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The Jewish Community of Nasaud

Nasaud

In Romanian: Nasaud; in Hungarian: Naszod

A town in Bistrita-Nasaud county, Transylvania, Romania.

Until 1918 and between 1940 and 1945, Nasaud was part of Hungary. While still under Hungarian rule, it was a center of the Romanian nationalist movement. Jews settled in Nasaud after the law prohibiting their settlement was abrogated in 1848 while residence in the town itself was still barred. Jews lived in the nearby village of Jidovitza (Entredam), today named Rebreanu. The community was orthodox and strongly influenced by chasidism. In 1885 the government designated the community as the administrative center for the Jews of all the villages in the district. The community possessed a large synagogue, a bet midrash, and a cheder (school). Jewish children attended elementary and secondary school in which the language of instruction was Romanian. The Jewish population in Nasaud itself declined from 859 in 1866 to 425 (12% of the total) in 1930, and 415 (12.9%) in 1940. There were 1,198 Jews living in the surrounding villages in 1930. Some 400 Jews were deported to Auschwitz in the summer of 1944.

After World War II, about 110 Jews returned to Nasaud, including former residents who had survived the camps and some who had previously lived in the surrounding district. As a result of emigration to Israel and elsewhere the Jewish population dwindled and by 1971 only two families were left in the town.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
205892
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:
Brand, Joel Jeno (1906-1964), member of Va'adat Ezrah va-Hazzalah, the Budapest Jewish relief committee set up during World War II, born in Naszod, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, today Nasaud, in Romania). Brand moved to Erfurt, Germany, with his family in 1910. Active in left-wing politics, he was arrested in 1933, but released in September 1934. He escaped to Transylvania, Romania, and from there went to Budapest, where he joined Po'alei Zion, and at a Zionist training farm met Hansi Hartmann, whom he married in 1935.

From 1938 Brand was active in a semi-clandestine organization for helping Jewish refugees, establishing contact with German Nazi agents who were then secretly working in Hungary. In January 1943 the Va'adat Ezrah va-Hazzalah was formally established in Budapest under the leadership of Otto Komoly, aided by Rezsoe (Rudolf) Kasztner. As a member of this committee, Brand met Adolf Eichmann, on whose orders he left for neutral Turkey on May 17, 1944, to present the Jewish Agency with a German proposition (the sincerity of which has never been established) to prevent the extermination of Hungarian Jewry in exchange for a supply of trucks and other equipment. He had hoped to meet Moshe Shertok (Sharett) in Turkey, but Shertok was prevented by the British authorities from traveling to Turkey, and Brand, having been persuaded by Jewish Agency officials in Istanbul, continued to Palestine to conclude negotiations there. He was arrested in Aleppo, Syria, by the British, who claimed that they suspected him of being a Nazi agent, and was taken to Cairo, Egypt. On October 7, 1944, he was released in Jerusalem, but in the meantime Hungarian Jews from the provinces had already been deported, mainly to Auschwitz where the majority were killed.

Brand remained in Erez Israel, and after World War 2 devoted himself to tracking down Nazi war criminals. Both Brand and his wife, who was also active in the Va'adat Ezrah va'Hazzakah, testified at the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem.

Brand died in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, where he was testifying against Hermann Krumey and Otto Hunsche, two of Eichmann's chief aides. The story of Brand's mission was dramatized by Heinar Kipphardt in his play "Die Geschichte eines Geschaefts" (1965).
Brand, Joel Jeno (1906-1964), member of Va'adat Ezrah va-Hazzalah, the Budapest Jewish relief committee set up during World War II, born in Naszod, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, today Nasaud, in Romania). Brand moved to Erfurt, Germany, with his family in 1910. Active in left-wing politics, he was arrested in 1933, but released in September 1934. He escaped to Transylvania, Romania, and from there went to Budapest, where he joined Po'alei Zion, and at a Zionist training farm met Hansi Hartmann, whom he married in 1935.

