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The Jewish Community of Naumburg

Naumburg

A town in the district of Kassel in Hesse, Germany.

First Jewish presence: Middle Ages; peak Jewish population: 81 in 1855; Jewish population in 1933: approximately 35

Jews were massacred in Naumburg in 1494, two years after which their synagogue was destroyed. Further Jewish settlement was forbidden in 1499, but records of a court case from 1503 mention a Jew. By 1692, six Jewish families had moved to Naumburg. Between 1793 and 1795, the community built a new synagogue on Gerichtstrasse (present-day 9 Graf-Volkwin- Strasse); in 1844, the building was enlarged to accommodate a school (it housed an apartment for the teacher) and a mikveh, both of which were moved to the synagogue from other locations. Naumburg’s synagogue had a seating capacity of 67 (40 men, 27 women), additional seating for guests and an impressive array of brass lighting fixtures. In 1826, the Jews of Naumburg consecrated a new cemetery (it was also used by Jews from Elben, Altenstaedt and Martinhagen). Then part of the district of Wolfhagen, the community belonged to the provincial rabbinate in Kassel. In 1931/32, three children received religious instruction. A chevra kadisha was active in the community, with which (by 1933) the Jews of Altendorf, Altenstaedt, Elben, Heimarshausen and Riede had been affiliated.

On October 3, 1938, the local police ordered Jews to leave town within four weeks. On November 11, 1938 (after Pogrom Night), SA men destroyed the synagogue’s interior, heavily damaged the mikveh and school, plundered and burned down the empty Rosenstein and Blumenkorn apartments and partially destroyed the Rosenstein family residence. Naumburg’s fire department extinguished fires that were lit in the Rosenstein and Blumenkorn homes. According to eyewitnesses, Jews were detained near the stone quarry, guarded by SA men, while this was going on. The last community leader immigrated to Chile; his predecessor made it to Argentina. In all, five families emigrated—three went to South America and two to Israel. By November 1939, all Jews had left Naumburg, many of whom were deported from Kassel to Riga on December 9, 1941. At least 28 local Jews perished in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site on November 14, 2004.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
18088445
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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NAUMBOURG

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

Naumbourg is a spelling variant of Naumburg. There are several towns in central Europe called Naumburg, among them Naumburg near Kassel, in Hesse, western Germany, and Naumburg an der Saale, near Halle, Saxony, western Germany. The German name of Nowogrodziec, also known as Nowimburk, in lower Silesia, Wroclaw province, south west Poland, is Naumburg am Queis.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Naumburg include the American merchant and philanthropist Aaron Naumburg (1859-1928) and the 20th century American educator Margaret Naumburg.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Naumbourg include the German cantor, composer and author Samuel Naumbourg (1815-1880).

Kassel

A city in Hesse, Germany; former Hesse-Kassel state capital.

21ST CENTURY

Following Jewish immigration from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s, the Jewish community of Kassel numbered about 1,220 in 2004.

As the synagogue had become too small, it was torn down and a new one designed by architect Alfred Jacoby was built and consecrated in 2000. It was financed by the Jewish community of Kassel, the Association of Jewish Communities in Hesse, the Federal state (Land) of Hesse, and the city of Kassel.

HISTORY

A 1293 record maintains that a Jewess had been in possession of some property in Kassel at an earlier date. A Jews' street was in existence in 1318. During the Black Death persecutions (1348-1939), the Jews suffered but some managed to escape and were living in Frankfort (1360) and Erfurt. By 1398, there was an organized community in Kassel, with a synagogue and cemetery.

The Jews' street is mentioned again in 1455 and 1486 and the "Jews' well" might also date from this period.

In 1513, Master Falke contributed to the construction of a local bridge; in 1520, he paid the rent for the cemetery, as did his widow in 1526. Landgrave Philip of Hesse expelled the Jews from Hesse-Kassel in 1524. However, in 1530, he admitted Michel Jud of Derenburg as court agent for 10 years and in 1532, issued a Jewry toleration law, amplified in 1539. Though restrictive and ordering Jews to attend Christian sermons, it was less severe than the extreme anti-Jewish proposals of the reformation theologian Martin Butzer. Only a few Jews were allowed in Kassel during this period, a physician and several silk knitters. In 1602, the court Jew Hayum was admitted as mint master.

