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The Jewish Community of Neubrandenburg

Neubrandenburg

A city and capital of the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish presence: early 1400s; peak Jewish population: 100 in 1900; Jewish population in 1933: 34

Neubrandenburg’s medieval Jewish community was expelled from the town in 1492. Jews tried to return to Neubrandenburg in the early 1700s, but to no avail. Finally, in 1800, the village elders allowed Jews to settle permanently in the town, on condition that they pay a head tax for each Jew; the tax was levied on every individual as well as on his/her belongings. It was not until 1860 that local Jews were permitted to establish an official community, build a synagogue and consecrate a cemetery. The community’s first synagogue was small, but a larger house of worship was built in 1876 and inaugurated in 1877. Neubrandenburg Jews also founded and maintained a school. Beginning in 1937, when anti-Semitism became rampant in Neubrandenburg, Jews started to leave the town in large numbers, so that only 15 Jews lived there by 1938. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue was ransacked and set on fire; the arch above the entrance to the cemetery was also torched. A memorial plaque was unveiled at the synagogue site in 1988; as of this writing, the municipality is considering a more elaborate memorial.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Place Type:
City
ID Number:
16920996
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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Neustrelitz

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: approx. 1700; peak Jewish population: 600 in 1802; Jewish population in 1933: 62

During the 1800s, the city of Alt-Strelitz was the most important Jewish community in Mecklenburg, home to the largest Jewish population, the largest synagogue and the most prestigious and respected rabbi in the region. This was made possible by a local duke who welcomed the Jews and allowed them to establish prayer rooms, a cemetery and an elementary school. When the Jewish community outgrew the prayer rooms, Duke Adolf Friedrich IV not only approved the decision to purchase land for a synagogue, but gave of his own money and helped arrange financing for the endeavor. The synagogue—a massive building—was completed in 1763; the inauguration ceremony was attended by local landowners and politicians. Nearly a century later, in 1847, the synagogue was completely renovated, after which it was inaugurated once again. Rabbi Jacob Hamburger served as rabbi for nearly fifty years until his death in 1911. He apparently kept the community together, for it was after his death that many Jews left Alt-Strelitz. Jews and Gentiles coexisted peacefully in Alt-Strelitz until 1935. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), three young Nazis broke into the synagogue, smashed all the windows and set it on fire. Shortly afterwards, the Jewish community was forced to pay for the building’s demolition. In 1988, a memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Torgelow

A municipality in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Torgelow was mentioned for the first time in 1281 when the Brandenburg Margrave Otto IV signed a document at the Castle Torgelow. At the beginning of the 18th century, Torgelow became well-known when iron was found in the area; thereupon King Frederick II (Prussia) issued the founding document for the establishment of an iron and steel plant in 1753 and Torgelow developed into an industrial village.

Not much is known about Torgelow's Jewish history. However, it is documented that 21 Jews lived in Torgelow in 1910 and 14 (constituting 0.2% of total population) in 1925. They joined the community in Ueckermuende, which was approximately 12 km away from the village. A statute of the Ueckermuende Jewish community (1860) indicated that several small villages in the region, such as Torgelow, Altwarp, Neuwarp, and Eggesin, were affiliated with the synagogue district. According to several sources, a synagogue existed in Torgelow at least in the 1930s. No Jewish cemetery has been documented.

In 1933, nine Jews resided in the town. Among them was the businessman and clothier Julius Gronemann, who participated in the volunteer fire brigade and served as its secretary until the Nazis' assumption of power. Gronemann ran a textile store at 1 Wilhelmstrasse. Later, under the Nazi rulers’ pressure, he leased his shop to his former employee Wilhelm Koerner, member of the NSDAP, in 1934. As in many German towns and cities, the Nazis' anti-Jewish boycott was also implemented in Torgelow in April 1933. A former female employer of Julius Gronemann wrote to his great-grandson about the harassments at 1 Wilhelmstrasse: "… Nazi stormtroopers stood in front of the shop telling the customers … that the shopkeeper was Jewish and told them to buy at an Aryan shop. Although some of the customers turned on their heels, the majority weren’t put off and said they had been buying at Mr. Gronemann’s shop for years and they wouldn’t dream of shunning it. It was a very hard time for the old man so he decided to sell his shop by the end of 1933. Unfortunately I don’t know if it was an ordinary sale or already a kind of expropriation."

On Pogrom Night on November 9, 1938, the synagogue was burnt, as documented by the historian Wolfgang Wilhelmus. A day later, on November 10th, NS officials reported that the windows of a Jewish-owned shop had been smashed. During the entire Nazi era, Torgelow's few Jews were harassed, persecuted and forced to leave for other German cities. Some emigrated to Palestine, Belgium, South America and Shanghai. Julius Gronemann moved to Stettin, from where he was deported. On his last postcard to his children he wrote: "We'll be deported to Poland and we know our destiny." At least four local Jews were murdered in Auschwitz-Birkenau and apparently in other Nazi concentration camps in the eastern Europe.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Penzlin

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

In Penzlin the Jewish community had an old tradition: the families Salomon, Liebmann, Levin and Bernhard were long established, the Levins made a living from the tobacco trade and had far-reaching business activities. As early as 1749, a Simson Levin had settled in Penzlin on the recommendation of Duchess Auguste. As everywhere else, the number of Jews residing in Penzlin declined quite quickly, with 43 living in 1867 and only 4 in 1930. The community had no Jewish school and no mikvah, but a synagogue and its own cemetery where the last funeral took place in 1923 and which was maintained by a Penzlin family The synagogue, built in 1791, was used as a Catholic church before 1933 and was therefore not destroyed during the Progrom Night on November 9,1938. However, it became part of the surrounding district destroyed by fire after the invasion of the Soviet Army in early May 1945.

In 1933 only the family of Georg and Hertha Pinkus with their son Werner and daughter Hannelore lived in Penzlin. Georg Pinkus was a dealer in textiles. In the First World War he had been a combatant. In 1942, Georg Pinkus (b. on 27.9.1891 in Xions), his wife Hertha nee Jacob (b. on 4.9.1883 in Penzlin) and their daughter Hannelore were deported to a Nazi concentration camp on 7.8.1942. The son Werner (b. 1923), who was in Berlin, immigrated to Britain. 

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Stavenhagen

A village in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish population: mid-1700s; peak Jewish population: 32 in 1910; Jewish population in 1933: 10

Jews might have lived in Stavenhagen before the 18th century, but the first record of their presence there is from the mid- 1700s. In the early 1800s, the community built a modest synagogue, a community center (alongside the synagogue) and a small cemetery. When the synagogue in nearby Malchin was closed down due to inadequate membership, the two communities merged. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the Stavenhagen synagogue and the town’s two remaining Jewish-owned businesses were destroyed. Due to its proximity to other homes, the synagogue was not set on fire. Instead, the SS headed for the cemetery, where they burned down the chapel and desecrated headstones. In early 1939, the synagogue building was appropriated by a furniture manufacturer who used it as a warehouse; it was, however, later abandoned when it became severely dilapidated. As of this writing, a memorial plaque has never been unveiled at the site, now an empty lot. The municipality of Stavenhagen, however, is planning a proper memorial.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Prenzlau

A town and the capital of the Uckermark district in Brandenburg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1309; peak Jewish population: 423 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 111

With the exception of the 16th century, during which Jews were banned from the Brandenburg region, Jews maintained a continuous presence in Prenzlau. A functioning community was established there during the 18th century. In 1716, a cemetery was consecrated near the water tower (today’s city park); enlarged on several occasions, the cemetery was moved to Am Suessen Grund (serving Prenzlau and the Jewish communities of Bruessow und Strasburg) in 1890. In 1752, the Jews of Prenzlau established a synagogue in a timber-frame building at Wasserpforte; accordingly, the street was named Tempelstrasse (“temple street”). Eighty years later, the structure was replaced by a simple but solid building with arched front windows. We also know that, in 1825, the rabbi started giving private lectures in his home on Prinzenstrasse; he later established a gender-separated school with three classes. At its peak, Prenzlau was Germany’s third largest community, after Berlin and Frankfurt. The community ran many cultural and religious organizations; for example, a chevra kadisha, a sisterhood and a literature club. Despite the arrival of many Eastern European Jews during the early 20th century, Prenzlau’s population declined as more Jews chose to move to Berlin. As early as 1935, windows in seven Jewish stores were smashed. On November 10, 1938, the synagogue was burned down; homes and stores were vandalized, as was the cemetery; many men were arrested and sent to Sachsenhausen Nazi concentration camp. The Nazis appropriated Jewish-owned businesses and forced the congregation to sell its property to pay for the removal of the synagogue ruins. Approximately 46 Prenzlau Jews perished in the Nazi concentration and death camps; three survived the war. A memorial plaque was unveiled in the town in 1988, and in 2000 the old cemetery was declared a memorial site.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Anklam

A town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, formerly known as Tanglim and Wendenburg.