From 1938 Brand was active in a semi-clandestine organization for helping Jewish refugees, establishing contact with German Nazi agents who were then secretly working in Hungary. In January 1943 the Va'adat Ezrah va-Hazzalah was formally established in Budapest under the leadership of Otto Komoly, aided by Rezsoe (Rudolf) Kasztner. As a member of this committee, Brand met Adolf Eichmann, on whose orders he left for neutral Turkey on May 17, 1944, to present the Jewish Agency with a German proposition (the sincerity of which has never been established) to prevent the extermination of Hungarian Jewry in exchange for a supply of trucks and other equipment. He had hoped to meet Moshe Shertok (Sharett) in Turkey, but Shertok was prevented by the British authorities from traveling to Turkey, and Brand, having been persuaded by Jewish Agency officials in Istanbul, continued to Palestine to conclude negotiations there. He was arrested in Aleppo, Syria, by the British, who claimed that they suspected him of being a Nazi agent, and was taken to Cairo, Egypt. On October 7, 1944, he was released in Jerusalem, but in the meantime Hungarian Jews from the provinces had already been deported, mainly to Auschwitz where the majority were killed.

Brand remained in Erez Israel, and after World War 2 devoted himself to tracking down Nazi war criminals. Both Brand and his wife, who was also active in the Va'adat Ezrah va'Hazzakah, testified at the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem.

Brand died in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, where he was testifying against Hermann Krumey and Otto Hunsche, two of Eichmann's chief aides. The story of Brand's mission was dramatized by Heinar Kipphardt in his play "Die Geschichte eines Geschaefts" (1965).

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Bistrita

Hungarian: Beszterce; German: Bistritz

A town in north Transylvania, Romania. Bistrita was within Hungary until 1918 and between 1940 and 1945.

History

When the prohibition on Jewish settlement there was lifted in 1848, Jews began to settle in Bistrita, mainly from Bukovina and Galicia. The synagogue, consecrated in 1848, is among the most impressive in Transylvania. The community in Bistrita was orthodox with a strong hasidic element although there were also Jews who adopted the German and Hungarian culture. The first Zionist youth organization in Bistrita, Ivriyah, was founded in 1901 by Nissan Kahan, who corresponded with Theodor Herzl.

During World War I, 138 Bistrita Jews were conscripted into the Austro-Hungarian army and 12 were killed in action

After World War I the central office of orthodox Jewry in Transylvania was established in Bistrita. It represented 80 communities (135,000 persons) and was headed by the rabbi of Bistrita, Solomon Zalman Ullmann, until his death in 1930. There was a large and important yeshivah in Bistrita under the direction of the rabbi between 1924 and 1942.

The Jewish population numbered 718 in 1891 (out of a total of 9,100); 1,316 in 1900 (out of 12,155); 2,198 in 1930 (out of 14,128); and 2,358 in 1941 (out of 16,282).

 

The Holocaust

During World War II, the Hungarian authorities deported several dozen Jewish families in 1941 from Bistrița to Kamenets-Podolski in the Ukraine, where they were killed by Hungarian soldiers. The Jews of Bistrița, as elsewhere in Hungary, were subjected to restrictions, and Jewish men of military age were drafted for forced labor service. In May 1944, the Jewish population was forced into the Bistrița ghetto, set up at Stamboli farm, about two miles from the city. The ghetto consisted of a number of barracks and pigsties. At its peak, the ghetto held close to 6,000 Jews, including those brought in from the neighboring communities in Beszterce-Naszód county. Among these were the Jews of Borgóbeszterce, Borgóprund, Galacfalva, Kisilva, Marosborgó, Nagyilva, Nagysajó, Naszód, Óradna, and Romoly. The ghetto was liquidated with the deportation of its inhabitants to Auschwitz in two transports on June 2 and 6, 1944.

 

Post-War

The 1,300 Jews who resettled in Bistrita in 1947 included survivors from the camps, former residents of neighboring villages, and others liberated from camps in Transnistria. As a consequence of discrimination and the political condition, most Jews emigrated to Israel, the United States and Canada. Only a few Jews remained in Bistrita in 2002.

