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The Jewish Community of Cluj Napoca

Cluj-Napoca

Commonly known as Cluj  - renamed Cluj-Napoca from Cluj in 1974
Yiddish: Kloyzenburg (קלויזענבורג)
Hungarian: Kolozsvar
German: Klausenburg

A city in northwest Romania. Cluj is the capital of Cluj County, and is traditionally considered to be the capital of Transylvania

Between 1790 and 1848, and 1861 and 1867, Cluj was the capital of Transylvania. The location of Cluj is roughly equidistant from Bucharest (201 miles/324km), Budapest (218 miles/351km), and Belgrade (200 miles/322km). Between 1867 and 1920, and between 1940 and 1945, Cluj was part of Hungary.

The Neolog synagogue is the only functioning synagogue left in Cluj, and serves the local Jewish community. It is dedicated to the victims of the Holocaust.

A census conducted in 2002 indicated that there were 223 Jews living in Cluj.

HISTORY

A document from 1481 is the first evidence of a Jewish presence in Cluj. During the 16th and 17th centuries Jews attended the city's fairs, in spite of opposition from the local authorities. However, it was only in the late 18th century that Jews were permitted to settle in Cluj; during the 17th and 18th centuries any Jews who wanted to live in Transylvania were restricted to the town of Alba Iulia.

The census of 1780 records eight Jewish families as living in Cluj. Locals were not happy about having Jews in their city. In 1784 the municipal council prohibited the inhabitants from selling real estate to Jews. Lobel Deutsch, the first Jew who had been allowed to live in Cluj, had his shop closed by the authorities in 1790; when he protested his 11-year old daughter was kidnapped and forcibly baptized.

In spite of the struggles, a small number of Jews remained in Cluj and made their homes there. A prayer room was opened in 1807, and a small synagogue was built in 1818, at which point the community consisted of 40 people. A chevra kaddisha was founded in 1837.

In 1839 fifteen Jewish families were permitted to live in Cluj, but they were forbidden from hosting any other Jews from other areas. Nonetheless, before the Revolution of 1848 there were 58 Jewish families living n Cluj; the authorities had plans to expel 16 of them. With the outbreak and subsequent failure of the revolution, the Imperial Constitution of 1849 removed the residence restrictions imposed on the Jews of Transylvania, and granted them the right to purchase real estate.

As a result of the removal of various restrictions, the Jewish community of Cluj began to grow rapidly; by 1850 there were 479 Jews living in Cluj, and the population would continue to grow. The city's first synagogue was established in 1851; a year later Rabbi Hillel Lichtenstein arrived to serve the community. Rabbi Lichtenstein did not serve for long; his opposition to modernism, as well as his conflicts with Transylvania's chief rabbi, Abraham Friedman, eventually led to his firing, and he left the city in 1854. He was succeeded in 1861 by Rabbi Feisch Fischman. Rabbi Abraham Glasner served the community from 1863 until 1877; he was opposed by proponents of the Hasidic movement, which was then gaining ground in the city. Glasner's son, Moshe Glasner, succeeded him in 1878; Mosher Glasner, in turn, was succeeded by his son, Akiva Glasner, who served from 1919 until the community's destruction in1944.

The religious schism that took place during and after the General Jewish Congress of Hungary (1868-1869) also affected the Jews of Cluj. An Orthodox community was maintained; those who did not want to identify as Orthodox were organized into the Status Quo community (a community that was neither Orthodox nor Neolog) in 1881; the Status Quo community subsequently became Neolog in 1884. The Neolog community established a synagogue in 1886, which was renovated in 1912. Alexander Kohut served as the Neolog community's first rabbi (1884-1885); he was succeeded by Rabbi Matyas Eisler (1891-1930), and Rabbi Moses Weinberger (1934-1944). The Hasidim established a separate communal organization in 1921 and was led by Rabbi Zalman Leib Halberstam.The Orthodox and Neolog communities each opened their own educational institutions. The Orthodox elementary school opened in 1875, while the Neolog community opened their school in 1908.

In 1866 there were 776 Jews living in Cluj; after the emancipation of 1869-1870 the city's Jewish population shot up to 3,008. By 1910 the population had more than doubled, with 7,046 Jews living in the city (11.6% of the total population).

Zionism became active in Cluj after World War I, and Cluj became a Zionist center within Transylvania. Uj Kelet, a lively and prominent Zionist weekly (it later became a daily newspaper), began to be published at the end of 1918. It had a large readership and became a major influence among the Jews of Transylvania and Romania. Uj Kelet was also the organ of the (principally Zionist) Jewish Party (Partidul Evreiesc); some of the party's local activists were elected to the Romanian Parliament. Cluj's local Jewish press was not limited to Zionism, however. During the interwar period approximately 20 newspapers were published in Cluj, on a variety of topics and in languages ranging from Yiddish to Hebrew to Hungarian.

A Tarbut high school was founded in Cluj in 1920; its director, Mark Antal, was a former director general of Hungary's Ministry of Education and Culture. The language of instruction was Hungarian, Romanian, and Hebrew. The Tarbut school operated until 1927, when it was closed by the Romanian authorities. Later, after Cluj was annexed by Hungary and Jewish children were prohibited from attending general schools, a Jewish high school was opened in October 1940 and functioned until the community's internment in the ghetto.

In 1930 there were 13,504 Jews living in Cluj (12.7% of the total population).

THE HOLOCAUST

After the 1940 Hungarian annexation, anti- Jewish measures and economic restrictions were imposed on Jews throughout the region. In 1942 most of the military-age men in Cluj were conscripted for forced labor and transported to the Nazi-occupied area of the Soviet Union, where many perished.

When the Germans occupied Hungary in the summer of 1944 the local Jews, 16,763 Jews from Cluj, Szamosujvar (Gherla) and the surrounding area were confined to a ghetto. They were deported to Auschwitz between May 25 and June 9, 1944, where most were killed.

POSTWAR

A number of survivors from Cluj returned to the city, and were joined by survivors who came from other areas; in 1947 Cluj was home to 6,500 Jews. Prayers were held in three synagogues, and the community maintained a kosher butcher and canteen. A Jewish elementary school and a high school were reopened, and a vocational school was established to aid survivors in finding work. These institutions were closed in 1948, however, when the communist authorities imposed their own system of education on the populace. Eventually many of the community's Jews emigrated to Israel or other areas. By 1970 there were 1,100 Jews (340 families) remaining in Cluj. At the end of the 20th century the Jewish population had dropped by more than half, and the community had about 500 members.

Place Type:
City
ID Number:
169394
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

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Grunzweig, Emil (1947-1983), Israeli educator and peace activist, born in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, son of Holocaust survivors. He immigrated to Israel in 1963, having spent his childhood years in Brazil and France, and settled in Haifa, and then in Kibbutz Magal. Grunzweig served in IDF as a paratrooper taking part in the Six-Day War (1967), the War of Attrition (1969-1970, Yom Kippur War (1973), and Lebanon War (1982).

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Szabo, Imre (1882-1943), author, playwright and journalist, born in Ersekujvar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, Nove Zamky in Slovakia). He began his career as a journalist writing for the German-language "Neues Politisches Volksblatt", and later worked for Hungarian and Jewish newspapers. After World War I, Szabo settled in Kolozsvar (then Hungary, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and devoted himself to literature.

He wrote plays, novels, and biographies, mainly on Jewish subjects, and was strongly influenced by the major Hungarian writers, notably Kalman Mikszath. Szabo also published translations of plays from Yiddish to Hungarian. His works include the story "A pozsonyi zsido utca" ("The Jews' Street in Pozsony", (Pressburg in German), 1938), a faithful picture of pre-World War I Jewish life; "Zsido komediasok" ("Jewish Comedians", 1925); and "Kelet Kapujaban" ("At the Gate of the East", 1937). "Uj zsidok" ("New Jews", 1937) contained biographies of Theodor Herzl and other modern Jewish leaders. Szabo also published a Hungarian version of Louis Golding's novel "Magnolia Street". Two later works were "Erdely zsidoi" ("The Jews of Transylvania", 1938) and "Roma es Judea" ("Rome and Judea"' 1943). Szabo also published reports of his journeys to Bessarabia, Moldova and the Middle East.
Szilasi, Moric (1854-1905), philologist, born in Szilasbalhas, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire), he studied at Budapest and Leipzig, Germany. He taught philology at the Otvos College in Budapest, and in 1902 was named professor of Hungarian at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). He was the author of dictionaries of the Vogul and Cheremiss languages, as well as of many works on Finno-Ugric comparative linguistics.

Szilasi was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Science. His essays were published in professional journals, in the Budapesti Szemle, and the publications of the Academy. He also translated from Greek, Latin, English and German into Hungarian. Szilasi died in Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca).
Eisler, Matyas (1865-1931), rabbi and scholar, born in Paty, county of Pest, Hungary (then in the Austrian Empire). Eisler studied at the rabbinical seminaries of Budapest and Berlin, Germany, and studied for a doctor's degree in philosophy at the University of Budapest. In 1890 he became teacher of Hebrew at the Israelitische Lehrbildungsanstalt (Training school for Jewish teachers) and subsequently at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj, in Romania). In 1891 he was ordained a rabbi at the rabbinical seminary of Budapest. He served as chief rabbi of Kolozsvar from 1891 until his death. Eisler was lecturer in Oriental sciences at the Academy of Sciences in Budapest.

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Bodog, Somlo (1873-1920), jurist and sociologist, born in Pozsony, Hungary (aka Pressburg, then part of Austria-Hungary, now Bratislava, Slovakia). He studied in the Universities of Kolozsvar, Hungary, (now Cluj Napoca, Romania), Leipzig and Heidelberg, Germany. He was lecturer in the University of Kolozsvar to which, after teaching in the Academy of Law at Nagyvarad, Hungary (now Oradea, Romania), he returned in 1905 as professor of the philosophy of law. From 1918 to 1919 he was professor in the University of Budapest. Bodog converted to Christianity.

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Major Aron Lisiansky, Commander of the Engineering Unit, with his Commanders and the soldiers of the Russian Army.
Cluj, Romania 28.7.1945
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Irit Kogan, Israel)

Lisiansky Aron Ya Kovlievich
The Great Synagogue in Cluj, Romania,
inaugurated in 1887
It was partially destroyed by the Allied air raids in 1944, restored in 1970
Photo: Clara Spitzer, Bucharest
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Clara Spitzer)
Joseph Lazar (sitting at the first table, 2nd from left)
playing domino at a aocial club in Cluj, Romania 1935.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Nili Michaeli, Israel)
Jewish students eating in a Koscher resturant,
Cluj, Rumania, 1985
The restaurant (or cantina) serves lunch at a minimal fee
everyday of the week, many Jewish students
attending the University take their lunches there
Photo: Yale Strom, USA
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Yale Strom, USA)
Tombstone in the old Jewish cemetery,
Cluj, Romania, 1976
Photo: Lajos Erdelyi, Hungary
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
Lajos Erdelyi colelction, Hungary)
Parade of "Hashomer" Members in the Hebrew Gymnasium, Cluj (Koloswar), Transylvania, Romania 1922.
(Tel Yitzhaq, Massua, Institute for the Study
of the Holocaust)

"Hashomer" was one of the groups which formed
"Ha-No'ar Ha-Ziyyoni" in 1930s.
.
The wedding photo of the daughter
of Chief Rabbi Shmuel Glazner (sitting by the bride)
and one of the founders of the Mizrachi movement,
Kolozsvar (Cluj), Romania, 1922
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of the Kadman family, Israel)
Sari Boskovich with her two small sons
Zoltan (standing) and Alexander Uriyah (sitting),
Cluj, Transylvania, Rumania, c1913
(formerly Kolozsvar, Hungary)
Alexander Uriyah Boskovich (1907-1964) was an Israeli
composer and music critic
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Miriam Boskovich, Israel)

Exterior view of the synagogue in Cluj-Napoca, Transylvania, Romania, 2002

There is a memorial plaque on the wall

The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot, courtesy of Moshe Fisher, Israel

Jaszi, Oszkar (1875-1957), political scientist, born in Nagykaroly, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Carei in Romania). Jaszi was converted to Christianity by his parents. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Budapest in 1896.

Jaszi was concerned with the problem of national minorities and argued that these minorities should be granted full cultural and social autonomy. However, later he believed that the question of Russian Jewry could be resolved only by the creation of a Jewish State in Palestine. He advocated that the Jews of Hungary should assimilate. He was editor of the radical periodical "Huszadik Szazad" ("Twentieth Century") from 1906 to 1919. In 1912 he published "A nemzeti allamok kialakulasa es a nemzetisegi kerdes" ("The Evolution of the Nation States and the Nationality Problem"). The same year Jaszi was appointed to a junior position in the faculty of political science at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj, in Romania).

Jaszi believed that after World War I the countries of central Europe should unite into a confederation. In 1917 he therefore participated in the conference held in Bern, Switzerland where, convinced that the entry of the United States into the War spelled disaster for the Central European Powers, he urged that Hungary make peace with Germany jointly with other countries or separately. When the Hungarian people, stripped of all possessions after four years of war, seethed with discontent, Jaszi urged King Charles IV to introduce immediate reforms. A memorandum to this effect was unheeded, and toward the end of October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy collapsed. In 1918, following the revolution, Jaszi was made minister of national minorities. He recognized the right of the Jews to national self-determination and also attempted to negotiate a permanent settlement with the national minorities within the Hungarian Republic.

When the Hungarian Soviet regime came to power in 1919, Jaszi left Hungary for Vienna and then Munich,Germany, from where he published a history of the revolution in Hungary, "Magyar kalvaria – Magyar foltamadas" ("Revolution and Counter Revolution in Hungary"). In 1925 he immigrated to the United States, where he lectured at Oregon College, Ohio, and became professor of political science in 1941.

Jaszi was the author of numerous works on politics and political science including "A tortenelmi materializmus allambolcselete" ("History of Historical Materialism", 1904); and "The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy" (1929).
Kanitz, Agost (1843-1896), botanist, born in Lugos, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now Lugoj, Romania) and died in Kolozsvar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Cluj, Romania). He studied in Vienna, Paris, and in Leyden, Holland.

In 1872 he was made professor of botany at the University of Kolozsvar (then Hungary, later Cluj, Romania), where he established a botanical institute and herbarium. Kanitz was the first scientist in southeastern Europe to work for the classification of flora throughout the region. Together with others he classified the flora of Slavonia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Albania. He also edited a list of the flora of Romania.

He classified and wrote about the flora collected by Hungarian expeditions to Asia Minor and China. He contributed to "Flora Brasiliensis", edited by Carl F. Martius. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Arts and of numerous international scientific institutions, among them the international botanical jury of Florence, Italy. He founded, sponsored and edited from 1877 to 1892 the first botanical journal of Hungary, "Magyar Novenytani Lapok". He wrote a number of books on the subject.
Eisler, Matyas (1865-1931), rabbi and scholar, born in Paty, county of Pest, Hungary (then in the Austrian Empire). Eisler studied at the rabbinical seminaries of Budapest and Berlin, Germany, and studied for a doctor's degree in philosophy at the University of Budapest. In 1890 he became teacher of Hebrew at the Israelitische Lehrbildungsanstalt (Training school for Jewish teachers) and subsequently at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj, in Romania). In 1891 he was ordained a rabbi at the rabbinical seminary of Budapest. He served as chief rabbi of Kolozsvar from 1891 until his death. Eisler was lecturer in Oriental sciences at the Academy of Sciences in Budapest.

Eisler's communal leadership won him the presidency of the Rabbinical Association of Transylvania. He was also a prime figure in the national committee, which in the years following World War I, extended aid to students who were obliged to enroll at universities outside Hungary because of anti-Semitism in the academic world.

His was particularly interested in the history of the Jews of Transylvania and Hebrew linguistics. In 1889 he published "A gyokbeli hangok interdialektikus valtozasai az aram nyelvekben" ("Interdialectical Changes of Root Sounds in the Aramaic Languages") and among his other works were "Az erdelyi zsidok multjabol" ("From the Past of the Jews of Transylvania", 1901). In 1914 he published a facsimile volume, "A tenger a biblia kolteszeteben", dealing with the sea as a subject in Biblical poetry. He wrote many essays and articles for the Pester Lloyd (Budapest), Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums (Berlin), Egyenloseg, Uj Kelet and Magyar Zsido Lexikon (Budapest), and Erdelyi Muzeum (Kolozsvar).
Lanczy, Gyula (1850-1911), historian born in Pest, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire). He studied law and spent several years in the civil service before turning to historical studies. At the same time he published essays on national education and national history. Lanczy was a deputy to the Hungarian parliament between 1881 and 1884, and during this period contributed articles to various Magyar newspapers on contemporary politics. In 1887 he was appointed professor at Kolozsvar (then in Hungary, now Cluj in Romania), and in 1891 became professor of medieval history at the University of Budapest. Lanczy's studies included literary history, political science, and foreign affairs. His interests included the history of the Magyars, the poetry of the Kuruc, and Hungarian political reform during the first half of the 19th century. In medieval history, his favorite subjects were the conflict between the Empire and the clergy, the constitution of Italian cities, and the religious and political movements of the 14th and 15th centuries.

Lanczy's published works included "A felso oktatas reformja s az uj Magyar kozmuveltseg" ("Reform of the High School and the new Standard of Public Education in Hungary," 1879); "Adalekok a magyar alkotmany reformkorszakahoz" ("Addenda to the Reform Age of the Hungarian Constitution"; sponsored by the Hungarian Historical Society, 1880); "Szechenyi Pal kalocsai ersek es a Magyar nemzeti politika" ("Paul Szechenyi, Archbishop of Kalocsa, and Hungarian National Policy"): "Eszmetoredekek a Rakoczi-fele felkeles tortenetpolitikai jelentosegerol" ("Fragments on the Historical Significance of the Rakoczy Rebellion", 1882); "A politikai reformeszmek fejlodesi tortenete Magyarorszgon" ("Progress of the Ideas of Political Reform in Hungary", 1883); "Tortenelmi kor – es jellemrajzok" ("Monographs and Historical Portraits", 1890). This work illustrates his literary studies, while his book "Magyarorszag az Arpadok koraban" ("Hungary during the period of the Arpads", 1898) exemplifies his historiographic method. Lanczy was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Artsiences. He converted to Christianity.
Szekely, Bela (1892-1955), author, journalist and communal worker born in Bethlen, Transylvania, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now in Romania). He took part in the founding of the Zionist daily newspaper "Uj Kelet" at Kolozsvar (now Cluj Napoca, Romania), and later founded the daily newspaper" 5 Orai Ujsag" ("5 O'clock Newspaper") in that city.

Szekely was active in Zionist work; he organized Zionist activities in Hungary, and was partly responsible for the founding of the Pro Land of Israel League of Hungarian Jews (1926). He was active in the Jewish National Federation of Transylvania. An association of Zionist girls, Aviva, which he called into being and whose president he was, enlisted members from numerous countries.