In 1577, landgrave William the Wise had initiated Hesse-Kassel Jewry assemblies, first held in Kassel. The kehillah Hebrew constitution papers, begun in 1633, and a pinkas (records and decisions) were ordered to be translated into German in 1734-1740. Hesse-Kassel Jewry was under the civic jurisdiction of the Fulda rabbinate until 1625, and that of Friedberg until 1656.

During the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), the Jews were compelled to leave Kassel. However, the court Jew Benedict Goldschmidt received a residence privilege in 1635; it was extended in 1647 to include his two sons. From 1650 to 1715, private prayer services were held in the Goldschmidt's house, led by the rabbi of the nearby village of Bettenhausen (later part of Kassel), where a cemetery was acquired in 1621.

In 1714, a synagogue building was erected and enlarged in 1755; the community had grown by then to approximately 200 persons. A Memorbuch was begun in 1720, and a Chevra Kaddisha founded in 1773. In 1772, the rabbinate was transferred from Witzenhausen, seat of the yeshivah, to Kassel.

From 1807 to 1813, Kassel was the capital of the short-lived kingdom of Westphalia. The emancipation law of 1808 granted civil rights to Jews and made possible an influx of Jews from other areas. A consistory headed by Israel Jacobson introduced synagogue and educational reforms. The government of the reestablished principality of Hessen-Kassel issued a more restrictive Jewry ordinance in 1823, which remained in force until 1866, when Kassel came under Prussian rule and Prussian emancipation laws prevailed.

In 1836-1839, a new synagogue was built, accommodating around 1,000 persons. An Orthodox faction separated after 1872 and built its own synagogue in 1898. The main synagogue was rebuilt in 1890-1907. The Hesse-Kassel yeshivah was transferred to Kassel as a teachers' seminary and elementary school. The community had a library of Judaica and Hebraica and, in the Landesmuseum, a display of ceremonial objects, as well as arts and crafts, which was restored after 1945. It also possessed an orphanage and an old age home.

In 1905, 2,445 Jews lived in Kassel, 2,750 (1.62% of the total) in 1925, and 2,301 (1.31%) in June 1933, after the Nazis came to power in Germany.

HOLOCAUST

On November 7, 1938, two days before Kristallnacht started, the main synagogue was set on fire. Local firemen extinguished the blaze, something they were explicitly told not to do on Kristallnacht. Two days later, the Liberal synagogue was burned down and the Orthodox synagogue destroyed. A completed manuscript of the second volume of the history of the Jews in Kassel, prepared under community auspices, was destroyed,

Over the following year, 300 Jews including the rabbi were sent to Buchenwald and 560 Jews emigrated. Of those remaining, 470 were deported to Riga in 1941, 99 to Majdanek in 1942, and 323 to Theresienstadt the same year.

POST-WAR

In 1945-1946, 200 Jews - mainly displaced persons - lived in Kassel; 102 in 1955; 73 in 1959; and 106 in 1970.

With municipal aid, a synagogue and a community center were built in 1965.

Gotha

City in Thuringia, Germany.

Jews from Gotha are mentioned in Cologne in 1250 and later in Erfurt. Eight members of the community were killed in connection with a blood libel in Weissensee in 1303. The community suffered during the Black Death persecutions (1349) and again in 1391. Though the community disappeared after the persecutions of 1459-1460, a mikveh (Judenbad) is mentioned in 1564 and 1614. Until 1848 no Jews were allowed to live in the Duchy of Gotha but restricted trading was permitted.

The community formed after 1848 increased from 95 in 18723, to 236 in 1880, and 372 in 1910 (0.9% of the total population). A synagogue was built in 1903. In 1932 the prosperous community of 350 members maintained a synagogue, school, cemetery, library, and six social and charitable organizations. On Nov. 10, 1938, the synagogue was burnt down and 28 men of the community were sent to Buchenwald.

