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The Jewish Community of Muenden

Muenden

Münden

A town in the district of Göttingen in Lower Saxony, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1520; peak Jewish population: 155 in 1875; Jewish population in 1933: 84

In Muenden, a Jewish cemetery was consecrated in 1673, proof that this community developed earlier than did most others in the area. Initially, Muenden Jews earned a modest living as dry goods merchants, second-hand clothes dealers and lottery ticket sellers. During the 19th century, however (professional restrictions on Jews were lifted in 1814), local Jews branched out into manufacturing and other industries. The community inaugurated a new synagogue in 1834; and in 1878, after the synagogue was damaged during a fire, the building was renovated and re-consecrated. Muenden’s Jewish elementary school, founded in 1831, was presided over by a series of teachers: Simon Mauer, the first, served for 35 years; in 1925, teacher Theodor Wertheimer celebrated 30 years of service. The anti-Jewish boycott of 1933 unleashed a wave of panic among the seemingly secure Jewish citizens of Muenden, causing many to either emigrate from or relocate within Germany. In 1935, when all large Jewish-owned businesses were “aryanized,” more Jews fled Muenden. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue was vandalized—ritual objects were burned in the street—windows in Jewish apartments were smashed and house owners were arrested. Forty-two Jews, Muenden’s last, were deported in 1942. Years later, on the 50th anniversary of Pogrom Night, a memorial plaque was unveiled at city hall.

--------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
17526624
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

MUENDEN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birthplace, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This family name is derived from Münden (Muenden), the name of a town in the district of Göttingen in Lower Saxony, Germany. The earliest Jewish presence in Münden is documented in 1520.

Places, regions and countries of origin or residence are some of the sources of Jewish family names. But, unless the family has reliable records, names based on toponymics cannot prove the exact origin of the family.

Muenden is documented as a Jewish family name with Hedwig Sophie Münden nee Salomon, born in Hamburg, Germany, in 1879, who was murdered at Treblinka Nazi death camp during the Holocaust.  

Adelebsen

A village in the district of Göttingen, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1675; peak Jewish population: 192 in 1861; Jewish population in 1933: 32

Although individual Jewish merchants settled in the area with ducal permission before the nineteenth century, it was only in the early 1800s that enough Jews lived in Adelebsen to warrant the establishment of a prayer hall (located in a private home). In 1836, the community built a synagogue with 100 seats (50 for men, 50 for women), schoolrooms and living quarters for a teacher, who also functioned as chazzan and shochet. Adelebsen Jews, initially cattle dealers and dry goods merchants, eventually branched out into other industries and trades; the town was home to a Jewish-owned weaving mill, veterinary clinic and, for a short period, a Jewish doctor. The community also maintained several Jewish organizations, e.g., a charity association (founded in 1850), a chevra kadisha (founded in 1889) and a male choir. The cemetery was vandalized in 1929. Later, in response to the anti-Jewish boycott of 1933, many Jews left Adelebsen. In the spring of 1938, two SA officers were indicted and fined, giving the remaining Jews a false sense of security, for the synagogue was destroyed on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938) by SS officials from Goettingen; Jewish householders were arrested and abused that night. Adelebsen’s few remaining Jews were deported in 1942. A selection of ritual objects belonging to members of the Adelebsen community is on display in the Goettingen Jewish community house.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Goettingen

Göttingen 

City in Niedersachsen, Germany.

Jews are first mentioned there in the 13th century. The community, composed of a dozen families, had a synagogue and paid 4 1/2% of the city's taxes. It was destroyed in 1350 during the Black Death persecutions, but in 1370 a charter giving protection to the Jews of the city was re-endorsed. In 1591 the Jews were expelled from Goettingen. Several resettled in the city at the end of the 17th century, and in 1718 Jews were given permission to acquire real property. In the university quarter their numbers were limited to three families. Some Hebrew printing took place in Goettingen. Abraham Jagel's "Lekach Tov" was published there in 1742, and Hebrew type was also used in a. G. Wachner's "Antiquitates Hebraeorum" (1742-1743). The community numbered 43 in 1833, 265 in 1871, 661 (1.75% of the total population) in 1910, 411 in 1932, and 173 in 1939.