Szekely was author of several volumes of verse. In addition he published: "Vajudo orszag" ("The birth of a Country"), a social study of Palestine; "Mittelmann", a story on discrimination; and "Maramaros"; a social study. He founded and served as secretary to the federation of minority journalists of Ardeal-Banat (Transylvania and Banat). He was Hungarian correspondent of the "Jewish Telegraphic Agency".
Toward the end of the 1930s Szekely emigrated to Argentina.

In Argentina he published a series of lectures on psichology with the title "El Psicoanálisis. Teoría-aplicación" (1940). His other publications include "El niño neurótico. Introducción a su reeducación y psicoterapia" (1943); "De Taylor a Stajanov" (La Plata, 1946).

Szekely died in a hotel in Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

http://www.memoria.fahce.unlp.edu.ar/art_revistas/pr.5644/pr.5644.pdf
Szanto, Gyorgy (1893-1961), author, born in Vagujhely, Hungary, (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Nove Mesto nad Vahom, Slovakia). He studied painting, and exhibited with success at the National Salon at Budapest. Szanto became the scenery and costume designer at the Romanian Opera House at Kolozsvar, Hungary (now Cluj Napoca, Romania).

A combatant in World War I, he lost his eyesight due to a brain injury. He then turned to writing, and became one of the most popular Hungarian novelists of his time. His novels combine an intensity of passion with strong penchant for the colorful both in action and description. Szanto lived at Arad, Romanian. He published his works in Transylvania until 1947, when he moved to Budapest.

Szanto's works include: "Babel tornya" ("The Tower of Babel"); "Mata Hari"; "Az aranyagacska" ("The Golden Twig": 1935); "Utolso hajnal, elso hajnal" ("Last Dawn, First Dawn"); "Melte" (1938). His somewhat autobiographical "Stradivari" was made into a motion picture by the German UFA Company and his play "A satoros kiraly" was performed by the Hungarian National Theatre (1936). He was author also of a volume of poetry, "Schumannal a Karnevalban" ("With Schumann at the Carnival").
Ligeti, György Sándor (1923-2006), composer, born in Diciosânmartin (now Târnăveni), Transylvania, Romania.

His family moved to Cluj (now Cluj-Napoca), Romania, when Ligeti was six. In Cluj he studied at the local conservatorium until 1943, when he was sent to a forced labor brigade by the Hungarian fascist authorities who controlled Cluj from 1940 to 1944. His family was deported to Auschwitz, his mother being the only survivor. After World War 2 he settled in Budapest, Hungary, where he continued his musical studies. However, Ligeti left that country after the failed revolution of 1956, and setled in Vienna, Austria. Following long periods during which he lived in Berlin and Hamburg, Germany, where he held a teaching post at the Hamburg Hochschule fuer Musik und Theater from 1973 until his retirement in 1989, Ligeti returned to Vienna in 1989 and stayed there until his death.

Ligeti is considered one of the important composers of instrumental music of the 20th century. His works include the opera Le Grand Macabre (1975-1977, a second version in 1996); concerts, chamber music, vocal and choral pieces, works for the piano, organ, and electronic music. He is also known for the sountracks he composed for Stanley Kubrick's films: 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Shining, and Eyes Wide Shut.

Ligeti was awarded numerous prestigious prizes, among them the Wolf Prize in Arts, Israel, 1996.
Bodog, Somlo (1873-1920), jurist and sociologist, born in Pozsony, Hungary (aka Pressburg, then part of Austria-Hungary, now Bratislava, Slovakia). He studied in the Universities of Kolozsvar, Hungary, (now Cluj Napoca, Romania), Leipzig and Heidelberg, Germany. He was lecturer in the University of Kolozsvar to which, after teaching in the Academy of Law at Nagyvarad, Hungary (now Oradea, Romania), he returned in 1905 as professor of the philosophy of law. From 1918 to 1919 he was professor in the University of Budapest. Bodog converted to Christianity.

He belonged to the circle of the eminent scholar Gyula Pikler. Starting from the analysis of law, which is a creation of society, both men delved into investigations concerning society itself. Pikler took the additional step toward physiological psychology in an effort to provide an even more positive basis for his thought. Somlo stopped at research on society and followed, or rather was in advance of the contemporary trend, by ascribing to the collectivity a predominant importance over the individual. He collaborated with Pikler on "Der Ursprung des Totemismus" (1900). He wrote books in Hungarian on the laws governing sociology, thus contributing towards making that field of research a science, and on state control and individualism (1903). He also published in German "Der Gueterverkehr in der Urgesellschaft" (1909) and "Zur Gruendung einer beschreibenden Sociologie" (1909). His posthumously published work (1921) dealt significantly with Niccolo Machiavelli, whose state philosophy was to dominate in the subsequent decades. During the First World War he wrote articles which sought to disprove the sociological arguments of the anti-Semitic author Peter Agoston.

Somlo served as vice-president of the Association of Social Studies in Budapest.

In 1920, he committed suicide in Kolozsvar.
Grunzweig, Emil (1947-1983), Israeli educator and peace activist, born in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, son of Holocaust survivors. He immigrated to Israel in 1963, having spent his childhood years in Brazil and France, and settled in Haifa, and then in Kibbutz Magal. Grunzweig served in IDF as a paratrooper taking part in the Six-Day War (1967), the War of Attrition (1969-1970, Yom Kippur War (1973), and Lebanon War (1982).

Grunzweig's many educational activities at Maaleh Bessor high school in Kibbutz Magen included projects that dealt with negotiations on issues as the Israeli - Arab conflict, work relations, and relations between religion and the state. He was an active member of the Israeli peace movement Peace Now ("Shalom Akhshav"). Grunzweig was killed by a handgreande thrown at the participants of a demonstration organized by Peace Now in Jerusalem on February 10, 1983. His name became a symbol of the dangers of political violence in the Israeli society.

Benjamin Ben Samuel Ha-Levi (early 11th century), poet, born in Coutance, Normandy, France. Ha-Levi’s poems were written in the style of old piyyutim and are at times of considerable artistic distinction. He wrote piyyutim for the three pilgrimage festivals and for Rosh Ha-shannah (the New Year) and Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement). Some of his poems are included in Mahzor Romania. He died in Coutance, Normandy.

Fejer, Leopold (Lipot), (1880-1959), mathematician, born as Leopold Weiss in Pecs, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He studied at the universities of Budapest, Berlin, Goettingen, Germany, and Paris, France. In 1911, he became lecturer at first at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, in Romania), and then later in the same year was appointed professor at the University of Budapest. Fejer was granted the Marcibanyi award by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, of which he became a full member in 1930. Fejer was a member of the National Committee of Examiners of High-school teachers. At the beginning of WW II he was dismissed from his chair and narrowly escaped being killed by the fascist regime.

Fejer was a member of the board of directors at the Circolo Matematico di Palermo, Italy, and a member of the editorial board of its publication. He was a contributor to the Mathematische Annalen and a member of the Scientific Association of Goettingen, Germany.

Fejer's Ph.D. thesis contained the classic result now known as Fejer's theorem that "a Fourier series is Cesaro summable (C,1) to the value of the function at each point of continuity". This key result gave great impetus to further developments in Fourier and divergent series. His major published works were: "Untersuchungen ueber Fouriersche Reihen" (1904); "Das Ostwaldsche Prinzip in der Mechanik" (1906); "Ueber Stabilitaat und Labilitaat eines materiellen Punktes im widerstrebenden Mittel" (1906); "Ueber die Wurzel vom kleinsten absoluten Beitrage einer algebraischen Gleichung" (1908); "A symtotikus ertekek meghatarozasarol" (1908) and; "Ueber die Laplace'sche Reihe" (1909).
Wertheimer, Eduard (Ede) von Monor (1848-1930), historian, born in Pest, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now Budapest, in Hungary). He studied at Pest, Vienna and Berlin, and became a lecturer at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, in Romania) in 1877 and later held successive professorships at two law schools, Nagyszeben (now Sibiu, in Romania) and Pressburg (now Bratislava, in Slovakia). His articles were published in both Hungarian and Austrian newspapers.

In 1900 he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy, and in 1903 was knighted and given the title "de Monor". On his retirement in 1914, he was appointed a privy councilor (Hofrat). He spent the last years of his life in Berlin, Germany.

Wertheimer's principal scholarly interests were the foreign policy of the Hapsburg monarchy and the history of Hungary during the early years of the 19th century. His main works are: “Zur Geschichte des Tuerkenkrieges Maximilian II” (1875); “Zur Geschichte Wiens” (1889); “Grof Andrassy Gyula elete es kora” (Graf Julius Andrassy, his life and his time, 3 vols., 1910-13), a study of dualism and the role of Hungary. His important contributions to 19th century history were “Ausztria es Magyar orszag a XIX szazad elso tizedeben” ("Austria and Hungary during the First Decade of the 19th century", 2 vols., 1890-92); and the “Az 1811-12 magyar orszaggyules” ("The Hungarian Diet of 1811-12", 1899). His other books include: “Bismarck im politischen Kampf” (1929); “Die drei ersten Frauen des Kaisers Franz” (1893) and “Der Herzog von Reichstadt” (1902); "The Duke of Reichstadt, Napoleon II" (1905).
Finaly, Henrik Lajos (de Kende; 1825-1898), philologist, born in Obuda (now part of Budapest), Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire).

A man of many interests, Finaly studied both engineering and in natural sciences at the Polytechnikum and University of Vienna, Austria, respectively. In the revolutionary war against Austria (1848-49), he served as an artillery officer. In 1858, after being converted to Catholicism, he was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, only the second person of Jewish extraction to have been accorded the honour. 1872 he was made professor of classical archeology at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj, in Romania). Soon thereafter he and was knighted. The Archeological Institute of Rome, Italy, also conferred membership upon him.

Finaly wrote extensively on linguistics and made many contributions to scientific journals in Hungary and abroad. His researches and provocative conclusions regarding the Hungarian and Latin languages attracted wide attention.

His Latin Dictionary, published in 1884, was for many years been a standard work. He wrote other books about expressions in the Hungarian language and ancient Hungarian and Roman weights and measures. He also wrote an informative volume on the Jewish calendar entitled "A zsidok idoszamitasa" (1881). His Latin-Hungarian dictionary, first published in 1858, has been reissued many times. He edited the "Magyar Futar", and "Erdelyi Muzeum", as well as the publications of the Economic Society of Transylvania.
Szilasi, Moric (1854-1905), philologist, born in Szilasbalhas, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire), he studied at Budapest and Leipzig, Germany. He taught philology at the Otvos College in Budapest, and in 1902 was named professor of Hungarian at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). He was the author of dictionaries of the Vogul and Cheremiss languages, as well as of many works on Finno-Ugric comparative linguistics.

Szilasi was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Science. His essays were published in professional journals, in the Budapesti Szemle, and the publications of the Academy. He also translated from Greek, Latin, English and German into Hungarian. Szilasi died in Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca).
Szabo, Imre (1882-1943), author, playwright and journalist, born in Ersekujvar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, Nove Zamky in Slovakia). He began his career as a journalist writing for the German-language "Neues Politisches Volksblatt", and later worked for Hungarian and Jewish newspapers. After World War I, Szabo settled in Kolozsvar (then Hungary, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and devoted himself to literature.

He wrote plays, novels, and biographies, mainly on Jewish subjects, and was strongly influenced by the major Hungarian writers, notably Kalman Mikszath. Szabo also published translations of plays from Yiddish to Hungarian. His works include the story "A pozsonyi zsido utca" ("The Jews' Street in Pozsony", (Pressburg in German), 1938), a faithful picture of pre-World War I Jewish life; "Zsido komediasok" ("Jewish Comedians", 1925); and "Kelet Kapujaban" ("At the Gate of the East", 1937). "Uj zsidok" ("New Jews", 1937) contained biographies of Theodor Herzl and other modern Jewish leaders. Szabo also published a Hungarian version of Louis Golding's novel "Magnolia Street". Two later works were "Erdely zsidoi" ("The Jews of Transylvania", 1938) and "Roma es Judea" ("Rome and Judea"' 1943). Szabo also published reports of his journeys to Bessarabia, Moldova and the Middle East.
Palagyi, Menyhert Malchior (1859-1925), philosopher, born in Paks, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire). He was an elder brother of the poet Lajos Palagyi, was educated at the University of Budapest, and became assistant professor of natural philosophy at the University of Kolozsvar, Hungary, (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). After Kolozsvar was incorporated into Romania, he retired, and, at the invitation of the philosopher Hermann Kayserling, moved to Darmstadt, Germany, where he lived to the end of his life.

Before he converted to Christianity he took an active part in fighting for the acceptance of the Jewish faith (1895) as equal to other religions in Hungary.
His "Neue Theorie des Raumes und der Zeit" (1901) anticipated Minkovski and Einstein; in "Der Streit der Psychologisten und Formalisten in der modernen Logik" (1902), as well as "Die Logik auf dem Scheidewege" (1903) he combated the psychologistic trend in philosophy. His "Kant und Bolzano" (1902) rediscovered and interpreted Bolzano, a forgotten philosopher.

Palagyi made original contributions to the theory of knowledge in "Az ismeretlen alapvetese" ("Foundation of the Theory of Knowledge"; 1904); to esthetics in "Theorie der phantasie" (1908) and especially to natural philosophy; "Naturphilosophysche Vorlesungen", (1907). In 1914 he published "Die Relativitaatstheorie in der modernen Physik". He conceived the outlines of a mechanics of the universe. German philosophy paid its tribute to the thought of Melchior Palagyi by arranging for a posthumous edition of his collected works in three volumes: "Melchior Palagyi's gesammelte Schriften" (1925-26).
Giszkalay (Gush Halav), Janos (pseudonym of David Widder( (1888-1951), poet and journalist, and a leader of Hungarian and Transylvanian Zionist movements, born in Nyitra, Hungary (now Nitra, in Slovakia). Giszkalay worked in Budapest, where he contributed to the Jewish press and, from 1918, edited the Zionist newspaper "Zsido Szemle". During the "White Terror" which followed the Bolshevik Revolution in Hungaryin 1918, he wrote articles in support of a Jewish schoolgirl's protest against the persecution of the Jews in Hungary. Giszkalay argued that anti-Semites had no moral rights to demand patriotism from the Jews whom they vilified. This led to an order for his arrest. He therefore fled to Romania and joined the staff of "Uj Kelet", the Hungarian- language Jewish daily published in Cluj (Kolozsvar), Transylvania, Romania.

Giszkalay's verse shows the influence of Endre Ady, the leading modern Hungarian poet, who himself had been greatly influenced by the Bible. Giszkalay's poems, notable for their enthusiasm and richness of language, deeply impressed Zionist youth of Hungary and Transylvania. His best known poems were "Kezet fel az egre, ki ferfi ki bator!" ("Whoever is a man, whoever is courageous, let him raise his hand!"); "A messias heroldja" ("The Herald of the Messiah"); and "Pentek a haboruban" ("A Wartime Friday Night"). Anthologies of his poems include "Uj profeciak" ("New Prophecies", 1923), "Gus Chalav latomasa" ("The Vision of Gush Halav") and "Lesz meg egy kippur nap" ("There Will Be an other Yom Kippur"). He also wrote a children's story, "Vitez Benaja harom utja" ("The Three Journeys of Knight Benayahu", 1928).

Giszkalay's Zionist activities encouraged many Hungarian Jews to settle in Eretz Israel. In 1941 he himself immigrated to Palestine, where he worked as a shepherd on Kibbutz Ma'agan. Later he moved to Haifa, where he translated his own works into Hebrew.
Ligeti, Gabor (1928-1945), student, brother of the composer Gyorgy Ligeti, born in Diciosânmartin (now Târnăveni), Transylvania, Romania. He studied engineering, although his musical talent was evident from an early age. He played the violin and the viola. Both he and his brother played at the Goldmark Philharmonic of Kolozsvar (Cluj), in Romania.

In the end of May, or beginning of June, 1944, Gabor was deported to Auschwitz. From there he, with many other inmates, were transferred in open cargo wagons to Mauthausen concentration camp. Two thirds of the transportees died on the way. Gabor himself survived the journey, but was seriously sick on arrival.
In March 1945, a few days before his 17th birthday, the Nazis murdered him by injecting fenolin into his heart.
Osvat, Kalman (1880-1953), author and editor, born in Nagyvarad, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, today Oradea, in Romania). He was a brother of Erno Osvat, literary critic and editor. After graduating from medical school, he settled at Tirgu Mures, Romania (formerly Marosvasarhely, Hungary) where, after 1919, he published a review, "Zord idok" ("Bleak Times"). His aim was to take advantage of the the pressure of the Romanian regime to assist the Hungarian speaping Jewish minority to achieve more self-confidence by improving its level of cultural achievement.

Osvat contributed to the Zionist daily newspaper published at Cluj (Kolozsvar), "Keleti Ujsag" ("Oriental News"). He published: "Levelek a fiamhoz" ("Letters to My Son"; 1923); "Feljegyzesek mulo es nem mulo dolgokrol" ("Record of Things Ephemeral and Lasting"; 1923); "Romania felfedezese" ("The Discovery of Romania"; 1923); "Erdelyi levelek" ("Letters from Transylvania"). He edited and wrote in a large part the "Erdelyi Lexikon" ("Transylvanian Lexicon"; 1928).
Kunfi (Kohn), Zsigmond (1879-1929), socialist, born in Nagykanizsa, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary) and educated at the University of Kolozsvar, Hungary (now Cluj, Romania). Kunfi joined the radical Sociological Society and wrote for its political organ Twentieth Century. His anti-religious views led him to leave his post as a secondary school teacher and join the Social Democratic Party, becoming editor of its newspaper Nepszava and of the review Socializmus.

In 1914 he accompanied Count Karolyi and other progressive political leaders on a propaganda tour of the United States.

