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The Jewish Community of Botiz

Botiz

In Hungarian: Batiz

A village in Satu Mare County in Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. During 1940-1944 it was annexed by Hungary.

Jews started settling in Botiz during late 18th century. During the first half of the 19th century Rabbi Benjamin Zeev Mandelbaum (born in Bonyhad, Hungary) served as rabbi of Botiz after marrying the daughter of a local leaseholder called Holender. He continued to be the spiritual leader of the Jewish community of Botiz after moving to nearby Satu Mare in 1849 where he became the first rabbi of the local Jewish community.

In 1880 there were 88 Jews living in Botiz. In 1920, after the village was incorporated into Romania, Botiz had a Jewish population of 164 persons that were 11% of the general population. According to the Hungarian census of September 1941, there were 300 Jews in Botiz.

In May 1944 the Jews of Botiz were sent to Satu Mare ghetto and then deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp during May 19 to June 1, 1944.

The Jewish cemetery is located in the neighboring village of Agriş.   

Place Type:
Village
ID Number:
20673591
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

Satu Mare

Satmar or Satmer in Jewish sources. Hungarian: Szatmarnemeti or Szatmar. Also known as Sakmer

A city in north Transylvania, northwestern Romania. Part of Hungary until World War I, as well as between 1940 and 1944.

There are occasional mentions of Jews in, or passing through, Satu Mare in the early 18th century, when they distilled brandy and leased taverns. There were 11 Jews in the town in 1735, and 19 in 1746; these low numbers were due to the fact that when Satu Mare became a royal town in 1715 the Jews were expelled and allowed to enter the town only for fairs. It was not until the 1820s when the first tentative steps were taken to resettle the town and in 1841 several Jews obtained permits to settle in Satu Mare permanently. A community was formally established in 1849 and in 1857 they built a synagogue. Benjamin Ze'ev Mendelbaum became the first rabbi of the community in 1849 and served until his death in 1896.

Though the business dealings in Satu-Mare did not extend beyond its own county, Jews nonetheless continued to arrive from the surrounding rural villages. These new arrivals, however, led to tensions within the community. Most of the Jews who moved to Satu-Mare in the 1870s were traditional Ashkenazi Jews. Later, Chasidism took hold, and a majority of the community became Chasidic. After the death of Rabbi Mandelbaum, who managed to hold the fracturing community together, in 1898 the community split. Judah Grunwald, a supporter of the Chasidic movement, was elected chief rabbi of the community. From 1866 the Orthodox community ran an elementary school; later they established a yeshiva, a women's society, a Bikur Holim, and a hospital. At the same time, an opposing Status Quo Ante (neither Orthodox nor Neolog) community was established, led by Rabbi Sandor (Samule) Jordan. A Status Quo synagogue was built in 1904, and they later established the first Hebrew kindergarten in Hungary, an elementary school, and a vocational school.

The first Jewish printing press was established in 1903. Jews also contributed to the local Hungarian press.

There were continued conflicts between the adherents of Chasidism and their opponents, the misnagdim. In 1920 Rabbi Eiezer David Grunwald became the chief rabbi of Satu Mare and used his position to support the original Ashkenazi traditions. He opened a yeshiva, which, at 400 students, became one of the largest in the area. Branches of various Zionist movements were active in Satu Mare, and a Bnai Brith lodge was established.

With the death of Rabbi Grunwald in 1928, there was a bitter conflict within the community over the election of a new rabbi. The struggle lasted six years, and was eventually resolved in 1934 with the victory of Joel Teitelbaum, a Chasidic rabbi with a domineering personality who was uncompromisingly anti-Zionist.

The Jewish population rose from 78 in 1850 to 3,427 (16% of the total population) in 1870, 7,194 (20% of the total population) in 1910, and 11,533 (21%) in 1930. In 1941 there were 12,960 Jews living n Satu Mare (24.9% of the total population). This number rose following an influx of Jews from surrounding villages.

On April 26, 1944, László Endre (1895-1946), the newly appointed state secretary in the Ministry of the Interior in the Nazi-controlled Hungarian government under Interior Minister Andor Jaross, along with other Hungarian officials, convened in Satu Mare on April 26, 1944, to work out the details for the liquidation of the Jews of northern Transylvania. The ghetto in Satu Mare was established in the Jewish section of the city on May 3, 1944. Jews from Satu Mare, as well as from the surrounding areas, were concentrated there until the deportations began on May 19, 1944. The ghetto was liquidated on June 1st, 1944, after the Nazis deported 18,863 Jews from Satu Mare to Auschwitz, in six transports. Rabbi Teitelbaum survived by escaping on the Kastner train to Switzerland.