Telciu 

In Hungarian: Telcs; in German: Teltsch

A village in Bistrița-Năsăud County, Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. During 1940-1944 it was annexed by Hungary.

Jews settled in Telciu during the first half of the 19th century. In1857 there were 9 Jews in Telciu and then 75 in 1880. In 1900 the Jewish population gre to 207 out of a general population of 3,102. In 1920 the Jewish inhabitants numbered 215 and represented 7% of the total population. Telciu was home to an important community of Hassidic Jews.

In August 1940 the village came under Hungarian rule after Northern Transylvania was annexed by Hungary. In May 1944 the local Jews were sent to the Bistrita ghetto and from there were deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp on June 2-6 1944.

After the war only a few returned to the village. Two brothers, natives of Telciu, lived in Nasaud in 1990. The synagogue once stood on the corner of Grass Street and Ulița Muntelui and was demolished around 1970. The Jewish cemetery is located in Macoviță.

Teaca
 

In German: Teckendorf, Tekenderf; in Hungarian: Teke

A village in the Bistrița-Năsăud county in Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. During 1940-1944 it was annexed by Hungary.

The village was documented for the first time in 1318. Until 20th century it was inhabited mostly by Germans. Jews started settling in Teaca during the 1820s. In 1860 a Jewish community was established and the first rabbi arrived in 1884. In 1896 there were 184 Jews in the village out a general population of 2,360 people. In 1920 the Jewish population declined to 154 persons or 6% of the total. The 1930 census recorded a 114 Jews in Teaca.

The Jews of Teaca belonged to the Deyzh (Dej) Hasidic court founded by Rabbi Yechezkel Panet (1783-1845) in the city of Dej (Des, in Hungarian) in Transylvania.
 

In May 1944 the Jews of Teaca were sent to Târgu Mureş ghetto and then deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp in late May and early June, 1944.

The Jewish cemetery was opened in the 19th century and is located next to the Christian Orthodox cemetery.  

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The Jewish Community of Nasaud

Nasaud

In Romanian: Nasaud; in Hungarian: Naszod

A town in Bistrita-Nasaud county, Transylvania, Romania.

Until 1918 and between 1940 and 1945, Nasaud was part of Hungary. While still under Hungarian rule, it was a center of the Romanian nationalist movement. Jews settled in Nasaud after the law prohibiting their settlement was abrogated in 1848 while residence in the town itself was still barred. Jews lived in the nearby village of Jidovitza (Entredam), today named Rebreanu. The community was orthodox and strongly influenced by chasidism. In 1885 the government designated the community as the administrative center for the Jews of all the villages in the district. The community possessed a large synagogue, a bet midrash, and a cheder (school). Jewish children attended elementary and secondary school in which the language of instruction was Romanian. The Jewish population in Nasaud itself declined from 859 in 1866 to 425 (12% of the total) in 1930, and 415 (12.9%) in 1940. There were 1,198 Jews living in the surrounding villages in 1930. Some 400 Jews were deported to Auschwitz in the summer of 1944.

After World War II, about 110 Jews returned to Nasaud, including former residents who had survived the camps and some who had previously lived in the surrounding district. As a result of emigration to Israel and elsewhere the Jewish population dwindled and by 1971 only two families were left in the town.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Teaca
Telciu 
Bistrita
Romania

Teaca
 

In German: Teckendorf, Tekenderf; in Hungarian: Teke

A village in the Bistrița-Năsăud county in Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. During 1940-1944 it was annexed by Hungary.

The village was documented for the first time in 1318. Until 20th century it was inhabited mostly by Germans. Jews started settling in Teaca during the 1820s. In 1860 a Jewish community was established and the first rabbi arrived in 1884. In 1896 there were 184 Jews in the village out a general population of 2,360 people. In 1920 the Jewish population declined to 154 persons or 6% of the total. The 1930 census recorded a 114 Jews in Teaca.

The Jews of Teaca belonged to the Deyzh (Dej) Hasidic court founded by Rabbi Yechezkel Panet (1783-1845) in the city of Dej (Des, in Hungarian) in Transylvania.
 