When the 1918 revolution overthrew the Hungarian regime, Kunfi was made minister of social welfare and later minister of education. He was Commissar of Education during the Communist dictatorship of Bela Kun and won some success in attempting to impose moderation. He disapproved of the application of Russian methods to Hungarian conditions, and in June 1919, he resigned in protest against Kun's extremist policies. In August 1919, when the counterrevolutionaries seized power in Hungary, Kunfi emigrated to Austria. He became editor of the socialist "Arbeiter Zeitung" and also of "Vilagossag", a Hungarian language emigrant socialist newspaper. He taught at the People's University of Vienna, where he preached against the dangers of Communism and even criticized his own role in the Hungarian revolution.
Kunfi was a brilliant essayist, convincing orator, and an outstandiung sociologist. Among his published works are: "Nepoktatasunk bunei" ("Sins of Public Education"; 1908); "Ki tanitja a magyar nepet?" ("Who Teaches the Hungarian People?"; 1909); "Az altalanos valasztojog" ("Universal Suffrage"; 1911). He published essays and articles in "Huszadik Szazad"; "Az Ember"; "Becsi Magyar Ujsag" and "Kampf". He translated the works of K. Marx, K. Kautsky, F. Lassalle, Anatole France, Emile Zola and Norman Angell's "The Great Illusion" into Hungarian. Although he officially left the Jewish community, he wrote a penetrating study of the Jewish problem in Hungary.
Kunfi committed suicide in Vienna, in 1929.
Zionist

Born in Cluj, he worked for the Zionist daily Uj Kelet and was active in Zionist youth work. After Transylvania was annexed to Hungary in 1942 he moved to Budapest and became vice-chairman of the Hungarian Zionist Federation. He also joined the Relief and Rescue Committee which helped refugees from Slovakia and Poland. After the Nazis took over Hungary in 1944, Kasztner played a leading role in trying to save Jews and as a result of his negotiations a transport of 1,786 Jews was transferred to neutral Switzerland. After the War he settled in Palestine, editing Hungarian newspapers. An individual accused him of collaborating with the Nazis and the case went to court, involving much publicity and controversy. The court found for the accuser. Kasztner appealed to the Supreme Court which cleared him but before then he had been shot and killed by an assassin influenced by the lower court's verdict.
Karacsony, Beno (1888-1944), author, born in Gyulafehervar, Austria-Hungary (now Alba Iulia, Romania). Karacsony earned his living as a lawyer, but he became well known as a writer and playwright. He was one of the Transylvanian authors who continued to write in Hungarian under Romanian rule after 1918, thus keeping alive in the public the longing for a reunion with Hungary.

He wrote for the Magyar theatre of Kolozsvar (Cluj) such plays as "Valas utan" ("After the Divorce"), which won an award in 1924, and "A rut kis kacsa" ("The Ugly Duckling"; 1937). His volume of short stories, "Tavaszi ballada", and his novels, "Pjotruska" (2 vol.) and "Uj elet kapujaban" ("At the Threshold of a New Life"; 1934), were well received by Magyar readers and critics beyond the confines of Transylvania as writings of sound literary qualities. In 1940 his symbolical novel, "Utazas a szurke folyon" ("Traveling on the Grey River"), appeared. It conveyed a message of implicit hope, of the beauties of truth and kindness which will be attained at some point of our travel on the grey river.

Karacsony was murdered in Auschwitz
Peterfi, Tibor (1883-1953), biologist, born in Dés, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Dej in Romania). He received a MD degree from the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and was made an assistant at the biological institute of the University of Budapest. During WWI he joined the staff of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Research at Berlin-Dahlem, Germany. Peterfi published a textbook on histology (in Hungarian 2 vol., 1909-11); "Die Beziehungen zwischen den Muskelfasern und Sehnenfasern" (1913); "Die Muskulatur der Harnblase" (1914); "Die Praerarier-Wechselkondensoren" (1926). Peterfi edited "Wissenschaftliche Biologie" (1927-1933), and compiled the bibliographies for the "Jahresbericht ueber die gesamte Physiologie und experimentelle Pharmakologie" (1926-33). He wrote "Mikrophotographie" (1933) for Alfred Hay's "Handbuch der wissenschaftlichen und angewandten Photographie" (1931-1933).
Composer

Born in Cluj, he studied in Vienna and Paris and then returned to Cluj where he conducted the Cluj Opera and the Jewish community orchestra. He studied Jewish folk songs of the Carpathian Mountains region and arranged them in an orchestral suite. In 1938 he settled in Tel Aviv where he became a leading spokesman among the advocates of the formation of a new national school. He called his style 'Eastern Mediterranean'. His most important work in this framework was his Semitic Suite (1946). He taught in Tel Aviv and composed large-scale works as well as incidental music for the Habimah theater.
Rethi, Mor (1846-1925), mathematician and physicist born in Nagykoros, Hungary (then par of the Austrain Empire). He studied at the technical schools of Budapest and Vienna, and became an assistant in the latter school. With the help of a scholarship from the Hungarian government he worked in the Universities of Goettingen and Heidelberg, Germany.

In 1874 he was named professor of mathematics and physics at the University of Kolozsvar, Hungary (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) and professor of mathematics at the technical school of Budapest (1886), a position which he held until his death. Rethi was a member of the Hungarian Academy from 1900 onwards.

Rethi's treatises appeared in various periodicals and year books of mathematics and natural sciences in Hungary and Germany. He edited (together with Gyula Koonig) the "Tentamen" of Farkas Bolyai, and published several books in Hungarian on refraction, surfaces and other subjects. In German he published "Ueber schwere Fluessigstrahlen" (1898). He served on the board of directors of the IMIT (Jewish-Hungarian literary society).
Salamon, Erno (1912-1943), poet, born in Gyergyoszentmiklos, Transylvania, Hungary (Then part of Austria-Hungary, now Gheorghieni, in Romania). Salamon joined the clandestine Communist Party at Cluj (Kolozsvar), Romania. As a journalist of the left, he was persecuted for his political activities, first by the Romanians and, after 1940, when northern Transylvania was annexed to Hungary, by the Hungarians. He was also imprisoned several times. In 1942, Salamon was mobilized into a forced labor unit of the Hungarian army and sent to the eastern front. During the Hungarian retreat, he caught spotted typhus and, delirious with fever, ran amok and was shot to death by Italian soldiers.

Salamon is considered one of the outstanding modern Hungarian poets. Although his chief subject was the suffering of the exploited workers, Salamon also wrote daringly expressive love poems. During his lifetime, he published two collections of verse, "Gyonyoru sors" ("A Wonderful Fate", 1937), and "Szegenyek kuszoben" ("On the Threshold of the Poor", 1938). Other poems appeared in an anthology entitled "Kelet es Nyugat kozott, Zsido fiatalok antologiaja" ("Between East and West – An Anthology of Young Jews", published by a group of young Jewish intellectuals, with support of the Cluj B'nai B'rith, 1937). Salamon contributed verse to the left-wing press, wrote plays, and translated poems from Romanian. After World War II some of his works appeared in an anthology which also contained poems by two other Transylvanian-Jewish poets who died in the Holocaust, Sandor Korvin and Viktor Brassai. Volumes of Salamon's selected poems were published in Budapest, "Dal utodoknak" ("Song for Descendants", 1961, 1967); "Osszegyujtott versek" ("Collected Poems", 1966); and in Budapest, "Mindmaig beketlenul" ("Without Peace up till Now", 1966). On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of his death, a statue of Salamon was erected at his birthplace.
Purjesz, Zsigmond de Belsőecser (1846-1918), physician and educator, born in Szentes, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire). He received the M. D. degree from the University of Budapest, and in 1876 became lecturer on internal medicine at the University of Kolozsvar, then Hungary (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). Purjesz, who accepted the Christian faith, became, in 1880, full professor and head of the internal clinic of Kolozsvar. He was knighted and received the title of councilor of the court.

Among his major works published in book form are "A korisme megallapitasara szukseges vizsgalati modszerek" ("Methods of Investigations in Diagnostics"; 1874) and "A kulonos kor- es gyogytan hazikonyve" ("Handbook of Therapeutics and Diagnostics"; 1874). His textbook of internal medicine, reedited several times, was among those most widely used in Hungarian medical schools.

David Emmanuel (1854-1941), mathematician, born in Bucharest, Romania. He is considered the founder of the modern mathematical school in Romania. Following his studies in Romania, he moved to Paris, France, where he attended the higher mathematics courses at the Faculty of Sciences and the École Pratique des Hautes Études earning a doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1979. In 1881, Emmanuel became a professor at the Department of Algebra and Analytical Geometry at the Faculty of Sciences in Bucharest, then at the School of Artillery. In 1882 he was named professor of algebra and function theory at the Faculty of Science of the University of Bucharest. Emmanuel was the president of the first congress of mathematics held in Romania at the University of Cluj in May, 1929. Emmanuel  was an honorary member of the Romanian Academy since 1936.

Ladislau Gyémánt (b. 1947), historian, specialist in modern and contemporary history of Europe, particularly Central European history in the 18th-19th centuries, history of Transylvania, history of the Jews in Romania, and Jewish genealogy, born in Oradea, Romania. Gyémánt studied at the Faculty of History of the Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca earning a PhD in 1982. Between 1970 and 2010, he was researcher at the Institute of History of the Romanian Academy in Cluj-Napoca, vice-dean and dean of the Faculty of European Studies of the Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca; director of the Dr. Moshe Carmilly Institute of Judaism and Jewish History at Babeş-Bolyai University (1996-2006) professor of European history, History of Jews and particularly the history of Jews in Romania.

He authored over 30 books and 110 articles, including Miscarea nationala a romanilor din Transilvania intre anii 1790 si 1848 (”The national movement of the Romanians in Transylvania between 1790 and 1848”, 1986), Repertoriul actelor oficiale privind Transilvania tiparite in limba romana (1701 – 1847) (” Repertoire of official documents regarding Transylvania printed in Romanian (1701 - 1847)”, 1981), Repertoriul izvoarelor statistice privind Transilvania, 1690 – 1847 (”Repertoire of statistical sources regarding Transylvania, 1690 – 1847”, 1995). Gyémánt was the editor of the annual review Studia Judaica, I-XIII, Cluj-Napoca, 1991-2005; and editor of the book series Bibliotheca Judaica, I-VII, 1994-2000. He is a board member of International Institute for Jewish Genealogy and Paul Jacobi Center in Jerusalem, Israel.

Gyémánt was awarded numerous prizes, including the Nicolae Balcescu Prize of the Romanian Academy.

Anatol Vieru (1926-1998), composer and theorist of classical Romanian music, born in Iasi, Romania. He studied at the Academy of Music in Bucharest and at the Tchaikovsky State Conservatory in Moscow between 1951-1954 where he was the pupil of Aram Khachaturian (1903-1978). He earned a PhD from the University of Cluj, Romania, in 1978. From 1947 to 1950 he was conductor of National Opera in Bucharest. He was a lecturer at the orchestration department and later at the composition department of the Bucharest Conservatory. In 1973, having received a grant from the German Academic Exchange Service, he spent one year in West Berlin, where he composed his Second Symphony.

Vieru is the author of numerous concerts, seven symphonies, eight string quartets, three operas, pieces of choral music numerous pieces of chamber music, and film music. He published music analysis articles and participated at conferences at universities in Israel, Canada, Switzerland and the United States. Vieru's contributions to music theory are collected in the two volumes Cuvinte despre sunete (“Words on Tones”, 1994) and Ordinea în Turnul Babel (“Order in the Tower of Babel”, 2001).

Vieru was awarded the Herder Prize for the entire composition, musicological and theoretical activity in 1986, and the Grand Prize of the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists in 1996.

Nicolae (Miklos) Kallos (1926-2018), sociologist, editor and journalist, political scientist and Holocaust survivor, born in Oradea, Romania, into an observant family.  In April 1944, Kallos and his entire family were confined into the Oradea Ghetto, and at the end of May he was deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp along with his father. Kallos was subsequently transferred to Buchenwald Nazi concentration camp and to various Nazi forced labor camps.

After WW II, he earned a PhD from Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Cluj, Romania. From 1952 he was a lecturer at the Department of Philosophy, from 1959 he was the head of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology at Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj, Doctor of Philosophy (1968), Professor (1970). Member of the Academy of Social and Political Sciences (1970). As a member of official Romanian delegations, he participated in several international scientific meetings, among them the World Congress of Philosophy in Vienna (1968) and Varna (1973), the International Congress of Political Science in Munich (1970) and Moscow (1979), the International Congress of Sociology in Rome (1969), at the International Lenin Seminar in Moscow (1970) and at the Leipzig Scientific Conference of the Departments of Social Sciences in Colleges in Socialist Countries (1979).

He is the author of several books on philosophy, sociology and political science, including Sociologie, politica, filosofie (“Sociology, Politics, Philosophy”, 1975) and Axiologie si etica (“Axiology and Ethics”, written with Andrei Roth, 1968). He was a consulting professor and doctoral coordinator in Political Philosophy and Political Science.

After 1989 Kallos served as the chairman of the Jewish Community in Cluj-Napoca. He was vice-chairman of "Memento", the association of survivors of Buchenwald Concentration Camp in Romania, and editor in chief of the association’s bulletin.

Ion Ianoşi (born Janos Steinberger) (1928-2016), writer, professor of philosophy and aesthetics, translator and expert in Russian philosophy and literature, born in Brasov, Romania. Because of the anti-Semitic policy of the Romanian government, Ion Ianoși was expelled from state schools between 1940 and 1944. During these years he attended a Jewish vocational school receiving the qualification of locksmith. Between 1944-1946 he recovered the lost classes, and in 1947 he obtained his baccalaureate diploma. He studied philology at the University of Cluj, Romania, and philosophy at Zhdanov University in St. Petersburg, Russia (then Leningrad, USSR) between 1949-1953. He returned to Romania in 1955 and continued his studies earning a PhD.

Ianosi was an active member of the Romanian Communist Party and an activist of its Central Committee during the 1950s and 1960s. He was professor of philosophy and aesthetics at the University of Bucharest for over four decades.

Ianosi is the author of numerous books on philosophy, aesthetics, literary history, memoirs, including Thomas Mann (1965), Dostoievski – tragedia subteranei (“Dostoevsky - underground tragedy”, 1968), Romanul unui oraș. Petersburg – Petrograd – Leningrad (“The novel of a city. Petersburg - Petrograd – Leningrad”, 1972), Alegerea lui Iona (“The Choice of Iona”, 1974), Hegel și arta (“Hegel and art”, 1980), O istorie a filosofiei românești – în relația ei cu literature (“A history of Romanian philosophy - in its relationship with literature”, 1996), Eu – și el. Însemnări subiective despre Ceaușescu (“Me - and him. Subjective notes on Ceausescu”, 2006), Autori și opere. Culturi Occidentale, vol. I (“Authors and works. Western Cultures, vol. I”, 2007), Autori și opere. Cultura rusă, vol. II (“Authors and works. Russian culture, vol. II”, 2009).

The year 2008 was declared by the European Idea and EuroPress Group “The Year of Ion Ianosi” - occasion on which the scholar was celebrated in a series of conferences and debates.

András Goldberger (1922 -), chemist, chemistry writer, born in Cluj, Romania. He attended the commercial high school in Cluj until 1942 and graduated from the Faculty of Chemistry of the Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj in 1950. He was a member of the Industrial Construction Trust in Cluj after 1950, and a researcher at the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca between 1954-1959. Together with Ödön Felszeghy and Ervin Dezső, he translated R. Zwiebel and S. Abramovici's theoretical and practical guidance The Concrete (1956). Along with Aurel Ianceu, he developed a procedure for the use of masonry blocks made of lightweight concrete. A detailed description of the method was published in Romanian in the yearbook of the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca published in 1958, which was published in Hungarian for the Building Materials Research Institute in Budapest.

Ede Goldberger (1887-1959), dermatologist and medical writer, Holocaust survivor, born in Fagaras, Romania (then part of Austria-Hungary). He graduated from the University of Cluj in 1911. Before the outbreak of World War I, he worked as assistant in a children’s clinic. He became a Professor of Dermatology, working in private practice, and after 1919 served as chief physician at the Jewish Hospital of Cluj. Goldberger was deported to Nazi concentration camps in 1944. After the Holocaust, he returned to Cluj. His articles deal mainly with sexually transmitted diseases and were published in Romanian, Hungarian and German professional journals. Along with Ferenc Veress, he developed a new method for treating gonorrhea. Goldberger died in Cluj.

Radu Ioanid (b.1953), historian, diplomat, born in Bucharest, Romania. He graduated from the Faculty of Sociology of the University of Bucharest, then earned a PhD at the University of Cluj, Romania, in 1983, and a second PhD from École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris, France, in 1995.

He worked as a sociologist at the Institute for the Design of Standard Constructions in Bucharest between 1976 to 1986. He immigrated to the USA in 1987. A researcher at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C., he served as Director of the US Holocaust Memorial Museum's International Archival Programs Division from 2000 to 2020. Ioanid was the Vice-President of the International Commission for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania, chaired by Elie Wiesel, between 2003-2004. After 2018 he became Associate Professor at Political Science Department at the University of Cluj. In May 2020 Ioanid was named Ambassador of Romania to Israel.

His publications include Sabia arhanghelului Mihail: Ideologia fascistă în România (“The sword of Archangel Michael: Fascist ideology in Romania”, 1994), Evreii sub regimul Antonescu (“Jews under the Antonescu regime”, 1998), The Holocaust in Romania and Securitatea și vînzarea evreilor. Istoria acordurilor secrete dintre România și Israel (2015) English translation -The Ransom of the Jews: The Story of the Extraordinary Secret Bargain Between Romania and Israel, also published in French, German and Hebrew, and Pogromul de la Iași - Album, (2014), English edition The Iasi Pogrom, June-July 1941, A Photo Documentary from the Holocaust in Romania (2017).

Eliezer Glanz (1945-?), rabbi, born in Arad, Romania. He graduated from yeshiva of Arad. Between 1964-1973 he served as shochet in the Jewish communities of Deva, Alba Iulia, Arad, Ocna Mures, and Teius, all in Romania. He immigrated to Israel in in 1973, but after two years returned to Romania serving as shochet of the Jewish communities of Timisoara and Cluj. After 1986, he was a shochet in the community of Bucharest and as of 1997 he served as a deputy of Rabbi Menachem Hacohen, the Chief Rabbi of Romania.

Hary Maiorovici (1918-2000), composer, born in Sighet into a traditionalist Jewish family. He studied at the Conservatory in Vienna, Austria, and then he graduated from the Conservatory of Cluj, Romania. He wrote the music of over 100 films and many plays and composed symphonies, chamber works, lieds, and symphonic poems. He was awarded 17 international prizes. He was an honorary member of the International Academy of Culture in Rome and an honorary citizen of the cities of Cluj and Sighet.

Octavian Sava (born Octavian Segall) (1928-2013), humorist, playwright, editor, TV director and screenwriter, born in Bucharest, Romania. His grandfather was a cinema owner and film importer, and his father was for a long time the deputy director of Aro Cinema in Bucharest. He started his medicine studies in 1946, but left them after three years and started to work for Radio Romania. He graduated in Romanian Language and Literature from the University of Buchatrest in 1965.

Sava created variety shows and theater at the Romanian radio and television. In 1951, along with Alexandru Otti, he produced the first Romanian radio series, an adaptation of Tartarin from Tarascon by Alphonse Daudet. As a humorist, Sava wrote numerous sketches, monologues and musical-humorous couplets for the Romanian television.

He is the author of numerous plays, film and television screenplays, including Nota zero la purtare ("Zero grade for behavior", 1957), Aventurile Capitanului Val Vartej ("The Adventures of Captain Val Vartej"), In fiecare zi mi-e dor de tine (“I miss you every day", 1988). Sava wrote the screenplay for A doua cadere a Constantinopolului (“The Second Fall of Constantinople”, 1994), one the most successful movies produced in Romania after the fall of the Communist regime. His novels include Cazul Beilis. Filmul unei nelegiuiri (“The Beilis case. The film of an iniquity”, 2005), Prințul rătăcitor George Bibescu (“The wandering prince George Bibescu”, 2010). As author of musical librettos, Sava collaborated with the Constantin Tănase Theater and the Jewish State Theater in Bucharest, the National Theater in Cluj, and the Mihai Eminescu National Theater in Timișoara.