First Jewish presence: mid-1300s; peak Jewish population: 311 in 1861; Jewish population in 1933: 43

Jews lived in Anklam from the mid-1300s until the Black Death pogroms, when they were burned at the stake. In 1712, at which point Anklam was under Swedish rule, the authorities issued a ban on Jewish settlement. All bans were annulled in 1812, after which Jews began to return to Anklam. By 1817, a Jewish community had been founded, complete with a prayer room, a cemetery and a school. In order to accommodate the growing community, a synagogue was built and inaugurated in 1841. As a token of gratitude to the local count who granted permission to build the synagogue, the community mounted his portrait on the wall of the synagogue’s foyer. Anti-Semitism became a real problem for Anklam Jews in early 1933 and by 1935 the situation was almost intolerable. Although the synagogue was set on fire on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), it did not burn down completely, and was subsequently used for grain storage. A small plaque was later unveiled at the synagogue site.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Roebel

A village in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: mid-1300s; peak Jewish population: 104 in 1867; Jewish population in 1933: 20

The Jewish community of Roebel was expelled in 1492, as were many other Jewish communities in Germany. It was not until the early 1700s that Jews were permitted to return in Roebel, after which they established a community and set up a prayer room in a private residence. A small cemetery was consecrated in Roebel in 1720. In 1830, the authorities permitted the community to build a synagogue, a modest building in which local Jews conducted services until after World War I, when most Jews left Roebel. The empty synagogue building was sold in 1930. Although the synagogue building was no longer owned by Jews, SS men set it on fire on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938). As the result of the intervention of a neighbor, who feared for his own house, the synagogue did not burn to the ground. In 2000, the municipality took over the former synagogue building and designated it as a landmark. It now serves as a youth center, alongside which stands a building housing an exhibition on the history of the Jews of Roebel.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Stralsund

A city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

First Jewish presence: mid 1400s; peak Jewish population: 172 in 1797; Jewish population in 1933: 160

The city of Stralsund, founded in the mid-1200s, quickly developed into the most prosperous city in northern Germany. Although Jews were allowed to conduct business in Stralsund, they were forbidden to live in the city. By the mid-1400s, however, Jews had been granted permission to live in Stralsund, albeit in ghettos; this medieval community lived on the Judengasse (“Jews’ alley”), where they consecrated a prayer room. As was the case in towns all over Germany, the Jewish community was expelled from Stralsund in 1492.

In 1757, the modern Jewish community was established, numbering 35 Jews in 1766 and 119 in 1784. Thirty years later, in 1786/87, a newly-built, beautiful synagogue consisting of 200 seats was dedicated in the backyard at 69 Langenstrasse. It was the very first synagogue in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. Attached to the synagogue was a mikvah (ritual bath). In 1913, the synagogue was completely rebuilt. At its inauguration on September 16, 1913, Stralsund's mayor Ernst August Friedrich Gronow addressed his greetings to the Jewish community, "… that our Jewish fellow citizens may live with their Christian fellow citizens in peace and harmony in this city as before."

Stralsund Jews initially buried their dead outside the city. In 1776, the Christian banker Joachim Ulrich von Giese provided a place for the funeral of a Jewish girl, the daughter of the family Hertz, on the grounds of his estate (Gut Niederhof). This resulted in the development of a small Jewish cemetery. In 1850, a new Jewish cemetery was laid out on Greifswalder Chaussee, which was enlarged in 1912.
The Judengesetz (Jews' law) of 1847 for the Kingdom of Prussia eased the general living conditions of the Jews in Stralsund and led to an increase of their population (169 Jews in 1887). The wealthier Jews resided in neighborhoods that were also favored by rich Christian merchant families. However, the majority of Stralsund Jews lived in poverty. Of particular importance for the city was the settlement of the Jewish merchants Leonhard Tietz and Adolf Wertheim. The latter opened in 1852 the first manufactory and millinery store on Wasserstrasse, the future head office of the Wertheim Group. Leonhard Tietz established a store at 31 Ossenreyerstrasse in 1879.

In 1932/33, approximately 160 Jews lived in Stralsund. Twenty Jewish children received religious instruction. Simon Lemke served as preacher and chazzan (cantor). The chevra kadisha (burial society), founded in 1921, was still active as well as the youth group Berthold Auerbach. Furthermore, branches of the nationwide Jewish organizations Central-Verein (Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith) and Reichsbund Juedischer Frontsoldaten (Reich Federation of Jewish Front Soldiers) were operating in Stralsund in the 1930s. Jews from Ruegen (16 Jews), Barth (12), Grimmen (8), Tribsees (3), Richtenberg (3), Franzburg (5), and Dammgarten (1) were affiliated with the Stralsund Jewish community.
In the 1920s, Stralsund Jews were not particularly affected by the Nazis' anti-Semitic agitation.

from 1933 onwards: in order to implement the anti-Jewish boycott, Nazis placed guards in front of Jewish-owned stores to prevent by force customers entering. A few days later, the town council made the following decision: "The municipality has to halt immediately all business connections with … Jewish traders … The city government has to ensure that no further ritual slaughtering takes place…" Around 1934, while Heinz Cohn and Luise Genzen, a Christian woman, were celebrating their wedding, SA men came to their house at 2 Frankenstrasse, interrupted the festivity and took Cohn into protective custody. The same happened to David Mandelbaum, who was also married to a non-Jewish woman. A foundation founded by the merchant Moses Lazarus Israel to provide scholarships to young men was forcibly merged, by the mayor's decision on November 7, 1939, with a Nazi-related foundation which explicitly excluded Jews. Between 1933 and 1938, almost one-third of the Jewish population left Stralsund. They moved to other German cities or emigrated to different European or overseas countries. In October 1938, approximately 22 Jews of Polish nationality were expelled from Stralsund and transported to Poland.

On Pogrom Night on November 9, 1938, Jewish-owned businesses were looted and windows smashed. At 5 am on November 10, 1938, the synagogue was damaged and set on fire. It did not completely burn down; it was subsequently misused as a classroom and as storage by a local emergency service. Approximately 30 Jewish men were temporarily arrested and twenty of them taken to the concentration camp in Sachsenhausen. A day later, in the evening of November 11, Nazis organized an anti-Semitic demonstration at Alter Markt. In 1944, the former synagogue building was destroyed during an air raid and later torn down (1950). Most of the remaining Jews were deported to Lublin in February 1940. In early 1944, more local Jews were deported from Stralsund, this time to Auschwitz via Stettin. At least 60 Stralsund Jews perished in the Shoah.

After the war, several survivors returned to the city. They intended to found a new Jewish community. However, this attempt was doomed to fail due to their small numbers. In 1955, the Jewish cemetery on Greifswalder Chaussee was declared a historical site. From 1988 until 2009, several memorial plaques and stones were unveiled in Stralsund to commemorate the former Jewish community.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Teterow

A town in the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1492; peak Jewish population: 116 in 1845; Jewish population in 1933: 17

The earliest record of the Jews of Teterow is dated 1492, the same year in which five Jews were burned at the stake and the rest were banished. Records do not mention another Jewish presence in Teterow until 1762, when a Jewish community was founded there. Although troops were posted in Teterow to enforce the anti-Jewish ordinances of 1933, the local population ignored them. Eventually, however, the situation deteriorated to such an extent that by 1935, the Jewish community was forced to disband. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the abandoned synagogue was ransacked and the roof trusses were torn down. A few weeks later, the city declared the building unsafe and a danger to pedestrians, after which it was torn down. The Jewish cemetery was left unharmed, as it was located outside the city. A memorial plaque was later unveiled at the site where the synagogue once stood. Another plaque has been placed at the cemetery, which is considered one of the best-preserved Jewish cemeteries in the area.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Waren

A town, climatic spa and seat of the Müritzin district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Jews probably lived in Waren in the decades and centuries before the Jews were expelled from Mecklenburg at the end of the 15th century following accusations of alleged desecration of the host and poisoning of wells. 

