish residents to Suceava.

In September, 1940, a government headed by General Ion Antonescu was formed in Romania. This government included the Iron Guard Party-a nationalist party that advocated violent anti-Semitism.  Ion Antonescu's government changed Romania's foreign policy and Romania joined the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This government increased the persecution of the Jews and led a regime of terror against them.

A year later, in June, 1941, Romania joined in the war against the USSR. In the fall of 1941, the Jews were expelled to ghettoes and concentration camps in Transnistria. Not one of the few who survived ever returned to Brodina.

Suceava

In German: Suczawa

A city in Suceava district, Bukovina, northern Romania. Formerly capital of Moldavia, from 1774 to the end of World War I was part of the Austrian Empire..

Jews lived there from the beginning of the 18th century. In 1774, there were 50 at the beginning of Austrian rule, there were 50 Jewish families (209 persons) living in the town. Although the Jews were oppressed by the Austrian authorities, their number increased as a result of immigration from Galicia and Russia. In 1782, 92 Jews were expelled from Suceava, the Austrian authorities claiming that they were unable to pay the taxes. Representatives of Suceava Jewry took an active part in the struggle of the Jews of Bukovina against the oppressions of the Austrian authorities. There were 160 Jewish families in Suceava in 1791, and 272, with the Jews in the vicinity, according to data of 1817. After 1848 their numbers increased rapidly, and the Jewish population numbered 3,750 (37.1%) in 1880; 6,787 in 1901; and 8,000 on the outbreak of World War I. With the advent of Romanian rule, many Jews moved to Chernovtsy and other places; there remained 3,496 in 1930.

The communal institutions included a Jewish school, opened in 1790. A large synagogue was renovated at the beginning of the 19th century. Jews also prayed in many Battei Midrash and a number of houses of prayer (Kloysen). Chasidic influence in the community was strong. Zionist activity had been initiated during the Chibbat Zion period, and an organization of Zionist students existed in Suceava before the first Zionist congress. A number of smaller Jewish communities were affiliated to the Suceava community until they became independent. Jews engaged in the trade of alcoholic liquor, wine, and beer. The cultural orientation was German. Jews played important roles in both municipal and national political life.

The local Jews were persecuted by the Nazi German and Romanian authorities between 1940 and 1941. When deported to Transnistria in 1941, they numbered 3,253. Only 27 remained in the town.

After World War II, when northern Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union, many Jews from Chernovtsy and other places in northern Bukovina who arrived in Suceava chose to remain there. Their numbers rose to 4,000, and community life was active during that period. The number of Jews subsequently declined as a result of emigration to Israel and other places. In 1971, there were still about 290 Jewish families in the town and Jewish life was maintained to a limited degree. Prayers were held in the central synagogue and a number of other places.