Ludovic Bruckstein (Joseph-Leib Arye Bruckstein) (1920-1988), playwright and novelist, born in Mukachevo, Czechoslovakia (now in Ukraine). Bruckstein was the great-grandson of Chaim-Josef Bruckstein, one of the first Hassidim, a follower of the Baal Shem Tov, and author of a book called “Tosafot Haim”. When he was four years of age, his family moved to Sighet, in Romania. Sighet, as part of Northern Transylvania region, was ruled by Hungary between 1940 to 1944. In May 1944, his entire family was deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp. Ludovic was then transferred to Bergen-Belzen Nazi concentration camp, and then to forced-labor camps in Hildesheim, Hanover, Gross-Rosen, Wolfsberg, and Wüstegiersdorf. He was liberated by the Soviet army in May 1945. Of his family, only Ludovic and his younger brother Israel survived the Holocaust.

Before WW2 he graduated from the Commercial High School in Sighet. After the war he studied in Cluj and in Bucharest. He returned to Sighet and served as teacher and ten as principal of the local elementary school of art.

He started his literary career in 1945 writing in Romanian, Hungarian, and Yiddish. His stories were published in Viaţa Românească literary magazine. His plays, in Romanian and Yiddish, were inspired by the trauma of the Holocaust or by Hasidic legends. Several of these plays were staged by the Jewish State Theater in Bucharest (TES): Familia Grinvald (“The Grinvald Family”, 1953), Generaţia din pustiu (“The Desert Generation”, 1956), and Un proces neterminat (“An Unfinished Trial”, 1962). From 1950 till 1967 he wrote about twenty plays performed in many theaters in Romania, Soviet Union, and Poland.

In 1972 he immigrated to Israel. He continued writing in Romanian, mainly short stories, but some of his work was also published in Hebrew. Bruckstein was one of the founders of the Association of Israeli Writers in the Romanian Language. He was a member of the Yiddish and Hebrew Writers’ Union too.

His works include Schimbul de noapte (“Night shift”, 1948) - a play in Yiddish about the Sonderkommando uprising in Auschwitz, Întoarcerea lui Cristofor Columb ("The Return of Christopher Columbus", 1957), Poate chiar fericire ("Maybe Even Happiness", 1985), Destinul lui Iaacov Maghid ("The Fate of Yaakov Magid", 1975), The Murmur of Water (1987). One of his last two short stories he wrote during his last months of life were published as Trap and deals with the fate of a young Jew who survives the deportations of the Jews of Sighet to Nazi death camps by hiding in the woods only to be arrested by the Soviets and sent to Siberia.

Starting from 2005, Bruckstein’s entire prose work was translated into Hebrew by the writer Yotam Reuveni.

Ernest Neumann (1917-2004), rabbi and community leader, born in Ceica, Romania (then part of Austria-Hungary). He attended an Orthodox Jewish gymnasium in Oradea and then the Samuil Vulcan high school in Beius, Romania. He studied at the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest, Hungary, from 1935 to 1941, and in parallel he studied philosophy, Semitic languages ​​and oriental history at the University of Budapest, earning a doctorate in philology and ancient history in 1940. 

In 1941 he returned to Timisoara, Romania, and started working for the local Jewish community serving as a teacher at the Liceul Israelit Jewish high school and as rabbi of the status quo synagogue in the Fabric district of the city. Neumann was one of the leaders of the Jewish community during the Holocaust, when a group of 150 yoing Jews were deported from Timisoara to Transnistria, of them only 25 survived, and all adult Jewish males were sent to forced labor.  

In 1949 he was elected Chief Rabbi of the Neologue community of Timisoara.

During the years of the Communist regime in Romania, Neumann was instrumental in the dissemination of Hebrew language and Israel's heritage among the local Jewish youth and organized numerous Jewish cultural activities. He regularly visited other Jewish communities in Transylvania, particularly those of Cluj, Oradea, Satu Mare, and Arad. Neumann was the only rabbi who could speak in Hungarian to the mostly Hungarian-speaking Jewish communities in Transylvania. In addition to Hungarian, he spoke Romanian, Yiddish, German, English and French.

He participated in numerous rabbinical congresses in Israel, at the centenary of the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest in 1977 and at the Congress of the Judeo-Christian Movement in Budapest in 1988. Neumann was one of the promoters of the ecumenical movement in Timisoara and maintained a dialogue with representatives of other religions in the city, particularly with Nicolae Corneanu (1923-2014), Metropolitan of the Romanian Orthodox church in Banat region.

In 2002 Neumann was named Honorary Citizen of Timisoara and in the same year was made an honorary member of the Association of Romanian Writers. At a 2010 ceremony in his memory attened by local and national leaders a street in Timisoara was named Ernest Neumann street.  In 2016, the name of the same street was changed to Rabbi Oppenheimer Street and the name of Rabbi Neumann was given to the synagogue street in the Fabric district of Timisoara.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Dej

In Hungarian: Des

A town in north Transylvania, Romania.

Until the end of World War I and from 1940-1944 within Hungary.

In 1638 Dej became known through its connection with the history of the Transylvanian Sabbatarians (Judaizers).

Although Jews were officially prohibited from living in Dej until 1848, by 1805 there were already 70 Jewish residents. After 1848 many immigrants from Galicia settled in Dej who made up the majority of the community which remained orthodox with a strong chasidic following. The majority spoke Yiddish as well as Hungarian and Romanian. Communal life was organized around the 1850s. Members of the Panet family served as rabbis of Dej from the beginning of the community's establishment to its end in the holocaust. The first synagogue was built in the early 1860s and another opened in the first decade of the 20th century, beside many other synagogues and yeshivot. A state Jewish elementary school was established in 1884, remaining open until 1938; the language of instruction was Hungarian and Yiddish until 1919 and subsequently Romanian and Yiddish. Zionist organizations were active from 1918. Attempts to bring out periodicals in Yiddish, Hungarian, and even Hebrew proved short-lived. The physician Nathan Friedlaender (1819-1902) settled in Dej in 1864. Meir Jehuda Majrovitz (1895-1944), the Hungarian writer, was born in Dej.

The community numbered 3,360 in 1930 (22.2% of the total population), and 3,719 (22.8%) in 1941.

During the holocaust the Jews in Dej were sent to Auschwitz.

The survivors who returned, with Jews from other places, numbered approximately 1,000 in 1947. The community subsequently dwindled through emigration, many leaving for Israel.

Turda

In German: Thorenburg; Hungarian: Torda

A town in south Transylvania, western central Romania.

Until the end of World War I within Hungary.

Jews began to settle there at the close of the 18th century although individual Jews had visited the locality earlier. A document of 1669 mentions a Jew of Alba Iulia who had stayed in Turda in order to sign an agreement with the local inhabitants. A community was organized between 1830 and 1840. There were already houses of prayer during that period. The community remained orthodox throughout its existence, but there were also many maskilim in Turda. The Jewish population numbered 48 families (175 persons) in 1866, 203 (2.1% of the total) in 1870; 326 (3.5%) in 1900; 482 (3.5%) in 1910, and 852 (4.2%) in 1930. The community, which was wealthy and well organized, employed some distinguished rabbis, among them Ben-Zion Albert Wesel (1900-38) and Joseph Adler (1938-44).

For most of the period between the two world wars these two rabbis also held the position of president of the central office of the organization of orthodox communities of Transylvania, and the community thus played a foremost role among orthodox Jewry in Transylvania. An orthodox Hungarian-language weekly, Hoemesz, was published in Turda from 1933 to 1940. A large synagogue was erected in 1932. Zionist activities were also organized, and there was a group of Jews which supported the Hungarian minority movement in Romania. A Jewish club, established in 1936, played an important part in Jewish life. There were 726 Jews in Turda (2.2% of the total population) in 1940. Their numbers increased to 1,805 in 1942 after Jews from the surrounding areas were concentrated in Turda by the Romanian Fascist authorities. From 1940 to 1944, because of the location of Turda near the Romanian-Hungarian border and within 18 miles (approx. 30 kms) Of Cluj, the capital of northern Transylvania, Jews of Turda played an important role in underground rescue activities among the Jewish population.

Members of the community collaborated with the representatives of the Zionist youth movements in contact with the rescue centers in Bucharest and Budapest and rescue workers in Palestine through their center in Istanbul. They organized secret routes for the transfer of refugees from neighboring Hungary to Romania, where the situation of the Jews was less dangerous, subsequently directing the refugees toward Bucharest, from where most of them reached Palestine. Hundreds of refugees passed along this escape route, most of them from Hungary, some from Slovakia, and even a number from Poland. In the fall of 1944, the town was taken by Hungarian forces. However, they were defeated by the Russians about five weeks later before they had succeeded in organizing the deportation of the local Jews.

After the war the community continued activities but its institutions lost their importance with the decline of the Jewish population as a result of emigration to Israel and elsewhere. There were about 150 Jews living in Turda in 1971. Prayers were still held in the great synagogue on Jewish festivals.

 

Târgu Mureș

In Hungarian: Marosvásárhely; in German: Neumarkt am Mieresch; also spelled Tirgu-Mures

A city and the seat of Mureș County in the historical region of Transylvania, Romania.

Until the end of World War I and between 1940 and 1945 within Hungary. As Jewish residence in Targu-Mures was prohibited from 1650, Jews at first established themselves in the neighboring villages of Naznanfalva (Nasna) and Marosszentkiraly. In 1836 Jews began to settle in the town itself, most of them coming from these villages. There were 23 Jews living in Targu-Mures in 1837, and 36 in 1841. During the period of the 1848-49 revolution, their number increased to 169. An organized community was founded in 1851. Between 1869 and 1879 there was a Neologist community. An orthodox community was established in 1871. The original community decided to remain status quo ante.

The Great Synagogue, later taken over by the orthodox congregation, was consecrated in 1873. Another large and magnificent synagogue was opened in 1899. A school maintained by the community was open between 1880 and 1940.

There was also a yeshivah maintained by the orthodox community. The Jewish population numbered 802 (6.1% of the total) in 1869; 1,036 (7.1%) in 1890; 2,755 (10.8%) in 1910; 3,246 (10.7%) in 1920; and 5,193 (13.6%) in 1930. A Jewish club was organized in the town between the two world wars where a variety of cultural activities took place. Zionist organizations were active, and the national headquarters of the Zionist youth movement Avivah-Barisia was situated for a while in Targu-Mures.

During World War II the Jewish population, which numbered 5,963 (12.7%) in 1941, increased when a number of Jews from the surrounding area, including a small number of proselytes from nearby villages, were concentrated in a ghetto there. Its inhabitants were deported to the death camp at Auschwitz. Among them were the two rabbis of the town, the orthodox Rabbi Menahem Emanuel Sofer, who had held office from 1918, and Dr. Ferenc Loewy (b. 1869) who had held office from 1903, and who wrote a number of studies on the history of the Jews of Transylvania. After the war, in 1947, 820 survivors of the camps or former inhabitants of the surrounding region gathered in the town.

Their number gradually declined as a result of emigration to Israel and other countries. In 1971 about 200 Jews remained in Targu-Mures. There was still limited community life but no rabbi.

 

Oradea

Formerly known as Oradea Mare. Hungarian: Nagyvarad, Varad. German, Yiddish, and Hebrew: Grosswardein

A city in northern Transylvania, Western Romania, the capital city of Bihor County and Crisana Region. Part of Hungary until 1918 and between 1940-1944, now part of Romania.

There are several popular legends that refer to a Jewish presence in the city during the 10th century. Historically, although there are documents dating from 1407 and 1489 that mention several Jews in connection with the town, the only reliable evidence of Jews living there dates from the early 18th century. In 1722 four Jews are listed as being residents of the city. Ten Jewish families were registered in 1736, including one chazzan. As the Jewish population grew, the Jewish residents of Oradea tended to be immigrants from Moravia, Bohemia, and Poland.

A Chevra Kadisha was established in the 1730s. In 1787 the Jews were permitted to build a synagogue; a second synagogue was built in 1812. There was also a Jewish hospital.

The entire town, including the Jewish population, began expanding rapidly at the end of the 18th century. The number of Jews increased from 104 taxpayers in 1830 to 1,600 people in 1840, 10,115 (26.2% of the total population) in 1891, 12,294 (24%) in 1900, 15,115 (23.6%) in 1930, and 21,337 (22.9%) in 1941.

The Jews of Oradea adopted the Hungarian language and Hungarian culture earlier than any other Jewish community in Hungary, and the local Hungarian population saw their Jewish neighbors as potential allies in their struggle against Romanian nationalism. Many Jews from Oradea actively participated in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849.

A short-lived Reform congregation was established in Oradea in 1847, and was disbanded in 1848. Conflicts between the Orthodox and Reform within the Oradea community characterized the latter half of the 19th century. In 18790, after the schism following the Hungarian Jewish Congress of 1868, the Oradea community divided into Orthodox and Neolog congregations, each of which developed their own, separate, institutions. A Neolog Temple was built in 1878, and an Orthodox synagogue was built in 1891. Both congregations were led by well-known rabbis. Leaders of the Orthodox community included Rabbi Aaron Isaac Landsberg, and Rabbi Moses Tzvi Fuchs and his son Benjamin. The Neolog congregation was led by rabbis including Alexander Kohut, Lipot Kecskemeti, and the community's last Neolog rabbi, Istvan Vajda; Rabbi Vajda perished in Auschwitz along with the rest of his community. During World War I several Chasidic rabbis of the Vizhnitsa and Zhidachov dynasties from Bukovina and Galicia found refuge in Oradea. They, in turn, attracted chasidim from the district to the city.

Culturally and economically, the Jews of Oradea were the most active of all of the communities in Hungary or Romania. There were Jewish merchants, physicians, farmers, lawyers, and merchants. In 1902 the chief of police was Jewish, and Jews were represented on the municipal council. They also established a number of communal institutions. Early in the 19th century a number of Jewish public schools were opened. An Orthodox high school was founded in 1888; it had four classes, and remained open until the Holocaust. There was also a Neolog high school which opened in 1920 and ran until the Holocaust. There were Hebrew printing houses operating in the city. The leading Jewish newspaper was the religious Zionist weekly "Nepunk" ("Our People"). Zionist movements were active in Oradea between the World Wars. The National Jewish Party had supporters in Oradea, although some Jews supported the party of the Hungarian nationalists. Some Jews joined the communist party and were even elected as city councilors.

Life was difficult for the Jews of Oradea under Romanian rule, and then under the regime of Nicholas Horthy. In 1927 Romanian nationalist student leaders organized anti-Jewish riots, in which synagogues were looted and several Jews were killed, and there were a number of other outbreaks of anti-Semitic violence before World War II.

Hungarian authorities forced the Jewish residents of the city into the Oradea ghetto in 1944; they were subsequently deported to Auschwitz. A total of 25,000 Jews were deported from Oradea and its district.

After the end of the war, in 1947, the Jewish population numbered approximately 8,000, including survivors from the camps and Jews who had arrived from other areas. In 1946 these survivors dedicated a monument to those who had been lost during the war. Nonetheless, the communist regime imposed new hardships on the Jewish community. Zionist organizations were suppressed, and their leaders were often arrested. Many Jews lost their jobs, or were imprisoned.

During the 1950s, Romania began "selling" its Jewish citizens to Israel; in exchange for money or services, the Romanian government would grant Jews travel permits to immigrate to Israel. Many of the Jews remaining in Oradea emigrated to Israel, North America, Australia, and Western Europe and the population fell to 2,000 in 1971. The only Jewish institutions still functioning then were the three synagogues, which held services on Shabbat and the holidays. There was also a kosher restaurant in the town.

By the 21st century, there were only a few hundred Jews still living in Oradea. Since 2001 the community has been supported by the Lempert Family Foundation, a North American organization dedicated to preserving the memory of the Jewish community of Oradea.
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The Jewish Community of Cluj Napoca

Cluj-Napoca

Commonly known as Cluj  - renamed Cluj-Napoca from Cluj in 1974
Yiddish: Kloyzenburg (קלויזענבורג)
Hungarian: Kolozsvar
German: Klausenburg

A city in northwest Romania. Cluj is the capital of Cluj County, and is traditionally considered to be the capital of Transylvania

Between 1790 and 1848, and 1861 and 1867, Cluj was the capital of Transylvania. The location of Cluj is roughly equidistant from Bucharest (201 miles/324km), Budapest (218 miles/351km), and Belgrade (200 miles/322km). Between 1867 and 1920, and between 1940 and 1945, Cluj was part of Hungary.

The Neolog synagogue is the only functioning synagogue left in Cluj, and serves the local Jewish community. It is dedicated to the victims of the Holocaust.

A census conducted in 2002 indicated that there were 223 Jews living in Cluj.

HISTORY

A document from 1481 is the first evidence of a Jewish presence in Cluj. During the 16th and 17th centuries Jews attended the city's fairs, in spite of opposition from the local authorities. However, it was only in the late 18th century that Jews were permitted to settle in Cluj; during the 17th and 18th centuries any Jews who wanted to live in Transylvania were restricted to the town of Alba Iulia.

The census of 1780 records eight Jewish families as living in Cluj. Locals were not happy about having Jews in their city. In 1784 the municipal council prohibited the inhabitants from selling real estate to Jews. Lobel Deutsch, the first Jew who had been allowed to live in Cluj, had his shop closed by the authorities in 1790; when he protested his 11-year old daughter was kidnapped and forcibly baptized.

In spite of the struggles, a small number of Jews remained in Cluj and made their homes there. A prayer room was opened in 1807, and a small synagogue was built in 1818, at which point the community consisted of 40 people. A chevra kaddisha was founded in 1837.

In 1839 fifteen Jewish families were permitted to live in Cluj, but they were forbidden from hosting any other Jews from other areas. Nonetheless, before the Revolution of 1848 there were 58 Jewish families living n Cluj; the authorities had plans to expel 16 of them. With the outbreak and subsequent failure of the revolution, the Imperial Constitution of 1849 removed the residence restrictions imposed on the Jews of Transylvania, and granted them the right to purchase real estate.

As a result of the removal of various restrictions, the Jewish community of Cluj began to grow rapidly; by 1850 there were 479 Jews living in Cluj, and the population would continue to grow. The city's first synagogue was established in 1851; a year later Rabbi Hillel Lichtenstein arrived to serve the community. Rabbi Lichtenstein did not serve for long; his opposition to modernism, as well as his conflicts with Transylvania's chief rabbi, Abraham Friedman, eventually led to his firing, and he left the city in 1854. He was succeeded in 1861 by Rabbi Feisch Fischman. Rabbi Abraham Glasner served the community from 1863 until 1877; he was opposed by proponents of the Hasidic movement, which was then gaining ground in the city. Glasner's son, Moshe Glasner, succeeded him in 1878; Mosher Glasner, in turn, was succeeded by his son, Akiva Glasner, who served from 1919 until the community's destruction in1944.