In the 18th century, Jews were resettled, to whom the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin granted concessions and privileges for residential and commercial rights, for which the so-called "protective Jews" had to pay taxes. At the same time, the sovereign assured the cities, "... that they should have no cause to complain about their number, which is too large. Just as the Jews are hereby forbidden from taking peculiar reasons for themselves." (Quoted from Arne Benkendorf, goods, in: "Guide through the Jewish Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania", Berlin 1998, 295) So received, among others Wulff Salomon from Waren on June 3, 1755 a concession to trade haberdashery. Most of the Jews did not trade in shops at first, but rather as "flying trade" and moved across the country from goods with junk and haberdashery. A list obtained from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend of August 14, 1809: and moved across the country from goods with junk and haberdashery. A list obtained from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend of August 14, 1809: and set out from goods with junk and haberdashery across the country. A list from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809: At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809: At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809:
"You, the Protective Jew Elias Berend, are free to make use of your privilege, which has been rewritten to trade from the open shop today, in connection with your son-in-law or for yourself. But since this is only granted to you for life, it goes without saying that with your present demise such connection will cease and will not extend to your future heir. " (quoted from Arne Benkendorf, op. cit. p. 296)
"The liberalization that occurred as a result of the French Revolution made it possible for 26 Waren Jews to acquire citizenship and thus equality with their Christian fellow citizens for a short period of 4 years, which means that officially recognized family names prevail, including the Jews in the This "Constitution for the determination of an appropriate constitution for Jewish co-religionists in local countries" of February 22nd, 1813 was deleted on September 11th, 1817 without replacement by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I, yielding to pressure from the knighthood and the cities.
Before the two Mecklenburg Grand Duchies joined the North German Confederation in 1867 and were fully emancipated in this confederation in 1869, Jews were only allowed to acquire citizenship in the years 1848/49. With these exceptions in the years 1813-1817 and 1848/49, the Jews still had to apply for special privileges. Like all other privileged craft offices or individuals, they had to have all granted or purchased rights reaffirmed by the government of the new Grand Duke against payment of a not small sum at every change of government. "(Op. Cit., P. 298)
The increase in numbers of the Jewish community and increasing prosperity made it possible in 1796 to build a synagogue in the courtyard of the house acquired by Elias Behrend in what was then Langen Strasse 113, and very close by to build a ritual bath, the mikveh.
"It is not known whether the building of the synagogue, as in other cities, was supported by the sovereign. The synagogue building was similar to that of the Röbeler. It was a hall building with a hipped roof on all sides, which leaned against the old city wall in the north Inside there was a gallery and on the east side a niche for the Torah shrine.According to the family of the carpenter Zelms, who came into possession of the house in 1936, to the left of this niche was a painted representation of plants and those nourishing them Bees. The ceiling was decorated with stars. " (loc. cit. p. 304)
The son of the master carpenter, Kurt Zelm, was often in his father's workshop as a child and, as an architect, of course has the necessary appreciation of old buildings, describes the synagogue in his memory as follows and should be quoted additionally:
but the bees flew away, weighted with honey. In the middle of the sacred space there was a raised platform with a balustrade, from where the prayer was held ... "(quoted from Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkasten andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, p. 95)
The Waren cemetery was built around 1800. A sovereign ordinance on the attitude of a religious school by the Israelite community to Waren was dated April 1843. Classes were held in classrooms made available by the magistrate. Since the equality of Jews after 1869 and the founding of the Reich in 1871, the number of community members in Waren has also decreased. In 1850 the Jewish community still had 155 members, in 1875 there were 99, in 1900 only 89 and in 1925 only 35 people. The Jews were given the right to freely choose their profession and place of residence or settlement. They became more and more integrated into the economic and social life of society. The big cities with their modern economies offered them more opportunities so that they could break out of the narrow confines of small-town Jewish communities. At the same time, the contrast between liberal reform Jews and conservative Orthodox Jews increased. The liberal Jews assimilated themselves, took up new professions such as teachers, lawyers, doctors, were baptized, married Christian spouses, broke away from Jewish traditions, got involved in cultural associations, Jewish children attended city schools up to and including high school, Christian and Jewish residents looked after normal everyday interaction with one another. In 1871, Dr. Jacobi Selig Rosenthal granted honorary citizenship to a Jew. The Warener Zeitung of November 18, 1871 finishes its article in which it details the award of honorary citizenship and the career of Dr. Rosenthal describes
"We wish the worthy jubilee that he may have many more cheerful days to the delight of his dear relatives and numerous admirers." (Quoted from Arne Benkendorf loc. Cit. P. 306) In July 1877, Dr. Rosenthal in goods. In 1990 a street leading to the Jewish cemetery was named after him. The Jewish brothers Karl and Otto Loewenberg also took part in the First World War. They fell in 1915 and 1918 and are named on the memorial plaque for those who fell in this war in the George Church.
With the National Socialist rule, repression and persecution began. The Jewish community was forced to remove the synagogue because it was in a state of disrepair. More and more Jews fled from the anti-Semitic harassment and riots. In 1935 there were 29 Jews living in Waren, in 1937 only 24 and in April 1938 the number had dropped to 9. These moved to the larger cities, where they hoped to be more secure in anonymity or from where they tried to flee abroad. Only a few of them managed to do this, mention should be made of Alfred Leopold's spectacular escape, which took six years before he was safe in Switzerland. Others like the married couple Loewenberg vom Neuen Markt with their two children Karl Otto and Ruth no longer succeeded in following their daughter Gerda from Hamburg to the USA. They were deported to Minsk and are missing there. Erich and Toni Jacob from Lloydstr. 4 were deported from Berlin to Auschwitz with their sons Alfred and Günther, only Günther survived. The Leopold family from Neuen Markt 13 was also deported from Berlin to Theresienstadt and Auschwitz.
The Jewish cemetery was destroyed in the the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), a memorial stone was placed in 1967 and a memorial plaque was placed at the entrance in 1985. The synagogue building was spared during the riots, as the Jewish community had given it up in 1936 and - as already mentioned - sold it to a carpenter as a workshop. It was finally demolished in 1954, the photos of the demolition are the last documents in the history of the house. In 1991 a memorial stone was erected.
"A few steps away from the synagogue, outside the city wall, directly on Lake Tiefwarensee, at Grosse Mauerplatz 3, was the Jewish bathhouse. Like the whole district, it has disappeared without a trace. People's life has taken place here for several centuries. Christians and Jews lived close together.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Mirow

A town in the district of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Mirow, not far from Neustrelitz, had a very small Jewish community with a synagogue on Fischgang, which had been closed since the beginning of the 20th century, and a cemetery that no longer exists. A memorial stone still reminds of the square. Nothing is known about a Jewish school and a mikveh. At the time of Nazi regime there were only a few Jewish residents left in the community: The Rosenberg family had a clothing store and were very popular in Mirow because they were generous and helped many poor residents. The Moses family owned a hat shop at the other end of Schlossstrasse. The clothing store was destroyed on the Pogrom Night of Nov. 9, 1938, the owner Herbert Rosenberg was portrayed as a straw doll and hung up as such, he himself had been able to escape. The intervention of a mailwoman, Anna König, is said to have prevented the Nazis from causing even greater destruction. The building of the former synagogue was not destroyed. Herbert Rosenberg fled to South America, his younger sister Ruth to Israel. A former classmate managed to get in touch with her in the 1990s and invite her to a class reunion in Mirow.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Malchow

A municipality in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Around the middle of the 18th century, Jewish traders and their families probably settled in Malchow and in the neighboring towns of Röbel and Waren. One of them was Salomon Jakauf, who ran a small business of spinning yarn and woven fabrics, which he passed on to his son Moses in 1760 who later called himself Moses Jakob. In the following generations, the family was called Jacobsohn due to a naming law published in 1813 by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I. The Jacobson family belonged to one of the most important and respected families in Malchow until the Jews were expelled and murdered by the Nazis. This family history was written down by Max Jacobson for his descendants after his liberation from Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp.