In 1859 there was appointed at Goettingen University the first Jew to become a professor in a German university, the mathematician Moritz Abraham Stern. The university was noted for its biblical scholars, most of whom were champions of the documentary hypothesis, from J. G. Eichhorn and g. H. A. Ewald to Paul de Lagarde and Julius Wellhausen. When James Franck, the Nobel prizewinner, resigned his chair in 1933, a number of professors demanded that he be tried for sabotage; six other Jewish professors were put on compulsory leave, among them the mathematicians Otto Neugebauer and Richard Courant, as well as Nikolaus Pevsner, and Eugen Caspary.

Most of the Jews remaining in Goettingen after the outbreak of World War II were deported to Theresienstadt in 1942. Another 150 were deported, including those who have sought refuge in other localities, but Jews of East-European origin (ostjuden) were deported to the ghetto of Warsaw. By October 20 of that year only nine remained. The synagogue burned down on Kristallnacht. 267 local Jews were murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust

There were 26 Jews living in Goettingen in 1965, bolstered in the 1990s by immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

Kassel

A city in Hesse, Germany; former Hesse-Kassel state capital.

21ST CENTURY

Following Jewish immigration from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s, the Jewish community of Kassel numbered about 1,220 in 2004.

As the synagogue had become too small, it was torn down and a new one designed by architect Alfred Jacoby was built and consecrated in 2000. It was financed by the Jewish community of Kassel, the Association of Jewish Communities in Hesse, the Federal state (Land) of Hesse, and the city of Kassel.

HISTORY

A 1293 record maintains that a Jewess had been in possession of some property in Kassel at an earlier date. A Jews' street was in existence in 1318. During the Black Death persecutions (1348-1939), the Jews suffered but some managed to escape and were living in Frankfort (1360) and Erfurt. By 1398, there was an organized community in Kassel, with a synagogue and cemetery.

The Jews' street is mentioned again in 1455 and 1486 and the "Jews' well" might also date from this period.

In 1513, Master Falke contributed to the construction of a local bridge; in 1520, he paid the rent for the cemetery, as did his widow in 1526. Landgrave Philip of Hesse expelled the Jews from Hesse-Kassel in 1524. However, in 1530, he admitted Michel Jud of Derenburg as court agent for 10 years and in 1532, issued a Jewry toleration law, amplified in 1539. Though restrictive and ordering Jews to attend Christian sermons, it was less severe than the extreme anti-Jewish proposals of the reformation theologian Martin Butzer. Only a few Jews were allowed in Kassel during this period, a physician and several silk knitters. In 1602, the court Jew Hayum was admitted as mint master.

In 1577, landgrave William the Wise had initiated Hesse-Kassel Jewry assemblies, first held in Kassel. The kehillah Hebrew constitution papers, begun in 1633, and a pinkas (records and decisions) were ordered to be translated into German in 1734-1740. Hesse-Kassel Jewry was under the civic jurisdiction of the Fulda rabbinate until 1625, and that of Friedberg until 1656.

During the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), the Jews were compelled to leave Kassel. However, the court Jew Benedict Goldschmidt received a residence privilege in 1635; it was extended in 1647 to include his two sons. From 1650 to 1715, private prayer services were held in the Goldschmidt's house, led by the rabbi of the nearby village of Bettenhausen (later part of Kassel), where a cemetery was acquired in 1621.

In 1714, a synagogue building was erected and enlarged in 1755; the community had grown by then to approximately 200 persons. A Memorbuch was begun in 1720, and a Chevra Kaddisha founded in 1773. In 1772, the rabbinate was transferred from Witzenhausen, seat of the yeshivah, to Kassel.