The religious schism that took place during and after the General Jewish Congress of Hungary (1868-1869) also affected the Jews of Cluj. An Orthodox community was maintained; those who did not want to identify as Orthodox were organized into the Status Quo community (a community that was neither Orthodox nor Neolog) in 1881; the Status Quo community subsequently became Neolog in 1884. The Neolog community established a synagogue in 1886, which was renovated in 1912. Alexander Kohut served as the Neolog community's first rabbi (1884-1885); he was succeeded by Rabbi Matyas Eisler (1891-1930), and Rabbi Moses Weinberger (1934-1944). The Hasidim established a separate communal organization in 1921 and was led by Rabbi Zalman Leib Halberstam.The Orthodox and Neolog communities each opened their own educational institutions. The Orthodox elementary school opened in 1875, while the Neolog community opened their school in 1908.

In 1866 there were 776 Jews living in Cluj; after the emancipation of 1869-1870 the city's Jewish population shot up to 3,008. By 1910 the population had more than doubled, with 7,046 Jews living in the city (11.6% of the total population).

Zionism became active in Cluj after World War I, and Cluj became a Zionist center within Transylvania. Uj Kelet, a lively and prominent Zionist weekly (it later became a daily newspaper), began to be published at the end of 1918. It had a large readership and became a major influence among the Jews of Transylvania and Romania. Uj Kelet was also the organ of the (principally Zionist) Jewish Party (Partidul Evreiesc); some of the party's local activists were elected to the Romanian Parliament. Cluj's local Jewish press was not limited to Zionism, however. During the interwar period approximately 20 newspapers were published in Cluj, on a variety of topics and in languages ranging from Yiddish to Hebrew to Hungarian.

A Tarbut high school was founded in Cluj in 1920; its director, Mark Antal, was a former director general of Hungary's Ministry of Education and Culture. The language of instruction was Hungarian, Romanian, and Hebrew. The Tarbut school operated until 1927, when it was closed by the Romanian authorities. Later, after Cluj was annexed by Hungary and Jewish children were prohibited from attending general schools, a Jewish high school was opened in October 1940 and functioned until the community's internment in the ghetto.

In 1930 there were 13,504 Jews living in Cluj (12.7% of the total population).

THE HOLOCAUST

After the 1940 Hungarian annexation, anti- Jewish measures and economic restrictions were imposed on Jews throughout the region. In 1942 most of the military-age men in Cluj were conscripted for forced labor and transported to the Nazi-occupied area of the Soviet Union, where many perished.

When the Germans occupied Hungary in the summer of 1944 the local Jews, 16,763 Jews from Cluj, Szamosujvar (Gherla) and the surrounding area were confined to a ghetto. They were deported to Auschwitz between May 25 and June 9, 1944, where most were killed.

POSTWAR

A number of survivors from Cluj returned to the city, and were joined by survivors who came from other areas; in 1947 Cluj was home to 6,500 Jews. Prayers were held in three synagogues, and the community maintained a kosher butcher and canteen. A Jewish elementary school and a high school were reopened, and a vocational school was established to aid survivors in finding work. These institutions were closed in 1948, however, when the communist authorities imposed their own system of education on the populace. Eventually many of the community's Jews emigrated to Israel or other areas. By 1970 there were 1,100 Jews (340 families) remaining in Cluj. At the end of the 20th century the Jewish population had dropped by more than half, and the community had about 500 members.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

 

Oradea
Targu Mures
Turda
Dej
Romania
Oradea

Formerly known as Oradea Mare. Hungarian: Nagyvarad, Varad. German, Yiddish, and Hebrew: Grosswardein

A city in northern Transylvania, Western Romania, the capital city of Bihor County and Crisana Region. Part of Hungary until 1918 and between 1940-1944, now part of Romania.

There are several popular legends that refer to a Jewish presence in the city during the 10th century. Historically, although there are documents dating from 1407 and 1489 that mention several Jews in connection with the town, the only reliable evidence of Jews living there dates from the early 18th century. In 1722 four Jews are listed as being residents of the city. Ten Jewish families were registered in 1736, including one chazzan. As the Jewish population grew, the Jewish residents of Oradea tended to be immigrants from Moravia, Bohemia, and Poland.

A Chevra Kadisha was established in the 1730s. In 1787 the Jews were permitted to build a synagogue; a second synagogue was built in 1812. There was also a Jewish hospital.

The entire town, including the Jewish population, began expanding rapidly at the end of the 18th century. The number of Jews increased from 104 taxpayers in 1830 to 1,600 people in 1840, 10,115 (26.2% of the total population) in 1891, 12,294 (24%) in 1900, 15,115 (23.6%) in 1930, and 21,337 (22.9%) in 1941.

The Jews of Oradea adopted the Hungarian language and Hungarian culture earlier than any other Jewish community in Hungary, and the local Hungarian population saw their Jewish neighbors as potential allies in their struggle against Romanian nationalism. Many Jews from Oradea actively participated in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849.

A short-lived Reform congregation was established in Oradea in 1847, and was disbanded in 1848. Conflicts between the Orthodox and Reform within the Oradea community characterized the latter half of the 19th century. In 18790, after the schism following the Hungarian Jewish Congress of 1868, the Oradea community divided into Orthodox and Neolog congregations, each of which developed their own, separate, institutions. A Neolog Temple was built in 1878, and an Orthodox synagogue was built in 1891. Both congregations were led by well-known rabbis. Leaders of the Orthodox community included Rabbi Aaron Isaac Landsberg, and Rabbi Moses Tzvi Fuchs and his son Benjamin. The Neolog congregation was led by rabbis including Alexander Kohut, Lipot Kecskemeti, and the community's last Neolog rabbi, Istvan Vajda; Rabbi Vajda perished in Auschwitz along with the rest of his community. During World War I several Chasidic rabbis of the Vizhnitsa and Zhidachov dynasties from Bukovina and Galicia found refuge in Oradea. They, in turn, attracted chasidim from the district to the city.

Culturally and economically, the Jews of Oradea were the most active of all of the communities in Hungary or Romania. There were Jewish merchants, physicians, farmers, lawyers, and merchants. In 1902 the chief of police was Jewish, and Jews were represented on the municipal council. They also established a number of communal institutions. Early in the 19th century a number of Jewish public schools were opened. An Orthodox high school was founded in 1888; it had four classes, and remained open until the Holocaust. There was also a Neolog high school which opened in 1920 and ran until the Holocaust. There were Hebrew printing houses operating in the city. The leading Jewish newspaper was the religious Zionist weekly "Nepunk" ("Our People"). Zionist movements were active in Oradea between the World Wars. The National Jewish Party had supporters in Oradea, although some Jews supported the party of the Hungarian nationalists. Some Jews joined the communist party and were even elected as city councilors.

Life was difficult for the Jews of Oradea under Romanian rule, and then under the regime of Nicholas Horthy. In 1927 Romanian nationalist student leaders organized anti-Jewish riots, in which synagogues were looted and several Jews were killed, and there were a number of other outbreaks of anti-Semitic violence before World War II.

Hungarian authorities forced the Jewish residents of the city into the Oradea ghetto in 1944; they were subsequently deported to Auschwitz. A total of 25,000 Jews were deported from Oradea and its district.

After the end of the war, in 1947, the Jewish population numbered approximately 8,000, including survivors from the camps and Jews who had arrived from other areas. In 1946 these survivors dedicated a monument to those who had been lost during the war. Nonetheless, the communist regime imposed new hardships on the Jewish community. Zionist organizations were suppressed, and their leaders were often arrested. Many Jews lost their jobs, or were imprisoned.

During the 1950s, Romania began "selling" its Jewish citizens to Israel; in exchange for money or services, the Romanian government would grant Jews travel permits to immigrate to Israel. Many of the Jews remaining in Oradea emigrated to Israel, North America, Australia, and Western Europe and the population fell to 2,000 in 1971. The only Jewish institutions still functioning then were the three synagogues, which held services on Shabbat and the holidays. There was also a kosher restaurant in the town.

By the 21st century, there were only a few hundred Jews still living in Oradea. Since 2001 the community has been supported by the Lempert Family Foundation, a North American organization dedicated to preserving the memory of the Jewish community of Oradea.

Târgu Mureș

In Hungarian: Marosvásárhely; in German: Neumarkt am Mieresch; also spelled Tirgu-Mures

A city and the seat of Mureș County in the historical region of Transylvania, Romania.

Until the end of World War I and between 1940 and 1945 within Hungary. As Jewish residence in Targu-Mures was prohibited from 1650, Jews at first established themselves in the neighboring villages of Naznanfalva (Nasna) and Marosszentkiraly. In 1836 Jews began to settle in the town itself, most of them coming from these villages. There were 23 Jews living in Targu-Mures in 1837, and 36 in 1841. During the period of the 1848-49 revolution, their number increased to 169. An organized community was founded in 1851. Between 1869 and 1879 there was a Neologist community. An orthodox community was established in 1871. The original community decided to remain status quo ante.

The Great Synagogue, later taken over by the orthodox congregation, was consecrated in 1873. Another large and magnificent synagogue was opened in 1899. A school maintained by the community was open between 1880 and 1940.

There was also a yeshivah maintained by the orthodox community. The Jewish population numbered 802 (6.1% of the total) in 1869; 1,036 (7.1%) in 1890; 2,755 (10.8%) in 1910; 3,246 (10.7%) in 1920; and 5,193 (13.6%) in 1930. A Jewish club was organized in the town between the two world wars where a variety of cultural activities took place. Zionist organizations were active, and the national headquarters of the Zionist youth movement Avivah-Barisia was situated for a while in Targu-Mures.

During World War II the Jewish population, which numbered 5,963 (12.7%) in 1941, increased when a number of Jews from the surrounding area, including a small number of proselytes from nearby villages, were concentrated in a ghetto there. Its inhabitants were deported to the death camp at Auschwitz. Among them were the two rabbis of the town, the orthodox Rabbi Menahem Emanuel Sofer, who had held office from 1918, and Dr. Ferenc Loewy (b. 1869) who had held office from 1903, and who wrote a number of studies on the history of the Jews of Transylvania. After the war, in 1947, 820 survivors of the camps or former inhabitants of the surrounding region gathered in the town.

Their number gradually declined as a result of emigration to Israel and other countries. In 1971 about 200 Jews remained in Targu-Mures. There was still limited community life but no rabbi.

Turda

In German: Thorenburg; Hungarian: Torda

A town in south Transylvania, western central Romania.

Until the end of World War I within Hungary.

Jews began to settle there at the close of the 18th century although individual Jews had visited the locality earlier. A document of 1669 mentions a Jew of Alba Iulia who had stayed in Turda in order to sign an agreement with the local inhabitants. A community was organized between 1830 and 1840. There were already houses of prayer during that period. The community remained orthodox throughout its existence, but there were also many maskilim in Turda. The Jewish population numbered 48 families (175 persons) in 1866, 203 (2.1% of the total) in 1870; 326 (3.5%) in 1900; 482 (3.5%) in 1910, and 852 (4.2%) in 1930. The community, which was wealthy and well organized, employed some distinguished rabbis, among them Ben-Zion Albert Wesel (1900-38) and Joseph Adler (1938-44).

For most of the period between the two world wars these two rabbis also held the position of president of the central office of the organization of orthodox communities of Transylvania, and the community thus played a foremost role among orthodox Jewry in Transylvania. An orthodox Hungarian-language weekly, Hoemesz, was published in Turda from 1933 to 1940. A large synagogue was erected in 1932. Zionist activities were also organized, and there was a group of Jews which supported the Hungarian minority movement in Romania. A Jewish club, established in 1936, played an important part in Jewish life. There were 726 Jews in Turda (2.2% of the total population) in 1940. Their numbers increased to 1,805 in 1942 after Jews from the surrounding areas were concentrated in Turda by the Romanian Fascist authorities. From 1940 to 1944, because of the location of Turda near the Romanian-Hungarian border and within 18 miles (approx. 30 kms) Of Cluj, the capital of northern Transylvania, Jews of Turda played an important role in underground rescue activities among the Jewish population.

Members of the community collaborated with the representatives of the Zionist youth movements in contact with the rescue centers in Bucharest and Budapest and rescue workers in Palestine through their center in Istanbul. They organized secret routes for the transfer of refugees from neighboring Hungary to Romania, where the situation of the Jews was less dangerous, subsequently directing the refugees toward Bucharest, from where most of them reached Palestine. Hundreds of refugees passed along this escape route, most of them from Hungary, some from Slovakia, and even a number from Poland. In the fall of 1944, the town was taken by Hungarian forces. However, they were defeated by the Russians about five weeks later before they had succeeded in organizing the deportation of the local Jews.

After the war the community continued activities but its institutions lost their importance with the decline of the Jewish population as a result of emigration to Israel and elsewhere. There were about 150 Jews living in Turda in 1971. Prayers were still held in the great synagogue on Jewish festivals.

 

Dej

In Hungarian: Des

A town in north Transylvania, Romania.

Until the end of World War I and from 1940-1944 within Hungary.

In 1638 Dej became known through its connection with the history of the Transylvanian Sabbatarians (Judaizers).

Although Jews were officially prohibited from living in Dej until 1848, by 1805 there were already 70 Jewish residents. After 1848 many immigrants from Galicia settled in Dej who made up the majority of the community which remained orthodox with a strong chasidic following. The majority spoke Yiddish as well as Hungarian and Romanian. Communal life was organized around the 1850s. Members of the Panet family served as rabbis of Dej from the beginning of the community's establishment to its end in the holocaust. The first synagogue was built in the early 1860s and another opened in the first decade of the 20th century, beside many other synagogues and yeshivot. A state Jewish elementary school was established in 1884, remaining open until 1938; the language of instruction was Hungarian and Yiddish until 1919 and subsequently Romanian and Yiddish. Zionist organizations were active from 1918. Attempts to bring out periodicals in Yiddish, Hungarian, and even Hebrew proved short-lived. The physician Nathan Friedlaender (1819-1902) settled in Dej in 1864. Meir Jehuda Majrovitz (1895-1944), the Hungarian writer, was born in Dej.

The community numbered 3,360 in 1930 (22.2% of the total population), and 3,719 (22.8%) in 1941.

During the holocaust the Jews in Dej were sent to Auschwitz.

The survivors who returned, with Jews from other places, numbered approximately 1,000 in 1947. The community subsequently dwindled through emigration, many leaving for Israel.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Ernest Neumann
Ludovic Bruckstein
Octavian Sava
Hary Maiorovici
Eliezer Glanz
Radu Ioanid
Ede Goldberger
Andras Goldberger
Ion Ianosi
Nicolae (Miklos) Kallos
Anatol Vieru
Ladislau Gyemant
David Emmanuel
Purjesz, Zsigmond de Belsoecser
Salamon, Erno
Rethi, Mor
Peterfi, Tibor
Karacsony, Beno
Kunfi (Kohn), Zsigmond
Osvat, Kalman
Ligeti, Gabor
Giszkalay (Gush Halav), Janos
Palagyi, Menyhert Malchior
Finaly, Henrik Lajos
Wertheimer, Eduard (Ede) von Monor
Fejer, Leopold (Lipot)
Benjamin Ben Samuel Ha-Levi
Ligeti, György
Szanto, Gyorgy
Szekely, Bela
Lanczy, Gyula
Kanitz, Agost
Jaszi, Oszkar
Bodog, Somlo
Eisler, Matyas
Szilasi, Moric
Szabo, Imre
Boscovitch, Alexander Uriah
Kasztner, Reszo Rudolf Israel
Grunzweig, Emil

Ernest Neumann (1917-2004), rabbi and community leader, born in Ceica, Romania (then part of Austria-Hungary). He attended an Orthodox Jewish gymnasium in Oradea and then the Samuil Vulcan high school in Beius, Romania. He studied at the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest, Hungary, from 1935 to 1941, and in parallel he studied philosophy, Semitic languages ​​and oriental history at the University of Budapest, earning a doctorate in philology and ancient history in 1940. 

In 1941 he returned to Timisoara, Romania, and started working for the local Jewish community serving as a teacher at the Liceul Israelit Jewish high school and as rabbi of the status quo synagogue in the Fabric district of the city. Neumann was one of the leaders of the Jewish community during the Holocaust, when a group of 150 yoing Jews were deported from Timisoara to Transnistria, of them only 25 survived, and all adult Jewish males were sent to forced labor.  

In 1949 he was elected Chief Rabbi of the Neologue community of Timisoara.

During the years of the Communist regime in Romania, Neumann was instrumental in the dissemination of Hebrew language and Israel's heritage among the local Jewish youth and organized numerous Jewish cultural activities. He regularly visited other Jewish communities in Transylvania, particularly those of Cluj, Oradea, Satu Mare, and Arad. Neumann was the only rabbi who could speak in Hungarian to the mostly Hungarian-speaking Jewish communities in Transylvania. In addition to Hungarian, he spoke Romanian, Yiddish, German, English and French.

He participated in numerous rabbinical congresses in Israel, at the centenary of the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest in 1977 and at the Congress of the Judeo-Christian Movement in Budapest in 1988. Neumann was one of the promoters of the ecumenical movement in Timisoara and maintained a dialogue with representatives of other religions in the city, particularly with Nicolae Corneanu (1923-2014), Metropolitan of the Romanian Orthodox church in Banat region.

In 2002 Neumann was named Honorary Citizen of Timisoara and in the same year was made an honorary member of the Association of Romanian Writers. At a 2010 ceremony in his memory attened by local and national leaders a street in Timisoara was named Ernest Neumann street.  In 2016, the name of the same street was changed to Rabbi Oppenheimer Street and the name of Rabbi Neumann was given to the synagogue street in the Fabric district of Timisoara.

Ludovic Bruckstein (Joseph-Leib Arye Bruckstein) (1920-1988), playwright and novelist, born in Mukachevo, Czechoslovakia (now in Ukraine). Bruckstein was the great-grandson of Chaim-Josef Bruckstein, one of the first Hassidim, a follower of the Baal Shem Tov, and author of a book called “Tosafot Haim”. When he was four years of age, his family moved to Sighet, in Romania. Sighet, as part of Northern Transylvania region, was ruled by Hungary between 1940 to 1944. In May 1944, his entire family was deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp. Ludovic was then transferred to Bergen-Belzen Nazi concentration camp, and then to forced-labor camps in Hildesheim, Hanover, Gross-Rosen, Wolfsberg, and Wüstegiersdorf. He was liberated by the Soviet army in May 1945. Of his family, only Ludovic and his younger brother Israel survived the Holocaust.

Before WW2 he graduated from the Commercial High School in Sighet. After the war he studied in Cluj and in Bucharest. He returned to Sighet and served as teacher and ten as principal of the local elementary school of art.