From documents in the Mecklenburg State Main Archives it can be seen that the Jews Elias Salomon and Lewin David from Malchow each had to pay 12 Reichsthaler protection money to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1760 and that the protected Jews Michaelsohn Lewinthal, Simon Schmuhl, Salomon Jacob, Joachim Simon, Aaron Seligmann and Hirsch Lewin received the trade privilege. In this context it should be pointed out that the so-called "privileges" granted to Jews were of course actually none such, because every Christian citizen could of course register his trade with the local administrations. "Privileges" and "protection money" are therefore more an indication of the lack of rights of the Jews at that time and were not awarded to all Jews.

At the beginning of the 19th century probably due to the immigration of further Jews in Malchow, a Jewish community was formed, which elected a board to exercise its rights towards the city and the federal state government. The Malchow city archive shows that in 1812 the protected Jews Joseph Moses and Salomon Jakob were the principles. With the establishment of the Jewish community, the cemetery was also laid out. 48 Jews lived in Malchow between 1811 and 1819. (A census list of Jews of both genders and children under 15 from 1818 is on p. 9 in the brochure of Karl-Heinz Oelke, Aus der Geschichte der jüdischen Gemeinde in Malchow (Meckl.), 1994 published by the city of Malchow) The synagogue was built between 1820 and 1825 at Langen Strasse 64. It was similar to the synagogues in Röbel and Waren: a long rectangular building with bricked-up compartments and a heavy tiled roof, the long sides with three stripes, on the front side, directly under the eaves, a small row of windows, probably for the women's gallery. From 1775 there was a regulation that synagogues could only be built on side streets and set back behind the street front. As in other Jewish communities, the synagogue in Malchow was the center of the religious and social life of the Jews. In 1828 the Jews in Mecklenburg were given the right to purchase their own property, which several families in Malchow and the Jewish community itself used between 1834 and 1838 to purchase houses.

The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Friedrich-Franz I issued an ordinance in 1843 in which he instructed various Jewish communities, including Malchow, to set up religious schools for school-age children. It was only allowed to employ teachers who had attended a German teachers' seminar and passed a teacher examination and had been approved by the regional rabbi. The children of the Jewish faith were obliged to attend religious school from the age of 6 to 14. Subjects were religion, Biblical history, Jewish writing, Hebrew prayer translation, Hebrew reading. For Jewish boys attending grammar school, religious lessons were limited to four hours a week.

By 1858 the number of Jewish residents in Malchow had increased to about 110 and continued to increase, albeit only slightly until 1882. A decline in the number of Jewish families can only be recorded from 1900, i.e. later than in other small towns in Mecklenburg, where emigration usually began in the 1960s for political and economic reasons, which of course also decreased the income from the contributions of the members. In 1912 there were still 8 male and 5 female contributors living in Malchow, 8 of whom were older than 55 years. The synagogue was no longer used for the Shabbat service, the community members only gathered here on the three highest Jewish holidays. In 1935 the synagogue building which was no longer in use, was sold to master carpenter Kroschel, who had also acquired property in Langen Strasse 103 from the Jewish community in previous years. In 1992 the synagogue building was demolished by the owner because it was in disrepair.

From the childhood memories of Max Jacobson mentioned above, who wrote down his family history after the liberation from Theresienstadt, the picture emerges that Jews and Christians lived peacefully together in Malchow in the 19th century.

"On Saturday I had no school, because then I had to go to the synagogue, quite apart from the fact that I was not allowed to write on Shabbos. In general one day passed like another in my hometown. The inhabitants of the small country town, farmers, small traders, craftsmen and merchants grew their cabbage and potatoes themselves and were satisfied, upright and sincere people. The eldest son of the family usually inherited the house and property, the other children became craftsmen or merchants and often married into another family. This was especially the case when there were no male heirs in a family. – Two doctors and a dentist took care of the city's health. They, the mayor councilor Rettberg, the district judge, the pastor, pharmacist and candidate for higher civil service, as well as the director of the rather important cloth factory made up the city's dignitaries. At the art-loving pharmacist’s home, literary evenings were held weekly which my mother also attended, and for music my parents' house was the center of all music lovers. I had a happy and undisturbed youth with my siblings and schoolmates. The annual gymnastics event, the folk festival in June and the children's festival in July, at which all schools participated, as well as the autumn market were highlights in the life of the town. On these festive days there was a parade ride on the lake with fireworks and decorated boats and in winter a big ice festival ... On October 12, 1894 I joined the 8th Würtemberg Infantry Regiment No. 126 in Strasbourg in Alsace. Raised in a patriotic spirit by my parents and school, I was a soldier with body and soul. Neither from the side of superiors nor from comrades was there a trace of anti-Semitism ..." (ibid. p. 21) In the First World War he was initially a sergeant and was made an officer in September 1917. He received various orders of merit and, like several other Malchow Jews was honored for bravery. Another member of the large Jacobson family, Isidor Jacobson, was a successful businessman, head of the Jewish community and a volunteer in various committees and associations in the city and regarded as an equal citizen. The same can be said of various members of the Levy, Löwenthal and Schlomann merchant families over several generations.

In the Weimar Republic, there were anti-Semitic riots in Malchow for the first time. In the federal state elections of June 1926 the NSDAP received 6 votes in town, in May 1927, 13 votes and in June 1929, 37 voters voted for the NSDAP. With the transfer of power by President of the Reich von Hindenburg to Hitler on January 30, 1933, the discrimination and persecution of Jewish citizens began in Malchow as well. There were a few Christian residents, such as the families of the goods merchant Carl Stein, the hairdresser and master rope maker Lehrmann, and the master shoemaker Schmidt who helped Jews. "In his letter, Karl Schmidt shares a story about the name Schlomann that may have happened many times in the small towns, almost a peripheral occurrence, a gesture of obvious neighborly solidarity. Richard Schlomann, probably a son of the aforementioned Hermann Schlomann, served in the First World War and bearer of the Iron Cross, was an itinerant dealer. He carried his goods to his customers in the village and town on a bicycle with a large luggage rack. The commentator's grandfather, a master shoemaker, was friends with Schlomann. When more and more restrictions were imposed on the Jews and it was literally made difficult for them to buy bread and groceries, the master shoemaker often met with Schlomann in the cemetery to give him a briefcase with groceries. Schlomann could no longer come to the shoemaker's workshop. The city policeman Maack had already warned: One ought to be careful, people are watching... I still remember the conversation my father had with my mother after he returned from Rostock. Schlomanns were waiting for the transport to Poland. Father wanted to encourage him and said: Maybe they'll finally leave you alone and Richard replied: No, no, Karl, they're killing us all." (Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkastens andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, S. 115)

Otto Löwenthal was one of the Jews who foresaw the disastrous development and moved to Berlin with his wife and daughter at the end of December 1935, and from there probably fled to Palestine. Betty Jacobson, Isidor's wife, who died before 1938 and was buried in Malchow, was deported to Theresienstadt in 1942 and perished there in 1943. The daughter Anne was able to save herself to Palestine with her husband Kurt Hesse and their son Peter. Likewise Norbert Schlomann, who could not bring his parents Richard and Hedwig Schlomann later on. In the foreclosure auction procedure, Jewish residential properties were handed over to new, presumably Nazi oriented owners. On the Pogrom Night in 1938, only the Jewish cemetery in Malchow was still owned by Jews. Except for the Schlomann gravestone with the inscription: " Hermann Schlomann, died in 1913 " it was devastated. Today there is a sign directing to the Jewish cemetery near the entrance.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

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The Jewish Community of Neubrandenburg

Neubrandenburg

A city and capital of the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish presence: early 1400s; peak Jewish population: 100 in 1900; Jewish population in 1933: 34