After World War II a handful of survivors returned to Satu Mare, which at that point had become part of Romania. They were eventually joined by Jews from other locations and by 1947 there were about 7,500 Jews living in the city. Subsequently, many of the Jews of Satu Mare moved to Israel; by 1970 there were about 500 Jews remaining in Satu Mare, and in 2002 there were just 38 Jews living in the city.

Carei

Formerly Carei-Mare; in Hungarian: Nagykaroly

A city in Satu Mare County, northwestern Romania. Up to World War I and between 1940 and 1945 it was part of Hungary.

Jewish settlement in Carei is first recorded around the beginning of the 18th century. Organized community life dates from 1720. There were 66 Jewish inhabitants in 1740, increasing to 56 families in 1770 and 300 families in the 1860s. In the middle of the 18th century Count Sandor Karolyi, the Lord of the town, brought a rabbi from outside to ensure the residence of the Jews on his estate. The proximity of Carei to Galicia led to the settlement of Galician Jews there, increasing the size of the community and introducing Hassidic trends. A yeshivah was founded in 1883, and two large synagogues were built in 1870 and 1901. After 1869, the community remained in the status-quo-ante group for some time. In 1881 an Orthodox community was founded, and in the course of time the original community also became Orthodox. Joel Teitelbaum served as rabbi of Carei from 1926 to 1934. The Jewish population numbered 2,073 in 1891 (out of 13,475), 2,491 in 1910 (out of 16,078), and 2,394 in 1930 (out of 16,042).

The Jews of Carei dealt mainly in leather, tools, timber, and building material.

On the eve of World War II (September 1939), approximately to 2,400 Jews lived in Carei. When the deportations commenced in 1941 there were 2,255 Jews living in Carei. In the summer of 1944 the Jews were concentrated in certain streets and confined in a ghetto before being deported to Szatmar and subsequently to the Nazi death camps.

By 1947 their number had been reduced to 590, many of whom later emigrated and settled in Israel. There were approximately 40 Jews in Carei in 1969.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

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The Jewish Community of Botiz

Botiz

In Hungarian: Batiz

A village in Satu Mare County in Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. During 1940-1944 it was annexed by Hungary.

Jews started settling in Botiz during late 18th century. During the first half of the 19th century Rabbi Benjamin Zeev Mandelbaum (born in Bonyhad, Hungary) served as rabbi of Botiz after marrying the daughter of a local leaseholder called Holender. He continued to be the spiritual leader of the Jewish community of Botiz after moving to nearby Satu Mare in 1849 where he became the first rabbi of the local Jewish community.

In 1880 there were 88 Jews living in Botiz. In 1920, after the village was incorporated into Romania, Botiz had a Jewish population of 164 persons that were 11% of the general population. According to the Hungarian census of September 1941, there were 300 Jews in Botiz.

In May 1944 the Jews of Botiz were sent to Satu Mare ghetto and then deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp during May 19 to June 1, 1944.

The Jewish cemetery is located in the neighboring village of Agriş.   

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Romania
Carei
Satu Mare, Satmar

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Carei

Formerly Carei-Mare; in Hungarian: Nagykaroly

A city in Satu Mare County, northwestern Romania. Up to World War I and between 1940 and 1945 it was part of Hungary.

Jewish settlement in Carei is first recorded around the beginning of the 18th century. Organized community life dates from 1720. There were 66 Jewish inhabitants in 1740, increasing to 56 families in 1770 and 300 families in the 1860s. In the middle of the 18th century Count Sandor Karolyi, the Lord of the town, brought a rabbi from outside to ensure the residence of the Jews on his estate. The proximity of Carei to Galicia led to the settlement of Galician Jews there, increasing the size of the community and introducing Hassidic trends. A yeshivah was founded in 1883, and two large synagogues were built in 1870 and 1901. After 1869, the community remained in the status-quo-ante group for some time. In 1881 an Orthodox community was founded, and in the course of time the original community also became Orthodox. Joel Teitelbaum served as rabbi of Carei from 1926 to 1934. The Jewish population numbered 2,073 in 1891 (out of 13,475), 2,491 in 1910 (out of 16,078), and 2,394 in 1930 (out of 16,042).

The Jews of Carei dealt mainly in leather, tools, timber, and building material.