He started his literary career in 1945 writing in Romanian, Hungarian, and Yiddish. His stories were published in Viaţa Românească literary magazine. His plays, in Romanian and Yiddish, were inspired by the trauma of the Holocaust or by Hasidic legends. Several of these plays were staged by the Jewish State Theater in Bucharest (TES): Familia Grinvald (“The Grinvald Family”, 1953), Generaţia din pustiu (“The Desert Generation”, 1956), and Un proces neterminat (“An Unfinished Trial”, 1962). From 1950 till 1967 he wrote about twenty plays performed in many theaters in Romania, Soviet Union, and Poland.

In 1972 he immigrated to Israel. He continued writing in Romanian, mainly short stories, but some of his work was also published in Hebrew. Bruckstein was one of the founders of the Association of Israeli Writers in the Romanian Language. He was a member of the Yiddish and Hebrew Writers’ Union too.

His works include Schimbul de noapte (“Night shift”, 1948) - a play in Yiddish about the Sonderkommando uprising in Auschwitz, Întoarcerea lui Cristofor Columb ("The Return of Christopher Columbus", 1957), Poate chiar fericire ("Maybe Even Happiness", 1985), Destinul lui Iaacov Maghid ("The Fate of Yaakov Magid", 1975), The Murmur of Water (1987). One of his last two short stories he wrote during his last months of life were published as Trap and deals with the fate of a young Jew who survives the deportations of the Jews of Sighet to Nazi death camps by hiding in the woods only to be arrested by the Soviets and sent to Siberia.

Starting from 2005, Bruckstein’s entire prose work was translated into Hebrew by the writer Yotam Reuveni.

Octavian Sava (born Octavian Segall) (1928-2013), humorist, playwright, editor, TV director and screenwriter, born in Bucharest, Romania. His grandfather was a cinema owner and film importer, and his father was for a long time the deputy director of Aro Cinema in Bucharest. He started his medicine studies in 1946, but left them after three years and started to work for Radio Romania. He graduated in Romanian Language and Literature from the University of Buchatrest in 1965.

Sava created variety shows and theater at the Romanian radio and television. In 1951, along with Alexandru Otti, he produced the first Romanian radio series, an adaptation of Tartarin from Tarascon by Alphonse Daudet. As a humorist, Sava wrote numerous sketches, monologues and musical-humorous couplets for the Romanian television.

He is the author of numerous plays, film and television screenplays, including Nota zero la purtare ("Zero grade for behavior", 1957), Aventurile Capitanului Val Vartej ("The Adventures of Captain Val Vartej"), In fiecare zi mi-e dor de tine (“I miss you every day", 1988). Sava wrote the screenplay for A doua cadere a Constantinopolului (“The Second Fall of Constantinople”, 1994), one the most successful movies produced in Romania after the fall of the Communist regime. His novels include Cazul Beilis. Filmul unei nelegiuiri (“The Beilis case. The film of an iniquity”, 2005), Prințul rătăcitor George Bibescu (“The wandering prince George Bibescu”, 2010). As author of musical librettos, Sava collaborated with the Constantin Tănase Theater and the Jewish State Theater in Bucharest, the National Theater in Cluj, and the Mihai Eminescu National Theater in Timișoara.

Hary Maiorovici (1918-2000), composer, born in Sighet into a traditionalist Jewish family. He studied at the Conservatory in Vienna, Austria, and then he graduated from the Conservatory of Cluj, Romania. He wrote the music of over 100 films and many plays and composed symphonies, chamber works, lieds, and symphonic poems. He was awarded 17 international prizes. He was an honorary member of the International Academy of Culture in Rome and an honorary citizen of the cities of Cluj and Sighet.

Eliezer Glanz (1945-?), rabbi, born in Arad, Romania. He graduated from yeshiva of Arad. Between 1964-1973 he served as shochet in the Jewish communities of Deva, Alba Iulia, Arad, Ocna Mures, and Teius, all in Romania. He immigrated to Israel in in 1973, but after two years returned to Romania serving as shochet of the Jewish communities of Timisoara and Cluj. After 1986, he was a shochet in the community of Bucharest and as of 1997 he served as a deputy of Rabbi Menachem Hacohen, the Chief Rabbi of Romania.

Radu Ioanid (b.1953), historian, diplomat, born in Bucharest, Romania. He graduated from the Faculty of Sociology of the University of Bucharest, then earned a PhD at the University of Cluj, Romania, in 1983, and a second PhD from École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris, France, in 1995.

He worked as a sociologist at the Institute for the Design of Standard Constructions in Bucharest between 1976 to 1986. He immigrated to the USA in 1987. A researcher at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C., he served as Director of the US Holocaust Memorial Museum's International Archival Programs Division from 2000 to 2020. Ioanid was the Vice-President of the International Commission for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania, chaired by Elie Wiesel, between 2003-2004. After 2018 he became Associate Professor at Political Science Department at the University of Cluj. In May 2020 Ioanid was named Ambassador of Romania to Israel.

His publications include Sabia arhanghelului Mihail: Ideologia fascistă în România (“The sword of Archangel Michael: Fascist ideology in Romania”, 1994), Evreii sub regimul Antonescu (“Jews under the Antonescu regime”, 1998), The Holocaust in Romania and Securitatea și vînzarea evreilor. Istoria acordurilor secrete dintre România și Israel (2015) English translation -The Ransom of the Jews: The Story of the Extraordinary Secret Bargain Between Romania and Israel, also published in French, German and Hebrew, and Pogromul de la Iași - Album, (2014), English edition The Iasi Pogrom, June-July 1941, A Photo Documentary from the Holocaust in Romania (2017).

Ede Goldberger (1887-1959), dermatologist and medical writer, Holocaust survivor, born in Fagaras, Romania (then part of Austria-Hungary). He graduated from the University of Cluj in 1911. Before the outbreak of World War I, he worked as assistant in a children’s clinic. He became a Professor of Dermatology, working in private practice, and after 1919 served as chief physician at the Jewish Hospital of Cluj. Goldberger was deported to Nazi concentration camps in 1944. After the Holocaust, he returned to Cluj. His articles deal mainly with sexually transmitted diseases and were published in Romanian, Hungarian and German professional journals. Along with Ferenc Veress, he developed a new method for treating gonorrhea. Goldberger died in Cluj.

András Goldberger (1922 -), chemist, chemistry writer, born in Cluj, Romania. He attended the commercial high school in Cluj until 1942 and graduated from the Faculty of Chemistry of the Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj in 1950. He was a member of the Industrial Construction Trust in Cluj after 1950, and a researcher at the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca between 1954-1959. Together with Ödön Felszeghy and Ervin Dezső, he translated R. Zwiebel and S. Abramovici's theoretical and practical guidance The Concrete (1956). Along with Aurel Ianceu, he developed a procedure for the use of masonry blocks made of lightweight concrete. A detailed description of the method was published in Romanian in the yearbook of the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca published in 1958, which was published in Hungarian for the Building Materials Research Institute in Budapest.

Ion Ianoşi (born Janos Steinberger) (1928-2016), writer, professor of philosophy and aesthetics, translator and expert in Russian philosophy and literature, born in Brasov, Romania. Because of the anti-Semitic policy of the Romanian government, Ion Ianoși was expelled from state schools between 1940 and 1944. During these years he attended a Jewish vocational school receiving the qualification of locksmith. Between 1944-1946 he recovered the lost classes, and in 1947 he obtained his baccalaureate diploma. He studied philology at the University of Cluj, Romania, and philosophy at Zhdanov University in St. Petersburg, Russia (then Leningrad, USSR) between 1949-1953. He returned to Romania in 1955 and continued his studies earning a PhD.

Ianosi was an active member of the Romanian Communist Party and an activist of its Central Committee during the 1950s and 1960s. He was professor of philosophy and aesthetics at the University of Bucharest for over four decades.

Ianosi is the author of numerous books on philosophy, aesthetics, literary history, memoirs, including Thomas Mann (1965), Dostoievski – tragedia subteranei (“Dostoevsky - underground tragedy”, 1968), Romanul unui oraș. Petersburg – Petrograd – Leningrad (“The novel of a city. Petersburg - Petrograd – Leningrad”, 1972), Alegerea lui Iona (“The Choice of Iona”, 1974), Hegel și arta (“Hegel and art”, 1980), O istorie a filosofiei românești – în relația ei cu literature (“A history of Romanian philosophy - in its relationship with literature”, 1996), Eu – și el. Însemnări subiective despre Ceaușescu (“Me - and him. Subjective notes on Ceausescu”, 2006), Autori și opere. Culturi Occidentale, vol. I (“Authors and works. Western Cultures, vol. I”, 2007), Autori și opere. Cultura rusă, vol. II (“Authors and works. Russian culture, vol. II”, 2009).

The year 2008 was declared by the European Idea and EuroPress Group “The Year of Ion Ianosi” - occasion on which the scholar was celebrated in a series of conferences and debates.

Nicolae (Miklos) Kallos (1926-2018), sociologist, editor and journalist, political scientist and Holocaust survivor, born in Oradea, Romania, into an observant family.  In April 1944, Kallos and his entire family were confined into the Oradea Ghetto, and at the end of May he was deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp along with his father. Kallos was subsequently transferred to Buchenwald Nazi concentration camp and to various Nazi forced labor camps.

After WW II, he earned a PhD from Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Cluj, Romania. From 1952 he was a lecturer at the Department of Philosophy, from 1959 he was the head of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology at Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj, Doctor of Philosophy (1968), Professor (1970). Member of the Academy of Social and Political Sciences (1970). As a member of official Romanian delegations, he participated in several international scientific meetings, among them the World Congress of Philosophy in Vienna (1968) and Varna (1973), the International Congress of Political Science in Munich (1970) and Moscow (1979), the International Congress of Sociology in Rome (1969), at the International Lenin Seminar in Moscow (1970) and at the Leipzig Scientific Conference of the Departments of Social Sciences in Colleges in Socialist Countries (1979).

He is the author of several books on philosophy, sociology and political science, including Sociologie, politica, filosofie (“Sociology, Politics, Philosophy”, 1975) and Axiologie si etica (“Axiology and Ethics”, written with Andrei Roth, 1968). He was a consulting professor and doctoral coordinator in Political Philosophy and Political Science.

After 1989 Kallos served as the chairman of the Jewish Community in Cluj-Napoca. He was vice-chairman of "Memento", the association of survivors of Buchenwald Concentration Camp in Romania, and editor in chief of the association’s bulletin.

Anatol Vieru (1926-1998), composer and theorist of classical Romanian music, born in Iasi, Romania. He studied at the Academy of Music in Bucharest and at the Tchaikovsky State Conservatory in Moscow between 1951-1954 where he was the pupil of Aram Khachaturian (1903-1978). He earned a PhD from the University of Cluj, Romania, in 1978. From 1947 to 1950 he was conductor of National Opera in Bucharest. He was a lecturer at the orchestration department and later at the composition department of the Bucharest Conservatory. In 1973, having received a grant from the German Academic Exchange Service, he spent one year in West Berlin, where he composed his Second Symphony.

Vieru is the author of numerous concerts, seven symphonies, eight string quartets, three operas, pieces of choral music numerous pieces of chamber music, and film music. He published music analysis articles and participated at conferences at universities in Israel, Canada, Switzerland and the United States. Vieru's contributions to music theory are collected in the two volumes Cuvinte despre sunete (“Words on Tones”, 1994) and Ordinea în Turnul Babel (“Order in the Tower of Babel”, 2001).

Vieru was awarded the Herder Prize for the entire composition, musicological and theoretical activity in 1986, and the Grand Prize of the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists in 1996.

Ladislau Gyémánt (b. 1947), historian, specialist in modern and contemporary history of Europe, particularly Central European history in the 18th-19th centuries, history of Transylvania, history of the Jews in Romania, and Jewish genealogy, born in Oradea, Romania. Gyémánt studied at the Faculty of History of the Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca earning a PhD in 1982. Between 1970 and 2010, he was researcher at the Institute of History of the Romanian Academy in Cluj-Napoca, vice-dean and dean of the Faculty of European Studies of the Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca; director of the Dr. Moshe Carmilly Institute of Judaism and Jewish History at Babeş-Bolyai University (1996-2006) professor of European history, History of Jews and particularly the history of Jews in Romania.

He authored over 30 books and 110 articles, including Miscarea nationala a romanilor din Transilvania intre anii 1790 si 1848 (”The national movement of the Romanians in Transylvania between 1790 and 1848”, 1986), Repertoriul actelor oficiale privind Transilvania tiparite in limba romana (1701 – 1847) (” Repertoire of official documents regarding Transylvania printed in Romanian (1701 - 1847)”, 1981), Repertoriul izvoarelor statistice privind Transilvania, 1690 – 1847 (”Repertoire of statistical sources regarding Transylvania, 1690 – 1847”, 1995). Gyémánt was the editor of the annual review Studia Judaica, I-XIII, Cluj-Napoca, 1991-2005; and editor of the book series Bibliotheca Judaica, I-VII, 1994-2000. He is a board member of International Institute for Jewish Genealogy and Paul Jacobi Center in Jerusalem, Israel.

Gyémánt was awarded numerous prizes, including the Nicolae Balcescu Prize of the Romanian Academy.

David Emmanuel (1854-1941), mathematician, born in Bucharest, Romania. He is considered the founder of the modern mathematical school in Romania. Following his studies in Romania, he moved to Paris, France, where he attended the higher mathematics courses at the Faculty of Sciences and the École Pratique des Hautes Études earning a doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1979. In 1881, Emmanuel became a professor at the Department of Algebra and Analytical Geometry at the Faculty of Sciences in Bucharest, then at the School of Artillery. In 1882 he was named professor of algebra and function theory at the Faculty of Science of the University of Bucharest. Emmanuel was the president of the first congress of mathematics held in Romania at the University of Cluj in May, 1929. Emmanuel  was an honorary member of the Romanian Academy since 1936.

Purjesz, Zsigmond de Belsőecser (1846-1918), physician and educator, born in Szentes, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire). He received the M. D. degree from the University of Budapest, and in 1876 became lecturer on internal medicine at the University of Kolozsvar, then Hungary (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). Purjesz, who accepted the Christian faith, became, in 1880, full professor and head of the internal clinic of Kolozsvar. He was knighted and received the title of councilor of the court.

Among his major works published in book form are "A korisme megallapitasara szukseges vizsgalati modszerek" ("Methods of Investigations in Diagnostics"; 1874) and "A kulonos kor- es gyogytan hazikonyve" ("Handbook of Therapeutics and Diagnostics"; 1874). His textbook of internal medicine, reedited several times, was among those most widely used in Hungarian medical schools.
Salamon, Erno (1912-1943), poet, born in Gyergyoszentmiklos, Transylvania, Hungary (Then part of Austria-Hungary, now Gheorghieni, in Romania). Salamon joined the clandestine Communist Party at Cluj (Kolozsvar), Romania. As a journalist of the left, he was persecuted for his political activities, first by the Romanians and, after 1940, when northern Transylvania was annexed to Hungary, by the Hungarians. He was also imprisoned several times. In 1942, Salamon was mobilized into a forced labor unit of the Hungarian army and sent to the eastern front. During the Hungarian retreat, he caught spotted typhus and, delirious with fever, ran amok and was shot to death by Italian soldiers.

Salamon is considered one of the outstanding modern Hungarian poets. Although his chief subject was the suffering of the exploited workers, Salamon also wrote daringly expressive love poems. During his lifetime, he published two collections of verse, "Gyonyoru sors" ("A Wonderful Fate", 1937), and "Szegenyek kuszoben" ("On the Threshold of the Poor", 1938). Other poems appeared in an anthology entitled "Kelet es Nyugat kozott, Zsido fiatalok antologiaja" ("Between East and West – An Anthology of Young Jews", published by a group of young Jewish intellectuals, with support of the Cluj B'nai B'rith, 1937). Salamon contributed verse to the left-wing press, wrote plays, and translated poems from Romanian. After World War II some of his works appeared in an anthology which also contained poems by two other Transylvanian-Jewish poets who died in the Holocaust, Sandor Korvin and Viktor Brassai. Volumes of Salamon's selected poems were published in Budapest, "Dal utodoknak" ("Song for Descendants", 1961, 1967); "Osszegyujtott versek" ("Collected Poems", 1966); and in Budapest, "Mindmaig beketlenul" ("Without Peace up till Now", 1966). On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of his death, a statue of Salamon was erected at his birthplace.
Rethi, Mor (1846-1925), mathematician and physicist born in Nagykoros, Hungary (then par of the Austrain Empire). He studied at the technical schools of Budapest and Vienna, and became an assistant in the latter school. With the help of a scholarship from the Hungarian government he worked in the Universities of Goettingen and Heidelberg, Germany.

In 1874 he was named professor of mathematics and physics at the University of Kolozsvar, Hungary (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) and professor of mathematics at the technical school of Budapest (1886), a position which he held until his death. Rethi was a member of the Hungarian Academy from 1900 onwards.

Rethi's treatises appeared in various periodicals and year books of mathematics and natural sciences in Hungary and Germany. He edited (together with Gyula Koonig) the "Tentamen" of Farkas Bolyai, and published several books in Hungarian on refraction, surfaces and other subjects. In German he published "Ueber schwere Fluessigstrahlen" (1898). He served on the board of directors of the IMIT (Jewish-Hungarian literary society).
Peterfi, Tibor (1883-1953), biologist, born in Dés, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Dej in Romania). He received a MD degree from the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and was made an assistant at the biological institute of the University of Budapest. During WWI he joined the staff of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Research at Berlin-Dahlem, Germany. Peterfi published a textbook on histology (in Hungarian 2 vol., 1909-11); "Die Beziehungen zwischen den Muskelfasern und Sehnenfasern" (1913); "Die Muskulatur der Harnblase" (1914); "Die Praerarier-Wechselkondensoren" (1926). Peterfi edited "Wissenschaftliche Biologie" (1927-1933), and compiled the bibliographies for the "Jahresbericht ueber die gesamte Physiologie und experimentelle Pharmakologie" (1926-33). He wrote "Mikrophotographie" (1933) for Alfred Hay's "Handbuch der wissenschaftlichen und angewandten Photographie" (1931-1933).
Karacsony, Beno (1888-1944), author, born in Gyulafehervar, Austria-Hungary (now Alba Iulia, Romania). Karacsony earned his living as a lawyer, but he became well known as a writer and playwright. He was one of the Transylvanian authors who continued to write in Hungarian under Romanian rule after 1918, thus keeping alive in the public the longing for a reunion with Hungary.

He wrote for the Magyar theatre of Kolozsvar (Cluj) such plays as "Valas utan" ("After the Divorce"), which won an award in 1924, and "A rut kis kacsa" ("The Ugly Duckling"; 1937). His volume of short stories, "Tavaszi ballada", and his novels, "Pjotruska" (2 vol.) and "Uj elet kapujaban" ("At the Threshold of a New Life"; 1934), were well received by Magyar readers and critics beyond the confines of Transylvania as writings of sound literary qualities. In 1940 his symbolical novel, "Utazas a szurke folyon" ("Traveling on the Grey River"), appeared. It conveyed a message of implicit hope, of the beauties of truth and kindness which will be attained at some point of our travel on the grey river.