Neubrandenburg’s medieval Jewish community was expelled from the town in 1492. Jews tried to return to Neubrandenburg in the early 1700s, but to no avail. Finally, in 1800, the village elders allowed Jews to settle permanently in the town, on condition that they pay a head tax for each Jew; the tax was levied on every individual as well as on his/her belongings. It was not until 1860 that local Jews were permitted to establish an official community, build a synagogue and consecrate a cemetery. The community’s first synagogue was small, but a larger house of worship was built in 1876 and inaugurated in 1877. Neubrandenburg Jews also founded and maintained a school. Beginning in 1937, when anti-Semitism became rampant in Neubrandenburg, Jews started to leave the town in large numbers, so that only 15 Jews lived there by 1938. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue was ransacked and set on fire; the arch above the entrance to the cemetery was also torched. A memorial plaque was unveiled at the synagogue site in 1988; as of this writing, the municipality is considering a more elaborate memorial.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Malchow
Mirow
Waren
Teterow
Stralsund
Roebel
Anklam
Prenzlau
Stavenhagen
Penzlin
Torgelow
Neustrelitz

Malchow

A municipality in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Around the middle of the 18th century, Jewish traders and their families probably settled in Malchow and in the neighboring towns of Röbel and Waren. One of them was Salomon Jakauf, who ran a small business of spinning yarn and woven fabrics, which he passed on to his son Moses in 1760 who later called himself Moses Jakob. In the following generations, the family was called Jacobsohn due to a naming law published in 1813 by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I. The Jacobson family belonged to one of the most important and respected families in Malchow until the Jews were expelled and murdered by the Nazis. This family history was written down by Max Jacobson for his descendants after his liberation from Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp.

From documents in the Mecklenburg State Main Archives it can be seen that the Jews Elias Salomon and Lewin David from Malchow each had to pay 12 Reichsthaler protection money to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1760 and that the protected Jews Michaelsohn Lewinthal, Simon Schmuhl, Salomon Jacob, Joachim Simon, Aaron Seligmann and Hirsch Lewin received the trade privilege. In this context it should be pointed out that the so-called "privileges" granted to Jews were of course actually none such, because every Christian citizen could of course register his trade with the local administrations. "Privileges" and "protection money" are therefore more an indication of the lack of rights of the Jews at that time and were not awarded to all Jews.

At the beginning of the 19th century probably due to the immigration of further Jews in Malchow, a Jewish community was formed, which elected a board to exercise its rights towards the city and the federal state government. The Malchow city archive shows that in 1812 the protected Jews Joseph Moses and Salomon Jakob were the principles. With the establishment of the Jewish community, the cemetery was also laid out. 48 Jews lived in Malchow between 1811 and 1819. (A census list of Jews of both genders and children under 15 from 1818 is on p. 9 in the brochure of Karl-Heinz Oelke, Aus der Geschichte der jüdischen Gemeinde in Malchow (Meckl.), 1994 published by the city of Malchow) The synagogue was built between 1820 and 1825 at Langen Strasse 64. It was similar to the synagogues in Röbel and Waren: a long rectangular building with bricked-up compartments and a heavy tiled roof, the long sides with three stripes, on the front side, directly under the eaves, a small row of windows, probably for the women's gallery. From 1775 there was a regulation that synagogues could only be built on side streets and set back behind the street front. As in other Jewish communities, the synagogue in Malchow was the center of the religious and social life of the Jews. In 1828 the Jews in Mecklenburg were given the right to purchase their own property, which several families in Malchow and the Jewish community itself used between 1834 and 1838 to purchase houses.

The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Friedrich-Franz I issued an ordinance in 1843 in which he instructed various Jewish communities, including Malchow, to set up religious schools for school-age children. It was only allowed to employ teachers who had attended a German teachers' seminar and passed a teacher examination and had been approved by the regional rabbi. The children of the Jewish faith were obliged to attend religious school from the age of 6 to 14. Subjects were religion, Biblical history, Jewish writing, Hebrew prayer translation, Hebrew reading. For Jewish boys attending grammar school, religious lessons were limited to four hours a week.

By 1858 the number of Jewish residents in Malchow had increased to about 110 and continued to increase, albeit only slightly until 1882. A decline in the number of Jewish families can only be recorded from 1900, i.e. later than in other small towns in Mecklenburg, where emigration usually began in the 1960s for political and economic reasons, which of course also decreased the income from the contributions of the members. In 1912 there were still 8 male and 5 female contributors living in Malchow, 8 of whom were older than 55 years. The synagogue was no longer used for the Shabbat service, the community members only gathered here on the three highest Jewish holidays. In 1935 the synagogue building which was no longer in use, was sold to master carpenter Kroschel, who had also acquired property in Langen Strasse 103 from the Jewish community in previous years. In 1992 the synagogue building was demolished by the owner because it was in disrepair.

From the childhood memories of Max Jacobson mentioned above, who wrote down his family history after the liberation from Theresienstadt, the picture emerges that Jews and Christians lived peacefully together in Malchow in the 19th century.

"On Saturday I had no school, because then I had to go to the synagogue, quite apart from the fact that I was not allowed to write on Shabbos. In general one day passed like another in my hometown. The inhabitants of the small country town, farmers, small traders, craftsmen and merchants grew their cabbage and potatoes themselves and were satisfied, upright and sincere people. The eldest son of the family usually inherited the house and property, the other children became craftsmen or merchants and often married into another family. This was especially the case when there were no male heirs in a family. – Two doctors and a dentist took care of the city's health. They, the mayor councilor Rettberg, the district judge, the pastor, pharmacist and candidate for higher civil service, as well as the director of the rather important cloth factory made up the city's dignitaries. At the art-loving pharmacist’s home, literary evenings were held weekly which my mother also attended, and for music my parents' house was the center of all music lovers. I had a happy and undisturbed youth with my siblings and schoolmates. The annual gymnastics event, the folk festival in June and the children's festival in July, at which all schools participated, as well as the autumn market were highlights in the life of the town. On these festive days there was a parade ride on the lake with fireworks and decorated boats and in winter a big ice festival ... On October 12, 1894 I joined the 8th Würtemberg Infantry Regiment No. 126 in Strasbourg in Alsace. Raised in a patriotic spirit by my parents and school, I was a soldier with body and soul. Neither from the side of superiors nor from comrades was there a trace of anti-Semitism ..." (ibid. p. 21) In the First World War he was initially a sergeant and was made an officer in September 1917. He received various orders of merit and, like several other Malchow Jews was honored for bravery. Another member of the large Jacobson family, Isidor Jacobson, was a successful businessman, head of the Jewish community and a volunteer in various committees and associations in the city and regarded as an equal citizen. The same can be said of various members of the Levy, Löwenthal and Schlomann merchant families over several generations.

In the Weimar Republic, there were anti-Semitic riots in Malchow for the first time. In the federal state elections of June 1926 the NSDAP received 6 votes in town, in May 1927, 13 votes and in June 1929, 37 voters voted for the NSDAP. With the transfer of power by President of the Reich von Hindenburg to Hitler on January 30, 1933, the discrimination and persecution of Jewish citizens began in Malchow as well. There were a few Christian residents, such as the families of the goods merchant Carl Stein, the hairdresser and master rope maker Lehrmann, and the master shoemaker Schmidt who helped Jews. "In his letter, Karl Schmidt shares a story about the name Schlomann that may have happened many times in the small towns, almost a peripheral occurrence, a gesture of obvious neighborly solidarity. Richard Schlomann, probably a son of the aforementioned Hermann Schlomann, served in the First World War and bearer of the Iron Cross, was an itinerant dealer. He carried his goods to his customers in the village and town on a bicycle with a large luggage rack. The commentator's grandfather, a master shoemaker, was friends with Schlomann. When more and more restrictions were imposed on the Jews and it was literally made difficult for them to buy bread and groceries, the master shoemaker often met with Schlomann in the cemetery to give him a briefcase with groceries. Schlomann could no longer come to the shoemaker's workshop. The city policeman Maack had already warned: One ought to be careful, people are watching... I still remember the conversation my father had with my mother after he returned from Rostock. Schlomanns were waiting for the transport to Poland. Father wanted to encourage him and said: Maybe they'll finally leave you alone and Richard replied: No, no, Karl, they're killing us all." (Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkastens andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, S. 115)