In May 1944 the Jews of Teaca were sent to Târgu Mureş ghetto and then deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp in late May and early June, 1944.

The Jewish cemetery was opened in the 19th century and is located next to the Christian Orthodox cemetery.  

Telciu 

In Hungarian: Telcs; in German: Teltsch

A village in Bistrița-Năsăud County, Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. During 1940-1944 it was annexed by Hungary.

Jews settled in Telciu during the first half of the 19th century. In1857 there were 9 Jews in Telciu and then 75 in 1880. In 1900 the Jewish population gre to 207 out of a general population of 3,102. In 1920 the Jewish inhabitants numbered 215 and represented 7% of the total population. Telciu was home to an important community of Hassidic Jews.

In August 1940 the village came under Hungarian rule after Northern Transylvania was annexed by Hungary. In May 1944 the local Jews were sent to the Bistrita ghetto and from there were deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp on June 2-6 1944.

After the war only a few returned to the village. Two brothers, natives of Telciu, lived in Nasaud in 1990. The synagogue once stood on the corner of Grass Street and Ulița Muntelui and was demolished around 1970. The Jewish cemetery is located in Macoviță.

Bistrita

Hungarian: Beszterce; German: Bistritz

A town in north Transylvania, Romania. Bistrita was within Hungary until 1918 and between 1940 and 1945.

History

When the prohibition on Jewish settlement there was lifted in 1848, Jews began to settle in Bistrita, mainly from Bukovina and Galicia. The synagogue, consecrated in 1848, is among the most impressive in Transylvania. The community in Bistrita was orthodox with a strong hasidic element although there were also Jews who adopted the German and Hungarian culture. The first Zionist youth organization in Bistrita, Ivriyah, was founded in 1901 by Nissan Kahan, who corresponded with Theodor Herzl.

During World War I, 138 Bistrita Jews were conscripted into the Austro-Hungarian army and 12 were killed in action

After World War I the central office of orthodox Jewry in Transylvania was established in Bistrita. It represented 80 communities (135,000 persons) and was headed by the rabbi of Bistrita, Solomon Zalman Ullmann, until his death in 1930. There was a large and important yeshivah in Bistrita under the direction of the rabbi between 1924 and 1942.

The Jewish population numbered 718 in 1891 (out of a total of 9,100); 1,316 in 1900 (out of 12,155); 2,198 in 1930 (out of 14,128); and 2,358 in 1941 (out of 16,282).

 

The Holocaust

During World War II, the Hungarian authorities deported several dozen Jewish families in 1941 from Bistrița to Kamenets-Podolski in the Ukraine, where they were killed by Hungarian soldiers. The Jews of Bistrița, as elsewhere in Hungary, were subjected to restrictions, and Jewish men of military age were drafted for forced labor service. In May 1944, the Jewish population was forced into the Bistrița ghetto, set up at Stamboli farm, about two miles from the city. The ghetto consisted of a number of barracks and pigsties. At its peak, the ghetto held close to 6,000 Jews, including those brought in from the neighboring communities in Beszterce-Naszód county. Among these were the Jews of Borgóbeszterce, Borgóprund, Galacfalva, Kisilva, Marosborgó, Nagyilva, Nagysajó, Naszód, Óradna, and Romoly. The ghetto was liquidated with the deportation of its inhabitants to Auschwitz in two transports on June 2 and 6, 1944.

 

Post-War

The 1,300 Jews who resettled in Bistrita in 1947 included survivors from the camps, former residents of neighboring villages, and others liberated from camps in Transnistria. As a consequence of discrimination and the political condition, most Jews emigrated to Israel, the United States and Canada. Only a few Jews remained in Bistrita in 2002.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Brand, Joel Jeno
Brand, Joel Jeno (1906-1964), member of Va'adat Ezrah va-Hazzalah, the Budapest Jewish relief committee set up during World War II, born in Naszod, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, today Nasaud, in Romania). Brand moved to Erfurt, Germany, with his family in 1910. Active in left-wing politics, he was arrested in 1933, but released in September 1934. He escaped to Transylvania, Romania, and from there went to Budapest, where he joined Po'alei Zion, and at a Zionist training farm met Hansi Hartmann, whom he married in 1935.