Karacsony was murdered in Auschwitz
Kunfi (Kohn), Zsigmond (1879-1929), socialist, born in Nagykanizsa, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary) and educated at the University of Kolozsvar, Hungary (now Cluj, Romania). Kunfi joined the radical Sociological Society and wrote for its political organ Twentieth Century. His anti-religious views led him to leave his post as a secondary school teacher and join the Social Democratic Party, becoming editor of its newspaper Nepszava and of the review Socializmus.

In 1914 he accompanied Count Karolyi and other progressive political leaders on a propaganda tour of the United States.

When the 1918 revolution overthrew the Hungarian regime, Kunfi was made minister of social welfare and later minister of education. He was Commissar of Education during the Communist dictatorship of Bela Kun and won some success in attempting to impose moderation. He disapproved of the application of Russian methods to Hungarian conditions, and in June 1919, he resigned in protest against Kun's extremist policies. In August 1919, when the counterrevolutionaries seized power in Hungary, Kunfi emigrated to Austria. He became editor of the socialist "Arbeiter Zeitung" and also of "Vilagossag", a Hungarian language emigrant socialist newspaper. He taught at the People's University of Vienna, where he preached against the dangers of Communism and even criticized his own role in the Hungarian revolution.
Kunfi was a brilliant essayist, convincing orator, and an outstandiung sociologist. Among his published works are: "Nepoktatasunk bunei" ("Sins of Public Education"; 1908); "Ki tanitja a magyar nepet?" ("Who Teaches the Hungarian People?"; 1909); "Az altalanos valasztojog" ("Universal Suffrage"; 1911). He published essays and articles in "Huszadik Szazad"; "Az Ember"; "Becsi Magyar Ujsag" and "Kampf". He translated the works of K. Marx, K. Kautsky, F. Lassalle, Anatole France, Emile Zola and Norman Angell's "The Great Illusion" into Hungarian. Although he officially left the Jewish community, he wrote a penetrating study of the Jewish problem in Hungary.
Kunfi committed suicide in Vienna, in 1929.
Osvat, Kalman (1880-1953), author and editor, born in Nagyvarad, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, today Oradea, in Romania). He was a brother of Erno Osvat, literary critic and editor. After graduating from medical school, he settled at Tirgu Mures, Romania (formerly Marosvasarhely, Hungary) where, after 1919, he published a review, "Zord idok" ("Bleak Times"). His aim was to take advantage of the the pressure of the Romanian regime to assist the Hungarian speaping Jewish minority to achieve more self-confidence by improving its level of cultural achievement.

Osvat contributed to the Zionist daily newspaper published at Cluj (Kolozsvar), "Keleti Ujsag" ("Oriental News"). He published: "Levelek a fiamhoz" ("Letters to My Son"; 1923); "Feljegyzesek mulo es nem mulo dolgokrol" ("Record of Things Ephemeral and Lasting"; 1923); "Romania felfedezese" ("The Discovery of Romania"; 1923); "Erdelyi levelek" ("Letters from Transylvania"). He edited and wrote in a large part the "Erdelyi Lexikon" ("Transylvanian Lexicon"; 1928).
Ligeti, Gabor (1928-1945), student, brother of the composer Gyorgy Ligeti, born in Diciosânmartin (now Târnăveni), Transylvania, Romania. He studied engineering, although his musical talent was evident from an early age. He played the violin and the viola. Both he and his brother played at the Goldmark Philharmonic of Kolozsvar (Cluj), in Romania.

In the end of May, or beginning of June, 1944, Gabor was deported to Auschwitz. From there he, with many other inmates, were transferred in open cargo wagons to Mauthausen concentration camp. Two thirds of the transportees died on the way. Gabor himself survived the journey, but was seriously sick on arrival.
In March 1945, a few days before his 17th birthday, the Nazis murdered him by injecting fenolin into his heart.
Giszkalay (Gush Halav), Janos (pseudonym of David Widder( (1888-1951), poet and journalist, and a leader of Hungarian and Transylvanian Zionist movements, born in Nyitra, Hungary (now Nitra, in Slovakia). Giszkalay worked in Budapest, where he contributed to the Jewish press and, from 1918, edited the Zionist newspaper "Zsido Szemle". During the "White Terror" which followed the Bolshevik Revolution in Hungaryin 1918, he wrote articles in support of a Jewish schoolgirl's protest against the persecution of the Jews in Hungary. Giszkalay argued that anti-Semites had no moral rights to demand patriotism from the Jews whom they vilified. This led to an order for his arrest. He therefore fled to Romania and joined the staff of "Uj Kelet", the Hungarian- language Jewish daily published in Cluj (Kolozsvar), Transylvania, Romania.

Giszkalay's verse shows the influence of Endre Ady, the leading modern Hungarian poet, who himself had been greatly influenced by the Bible. Giszkalay's poems, notable for their enthusiasm and richness of language, deeply impressed Zionist youth of Hungary and Transylvania. His best known poems were "Kezet fel az egre, ki ferfi ki bator!" ("Whoever is a man, whoever is courageous, let him raise his hand!"); "A messias heroldja" ("The Herald of the Messiah"); and "Pentek a haboruban" ("A Wartime Friday Night"). Anthologies of his poems include "Uj profeciak" ("New Prophecies", 1923), "Gus Chalav latomasa" ("The Vision of Gush Halav") and "Lesz meg egy kippur nap" ("There Will Be an other Yom Kippur"). He also wrote a children's story, "Vitez Benaja harom utja" ("The Three Journeys of Knight Benayahu", 1928).

Giszkalay's Zionist activities encouraged many Hungarian Jews to settle in Eretz Israel. In 1941 he himself immigrated to Palestine, where he worked as a shepherd on Kibbutz Ma'agan. Later he moved to Haifa, where he translated his own works into Hebrew.
Palagyi, Menyhert Malchior (1859-1925), philosopher, born in Paks, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire). He was an elder brother of the poet Lajos Palagyi, was educated at the University of Budapest, and became assistant professor of natural philosophy at the University of Kolozsvar, Hungary, (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). After Kolozsvar was incorporated into Romania, he retired, and, at the invitation of the philosopher Hermann Kayserling, moved to Darmstadt, Germany, where he lived to the end of his life.

Before he converted to Christianity he took an active part in fighting for the acceptance of the Jewish faith (1895) as equal to other religions in Hungary.
His "Neue Theorie des Raumes und der Zeit" (1901) anticipated Minkovski and Einstein; in "Der Streit der Psychologisten und Formalisten in der modernen Logik" (1902), as well as "Die Logik auf dem Scheidewege" (1903) he combated the psychologistic trend in philosophy. His "Kant und Bolzano" (1902) rediscovered and interpreted Bolzano, a forgotten philosopher.

Palagyi made original contributions to the theory of knowledge in "Az ismeretlen alapvetese" ("Foundation of the Theory of Knowledge"; 1904); to esthetics in "Theorie der phantasie" (1908) and especially to natural philosophy; "Naturphilosophysche Vorlesungen", (1907). In 1914 he published "Die Relativitaatstheorie in der modernen Physik". He conceived the outlines of a mechanics of the universe. German philosophy paid its tribute to the thought of Melchior Palagyi by arranging for a posthumous edition of his collected works in three volumes: "Melchior Palagyi's gesammelte Schriften" (1925-26).
Finaly, Henrik Lajos (de Kende; 1825-1898), philologist, born in Obuda (now part of Budapest), Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire).

A man of many interests, Finaly studied both engineering and in natural sciences at the Polytechnikum and University of Vienna, Austria, respectively. In the revolutionary war against Austria (1848-49), he served as an artillery officer. In 1858, after being converted to Catholicism, he was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, only the second person of Jewish extraction to have been accorded the honour. 1872 he was made professor of classical archeology at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj, in Romania). Soon thereafter he and was knighted. The Archeological Institute of Rome, Italy, also conferred membership upon him.

Finaly wrote extensively on linguistics and made many contributions to scientific journals in Hungary and abroad. His researches and provocative conclusions regarding the Hungarian and Latin languages attracted wide attention.

His Latin Dictionary, published in 1884, was for many years been a standard work. He wrote other books about expressions in the Hungarian language and ancient Hungarian and Roman weights and measures. He also wrote an informative volume on the Jewish calendar entitled "A zsidok idoszamitasa" (1881). His Latin-Hungarian dictionary, first published in 1858, has been reissued many times. He edited the "Magyar Futar", and "Erdelyi Muzeum", as well as the publications of the Economic Society of Transylvania.
Wertheimer, Eduard (Ede) von Monor (1848-1930), historian, born in Pest, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now Budapest, in Hungary). He studied at Pest, Vienna and Berlin, and became a lecturer at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, in Romania) in 1877 and later held successive professorships at two law schools, Nagyszeben (now Sibiu, in Romania) and Pressburg (now Bratislava, in Slovakia). His articles were published in both Hungarian and Austrian newspapers.

In 1900 he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy, and in 1903 was knighted and given the title "de Monor". On his retirement in 1914, he was appointed a privy councilor (Hofrat). He spent the last years of his life in Berlin, Germany.

Wertheimer's principal scholarly interests were the foreign policy of the Hapsburg monarchy and the history of Hungary during the early years of the 19th century. His main works are: “Zur Geschichte des Tuerkenkrieges Maximilian II” (1875); “Zur Geschichte Wiens” (1889); “Grof Andrassy Gyula elete es kora” (Graf Julius Andrassy, his life and his time, 3 vols., 1910-13), a study of dualism and the role of Hungary. His important contributions to 19th century history were “Ausztria es Magyar orszag a XIX szazad elso tizedeben” ("Austria and Hungary during the First Decade of the 19th century", 2 vols., 1890-92); and the “Az 1811-12 magyar orszaggyules” ("The Hungarian Diet of 1811-12", 1899). His other books include: “Bismarck im politischen Kampf” (1929); “Die drei ersten Frauen des Kaisers Franz” (1893) and “Der Herzog von Reichstadt” (1902); "The Duke of Reichstadt, Napoleon II" (1905).
Fejer, Leopold (Lipot), (1880-1959), mathematician, born as Leopold Weiss in Pecs, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary). He studied at the universities of Budapest, Berlin, Goettingen, Germany, and Paris, France. In 1911, he became lecturer at first at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, in Romania), and then later in the same year was appointed professor at the University of Budapest. Fejer was granted the Marcibanyi award by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, of which he became a full member in 1930. Fejer was a member of the National Committee of Examiners of High-school teachers. At the beginning of WW II he was dismissed from his chair and narrowly escaped being killed by the fascist regime.

Fejer was a member of the board of directors at the Circolo Matematico di Palermo, Italy, and a member of the editorial board of its publication. He was a contributor to the Mathematische Annalen and a member of the Scientific Association of Goettingen, Germany.

Fejer's Ph.D. thesis contained the classic result now known as Fejer's theorem that "a Fourier series is Cesaro summable (C,1) to the value of the function at each point of continuity". This key result gave great impetus to further developments in Fourier and divergent series. His major published works were: "Untersuchungen ueber Fouriersche Reihen" (1904); "Das Ostwaldsche Prinzip in der Mechanik" (1906); "Ueber Stabilitaat und Labilitaat eines materiellen Punktes im widerstrebenden Mittel" (1906); "Ueber die Wurzel vom kleinsten absoluten Beitrage einer algebraischen Gleichung" (1908); "A symtotikus ertekek meghatarozasarol" (1908) and; "Ueber die Laplace'sche Reihe" (1909).

Benjamin Ben Samuel Ha-Levi (early 11th century), poet, born in Coutance, Normandy, France. Ha-Levi’s poems were written in the style of old piyyutim and are at times of considerable artistic distinction. He wrote piyyutim for the three pilgrimage festivals and for Rosh Ha-shannah (the New Year) and Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement). Some of his poems are included in Mahzor Romania. He died in Coutance, Normandy.

Ligeti, György Sándor (1923-2006), composer, born in Diciosânmartin (now Târnăveni), Transylvania, Romania.

His family moved to Cluj (now Cluj-Napoca), Romania, when Ligeti was six. In Cluj he studied at the local conservatorium until 1943, when he was sent to a forced labor brigade by the Hungarian fascist authorities who controlled Cluj from 1940 to 1944. His family was deported to Auschwitz, his mother being the only survivor. After World War 2 he settled in Budapest, Hungary, where he continued his musical studies. However, Ligeti left that country after the failed revolution of 1956, and setled in Vienna, Austria. Following long periods during which he lived in Berlin and Hamburg, Germany, where he held a teaching post at the Hamburg Hochschule fuer Musik und Theater from 1973 until his retirement in 1989, Ligeti returned to Vienna in 1989 and stayed there until his death.

Ligeti is considered one of the important composers of instrumental music of the 20th century. His works include the opera Le Grand Macabre (1975-1977, a second version in 1996); concerts, chamber music, vocal and choral pieces, works for the piano, organ, and electronic music. He is also known for the sountracks he composed for Stanley Kubrick's films: 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Shining, and Eyes Wide Shut.

Ligeti was awarded numerous prestigious prizes, among them the Wolf Prize in Arts, Israel, 1996.
Szanto, Gyorgy (1893-1961), author, born in Vagujhely, Hungary, (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Nove Mesto nad Vahom, Slovakia). He studied painting, and exhibited with success at the National Salon at Budapest. Szanto became the scenery and costume designer at the Romanian Opera House at Kolozsvar, Hungary (now Cluj Napoca, Romania).

A combatant in World War I, he lost his eyesight due to a brain injury. He then turned to writing, and became one of the most popular Hungarian novelists of his time. His novels combine an intensity of passion with strong penchant for the colorful both in action and description. Szanto lived at Arad, Romanian. He published his works in Transylvania until 1947, when he moved to Budapest.

Szanto's works include: "Babel tornya" ("The Tower of Babel"); "Mata Hari"; "Az aranyagacska" ("The Golden Twig": 1935); "Utolso hajnal, elso hajnal" ("Last Dawn, First Dawn"); "Melte" (1938). His somewhat autobiographical "Stradivari" was made into a motion picture by the German UFA Company and his play "A satoros kiraly" was performed by the Hungarian National Theatre (1936). He was author also of a volume of poetry, "Schumannal a Karnevalban" ("With Schumann at the Carnival").
Szekely, Bela (1892-1955), author, journalist and communal worker born in Bethlen, Transylvania, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now in Romania). He took part in the founding of the Zionist daily newspaper "Uj Kelet" at Kolozsvar (now Cluj Napoca, Romania), and later founded the daily newspaper" 5 Orai Ujsag" ("5 O'clock Newspaper") in that city.

Szekely was active in Zionist work; he organized Zionist activities in Hungary, and was partly responsible for the founding of the Pro Land of Israel League of Hungarian Jews (1926). He was active in the Jewish National Federation of Transylvania. An association of Zionist girls, Aviva, which he called into being and whose president he was, enlisted members from numerous countries.

Szekely was author of several volumes of verse. In addition he published: "Vajudo orszag" ("The birth of a Country"), a social study of Palestine; "Mittelmann", a story on discrimination; and "Maramaros"; a social study. He founded and served as secretary to the federation of minority journalists of Ardeal-Banat (Transylvania and Banat). He was Hungarian correspondent of the "Jewish Telegraphic Agency".
Toward the end of the 1930s Szekely emigrated to Argentina.

In Argentina he published a series of lectures on psichology with the title "El Psicoanálisis. Teoría-aplicación" (1940). His other publications include "El niño neurótico. Introducción a su reeducación y psicoterapia" (1943); "De Taylor a Stajanov" (La Plata, 1946).

Szekely died in a hotel in Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

http://www.memoria.fahce.unlp.edu.ar/art_revistas/pr.5644/pr.5644.pdf
Lanczy, Gyula (1850-1911), historian born in Pest, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire). He studied law and spent several years in the civil service before turning to historical studies. At the same time he published essays on national education and national history. Lanczy was a deputy to the Hungarian parliament between 1881 and 1884, and during this period contributed articles to various Magyar newspapers on contemporary politics. In 1887 he was appointed professor at Kolozsvar (then in Hungary, now Cluj in Romania), and in 1891 became professor of medieval history at the University of Budapest. Lanczy's studies included literary history, political science, and foreign affairs. His interests included the history of the Magyars, the poetry of the Kuruc, and Hungarian political reform during the first half of the 19th century. In medieval history, his favorite subjects were the conflict between the Empire and the clergy, the constitution of Italian cities, and the religious and political movements of the 14th and 15th centuries.

Lanczy's published works included "A felso oktatas reformja s az uj Magyar kozmuveltseg" ("Reform of the High School and the new Standard of Public Education in Hungary," 1879); "Adalekok a magyar alkotmany reformkorszakahoz" ("Addenda to the Reform Age of the Hungarian Constitution"; sponsored by the Hungarian Historical Society, 1880); "Szechenyi Pal kalocsai ersek es a Magyar nemzeti politika" ("Paul Szechenyi, Archbishop of Kalocsa, and Hungarian National Policy"): "Eszmetoredekek a Rakoczi-fele felkeles tortenetpolitikai jelentosegerol" ("Fragments on the Historical Significance of the Rakoczy Rebellion", 1882); "A politikai reformeszmek fejlodesi tortenete Magyarorszgon" ("Progress of the Ideas of Political Reform in Hungary", 1883); "Tortenelmi kor – es jellemrajzok" ("Monographs and Historical Portraits", 1890). This work illustrates his literary studies, while his book "Magyarorszag az Arpadok koraban" ("Hungary during the period of the Arpads", 1898) exemplifies his historiographic method. Lanczy was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Artsiences. He converted to Christianity.
Kanitz, Agost (1843-1896), botanist, born in Lugos, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire, now Lugoj, Romania) and died in Kolozsvar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Cluj, Romania). He studied in Vienna, Paris, and in Leyden, Holland.

In 1872 he was made professor of botany at the University of Kolozsvar (then Hungary, later Cluj, Romania), where he established a botanical institute and herbarium. Kanitz was the first scientist in southeastern Europe to work for the classification of flora throughout the region. Together with others he classified the flora of Slavonia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Albania. He also edited a list of the flora of Romania.

He classified and wrote about the flora collected by Hungarian expeditions to Asia Minor and China. He contributed to "Flora Brasiliensis", edited by Carl F. Martius. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Arts and of numerous international scientific institutions, among them the international botanical jury of Florence, Italy. He founded, sponsored and edited from 1877 to 1892 the first botanical journal of Hungary, "Magyar Novenytani Lapok". He wrote a number of books on the subject.
Jaszi, Oszkar (1875-1957), political scientist, born in Nagykaroly, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Carei in Romania). Jaszi was converted to Christianity by his parents. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Budapest in 1896.