From 1807 to 1813, Kassel was the capital of the short-lived kingdom of Westphalia. The emancipation law of 1808 granted civil rights to Jews and made possible an influx of Jews from other areas. A consistory headed by Israel Jacobson introduced synagogue and educational reforms. The government of the reestablished principality of Hessen-Kassel issued a more restrictive Jewry ordinance in 1823, which remained in force until 1866, when Kassel came under Prussian rule and Prussian emancipation laws prevailed.

In 1836-1839, a new synagogue was built, accommodating around 1,000 persons. An Orthodox faction separated after 1872 and built its own synagogue in 1898. The main synagogue was rebuilt in 1890-1907. The Hesse-Kassel yeshivah was transferred to Kassel as a teachers' seminary and elementary school. The community had a library of Judaica and Hebraica and, in the Landesmuseum, a display of ceremonial objects, as well as arts and crafts, which was restored after 1945. It also possessed an orphanage and an old age home.

In 1905, 2,445 Jews lived in Kassel, 2,750 (1.62% of the total) in 1925, and 2,301 (1.31%) in June 1933, after the Nazis came to power in Germany.

HOLOCAUST

On November 7, 1938, two days before Kristallnacht started, the main synagogue was set on fire. Local firemen extinguished the blaze, something they were explicitly told not to do on Kristallnacht. Two days later, the Liberal synagogue was burned down and the Orthodox synagogue destroyed. A completed manuscript of the second volume of the history of the Jews in Kassel, prepared under community auspices, was destroyed,

Over the following year, 300 Jews including the rabbi were sent to Buchenwald and 560 Jews emigrated. Of those remaining, 470 were deported to Riga in 1941, 99 to Majdanek in 1942, and 323 to Theresienstadt the same year.

POST-WAR

In 1945-1946, 200 Jews - mainly displaced persons - lived in Kassel; 102 in 1955; 73 in 1959; and 106 in 1970.

With municipal aid, a synagogue and a community center were built in 1965.

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The Jewish Community of Muenden

Muenden

Münden

A town in the district of Göttingen in Lower Saxony, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1520; peak Jewish population: 155 in 1875; Jewish population in 1933: 84

In Muenden, a Jewish cemetery was consecrated in 1673, proof that this community developed earlier than did most others in the area. Initially, Muenden Jews earned a modest living as dry goods merchants, second-hand clothes dealers and lottery ticket sellers. During the 19th century, however (professional restrictions on Jews were lifted in 1814), local Jews branched out into manufacturing and other industries. The community inaugurated a new synagogue in 1834; and in 1878, after the synagogue was damaged during a fire, the building was renovated and re-consecrated. Muenden’s Jewish elementary school, founded in 1831, was presided over by a series of teachers: Simon Mauer, the first, served for 35 years; in 1925, teacher Theodor Wertheimer celebrated 30 years of service. The anti-Jewish boycott of 1933 unleashed a wave of panic among the seemingly secure Jewish citizens of Muenden, causing many to either emigrate from or relocate within Germany. In 1935, when all large Jewish-owned businesses were “aryanized,” more Jews fled Muenden. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue was vandalized—ritual objects were burned in the street—windows in Jewish apartments were smashed and house owners were arrested. Forty-two Jews, Muenden’s last, were deported in 1942. Years later, on the 50th anniversary of Pogrom Night, a memorial plaque was unveiled at city hall.

--------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
MUENDEN

MUENDEN

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birthplace, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This family name is derived from Münden (Muenden), the name of a town in the district of Göttingen in Lower Saxony, Germany. The earliest Jewish presence in Münden is documented in 1520.

Places, regions and countries of origin or residence are some of the sources of Jewish family names. But, unless the family has reliable records, names based on toponymics cannot prove the exact origin of the family.

Muenden is documented as a Jewish family name with Hedwig Sophie Münden nee Salomon, born in Hamburg, Germany, in 1879, who was murdered at Treblinka Nazi death camp during the Holocaust.  