Otto Löwenthal was one of the Jews who foresaw the disastrous development and moved to Berlin with his wife and daughter at the end of December 1935, and from there probably fled to Palestine. Betty Jacobson, Isidor's wife, who died before 1938 and was buried in Malchow, was deported to Theresienstadt in 1942 and perished there in 1943. The daughter Anne was able to save herself to Palestine with her husband Kurt Hesse and their son Peter. Likewise Norbert Schlomann, who could not bring his parents Richard and Hedwig Schlomann later on. In the foreclosure auction procedure, Jewish residential properties were handed over to new, presumably Nazi oriented owners. On the Pogrom Night in 1938, only the Jewish cemetery in Malchow was still owned by Jews. Except for the Schlomann gravestone with the inscription: " Hermann Schlomann, died in 1913 " it was devastated. Today there is a sign directing to the Jewish cemetery near the entrance.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Mirow

A town in the district of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Mirow, not far from Neustrelitz, had a very small Jewish community with a synagogue on Fischgang, which had been closed since the beginning of the 20th century, and a cemetery that no longer exists. A memorial stone still reminds of the square. Nothing is known about a Jewish school and a mikveh. At the time of Nazi regime there were only a few Jewish residents left in the community: The Rosenberg family had a clothing store and were very popular in Mirow because they were generous and helped many poor residents. The Moses family owned a hat shop at the other end of Schlossstrasse. The clothing store was destroyed on the Pogrom Night of Nov. 9, 1938, the owner Herbert Rosenberg was portrayed as a straw doll and hung up as such, he himself had been able to escape. The intervention of a mailwoman, Anna König, is said to have prevented the Nazis from causing even greater destruction. The building of the former synagogue was not destroyed. Herbert Rosenberg fled to South America, his younger sister Ruth to Israel. A former classmate managed to get in touch with her in the 1990s and invite her to a class reunion in Mirow.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Waren

A town, climatic spa and seat of the Müritzin district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Jews probably lived in Waren in the decades and centuries before the Jews were expelled from Mecklenburg at the end of the 15th century following accusations of alleged desecration of the host and poisoning of wells. 

In the 18th century, Jews were resettled, to whom the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin granted concessions and privileges for residential and commercial rights, for which the so-called "protective Jews" had to pay taxes. At the same time, the sovereign assured the cities, "... that they should have no cause to complain about their number, which is too large. Just as the Jews are hereby forbidden from taking peculiar reasons for themselves." (Quoted from Arne Benkendorf, goods, in: "Guide through the Jewish Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania", Berlin 1998, 295) So received, among others Wulff Salomon from Waren on June 3, 1755 a concession to trade haberdashery. Most of the Jews did not trade in shops at first, but rather as "flying trade" and moved across the country from goods with junk and haberdashery. A list obtained from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend of August 14, 1809: and moved across the country from goods with junk and haberdashery. A list obtained from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend of August 14, 1809: and set out from goods with junk and haberdashery across the country. A list from 1760 shows that the Waren Jews had to pay different protection money to the rulers, there was both a certain prosperity and a social gap among the protected Jews. At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809: At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809: At the same time, restrictions and deadlines for the privileges were specified in the letters of protection. For example, in the letter of protection for Elias Berend from August 14, 1809:
"You, the Protective Jew Elias Berend, are free to make use of your privilege, which has been rewritten to trade from the open shop today, in connection with your son-in-law or for yourself. But since this is only granted to you for life, it goes without saying that with your present demise such connection will cease and will not extend to your future heir. " (quoted from Arne Benkendorf, op. cit. p. 296)
"The liberalization that occurred as a result of the French Revolution made it possible for 26 Waren Jews to acquire citizenship and thus equality with their Christian fellow citizens for a short period of 4 years, which means that officially recognized family names prevail, including the Jews in the This "Constitution for the determination of an appropriate constitution for Jewish co-religionists in local countries" of February 22nd, 1813 was deleted on September 11th, 1817 without replacement by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I, yielding to pressure from the knighthood and the cities.
Before the two Mecklenburg Grand Duchies joined the North German Confederation in 1867 and were fully emancipated in this confederation in 1869, Jews were only allowed to acquire citizenship in the years 1848/49. With these exceptions in the years 1813-1817 and 1848/49, the Jews still had to apply for special privileges. Like all other privileged craft offices or individuals, they had to have all granted or purchased rights reaffirmed by the government of the new Grand Duke against payment of a not small sum at every change of government. "(Op. Cit., P. 298)
The increase in numbers of the Jewish community and increasing prosperity made it possible in 1796 to build a synagogue in the courtyard of the house acquired by Elias Behrend in what was then Langen Strasse 113, and very close by to build a ritual bath, the mikveh.
"It is not known whether the building of the synagogue, as in other cities, was supported by the sovereign. The synagogue building was similar to that of the Röbeler. It was a hall building with a hipped roof on all sides, which leaned against the old city wall in the north Inside there was a gallery and on the east side a niche for the Torah shrine.According to the family of the carpenter Zelms, who came into possession of the house in 1936, to the left of this niche was a painted representation of plants and those nourishing them Bees. The ceiling was decorated with stars. " (loc. cit. p. 304)
The son of the master carpenter, Kurt Zelm, was often in his father's workshop as a child and, as an architect, of course has the necessary appreciation of old buildings, describes the synagogue in his memory as follows and should be quoted additionally:
but the bees flew away, weighted with honey. In the middle of the sacred space there was a raised platform with a balustrade, from where the prayer was held ... "(quoted from Jürgen Borchert, Des Zettelkasten andrer Teil, Rostock 1988, p. 95)
The Waren cemetery was built around 1800. A sovereign ordinance on the attitude of a religious school by the Israelite community to Waren was dated April 1843. Classes were held in classrooms made available by the magistrate. Since the equality of Jews after 1869 and the founding of the Reich in 1871, the number of community members in Waren has also decreased. In 1850 the Jewish community still had 155 members, in 1875 there were 99, in 1900 only 89 and in 1925 only 35 people. The Jews were given the right to freely choose their profession and place of residence or settlement. They became more and more integrated into the economic and social life of society. The big cities with their modern economies offered them more opportunities so that they could break out of the narrow confines of small-town Jewish communities. At the same time, the contrast between liberal reform Jews and conservative Orthodox Jews increased. The liberal Jews assimilated themselves, took up new professions such as teachers, lawyers, doctors, were baptized, married Christian spouses, broke away from Jewish traditions, got involved in cultural associations, Jewish children attended city schools up to and including high school, Christian and Jewish residents looked after normal everyday interaction with one another. In 1871, Dr. Jacobi Selig Rosenthal granted honorary citizenship to a Jew. The Warener Zeitung of November 18, 1871 finishes its article in which it details the award of honorary citizenship and the career of Dr. Rosenthal describes
"We wish the worthy jubilee that he may have many more cheerful days to the delight of his dear relatives and numerous admirers." (Quoted from Arne Benkendorf loc. Cit. P. 306) In July 1877, Dr. Rosenthal in goods. In 1990 a street leading to the Jewish cemetery was named after him. The Jewish brothers Karl and Otto Loewenberg also took part in the First World War. They fell in 1915 and 1918 and are named on the memorial plaque for those who fell in this war in the George Church.
With the National Socialist rule, repression and persecution began. The Jewish community was forced to remove the synagogue because it was in a state of disrepair. More and more Jews fled from the anti-Semitic harassment and riots. In 1935 there were 29 Jews living in Waren, in 1937 only 24 and in April 1938 the number had dropped to 9. These moved to the larger cities, where they hoped to be more secure in anonymity or from where they tried to flee abroad. Only a few of them managed to do this, mention should be made of Alfred Leopold's spectacular escape, which took six years before he was safe in Switzerland. Others like the married couple Loewenberg vom Neuen Markt with their two children Karl Otto and Ruth no longer succeeded in following their daughter Gerda from Hamburg to the USA. They were deported to Minsk and are missing there. Erich and Toni Jacob from Lloydstr. 4 were deported from Berlin to Auschwitz with their sons Alfred and Günther, only Günther survived. The Leopold family from Neuen Markt 13 was also deported from Berlin to Theresienstadt and Auschwitz.
The Jewish cemetery was destroyed in the the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), a memorial stone was placed in 1967 and a memorial plaque was placed at the entrance in 1985. The synagogue building was spared during the riots, as the Jewish community had given it up in 1936 and - as already mentioned - sold it to a carpenter as a workshop. It was finally demolished in 1954, the photos of the demolition are the last documents in the history of the house. In 1991 a memorial stone was erected.
"A few steps away from the synagogue, outside the city wall, directly on Lake Tiefwarensee, at Grosse Mauerplatz 3, was the Jewish bathhouse. Like the whole district, it has disappeared without a trace. People's life has taken place here for several centuries. Christians and Jews lived close together.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Teterow