The 80 remaining Jews had been deported by 1939. The community was not reestablished after World War II.

Weimar

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

A few Jews lived in Weimar as early as the Middle Ages. They were affected by the plague pogroms as well as by the expulsion from the Wettin areas. It was not until the 18th century that a small private community could be constituted. In April 1770 Duchess Anna Amalia von Weimar appointed Jacob Elkan to a court Jew in the Principality of Weimar. In the following years two more families moved to Weimar, so that in 1789 three Jewish families lived in the town.

These joined together to form a "private community". In 1805 Jacob Elkan set up a prayer room and a mikveh in his house, this building still exists today and is located at 25 Windischenstrasse. The initials of the community founder's name can still be read on the capstone of the entrance portal. After Elkan's death the building was used exclusively for residential purposes. Presumably from 1805 religious services were held in other private rooms of the Löser or Ulmann families. Jacob Elkan was also the founder of a Jewish cemetery in Weimar, which was used from 1774 to 1898. In the 20th century the site fell into disrepair and was then used as an orchard after the property passed into non-Jewish ownership. In 1983 part of the Jewish cemetery was restored and is now a memorial.

A religious community in the sense of a corporation under public law, could never be founded in Weimar. In 1903 some of the Jewish residents of Weimar joined together in the "Israelite Religious Association" which in 1925 had 25 members. In addition 80 other Jews lived in Weimar who did not join the association. In 1933 there were 91 Jewish inhabitants and in 1939 there were still eleven Jewish families  living here. In the years between 1942 and 1945, the Jewish residents who remained in Weimar were deported to the Nazi concentration and death camps in Eastern Europe. With the last deportations Jewish life in Weimar was irretrievably destroyed.

------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Merseburg

A town and capital of the Saalekreis district.  in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

Merseburg is situated near the city of Leipzig. The Jewish community of Merseburg was one of the oldest in Germany. As early as 973 Emperor Otto II granted bishop Gisiler authority over "the Jews, the merchants, and the mint in the town”. King Henry II renewed this privilege in 1004. In 1234 three Jews lent 80 silver marks to the burgrave of Merseburg. In 1269 the convent of Pegau sold properties to repay debts to Merseburg Jews. In this period Rabbi Ezekiel of Merseburg addressed a number of halakhic queries to Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg. Another scholar of the period was Rabbi Samuel of Merseburg. The cemetery of the community dated at least from 1362. The assertion that there was a persecution in 1349-1350 rests on a confusion between similar names of localities. In a Hebrew source Menahem of Merseburg, author of Nimmukim, was a leading German rabbi in the second half of the 14th century. In 1434 the Jews of the Merseburg bishopric paid 100 gilders
coronation tax to King Sigismund II, in 1438 a 3 income tax to King Albert II, and in 1440 a coronation tax again. At an unknown time thereafter the Jews left the town which underwent economic decline and internal tension. In 1556 the Saxon historian Ernst Brotuff wrote, "formerly many Jews lived in Merseburg who had their own synagogue with a courtyard in the small street west of the cathedral chapter." In 1565 Merseburg came under the rule of Saxony, where no Jews were tolerated, and in 1815 under Prussia, which lifted the restrictions in the new territories only in 1847. By 1849, 34 Jews lived in Merseburg; there were 23 in 1871, 16 in 1880, 20 in 1903, 29 in 1905, 20 in 1913 (five families), and 40 in 1925. They were affiliated with the Jewish community in Weissenfels. Records for the years 1933-1945 are missing. No Jews settled in Merseburg after 1945.