Ahron Anton MUENDEN
Isaac MUENDEN
Dr.Max MUENDEN

Adelebsen

Adelebsen

A village in the district of Göttingen, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1675; peak Jewish population: 192 in 1861; Jewish population in 1933: 32

Although individual Jewish merchants settled in the area with ducal permission before the nineteenth century, it was only in the early 1800s that enough Jews lived in Adelebsen to warrant the establishment of a prayer hall (located in a private home). In 1836, the community built a synagogue with 100 seats (50 for men, 50 for women), schoolrooms and living quarters for a teacher, who also functioned as chazzan and shochet. Adelebsen Jews, initially cattle dealers and dry goods merchants, eventually branched out into other industries and trades; the town was home to a Jewish-owned weaving mill, veterinary clinic and, for a short period, a Jewish doctor. The community also maintained several Jewish organizations, e.g., a charity association (founded in 1850), a chevra kadisha (founded in 1889) and a male choir. The cemetery was vandalized in 1929. Later, in response to the anti-Jewish boycott of 1933, many Jews left Adelebsen. In the spring of 1938, two SA officers were indicted and fined, giving the remaining Jews a false sense of security, for the synagogue was destroyed on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938) by SS officials from Goettingen; Jewish householders were arrested and abused that night. Adelebsen’s few remaining Jews were deported in 1942. A selection of ritual objects belonging to members of the Adelebsen community is on display in the Goettingen Jewish community house.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Lower Saxony - Niedersachsen

Goettingen

Goettingen

Göttingen 

City in Niedersachsen, Germany.

Jews are first mentioned there in the 13th century. The community, composed of a dozen families, had a synagogue and paid 4 1/2% of the city's taxes. It was destroyed in 1350 during the Black Death persecutions, but in 1370 a charter giving protection to the Jews of the city was re-endorsed. In 1591 the Jews were expelled from Goettingen. Several resettled in the city at the end of the 17th century, and in 1718 Jews were given permission to acquire real property. In the university quarter their numbers were limited to three families. Some Hebrew printing took place in Goettingen. Abraham Jagel's "Lekach Tov" was published there in 1742, and Hebrew type was also used in a. G. Wachner's "Antiquitates Hebraeorum" (1742-1743). The community numbered 43 in 1833, 265 in 1871, 661 (1.75% of the total population) in 1910, 411 in 1932, and 173 in 1939.

In 1859 there was appointed at Goettingen University the first Jew to become a professor in a German university, the mathematician Moritz Abraham Stern. The university was noted for its biblical scholars, most of whom were champions of the documentary hypothesis, from J. G. Eichhorn and g. H. A. Ewald to Paul de Lagarde and Julius Wellhausen. When James Franck, the Nobel prizewinner, resigned his chair in 1933, a number of professors demanded that he be tried for sabotage; six other Jewish professors were put on compulsory leave, among them the mathematicians Otto Neugebauer and Richard Courant, as well as Nikolaus Pevsner, and Eugen Caspary.

Most of the Jews remaining in Goettingen after the outbreak of World War II were deported to Theresienstadt in 1942. Another 150 were deported, including those who have sought refuge in other localities, but Jews of East-European origin (ostjuden) were deported to the ghetto of Warsaw. By October 20 of that year only nine remained. The synagogue burned down on Kristallnacht. 267 local Jews were murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust

There were 26 Jews living in Goettingen in 1965, bolstered in the 1990s by immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

Kassel

Kassel

A city in Hesse, Germany; former Hesse-Kassel state capital.

21ST CENTURY

Following Jewish immigration from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s, the Jewish community of Kassel numbered about 1,220 in 2004.

As the synagogue had become too small, it was torn down and a new one designed by architect Alfred Jacoby was built and consecrated in 2000. It was financed by the Jewish community of Kassel, the Association of Jewish Communities in Hesse, the Federal state (Land) of Hesse, and the city of Kassel.