A town in the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1492; peak Jewish population: 116 in 1845; Jewish population in 1933: 17

The earliest record of the Jews of Teterow is dated 1492, the same year in which five Jews were burned at the stake and the rest were banished. Records do not mention another Jewish presence in Teterow until 1762, when a Jewish community was founded there. Although troops were posted in Teterow to enforce the anti-Jewish ordinances of 1933, the local population ignored them. Eventually, however, the situation deteriorated to such an extent that by 1935, the Jewish community was forced to disband. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the abandoned synagogue was ransacked and the roof trusses were torn down. A few weeks later, the city declared the building unsafe and a danger to pedestrians, after which it was torn down. The Jewish cemetery was left unharmed, as it was located outside the city. A memorial plaque was later unveiled at the site where the synagogue once stood. Another plaque has been placed at the cemetery, which is considered one of the best-preserved Jewish cemeteries in the area.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Stralsund

A city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

First Jewish presence: mid 1400s; peak Jewish population: 172 in 1797; Jewish population in 1933: 160

The city of Stralsund, founded in the mid-1200s, quickly developed into the most prosperous city in northern Germany. Although Jews were allowed to conduct business in Stralsund, they were forbidden to live in the city. By the mid-1400s, however, Jews had been granted permission to live in Stralsund, albeit in ghettos; this medieval community lived on the Judengasse (“Jews’ alley”), where they consecrated a prayer room. As was the case in towns all over Germany, the Jewish community was expelled from Stralsund in 1492.

In 1757, the modern Jewish community was established, numbering 35 Jews in 1766 and 119 in 1784. Thirty years later, in 1786/87, a newly-built, beautiful synagogue consisting of 200 seats was dedicated in the backyard at 69 Langenstrasse. It was the very first synagogue in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. Attached to the synagogue was a mikvah (ritual bath). In 1913, the synagogue was completely rebuilt. At its inauguration on September 16, 1913, Stralsund's mayor Ernst August Friedrich Gronow addressed his greetings to the Jewish community, "… that our Jewish fellow citizens may live with their Christian fellow citizens in peace and harmony in this city as before."

Stralsund Jews initially buried their dead outside the city. In 1776, the Christian banker Joachim Ulrich von Giese provided a place for the funeral of a Jewish girl, the daughter of the family Hertz, on the grounds of his estate (Gut Niederhof). This resulted in the development of a small Jewish cemetery. In 1850, a new Jewish cemetery was laid out on Greifswalder Chaussee, which was enlarged in 1912.
The Judengesetz (Jews' law) of 1847 for the Kingdom of Prussia eased the general living conditions of the Jews in Stralsund and led to an increase of their population (169 Jews in 1887). The wealthier Jews resided in neighborhoods that were also favored by rich Christian merchant families. However, the majority of Stralsund Jews lived in poverty. Of particular importance for the city was the settlement of the Jewish merchants Leonhard Tietz and Adolf Wertheim. The latter opened in 1852 the first manufactory and millinery store on Wasserstrasse, the future head office of the Wertheim Group. Leonhard Tietz established a store at 31 Ossenreyerstrasse in 1879.

In 1932/33, approximately 160 Jews lived in Stralsund. Twenty Jewish children received religious instruction. Simon Lemke served as preacher and chazzan (cantor). The chevra kadisha (burial society), founded in 1921, was still active as well as the youth group Berthold Auerbach. Furthermore, branches of the nationwide Jewish organizations Central-Verein (Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith) and Reichsbund Juedischer Frontsoldaten (Reich Federation of Jewish Front Soldiers) were operating in Stralsund in the 1930s. Jews from Ruegen (16 Jews), Barth (12), Grimmen (8), Tribsees (3), Richtenberg (3), Franzburg (5), and Dammgarten (1) were affiliated with the Stralsund Jewish community.
In the 1920s, Stralsund Jews were not particularly affected by the Nazis' anti-Semitic agitation.

from 1933 onwards: in order to implement the anti-Jewish boycott, Nazis placed guards in front of Jewish-owned stores to prevent by force customers entering. A few days later, the town council made the following decision: "The municipality has to halt immediately all business connections with … Jewish traders … The city government has to ensure that no further ritual slaughtering takes place…" Around 1934, while Heinz Cohn and Luise Genzen, a Christian woman, were celebrating their wedding, SA men came to their house at 2 Frankenstrasse, interrupted the festivity and took Cohn into protective custody. The same happened to David Mandelbaum, who was also married to a non-Jewish woman. A foundation founded by the merchant Moses Lazarus Israel to provide scholarships to young men was forcibly merged, by the mayor's decision on November 7, 1939, with a Nazi-related foundation which explicitly excluded Jews. Between 1933 and 1938, almost one-third of the Jewish population left Stralsund. They moved to other German cities or emigrated to different European or overseas countries. In October 1938, approximately 22 Jews of Polish nationality were expelled from Stralsund and transported to Poland.

On Pogrom Night on November 9, 1938, Jewish-owned businesses were looted and windows smashed. At 5 am on November 10, 1938, the synagogue was damaged and set on fire. It did not completely burn down; it was subsequently misused as a classroom and as storage by a local emergency service. Approximately 30 Jewish men were temporarily arrested and twenty of them taken to the concentration camp in Sachsenhausen. A day later, in the evening of November 11, Nazis organized an anti-Semitic demonstration at Alter Markt. In 1944, the former synagogue building was destroyed during an air raid and later torn down (1950). Most of the remaining Jews were deported to Lublin in February 1940. In early 1944, more local Jews were deported from Stralsund, this time to Auschwitz via Stettin. At least 60 Stralsund Jews perished in the Shoah.

After the war, several survivors returned to the city. They intended to found a new Jewish community. However, this attempt was doomed to fail due to their small numbers. In 1955, the Jewish cemetery on Greifswalder Chaussee was declared a historical site. From 1988 until 2009, several memorial plaques and stones were unveiled in Stralsund to commemorate the former Jewish community.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Roebel

A village in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: mid-1300s; peak Jewish population: 104 in 1867; Jewish population in 1933: 20

The Jewish community of Roebel was expelled in 1492, as were many other Jewish communities in Germany. It was not until the early 1700s that Jews were permitted to return in Roebel, after which they established a community and set up a prayer room in a private residence. A small cemetery was consecrated in Roebel in 1720. In 1830, the authorities permitted the community to build a synagogue, a modest building in which local Jews conducted services until after World War I, when most Jews left Roebel. The empty synagogue building was sold in 1930. Although the synagogue building was no longer owned by Jews, SS men set it on fire on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938). As the result of the intervention of a neighbor, who feared for his own house, the synagogue did not burn to the ground. In 2000, the municipality took over the former synagogue building and designated it as a landmark. It now serves as a youth center, alongside which stands a building housing an exhibition on the history of the Jews of Roebel.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Anklam

A town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, formerly known as Tanglim and Wendenburg.