Jaszi was concerned with the problem of national minorities and argued that these minorities should be granted full cultural and social autonomy. However, later he believed that the question of Russian Jewry could be resolved only by the creation of a Jewish State in Palestine. He advocated that the Jews of Hungary should assimilate. He was editor of the radical periodical "Huszadik Szazad" ("Twentieth Century") from 1906 to 1919. In 1912 he published "A nemzeti allamok kialakulasa es a nemzetisegi kerdes" ("The Evolution of the Nation States and the Nationality Problem"). The same year Jaszi was appointed to a junior position in the faculty of political science at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj, in Romania).

Jaszi believed that after World War I the countries of central Europe should unite into a confederation. In 1917 he therefore participated in the conference held in Bern, Switzerland where, convinced that the entry of the United States into the War spelled disaster for the Central European Powers, he urged that Hungary make peace with Germany jointly with other countries or separately. When the Hungarian people, stripped of all possessions after four years of war, seethed with discontent, Jaszi urged King Charles IV to introduce immediate reforms. A memorandum to this effect was unheeded, and toward the end of October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy collapsed. In 1918, following the revolution, Jaszi was made minister of national minorities. He recognized the right of the Jews to national self-determination and also attempted to negotiate a permanent settlement with the national minorities within the Hungarian Republic.

When the Hungarian Soviet regime came to power in 1919, Jaszi left Hungary for Vienna and then Munich,Germany, from where he published a history of the revolution in Hungary, "Magyar kalvaria – Magyar foltamadas" ("Revolution and Counter Revolution in Hungary"). In 1925 he immigrated to the United States, where he lectured at Oregon College, Ohio, and became professor of political science in 1941.

Jaszi was the author of numerous works on politics and political science including "A tortenelmi materializmus allambolcselete" ("History of Historical Materialism", 1904); and "The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy" (1929).
Bodog, Somlo (1873-1920), jurist and sociologist, born in Pozsony, Hungary (aka Pressburg, then part of Austria-Hungary, now Bratislava, Slovakia). He studied in the Universities of Kolozsvar, Hungary, (now Cluj Napoca, Romania), Leipzig and Heidelberg, Germany. He was lecturer in the University of Kolozsvar to which, after teaching in the Academy of Law at Nagyvarad, Hungary (now Oradea, Romania), he returned in 1905 as professor of the philosophy of law. From 1918 to 1919 he was professor in the University of Budapest. Bodog converted to Christianity.

He belonged to the circle of the eminent scholar Gyula Pikler. Starting from the analysis of law, which is a creation of society, both men delved into investigations concerning society itself. Pikler took the additional step toward physiological psychology in an effort to provide an even more positive basis for his thought. Somlo stopped at research on society and followed, or rather was in advance of the contemporary trend, by ascribing to the collectivity a predominant importance over the individual. He collaborated with Pikler on "Der Ursprung des Totemismus" (1900). He wrote books in Hungarian on the laws governing sociology, thus contributing towards making that field of research a science, and on state control and individualism (1903). He also published in German "Der Gueterverkehr in der Urgesellschaft" (1909) and "Zur Gruendung einer beschreibenden Sociologie" (1909). His posthumously published work (1921) dealt significantly with Niccolo Machiavelli, whose state philosophy was to dominate in the subsequent decades. During the First World War he wrote articles which sought to disprove the sociological arguments of the anti-Semitic author Peter Agoston.

Somlo served as vice-president of the Association of Social Studies in Budapest.

In 1920, he committed suicide in Kolozsvar.
Eisler, Matyas (1865-1931), rabbi and scholar, born in Paty, county of Pest, Hungary (then in the Austrian Empire). Eisler studied at the rabbinical seminaries of Budapest and Berlin, Germany, and studied for a doctor's degree in philosophy at the University of Budapest. In 1890 he became teacher of Hebrew at the Israelitische Lehrbildungsanstalt (Training school for Jewish teachers) and subsequently at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj, in Romania). In 1891 he was ordained a rabbi at the rabbinical seminary of Budapest. He served as chief rabbi of Kolozsvar from 1891 until his death. Eisler was lecturer in Oriental sciences at the Academy of Sciences in Budapest.

Eisler's communal leadership won him the presidency of the Rabbinical Association of Transylvania. He was also a prime figure in the national committee, which in the years following World War I, extended aid to students who were obliged to enroll at universities outside Hungary because of anti-Semitism in the academic world.

His was particularly interested in the history of the Jews of Transylvania and Hebrew linguistics. In 1889 he published "A gyokbeli hangok interdialektikus valtozasai az aram nyelvekben" ("Interdialectical Changes of Root Sounds in the Aramaic Languages") and among his other works were "Az erdelyi zsidok multjabol" ("From the Past of the Jews of Transylvania", 1901). In 1914 he published a facsimile volume, "A tenger a biblia kolteszeteben", dealing with the sea as a subject in Biblical poetry. He wrote many essays and articles for the Pester Lloyd (Budapest), Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums (Berlin), Egyenloseg, Uj Kelet and Magyar Zsido Lexikon (Budapest), and Erdelyi Muzeum (Kolozsvar).
Szilasi, Moric (1854-1905), philologist, born in Szilasbalhas, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire), he studied at Budapest and Leipzig, Germany. He taught philology at the Otvos College in Budapest, and in 1902 was named professor of Hungarian at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). He was the author of dictionaries of the Vogul and Cheremiss languages, as well as of many works on Finno-Ugric comparative linguistics.

Szilasi was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Science. His essays were published in professional journals, in the Budapesti Szemle, and the publications of the Academy. He also translated from Greek, Latin, English and German into Hungarian. Szilasi died in Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca).
Szabo, Imre (1882-1943), author, playwright and journalist, born in Ersekujvar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, Nove Zamky in Slovakia). He began his career as a journalist writing for the German-language "Neues Politisches Volksblatt", and later worked for Hungarian and Jewish newspapers. After World War I, Szabo settled in Kolozsvar (then Hungary, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and devoted himself to literature.

He wrote plays, novels, and biographies, mainly on Jewish subjects, and was strongly influenced by the major Hungarian writers, notably Kalman Mikszath. Szabo also published translations of plays from Yiddish to Hungarian. His works include the story "A pozsonyi zsido utca" ("The Jews' Street in Pozsony", (Pressburg in German), 1938), a faithful picture of pre-World War I Jewish life; "Zsido komediasok" ("Jewish Comedians", 1925); and "Kelet Kapujaban" ("At the Gate of the East", 1937). "Uj zsidok" ("New Jews", 1937) contained biographies of Theodor Herzl and other modern Jewish leaders. Szabo also published a Hungarian version of Louis Golding's novel "Magnolia Street". Two later works were "Erdely zsidoi" ("The Jews of Transylvania", 1938) and "Roma es Judea" ("Rome and Judea"' 1943). Szabo also published reports of his journeys to Bessarabia, Moldova and the Middle East.
Composer

Born in Cluj, he studied in Vienna and Paris and then returned to Cluj where he conducted the Cluj Opera and the Jewish community orchestra. He studied Jewish folk songs of the Carpathian Mountains region and arranged them in an orchestral suite. In 1938 he settled in Tel Aviv where he became a leading spokesman among the advocates of the formation of a new national school. He called his style 'Eastern Mediterranean'. His most important work in this framework was his Semitic Suite (1946). He taught in Tel Aviv and composed large-scale works as well as incidental music for the Habimah theater.
Zionist

Born in Cluj, he worked for the Zionist daily Uj Kelet and was active in Zionist youth work. After Transylvania was annexed to Hungary in 1942 he moved to Budapest and became vice-chairman of the Hungarian Zionist Federation. He also joined the Relief and Rescue Committee which helped refugees from Slovakia and Poland. After the Nazis took over Hungary in 1944, Kasztner played a leading role in trying to save Jews and as a result of his negotiations a transport of 1,786 Jews was transferred to neutral Switzerland. After the War he settled in Palestine, editing Hungarian newspapers. An individual accused him of collaborating with the Nazis and the case went to court, involving much publicity and controversy. The court found for the accuser. Kasztner appealed to the Supreme Court which cleared him but before then he had been shot and killed by an assassin influenced by the lower court's verdict.
Grunzweig, Emil (1947-1983), Israeli educator and peace activist, born in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, son of Holocaust survivors. He immigrated to Israel in 1963, having spent his childhood years in Brazil and France, and settled in Haifa, and then in Kibbutz Magal. Grunzweig served in IDF as a paratrooper taking part in the Six-Day War (1967), the War of Attrition (1969-1970, Yom Kippur War (1973), and Lebanon War (1982).

Grunzweig's many educational activities at Maaleh Bessor high school in Kibbutz Magen included projects that dealt with negotiations on issues as the Israeli - Arab conflict, work relations, and relations between religion and the state. He was an active member of the Israeli peace movement Peace Now ("Shalom Akhshav"). Grunzweig was killed by a handgreande thrown at the participants of a demonstration organized by Peace Now in Jerusalem on February 10, 1983. His name became a symbol of the dangers of political violence in the Israeli society.
Exterior view of the synagogue in Cluj-Napoca, Transylvania, Romania, 2002
Sari Boskovich with her two small sons, Cluj, Transylvania, Rumania, c1913
The wedding photo of the daughter of the Chief Rabbi of Cluj, Romania, 1922
Parade of "Hashomer" Members in the Hebrew Gymnasium, Cluj, Romania 1922
Tombstone in the old Jewish cemetery, Cluj, Romania, 1976
Jewish students eating in a Koscher Resturant, Cluj, Rumania, 1985
Joseph Lazar at a Social Club in Cluj, Romania 1935
The Great Synagogue in Cluj, Romania, inaugurated in 1887. Postcard
Major Aron Lisiansky, Commander of the Engineering Unit, with his Commanders and soldiers of the Russian Army. Cluj, Romania 28.7.1945

Exterior view of the synagogue in Cluj-Napoca, Transylvania, Romania, 2002

There is a memorial plaque on the wall

The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot, courtesy of Moshe Fisher, Israel

Sari Boskovich with her two small sons
Zoltan (standing) and Alexander Uriyah (sitting),
Cluj, Transylvania, Rumania, c1913
(formerly Kolozsvar, Hungary)
Alexander Uriyah Boskovich (1907-1964) was an Israeli
composer and music critic
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Miriam Boskovich, Israel)
The wedding photo of the daughter
of Chief Rabbi Shmuel Glazner (sitting by the bride)
and one of the founders of the Mizrachi movement,
Kolozsvar (Cluj), Romania, 1922
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of the Kadman family, Israel)
Parade of "Hashomer" Members in the Hebrew Gymnasium, Cluj (Koloswar), Transylvania, Romania 1922.
(Tel Yitzhaq, Massua, Institute for the Study
of the Holocaust)

"Hashomer" was one of the groups which formed
"Ha-No'ar Ha-Ziyyoni" in 1930s.
.
Tombstone in the old Jewish cemetery,
Cluj, Romania, 1976
Photo: Lajos Erdelyi, Hungary
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
Lajos Erdelyi colelction, Hungary)
Jewish students eating in a Koscher resturant,
Cluj, Rumania, 1985
The restaurant (or cantina) serves lunch at a minimal fee
everyday of the week, many Jewish students
attending the University take their lunches there
Photo: Yale Strom, USA
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Yale Strom, USA)
Joseph Lazar (sitting at the first table, 2nd from left)
playing domino at a aocial club in Cluj, Romania 1935.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Nili Michaeli, Israel)
The Great Synagogue in Cluj, Romania,
inaugurated in 1887
It was partially destroyed by the Allied air raids in 1944, restored in 1970
Photo: Clara Spitzer, Bucharest
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Clara Spitzer)
Major Aron Lisiansky, Commander of the Engineering Unit, with his Commanders and the soldiers of the Russian Army.
Cluj, Romania 28.7.1945
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Irit Kogan, Israel)

Lisiansky Aron Ya Kovlievich
Bodog, Somlo
Eisler, Matyas
Szilasi, Moric
Szabo, Imre
Bodog, Somlo (1873-1920), jurist and sociologist, born in Pozsony, Hungary (aka Pressburg, then part of Austria-Hungary, now Bratislava, Slovakia). He studied in the Universities of Kolozsvar, Hungary, (now Cluj Napoca, Romania), Leipzig and Heidelberg, Germany. He was lecturer in the University of Kolozsvar to which, after teaching in the Academy of Law at Nagyvarad, Hungary (now Oradea, Romania), he returned in 1905 as professor of the philosophy of law. From 1918 to 1919 he was professor in the University of Budapest. Bodog converted to Christianity.

He belonged to the circle of the eminent scholar Gyula Pikler. Starting from the analysis of law, which is a creation of society, both men delved into investigations concerning society itself. Pikler took the additional step toward physiological psychology in an effort to provide an even more positive basis for his thought. Somlo stopped at research on society and followed, or rather was in advance of the contemporary trend, by ascribing to the collectivity a predominant importance over the individual. He collaborated with Pikler on "Der Ursprung des Totemismus" (1900). He wrote books in Hungarian on the laws governing sociology, thus contributing towards making that field of research a science, and on state control and individualism (1903). He also published in German "Der Gueterverkehr in der Urgesellschaft" (1909) and "Zur Gruendung einer beschreibenden Sociologie" (1909). His posthumously published work (1921) dealt significantly with Niccolo Machiavelli, whose state philosophy was to dominate in the subsequent decades. During the First World War he wrote articles which sought to disprove the sociological arguments of the anti-Semitic author Peter Agoston.

Somlo served as vice-president of the Association of Social Studies in Budapest.

In 1920, he committed suicide in Kolozsvar.
Eisler, Matyas (1865-1931), rabbi and scholar, born in Paty, county of Pest, Hungary (then in the Austrian Empire). Eisler studied at the rabbinical seminaries of Budapest and Berlin, Germany, and studied for a doctor's degree in philosophy at the University of Budapest. In 1890 he became teacher of Hebrew at the Israelitische Lehrbildungsanstalt (Training school for Jewish teachers) and subsequently at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj, in Romania). In 1891 he was ordained a rabbi at the rabbinical seminary of Budapest. He served as chief rabbi of Kolozsvar from 1891 until his death. Eisler was lecturer in Oriental sciences at the Academy of Sciences in Budapest.

Eisler's communal leadership won him the presidency of the Rabbinical Association of Transylvania. He was also a prime figure in the national committee, which in the years following World War I, extended aid to students who were obliged to enroll at universities outside Hungary because of anti-Semitism in the academic world.

His was particularly interested in the history of the Jews of Transylvania and Hebrew linguistics. In 1889 he published "A gyokbeli hangok interdialektikus valtozasai az aram nyelvekben" ("Interdialectical Changes of Root Sounds in the Aramaic Languages") and among his other works were "Az erdelyi zsidok multjabol" ("From the Past of the Jews of Transylvania", 1901). In 1914 he published a facsimile volume, "A tenger a biblia kolteszeteben", dealing with the sea as a subject in Biblical poetry. He wrote many essays and articles for the Pester Lloyd (Budapest), Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums (Berlin), Egyenloseg, Uj Kelet and Magyar Zsido Lexikon (Budapest), and Erdelyi Muzeum (Kolozsvar).
Szilasi, Moric (1854-1905), philologist, born in Szilasbalhas, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire), he studied at Budapest and Leipzig, Germany. He taught philology at the Otvos College in Budapest, and in 1902 was named professor of Hungarian at the University of Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). He was the author of dictionaries of the Vogul and Cheremiss languages, as well as of many works on Finno-Ugric comparative linguistics.

Szilasi was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Science. His essays were published in professional journals, in the Budapesti Szemle, and the publications of the Academy. He also translated from Greek, Latin, English and German into Hungarian. Szilasi died in Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca).
Szabo, Imre (1882-1943), author, playwright and journalist, born in Ersekujvar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, Nove Zamky in Slovakia). He began his career as a journalist writing for the German-language "Neues Politisches Volksblatt", and later worked for Hungarian and Jewish newspapers. After World War I, Szabo settled in Kolozsvar (then Hungary, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and devoted himself to literature.

He wrote plays, novels, and biographies, mainly on Jewish subjects, and was strongly influenced by the major Hungarian writers, notably Kalman Mikszath. Szabo also published translations of plays from Yiddish to Hungarian. His works include the story "A pozsonyi zsido utca" ("The Jews' Street in Pozsony", (Pressburg in German), 1938), a faithful picture of pre-World War I Jewish life; "Zsido komediasok" ("Jewish Comedians", 1925); and "Kelet Kapujaban" ("At the Gate of the East", 1937). "Uj zsidok" ("New Jews", 1937) contained biographies of Theodor Herzl and other modern Jewish leaders. Szabo also published a Hungarian version of Louis Golding's novel "Magnolia Street". Two later works were "Erdely zsidoi" ("The Jews of Transylvania", 1938) and "Roma es Judea" ("Rome and Judea"' 1943). Szabo also published reports of his journeys to Bessarabia, Moldova and the Middle East.
Boscovitch, Alexander Uriah
Kasztner, Reszo Rudolf Israel
Grunzweig, Emil
Composer

Born in Cluj, he studied in Vienna and Paris and then returned to Cluj where he conducted the Cluj Opera and the Jewish community orchestra. He studied Jewish folk songs of the Carpathian Mountains region and arranged them in an orchestral suite. In 1938 he settled in Tel Aviv where he became a leading spokesman among the advocates of the formation of a new national school. He called his style 'Eastern Mediterranean'. His most important work in this framework was his Semitic Suite (1946). He taught in Tel Aviv and composed large-scale works as well as incidental music for the Habimah theater.
Zionist

Born in Cluj, he worked for the Zionist daily Uj Kelet and was active in Zionist youth work. After Transylvania was annexed to Hungary in 1942 he moved to Budapest and became vice-chairman of the Hungarian Zionist Federation. He also joined the Relief and Rescue Committee which helped refugees from Slovakia and Poland. After the Nazis took over Hungary in 1944, Kasztner played a leading role in trying to save Jews and as a result of his negotiations a transport of 1,786 Jews was transferred to neutral Switzerland. After the War he settled in Palestine, editing Hungarian newspapers. An individual accused him of collaborating with the Nazis and the case went to court, involving much publicity and controversy. The court found for the accuser. Kasztner appealed to the Supreme Court which cleared him but before then he had been shot and killed by an assassin influenced by the lower court's verdict.
Grunzweig, Emil (1947-1983), Israeli educator and peace activist, born in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, son of Holocaust survivors. He immigrated to Israel in 1963, having spent his childhood years in Brazil and France, and settled in Haifa, and then in Kibbutz Magal. Grunzweig served in IDF as a paratrooper taking part in the Six-Day War (1967), the War of Attrition (1969-1970, Yom Kippur War (1973), and Lebanon War (1982).

Grunzweig's many educational activities at Maaleh Bessor high school in Kibbutz Magen included projects that dealt with negotiations on issues as the Israeli - Arab conflict, work relations, and relations between religion and the state. He was an active member of the Israeli peace movement Peace Now ("Shalom Akhshav"). Grunzweig was killed by a handgreande thrown at the participants of a demonstration organized by Peace Now in Jerusalem on February 10, 1983. His name became a symbol of the dangers of political violence in the Israeli society.