HISTORY

A 1293 record maintains that a Jewess had been in possession of some property in Kassel at an earlier date. A Jews' street was in existence in 1318. During the Black Death persecutions (1348-1939), the Jews suffered but some managed to escape and were living in Frankfort (1360) and Erfurt. By 1398, there was an organized community in Kassel, with a synagogue and cemetery.

The Jews' street is mentioned again in 1455 and 1486 and the "Jews' well" might also date from this period.

In 1513, Master Falke contributed to the construction of a local bridge; in 1520, he paid the rent for the cemetery, as did his widow in 1526. Landgrave Philip of Hesse expelled the Jews from Hesse-Kassel in 1524. However, in 1530, he admitted Michel Jud of Derenburg as court agent for 10 years and in 1532, issued a Jewry toleration law, amplified in 1539. Though restrictive and ordering Jews to attend Christian sermons, it was less severe than the extreme anti-Jewish proposals of the reformation theologian Martin Butzer. Only a few Jews were allowed in Kassel during this period, a physician and several silk knitters. In 1602, the court Jew Hayum was admitted as mint master.

In 1577, landgrave William the Wise had initiated Hesse-Kassel Jewry assemblies, first held in Kassel. The kehillah Hebrew constitution papers, begun in 1633, and a pinkas (records and decisions) were ordered to be translated into German in 1734-1740. Hesse-Kassel Jewry was under the civic jurisdiction of the Fulda rabbinate until 1625, and that of Friedberg until 1656.

During the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), the Jews were compelled to leave Kassel. However, the court Jew Benedict Goldschmidt received a residence privilege in 1635; it was extended in 1647 to include his two sons. From 1650 to 1715, private prayer services were held in the Goldschmidt's house, led by the rabbi of the nearby village of Bettenhausen (later part of Kassel), where a cemetery was acquired in 1621.

In 1714, a synagogue building was erected and enlarged in 1755; the community had grown by then to approximately 200 persons. A Memorbuch was begun in 1720, and a Chevra Kaddisha founded in 1773. In 1772, the rabbinate was transferred from Witzenhausen, seat of the yeshivah, to Kassel.

From 1807 to 1813, Kassel was the capital of the short-lived kingdom of Westphalia. The emancipation law of 1808 granted civil rights to Jews and made possible an influx of Jews from other areas. A consistory headed by Israel Jacobson introduced synagogue and educational reforms. The government of the reestablished principality of Hessen-Kassel issued a more restrictive Jewry ordinance in 1823, which remained in force until 1866, when Kassel came under Prussian rule and Prussian emancipation laws prevailed.

In 1836-1839, a new synagogue was built, accommodating around 1,000 persons. An Orthodox faction separated after 1872 and built its own synagogue in 1898. The main synagogue was rebuilt in 1890-1907. The Hesse-Kassel yeshivah was transferred to Kassel as a teachers' seminary and elementary school. The community had a library of Judaica and Hebraica and, in the Landesmuseum, a display of ceremonial objects, as well as arts and crafts, which was restored after 1945. It also possessed an orphanage and an old age home.

In 1905, 2,445 Jews lived in Kassel, 2,750 (1.62% of the total) in 1925, and 2,301 (1.31%) in June 1933, after the Nazis came to power in Germany.

HOLOCAUST

On November 7, 1938, two days before Kristallnacht started, the main synagogue was set on fire. Local firemen extinguished the blaze, something they were explicitly told not to do on Kristallnacht. Two days later, the Liberal synagogue was burned down and the Orthodox synagogue destroyed. A completed manuscript of the second volume of the history of the Jews in Kassel, prepared under community auspices, was destroyed,

Over the following year, 300 Jews including the rabbi were sent to Buchenwald and 560 Jews emigrated. Of those remaining, 470 were deported to Riga in 1941, 99 to Majdanek in 1942, and 323 to Theresienstadt the same year.

POST-WAR

In 1945-1946, 200 Jews - mainly displaced persons - lived in Kassel; 102 in 1955; 73 in 1959; and 106 in 1970.

With municipal aid, a synagogue and a community center were built in 1965.