From 1938 Brand was active in a semi-clandestine organization for helping Jewish refugees, establishing contact with German Nazi agents who were then secretly working in Hungary. In January 1943 the Va'adat Ezrah va-Hazzalah was formally established in Budapest under the leadership of Otto Komoly, aided by Rezsoe (Rudolf) Kasztner. As a member of this committee, Brand met Adolf Eichmann, on whose orders he left for neutral Turkey on May 17, 1944, to present the Jewish Agency with a German proposition (the sincerity of which has never been established) to prevent the extermination of Hungarian Jewry in exchange for a supply of trucks and other equipment. He had hoped to meet Moshe Shertok (Sharett) in Turkey, but Shertok was prevented by the British authorities from traveling to Turkey, and Brand, having been persuaded by Jewish Agency officials in Istanbul, continued to Palestine to conclude negotiations there. He was arrested in Aleppo, Syria, by the British, who claimed that they suspected him of being a Nazi agent, and was taken to Cairo, Egypt. On October 7, 1944, he was released in Jerusalem, but in the meantime Hungarian Jews from the provinces had already been deported, mainly to Auschwitz where the majority were killed.

Brand remained in Erez Israel, and after World War 2 devoted himself to tracking down Nazi war criminals. Both Brand and his wife, who was also active in the Va'adat Ezrah va'Hazzakah, testified at the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem.

Brand died in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, where he was testifying against Hermann Krumey and Otto Hunsche, two of Eichmann's chief aides. The story of Brand's mission was dramatized by Heinar Kipphardt in his play "Die Geschichte eines Geschaefts" (1965).
Brand, Joel Jeno
Brand, Joel Jeno (1906-1964), member of Va'adat Ezrah va-Hazzalah, the Budapest Jewish relief committee set up during World War II, born in Naszod, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, today Nasaud, in Romania). Brand moved to Erfurt, Germany, with his family in 1910. Active in left-wing politics, he was arrested in 1933, but released in September 1934. He escaped to Transylvania, Romania, and from there went to Budapest, where he joined Po'alei Zion, and at a Zionist training farm met Hansi Hartmann, whom he married in 1935.

From 1938 Brand was active in a semi-clandestine organization for helping Jewish refugees, establishing contact with German Nazi agents who were then secretly working in Hungary. In January 1943 the Va'adat Ezrah va-Hazzalah was formally established in Budapest under the leadership of Otto Komoly, aided by Rezsoe (Rudolf) Kasztner. As a member of this committee, Brand met Adolf Eichmann, on whose orders he left for neutral Turkey on May 17, 1944, to present the Jewish Agency with a German proposition (the sincerity of which has never been established) to prevent the extermination of Hungarian Jewry in exchange for a supply of trucks and other equipment. He had hoped to meet Moshe Shertok (Sharett) in Turkey, but Shertok was prevented by the British authorities from traveling to Turkey, and Brand, having been persuaded by Jewish Agency officials in Istanbul, continued to Palestine to conclude negotiations there. He was arrested in Aleppo, Syria, by the British, who claimed that they suspected him of being a Nazi agent, and was taken to Cairo, Egypt. On October 7, 1944, he was released in Jerusalem, but in the meantime Hungarian Jews from the provinces had already been deported, mainly to Auschwitz where the majority were killed.

Brand remained in Erez Israel, and after World War 2 devoted himself to tracking down Nazi war criminals. Both Brand and his wife, who was also active in the Va'adat Ezrah va'Hazzakah, testified at the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem.

Brand died in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, where he was testifying against Hermann Krumey and Otto Hunsche, two of Eichmann's chief aides. The story of Brand's mission was dramatized by Heinar Kipphardt in his play "Die Geschichte eines Geschaefts" (1965).