On the eve of World War II (September 1939), approximately to 2,400 Jews lived in Carei. When the deportations commenced in 1941 there were 2,255 Jews living in Carei. In the summer of 1944 the Jews were concentrated in certain streets and confined in a ghetto before being deported to Szatmar and subsequently to the Nazi death camps.

By 1947 their number had been reduced to 590, many of whom later emigrated and settled in Israel. There were approximately 40 Jews in Carei in 1969.

Satu Mare

Satmar or Satmer in Jewish sources. Hungarian: Szatmarnemeti or Szatmar. Also known as Sakmer

A city in north Transylvania, northwestern Romania. Part of Hungary until World War I, as well as between 1940 and 1944.

There are occasional mentions of Jews in, or passing through, Satu Mare in the early 18th century, when they distilled brandy and leased taverns. There were 11 Jews in the town in 1735, and 19 in 1746; these low numbers were due to the fact that when Satu Mare became a royal town in 1715 the Jews were expelled and allowed to enter the town only for fairs. It was not until the 1820s when the first tentative steps were taken to resettle the town and in 1841 several Jews obtained permits to settle in Satu Mare permanently. A community was formally established in 1849 and in 1857 they built a synagogue. Benjamin Ze'ev Mendelbaum became the first rabbi of the community in 1849 and served until his death in 1896.

Though the business dealings in Satu-Mare did not extend beyond its own county, Jews nonetheless continued to arrive from the surrounding rural villages. These new arrivals, however, led to tensions within the community. Most of the Jews who moved to Satu-Mare in the 1870s were traditional Ashkenazi Jews. Later, Chasidism took hold, and a majority of the community became Chasidic. After the death of Rabbi Mandelbaum, who managed to hold the fracturing community together, in 1898 the community split. Judah Grunwald, a supporter of the Chasidic movement, was elected chief rabbi of the community. From 1866 the Orthodox community ran an elementary school; later they established a yeshiva, a women's society, a Bikur Holim, and a hospital. At the same time, an opposing Status Quo Ante (neither Orthodox nor Neolog) community was established, led by Rabbi Sandor (Samule) Jordan. A Status Quo synagogue was built in 1904, and they later established the first Hebrew kindergarten in Hungary, an elementary school, and a vocational school.

The first Jewish printing press was established in 1903. Jews also contributed to the local Hungarian press.

There were continued conflicts between the adherents of Chasidism and their opponents, the misnagdim. In 1920 Rabbi Eiezer David Grunwald became the chief rabbi of Satu Mare and used his position to support the original Ashkenazi traditions. He opened a yeshiva, which, at 400 students, became one of the largest in the area. Branches of various Zionist movements were active in Satu Mare, and a Bnai Brith lodge was established.

With the death of Rabbi Grunwald in 1928, there was a bitter conflict within the community over the election of a new rabbi. The struggle lasted six years, and was eventually resolved in 1934 with the victory of Joel Teitelbaum, a Chasidic rabbi with a domineering personality who was uncompromisingly anti-Zionist.

The Jewish population rose from 78 in 1850 to 3,427 (16% of the total population) in 1870, 7,194 (20% of the total population) in 1910, and 11,533 (21%) in 1930. In 1941 there were 12,960 Jews living n Satu Mare (24.9% of the total population). This number rose following an influx of Jews from surrounding villages.

On April 26, 1944, László Endre (1895-1946), the newly appointed state secretary in the Ministry of the Interior in the Nazi-controlled Hungarian government under Interior Minister Andor Jaross, along with other Hungarian officials, convened in Satu Mare on April 26, 1944, to work out the details for the liquidation of the Jews of northern Transylvania. The ghetto in Satu Mare was established in the Jewish section of the city on May 3, 1944. Jews from Satu Mare, as well as from the surrounding areas, were concentrated there until the deportations began on May 19, 1944. The ghetto was liquidated on June 1st, 1944, after the Nazis deported 18,863 Jews from Satu Mare to Auschwitz, in six transports. Rabbi Teitelbaum survived by escaping on the Kastner train to Switzerland.

After World War II a handful of survivors returned to Satu Mare, which at that point had become part of Romania. They were eventually joined by Jews from other locations and by 1947 there were about 7,500 Jews living in the city. Subsequently, many of the Jews of Satu Mare moved to Israel; by 1970 there were about 500 Jews remaining in Satu Mare, and in 2002 there were just 38 Jews living in the city.