Jena

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

Around 1400 there was a small Jewish community in Jena. In 1431 a synagogue that was located on Jüdengasse and Leutragasse is mentioned. From the middle of the 16th century to 1850 Jews were forbidden to settle in Jena. It was not until the second half of the 19th century that a small Jewish community formed again, but it never received the status of a religious community. The newly founded "Israelite Religious Community" endeavored to provide regular religious instruction for school-age children and worship service. Both took place in the private rooms of community members. The buildings in Scheidlerstrasse 3 and in the former Schützenstrasse 52 are now privately owned and used as residential buildings. The number of members of the Jena community developed as follows: In 1880 there were 30 Jewish residents in Jena, in 1890 there were 64, in 1895 already 85, in 1900 the number fell to 61 and in 1905 there were 145 Jews in Jena. The deceased of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery of the Erfurt community. Although the Jena congregation was given the opportunity to set up a burial place in a separate section of the Catholic cemetery, the predominantly conservative congregation refused.

In 1925 there were 277 Jewish residents in Jena. In 1933 it was less than half with 111. By the end of 1938 all Jewish businesses were "Aryanized" or closed, the Jews living in Jena at that time were crammed into so-called "Jewish houses". From 1942 the deportations to the to the Nazi concentration camps began. After the end of the war eleven survivors of Jena Jews returned from Theresienstadt, and they again founded a small community which only existed for a very short time.

It was only after 1990 when the USSR collapsed, that Jewish emigrants came to Jena and formed a new community.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

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The Jewish Community of Naumburg

Naumburg

A town in the district of Kassel in Hesse, Germany.

First Jewish presence: Middle Ages; peak Jewish population: 81 in 1855; Jewish population in 1933: approximately 35

Jews were massacred in Naumburg in 1494, two years after which their synagogue was destroyed. Further Jewish settlement was forbidden in 1499, but records of a court case from 1503 mention a Jew. By 1692, six Jewish families had moved to Naumburg. Between 1793 and 1795, the community built a new synagogue on Gerichtstrasse (present-day 9 Graf-Volkwin- Strasse); in 1844, the building was enlarged to accommodate a school (it housed an apartment for the teacher) and a mikveh, both of which were moved to the synagogue from other locations. Naumburg’s synagogue had a seating capacity of 67 (40 men, 27 women), additional seating for guests and an impressive array of brass lighting fixtures. In 1826, the Jews of Naumburg consecrated a new cemetery (it was also used by Jews from Elben, Altenstaedt and Martinhagen). Then part of the district of Wolfhagen, the community belonged to the provincial rabbinate in Kassel. In 1931/32, three children received religious instruction. A chevra kadisha was active in the community, with which (by 1933) the Jews of Altendorf, Altenstaedt, Elben, Heimarshausen and Riede had been affiliated.

On October 3, 1938, the local police ordered Jews to leave town within four weeks. On November 11, 1938 (after Pogrom Night), SA men destroyed the synagogue’s interior, heavily damaged the mikveh and school, plundered and burned down the empty Rosenstein and Blumenkorn apartments and partially destroyed the Rosenstein family residence. Naumburg’s fire department extinguished fires that were lit in the Rosenstein and Blumenkorn homes. According to eyewitnesses, Jews were detained near the stone quarry, guarded by SA men, while this was going on. The last community leader immigrated to Chile; his predecessor made it to Argentina. In all, five families emigrated—three went to South America and two to Israel. By November 1939, all Jews had left Naumburg, many of whom were deported from Kassel to Riga on December 9, 1941. At least 28 local Jews perished in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site on November 14, 2004.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Jena
Merseburg
Weimar
Gotha
Kassel

Jena

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

Around 1400 there was a small Jewish community in Jena. In 1431 a synagogue that was located on Jüdengasse and Leutragasse is mentioned. From the middle of the 16th century to 1850 Jews were forbidden to settle in Jena. It was not until the second half of the 19th century that a small Jewish community formed again, but it never received the status of a religious community. The newly founded "Israelite Religious Community" endeavored to provide regular religious instruction for school-age children and worship service. Both took place in the private rooms of community members. The buildings in Scheidlerstrasse 3 and in the former Schützenstrasse 52 are now privately owned and used as residential buildings. The number of members of the Jena community developed as follows: In 1880 there were 30 Jewish residents in Jena, in 1890 there were 64, in 1895 already 85, in 1900 the number fell to 61 and in 1905 there were 145 Jews in Jena. The deceased of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery of the Erfurt community. Although the Jena congregation was given the opportunity to set up a burial place in a separate section of the Catholic cemetery, the predominantly conservative congregation refused.