First Jewish presence: mid-1300s; peak Jewish population: 311 in 1861; Jewish population in 1933: 43

Jews lived in Anklam from the mid-1300s until the Black Death pogroms, when they were burned at the stake. In 1712, at which point Anklam was under Swedish rule, the authorities issued a ban on Jewish settlement. All bans were annulled in 1812, after which Jews began to return to Anklam. By 1817, a Jewish community had been founded, complete with a prayer room, a cemetery and a school. In order to accommodate the growing community, a synagogue was built and inaugurated in 1841. As a token of gratitude to the local count who granted permission to build the synagogue, the community mounted his portrait on the wall of the synagogue’s foyer. Anti-Semitism became a real problem for Anklam Jews in early 1933 and by 1935 the situation was almost intolerable. Although the synagogue was set on fire on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), it did not burn down completely, and was subsequently used for grain storage. A small plaque was later unveiled at the synagogue site.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Prenzlau

A town and the capital of the Uckermark district in Brandenburg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1309; peak Jewish population: 423 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 111

With the exception of the 16th century, during which Jews were banned from the Brandenburg region, Jews maintained a continuous presence in Prenzlau. A functioning community was established there during the 18th century. In 1716, a cemetery was consecrated near the water tower (today’s city park); enlarged on several occasions, the cemetery was moved to Am Suessen Grund (serving Prenzlau and the Jewish communities of Bruessow und Strasburg) in 1890. In 1752, the Jews of Prenzlau established a synagogue in a timber-frame building at Wasserpforte; accordingly, the street was named Tempelstrasse (“temple street”). Eighty years later, the structure was replaced by a simple but solid building with arched front windows. We also know that, in 1825, the rabbi started giving private lectures in his home on Prinzenstrasse; he later established a gender-separated school with three classes. At its peak, Prenzlau was Germany’s third largest community, after Berlin and Frankfurt. The community ran many cultural and religious organizations; for example, a chevra kadisha, a sisterhood and a literature club. Despite the arrival of many Eastern European Jews during the early 20th century, Prenzlau’s population declined as more Jews chose to move to Berlin. As early as 1935, windows in seven Jewish stores were smashed. On November 10, 1938, the synagogue was burned down; homes and stores were vandalized, as was the cemetery; many men were arrested and sent to Sachsenhausen Nazi concentration camp. The Nazis appropriated Jewish-owned businesses and forced the congregation to sell its property to pay for the removal of the synagogue ruins. Approximately 46 Prenzlau Jews perished in the Nazi concentration and death camps; three survived the war. A memorial plaque was unveiled in the town in 1988, and in 2000 the old cemetery was declared a memorial site.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Stavenhagen

A village in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish population: mid-1700s; peak Jewish population: 32 in 1910; Jewish population in 1933: 10

Jews might have lived in Stavenhagen before the 18th century, but the first record of their presence there is from the mid- 1700s. In the early 1800s, the community built a modest synagogue, a community center (alongside the synagogue) and a small cemetery. When the synagogue in nearby Malchin was closed down due to inadequate membership, the two communities merged. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the Stavenhagen synagogue and the town’s two remaining Jewish-owned businesses were destroyed. Due to its proximity to other homes, the synagogue was not set on fire. Instead, the SS headed for the cemetery, where they burned down the chapel and desecrated headstones. In early 1939, the synagogue building was appropriated by a furniture manufacturer who used it as a warehouse; it was, however, later abandoned when it became severely dilapidated. As of this writing, a memorial plaque has never been unveiled at the site, now an empty lot. The municipality of Stavenhagen, however, is planning a proper memorial.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Penzlin

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

In Penzlin the Jewish community had an old tradition: the families Salomon, Liebmann, Levin and Bernhard were long established, the Levins made a living from the tobacco trade and had far-reaching business activities. As early as 1749, a Simson Levin had settled in Penzlin on the recommendation of Duchess Auguste. As everywhere else, the number of Jews residing in Penzlin declined quite quickly, with 43 living in 1867 and only 4 in 1930. The community had no Jewish school and no mikvah, but a synagogue and its own cemetery where the last funeral took place in 1923 and which was maintained by a Penzlin family The synagogue, built in 1791, was used as a Catholic church before 1933 and was therefore not destroyed during the Progrom Night on November 9,1938. However, it became part of the surrounding district destroyed by fire after the invasion of the Soviet Army in early May 1945.

In 1933 only the family of Georg and Hertha Pinkus with their son Werner and daughter Hannelore lived in Penzlin. Georg Pinkus was a dealer in textiles. In the First World War he had been a combatant. In 1942, Georg Pinkus (b. on 27.9.1891 in Xions), his wife Hertha nee Jacob (b. on 4.9.1883 in Penzlin) and their daughter Hannelore were deported to a Nazi concentration camp on 7.8.1942. The son Werner (b. 1923), who was in Berlin, immigrated to Britain. 

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Torgelow

A municipality in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Torgelow was mentioned for the first time in 1281 when the Brandenburg Margrave Otto IV signed a document at the Castle Torgelow. At the beginning of the 18th century, Torgelow became well-known when iron was found in the area; thereupon King Frederick II (Prussia) issued the founding document for the establishment of an iron and steel plant in 1753 and Torgelow developed into an industrial village.

Not much is known about Torgelow's Jewish history. However, it is documented that 21 Jews lived in Torgelow in 1910 and 14 (constituting 0.2% of total population) in 1925. They joined the community in Ueckermuende, which was approximately 12 km away from the village. A statute of the Ueckermuende Jewish community (1860) indicated that several small villages in the region, such as Torgelow, Altwarp, Neuwarp, and Eggesin, were affiliated with the synagogue district. According to several sources, a synagogue existed in Torgelow at least in the 1930s. No Jewish cemetery has been documented.

In 1933, nine Jews resided in the town. Among them was the businessman and clothier Julius Gronemann, who participated in the volunteer fire brigade and served as its secretary until the Nazis' assumption of power. Gronemann ran a textile store at 1 Wilhelmstrasse. Later, under the Nazi rulers’ pressure, he leased his shop to his former employee Wilhelm Koerner, member of the NSDAP, in 1934. As in many German towns and cities, the Nazis' anti-Jewish boycott was also implemented in Torgelow in April 1933. A former female employer of Julius Gronemann wrote to his great-grandson about the harassments at 1 Wilhelmstrasse: "… Nazi stormtroopers stood in front of the shop telling the customers … that the shopkeeper was Jewish and told them to buy at an Aryan shop. Although some of the customers turned on their heels, the majority weren’t put off and said they had been buying at Mr. Gronemann’s shop for years and they wouldn’t dream of shunning it. It was a very hard time for the old man so he decided to sell his shop by the end of 1933. Unfortunately I don’t know if it was an ordinary sale or already a kind of expropriation."

On Pogrom Night on November 9, 1938, the synagogue was burnt, as documented by the historian Wolfgang Wilhelmus. A day later, on November 10th, NS officials reported that the windows of a Jewish-owned shop had been smashed. During the entire Nazi era, Torgelow's few Jews were harassed, persecuted and forced to leave for other German cities. Some emigrated to Palestine, Belgium, South America and Shanghai. Julius Gronemann moved to Stettin, from where he was deported. On his last postcard to his children he wrote: "We'll be deported to Poland and we know our destiny." At least four local Jews were murdered in Auschwitz-Birkenau and apparently in other Nazi concentration camps in the eastern Europe.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Neustrelitz

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: approx. 1700; peak Jewish population: 600 in 1802; Jewish population in 1933: 62

During the 1800s, the city of Alt-Strelitz was the most important Jewish community in Mecklenburg, home to the largest Jewish population, the largest synagogue and the most prestigious and respected rabbi in the region. This was made possible by a local duke who welcomed the Jews and allowed them to establish prayer rooms, a cemetery and an elementary school. When the Jewish community outgrew the prayer rooms, Duke Adolf Friedrich IV not only approved the decision to purchase land for a synagogue, but gave of his own money and helped arrange financing for the endeavor. The synagogue—a massive building—was completed in 1763; the inauguration ceremony was attended by local landowners and politicians. Nearly a century later, in 1847, the synagogue was completely renovated, after which it was inaugurated once again. Rabbi Jacob Hamburger served as rabbi for nearly fifty years until his death in 1911. He apparently kept the community together, for it was after his death that many Jews left Alt-Strelitz. Jews and Gentiles coexisted peacefully in Alt-Strelitz until 1935. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), three young Nazis broke into the synagogue, smashed all the windows and set it on fire. Shortly afterwards, the Jewish community was forced to pay for the building’s demolition. In 1988, a memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.