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The Jewish Community of Lovosice

Lovosice

German: Lobositz

A small town in northern Bohemia, Usti nad Labem Region, Czech Republic

Lovosice is located 4 miles (6km) east of Terezin and 37 miles (60km) north of Prague. Until 1918 Lovosice and the region were part of the Austrian Empire. Between the two World Wars, and after World War II until 1993, it was part of the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945 Lovosice was one of the municipalities of the Sudeten Region.

The old cemetery was destroyed in 1956. The newer cemetery, which was consecrated in 1872, has a number of tombstones that have remained standing, in addition to unmarked mass graves. The cemetery also includes a pre-burial house, as well as a monument to the old cemetery, and a separate entrance for kohanim. The cemetery can be accessed freely.

HISTORY

It is believed that the Jewish community of Lovosice was founded in 1541 by Jews who were expelled from town of Litomerice.

In 1702 there were ten houses that were registered in the town as owned by Jews; among them was a building that housed a beit midrash. Eventually there would be 17 houses in the Jewish part of the town; this included the synagogue building, which was erected in 1762, the community building, and the rabbi’s home. A Jewish judge served as the administrative leader of the Jewish community. The synagogue was renovated for the first time in 1800 after being damaged in a fire; the interior would later be renovated again just before World War I, and the exterior wall would be renovated in 1924.

The rabbis who served the community included: Rabbi Heinrich Saar (1886-1905), Rabbi Salomon Levy (1905-1906), Rabbi Ignaz Levy (1906-1907), Rabbi Heinrich Brock (1907-1908), Dr. Salomon Frankfurter (1908-1912), Dr. Emil Friedmann (1912- 1916), and Dr. Mortiz Mueller (1917-1921). In 1921 Rabbi Ignaz Levy returned to serve the community.

The community's leaders included: Michael Kaill, who was the head of the Jewish community in 1791, Jacob Glaassner, Hermann Schiller, Max Gans-Schiller, Friedrich Gratum, Dr. Karl Glaassner, Wilhelm Bergwein, Max Wilhelm Schiller, Dr. Marcus Lowit (1914-1930), and Ernest Schwartz. The most prominent Jewish family in Lovosice was the Wohl family, though some members of the family converted to Christianity.

The old cemetery was dedicated in 1714 and was also used by the Jewish communities of Litomerice and Terezin. Another cemetery was dedicated around 1872. The latter cemetery had a chapel (zidduk hadin pavilion) and a special entrance for kohanim.

Among the community institutions were a women’s society, which was founded in 1891, and a chevra kaddisha, whose regulations were approved in 1914. The town did not have a Jewish school, and Jewish children attended the local schools. Most of the Jews living in the town spoke German.

In the beginning, Jews worked as tobacco merchants, butchers, and glaziers. Meanwhile, the many Jews who lived in neighboring villages worked as grain exporters, mostly to Germany, via the Labe (German: Elbe) River. Jews also founded a tannery and were involved in establishing the chocolate and sweets industry. Edward Klein was the manager of a factory for fruit preserves. Later, manufacturing of men’s clothing was one of the main sources of income for the local Jews. Dr. Ignaz Freund worked as the town doctor during the 19th century.

During World War I Jews from Lovosice enlisted in the Austrian Army and five fell in battle. The Republic of Czechoslovakia, which was established after the war, recognized the Jews as a national minority, with concurrent rights. This prompted an interest in Zionism, which became active in Lovosice.

In 1921 there were 270 Jews living in Lovosice. In 1933 the Jewish population was 320, including 70 who lived in the surrounding neighborhoods.

THE HOLOCAUST

The Munich Agreement of September, 1938, resulted in the dissolution of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, and the annexation of the Sudeten Region, which included Lovosice, to Nazi Germany. At this point, the vast majority of Jews living in Lovosice left the town, many for areas in Bohemia and Moravia. The Nazis destroyed the synagogue in Lovosice. The region of Bohemia and Moravia ultimately became a protectorate of Nazi Germany in March, 1939, ushering in a period of discrimination and violence against the area's Jews. Beginning in 1941 Czech Jews were sent to the Terezin (Theresienstadt) Ghetto. From there they were deported to concentration and death camps, where most were killed.

POSTWAR

In 1946 a public funeral was held in Lovosice for the Czech Jews who were killed during the last days of the Nazi occupation on roads leading to the concentration camp in Terezin.