In 1925 there were 277 Jewish residents in Jena. In 1933 it was less than half with 111. By the end of 1938 all Jewish businesses were "Aryanized" or closed, the Jews living in Jena at that time were crammed into so-called "Jewish houses". From 1942 the deportations to the to the Nazi concentration camps began. After the end of the war eleven survivors of Jena Jews returned from Theresienstadt, and they again founded a small community which only existed for a very short time.

It was only after 1990 when the USSR collapsed, that Jewish emigrants came to Jena and formed a new community.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Merseburg

A town and capital of the Saalekreis district.  in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

Merseburg is situated near the city of Leipzig. The Jewish community of Merseburg was one of the oldest in Germany. As early as 973 Emperor Otto II granted bishop Gisiler authority over "the Jews, the merchants, and the mint in the town”. King Henry II renewed this privilege in 1004. In 1234 three Jews lent 80 silver marks to the burgrave of Merseburg. In 1269 the convent of Pegau sold properties to repay debts to Merseburg Jews. In this period Rabbi Ezekiel of Merseburg addressed a number of halakhic queries to Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg. Another scholar of the period was Rabbi Samuel of Merseburg. The cemetery of the community dated at least from 1362. The assertion that there was a persecution in 1349-1350 rests on a confusion between similar names of localities. In a Hebrew source Menahem of Merseburg, author of Nimmukim, was a leading German rabbi in the second half of the 14th century. In 1434 the Jews of the Merseburg bishopric paid 100 gilders
coronation tax to King Sigismund II, in 1438 a 3 income tax to King Albert II, and in 1440 a coronation tax again. At an unknown time thereafter the Jews left the town which underwent economic decline and internal tension. In 1556 the Saxon historian Ernst Brotuff wrote, "formerly many Jews lived in Merseburg who had their own synagogue with a courtyard in the small street west of the cathedral chapter." In 1565 Merseburg came under the rule of Saxony, where no Jews were tolerated, and in 1815 under Prussia, which lifted the restrictions in the new territories only in 1847. By 1849, 34 Jews lived in Merseburg; there were 23 in 1871, 16 in 1880, 20 in 1903, 29 in 1905, 20 in 1913 (five families), and 40 in 1925. They were affiliated with the Jewish community in Weissenfels. Records for the years 1933-1945 are missing. No Jews settled in Merseburg after 1945.

Weimar

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

A few Jews lived in Weimar as early as the Middle Ages. They were affected by the plague pogroms as well as by the expulsion from the Wettin areas. It was not until the 18th century that a small private community could be constituted. In April 1770 Duchess Anna Amalia von Weimar appointed Jacob Elkan to a court Jew in the Principality of Weimar. In the following years two more families moved to Weimar, so that in 1789 three Jewish families lived in the town.

These joined together to form a "private community". In 1805 Jacob Elkan set up a prayer room and a mikveh in his house, this building still exists today and is located at 25 Windischenstrasse. The initials of the community founder's name can still be read on the capstone of the entrance portal. After Elkan's death the building was used exclusively for residential purposes. Presumably from 1805 religious services were held in other private rooms of the Löser or Ulmann families. Jacob Elkan was also the founder of a Jewish cemetery in Weimar, which was used from 1774 to 1898. In the 20th century the site fell into disrepair and was then used as an orchard after the property passed into non-Jewish ownership. In 1983 part of the Jewish cemetery was restored and is now a memorial.

A religious community in the sense of a corporation under public law, could never be founded in Weimar. In 1903 some of the Jewish residents of Weimar joined together in the "Israelite Religious Association" which in 1925 had 25 members. In addition 80 other Jews lived in Weimar who did not join the association. In 1933 there were 91 Jewish inhabitants and in 1939 there were still eleven Jewish families  living here. In the years between 1942 and 1945, the Jewish residents who remained in Weimar were deported to the Nazi concentration and death camps in Eastern Europe. With the last deportations Jewish life in Weimar was irretrievably destroyed.

------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Gotha

City in Thuringia, Germany.

Jews from Gotha are mentioned in Cologne in 1250 and later in Erfurt. Eight members of the community were killed in connection with a blood libel in Weissensee in 1303. The community suffered during the Black Death persecutions (1349) and again in 1391. Though the community disappeared after the persecutions of 1459-1460, a mikveh (Judenbad) is mentioned in 1564 and 1614. Until 1848 no Jews were allowed to live in the Duchy of Gotha but restricted trading was permitted.

The community formed after 1848 increased from 95 in 18723, to 236 in 1880, and 372 in 1910 (0.9% of the total population). A synagogue was built in 1903. In 1932 the prosperous community of 350 members maintained a synagogue, school, cemetery, library, and six social and charitable organizations. On Nov. 10, 1938, the synagogue was burnt down and 28 men of the community were sent to Buchenwald.

The 80 remaining Jews had been deported by 1939. The community was not reestablished after World War II.

Kassel

A city in Hesse, Germany; former Hesse-Kassel state capital.

21ST CENTURY

Following Jewish immigration from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s, the Jewish community of Kassel numbered about 1,220 in 2004.

As the synagogue had become too small, it was torn down and a new one designed by architect Alfred Jacoby was built and consecrated in 2000. It was financed by the Jewish community of Kassel, the Association of Jewish Communities in Hesse, the Federal state (Land) of Hesse, and the city of Kassel.

HISTORY

A 1293 record maintains that a Jewess had been in possession of some property in Kassel at an earlier date. A Jews' street was in existence in 1318. During the Black Death persecutions (1348-1939), the Jews suffered but some managed to escape and were living in Frankfort (1360) and Erfurt. By 1398, there was an organized community in Kassel, with a synagogue and cemetery.

The Jews' street is mentioned again in 1455 and 1486 and the "Jews' well" might also date from this period.

In 1513, Master Falke contributed to the construction of a local bridge; in 1520, he paid the rent for the cemetery, as did his widow in 1526. Landgrave Philip of Hesse expelled the Jews from Hesse-Kassel in 1524. However, in 1530, he admitted Michel Jud of Derenburg as court agent for 10 years and in 1532, issued a Jewry toleration law, amplified in 1539. Though restrictive and ordering Jews to attend Christian sermons, it was less severe than the extreme anti-Jewish proposals of the reformation theologian Martin Butzer. Only a few Jews were allowed in Kassel during this period, a physician and several silk knitters. In 1602, the court Jew Hayum was admitted as mint master.

In 1577, landgrave William the Wise had initiated Hesse-Kassel Jewry assemblies, first held in Kassel. The kehillah Hebrew constitution papers, begun in 1633, and a pinkas (records and decisions) were ordered to be translated into German in 1734-1740. Hesse-Kassel Jewry was under the civic jurisdiction of the Fulda rabbinate until 1625, and that of Friedberg until 1656.

During the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), the Jews were compelled to leave Kassel. However, the court Jew Benedict Goldschmidt received a residence privilege in 1635; it was extended in 1647 to include his two sons. From 1650 to 1715, private prayer services were held in the Goldschmidt's house, led by the rabbi of the nearby village of Bettenhausen (later part of Kassel), where a cemetery was acquired in 1621.

In 1714, a synagogue building was erected and enlarged in 1755; the community had grown by then to approximately 200 persons. A Memorbuch was begun in 1720, and a Chevra Kaddisha founded in 1773. In 1772, the rabbinate was transferred from Witzenhausen, seat of the yeshivah, to Kassel.

From 1807 to 1813, Kassel was the capital of the short-lived kingdom of Westphalia. The emancipation law of 1808 granted civil rights to Jews and made possible an influx of Jews from other areas. A consistory headed by Israel Jacobson introduced synagogue and educational reforms. The government of the reestablished principality of Hessen-Kassel issued a more restrictive Jewry ordinance in 1823, which remained in force until 1866, when Kassel came under Prussian rule and Prussian emancipation laws prevailed.