The Jewish Quarter was eventually demolished by the authorities. The old cemetery was demolished in 1956 and its zidduk hadin pavilion was given to the general cemetery.
Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
185359
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

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A street and a house in the Jewish section of Lovosice in Bohemia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), c.1900.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
Courtesy of Dr. Hugo Gold)
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The Jewish Community of Lovosice
Lovosice

German: Lobositz

A small town in northern Bohemia, Usti nad Labem Region, Czech Republic

Lovosice is located 4 miles (6km) east of Terezin and 37 miles (60km) north of Prague. Until 1918 Lovosice and the region were part of the Austrian Empire. Between the two World Wars, and after World War II until 1993, it was part of the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945 Lovosice was one of the municipalities of the Sudeten Region.

The old cemetery was destroyed in 1956. The newer cemetery, which was consecrated in 1872, has a number of tombstones that have remained standing, in addition to unmarked mass graves. The cemetery also includes a pre-burial house, as well as a monument to the old cemetery, and a separate entrance for kohanim. The cemetery can be accessed freely.

HISTORY

It is believed that the Jewish community of Lovosice was founded in 1541 by Jews who were expelled from town of Litomerice.

In 1702 there were ten houses that were registered in the town as owned by Jews; among them was a building that housed a beit midrash. Eventually there would be 17 houses in the Jewish part of the town; this included the synagogue building, which was erected in 1762, the community building, and the rabbi’s home. A Jewish judge served as the administrative leader of the Jewish community. The synagogue was renovated for the first time in 1800 after being damaged in a fire; the interior would later be renovated again just before World War I, and the exterior wall would be renovated in 1924.

The rabbis who served the community included: Rabbi Heinrich Saar (1886-1905), Rabbi Salomon Levy (1905-1906), Rabbi Ignaz Levy (1906-1907), Rabbi Heinrich Brock (1907-1908), Dr. Salomon Frankfurter (1908-1912), Dr. Emil Friedmann (1912- 1916), and Dr. Mortiz Mueller (1917-1921). In 1921 Rabbi Ignaz Levy returned to serve the community.

The community's leaders included: Michael Kaill, who was the head of the Jewish community in 1791, Jacob Glaassner, Hermann Schiller, Max Gans-Schiller, Friedrich Gratum, Dr. Karl Glaassner, Wilhelm Bergwein, Max Wilhelm Schiller, Dr. Marcus Lowit (1914-1930), and Ernest Schwartz. The most prominent Jewish family in Lovosice was the Wohl family, though some members of the family converted to Christianity.

The old cemetery was dedicated in 1714 and was also used by the Jewish communities of Litomerice and Terezin. Another cemetery was dedicated around 1872. The latter cemetery had a chapel (zidduk hadin pavilion) and a special entrance for kohanim.

Among the community institutions were a women’s society, which was founded in 1891, and a chevra kaddisha, whose regulations were approved in 1914. The town did not have a Jewish school, and Jewish children attended the local schools. Most of the Jews living in the town spoke German.

In the beginning, Jews worked as tobacco merchants, butchers, and glaziers. Meanwhile, the many Jews who lived in neighboring villages worked as grain exporters, mostly to Germany, via the Labe (German: Elbe) River. Jews also founded a tannery and were involved in establishing the chocolate and sweets industry. Edward Klein was the manager of a factory for fruit preserves. Later, manufacturing of men’s clothing was one of the main sources of income for the local Jews. Dr. Ignaz Freund worked as the town doctor during the 19th century.

During World War I Jews from Lovosice enlisted in the Austrian Army and five fell in battle. The Republic of Czechoslovakia, which was established after the war, recognized the Jews as a national minority, with concurrent rights. This prompted an interest in Zionism, which became active in Lovosice.

In 1921 there were 270 Jews living in Lovosice. In 1933 the Jewish population was 320, including 70 who lived in the surrounding neighborhoods.

THE HOLOCAUST

The Munich Agreement of September, 1938, resulted in the dissolution of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, and the annexation of the Sudeten Region, which included Lovosice, to Nazi Germany. At this point, the vast majority of Jews living in Lovosice left the town, many for areas in Bohemia and Moravia. The Nazis destroyed the synagogue in Lovosice. The region of Bohemia and Moravia ultimately became a protectorate of Nazi Germany in March, 1939, ushering in a period of discrimination and violence against the area's Jews. Beginning in 1941 Czech Jews were sent to the Terezin (Theresienstadt) Ghetto. From there they were deported to concentration and death camps, where most were killed.

POSTWAR

In 1946 a public funeral was held in Lovosice for the Czech Jews who were killed during the last days of the Nazi occupation on roads leading to the concentration camp in Terezin.

The Jewish Quarter was eventually demolished by the authorities. The old cemetery was demolished in 1956 and its zidduk hadin pavilion was given to the general cemetery.
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Street and House in the Jewish Quarter, Lovosice, Bohemia, c.1900
A street and a house in the Jewish section of Lovosice in Bohemia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), c.1900.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
Courtesy of Dr. Hugo Gold)