In 1836-1839, a new synagogue was built, accommodating around 1,000 persons. An Orthodox faction separated after 1872 and built its own synagogue in 1898. The main synagogue was rebuilt in 1890-1907. The Hesse-Kassel yeshivah was transferred to Kassel as a teachers' seminary and elementary school. The community had a library of Judaica and Hebraica and, in the Landesmuseum, a display of ceremonial objects, as well as arts and crafts, which was restored after 1945. It also possessed an orphanage and an old age home.

In 1905, 2,445 Jews lived in Kassel, 2,750 (1.62% of the total) in 1925, and 2,301 (1.31%) in June 1933, after the Nazis came to power in Germany.

HOLOCAUST

On November 7, 1938, two days before Kristallnacht started, the main synagogue was set on fire. Local firemen extinguished the blaze, something they were explicitly told not to do on Kristallnacht. Two days later, the Liberal synagogue was burned down and the Orthodox synagogue destroyed. A completed manuscript of the second volume of the history of the Jews in Kassel, prepared under community auspices, was destroyed,

Over the following year, 300 Jews including the rabbi were sent to Buchenwald and 560 Jews emigrated. Of those remaining, 470 were deported to Riga in 1941, 99 to Majdanek in 1942, and 323 to Theresienstadt the same year.

POST-WAR

In 1945-1946, 200 Jews - mainly displaced persons - lived in Kassel; 102 in 1955; 73 in 1959; and 106 in 1970.

With municipal aid, a synagogue and a community center were built in 1965.

Weimar

Weimar

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

A few Jews lived in Weimar as early as the Middle Ages. They were affected by the plague pogroms as well as by the expulsion from the Wettin areas. It was not until the 18th century that a small private community could be constituted. In April 1770 Duchess Anna Amalia von Weimar appointed Jacob Elkan to a court Jew in the Principality of Weimar. In the following years two more families moved to Weimar, so that in 1789 three Jewish families lived in the town.

These joined together to form a "private community". In 1805 Jacob Elkan set up a prayer room and a mikveh in his house, this building still exists today and is located at 25 Windischenstrasse. The initials of the community founder's name can still be read on the capstone of the entrance portal. After Elkan's death the building was used exclusively for residential purposes. Presumably from 1805 religious services were held in other private rooms of the Löser or Ulmann families. Jacob Elkan was also the founder of a Jewish cemetery in Weimar, which was used from 1774 to 1898. In the 20th century the site fell into disrepair and was then used as an orchard after the property passed into non-Jewish ownership. In 1983 part of the Jewish cemetery was restored and is now a memorial.

A religious community in the sense of a corporation under public law, could never be founded in Weimar. In 1903 some of the Jewish residents of Weimar joined together in the "Israelite Religious Association" which in 1925 had 25 members. In addition 80 other Jews lived in Weimar who did not join the association. In 1933 there were 91 Jewish inhabitants and in 1939 there were still eleven Jewish families  living here. In the years between 1942 and 1945, the Jewish residents who remained in Weimar were deported to the Nazi concentration and death camps in Eastern Europe. With the last deportations Jewish life in Weimar was irretrievably destroyed.

------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

NAUMBOURG
NAUMBOURG

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

Naumbourg is a spelling variant of Naumburg. There are several towns in central Europe called Naumburg, among them Naumburg near Kassel, in Hesse, western Germany, and Naumburg an der Saale, near Halle, Saxony, western Germany. The German name of Nowogrodziec, also known as Nowimburk, in lower Silesia, Wroclaw province, south west Poland, is Naumburg am Queis.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Naumburg include the American merchant and philanthropist Aaron Naumburg (1859-1928) and the 20th century American educator Margaret Naumburg.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Naumbourg include the German cantor, composer and author Samuel Naumbourg (1815-1880).