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The Jewish Community of Homburg / Saar

Homburg / Saar

A town and the administrative seat of the Saarpfalz district in Saarland, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1686; peak Jewish population: 281 in 1824; Jewish population in 1933: 163

Although the Jewish community of Homburg was founded in 1823, a prayer hall had existed there since the second half of the 18th century. The community consecrated a cemetery in 1823; a synagogue in 1862 (6 Kosterstrasse); a mikveh (unknown date of construction); and a school in 1864. The school, which was presided over by a teacher who also performed the duties of chazzan and shochet, closed in 1911. A new cemetery was consecrated in Homburg in 1934, but it was seldom used. In 1933, eight children studied religion in Homburg. A welfare society, a women’s association, a society for Jewish literature and history, and a youth society were active in the community, with which the Jews of Waldmohr were affiliated. The community was dissolved in 1935, when only four or five Jewish families lived in Homburg. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), SS men demolished the synagogue’s interior and removed the Star of David from the north gable; five Jewish men were sent to Dachau. In 1939, the municipality appropriated the partially burned synagogue building, which was later damaged during a wartime bombing. One hundred and thirty-five Jews left Homburg/Saar. On October 22, 1940, the remaining 17 Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. Twenty-nine local Jews were murdered in the Shoah. In 2003, a section of the former synagogue—part of the structure was demolished in 1992—was opened as a memorial site.

-----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
16750384
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:
HOMBERG, HOMBURG

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

The Jewish family name Homberg is associated with the towns of Homburg and Homberg in Hesse, Germany, where Jews lived since the 14th century. In some cases, the surnames Homburg and Homberg can also be linked with the city and state of Hamburg, Germany, where Jews settled in the 16th century.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Homberg include the Bohemian-born Austrian pioneer of Jewish Enlightenment Naphtali Herz Homberg (1749-1841). Isidor Louis Homberg was a German soldier who died in World War I.
HOMBURGER

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

The Jewish family name Homburger, in which the German ending "-er" means "of/from", is associated with the towns of Homburg and Homberg in Hesse, Germany, where Jews lived since the 14th century. In some cases, the surnames Homburg and Homberg can also be linked with the city and state of Hamburg, Germany, where Jews settled in the 16th century.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Homburger include the German psychiatrist, August Homburger (1873-1930), and the 20th century German-born South African surgeon, Fritz Homburger.

Gurs internment camp

The Gurs camp was an internment camp built in France at Gurs near Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Basses-Pyrénées (currently Pyrénées-Atlantiques) department by the French government of Édouard Daladier between March 15 and April 25 1939 to intern people fleeing Spain after the victory of the Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War. 

Following the armistice of June 22, 1940 , signed with Germany by the French government of Pétain , the camp was used as a mixed internment camp to accommodate Jews of all nationalities - except French - captured and deported by the Nazi regime in countries under its control (Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands). Nearly 4,000 Jews were transferred from Gurs to the Drancy camp between August 6, 1942 and March 3, 1943. They were subsequently deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz and almost all were murdered there.

Saarbruecken
Saarbrücken
 
Capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.

Jews were probably present in the city in 1321 when Duke John I granted the city its charter and reserved jurisdiction over the Jews. It is certain, however, that there were Jews in the adjacent villages of St. Wendel, Sarrebourg, and Sarreguemines at the time. There are no further sources mentioning the presence of Jews until 1732 when a Judenordnung ("Jewry regulation") was issued for the Saarbrucken community by the count of Usingen-Nassau.
During the French occupation (1792--1813) equality was granted and a Saarbrucken arrondissement was established with a Jewish population of 71. The Saarbrucken community grew from 10 families in 1837 to 376 persons in 1885 and 1,103 in 1910. Between 1920 and 1935 the Saar region was administered by the League of Nations. The Saarbrucken community grew to 2,650, with another 1,700 Jews were dispersed in 23 rural communities. At the time of the 1935 plebiscite on the future of the region the Jews were accused of disloyalty and subjected to intensive harassment. Large numbers of Jews chose French and Belgian citizenship and many emigrated with special "Nansen" passports. The Saarbrucken synagogue was burned down on the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938) and by the summer of 1939 only 177 Jews were left. The Jews of the Saar were deported, together with the Jews of Baden, to Gurs concentration camp in 1940.
After WW2 a new community was founded which grew from 60 in 1945-19466 to 224 in 1948 and 350 in January 1970. A new synagogue was built in 1951.

Sankt Wendel

St. Wendel

A town in northeastern Saarland, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1358 (perhaps earlier); peak Jewish population: 143 in 1923; Jewish population in 1933: unknown (130 in 1932)

The earliest available record of a Jewish presence in Sankt Wendel is from 1358. We do not know when or why Jews left the area, but records do tell us that it was not until 1862 that a Jewish presence was re-established in Sankt Wendel. The Jewish community of Sankt Wendel was officially recognized in 1920. Jews conducted services in a prayer room, established in a private home in 1869, until 1902, when the community inaugurated a synagogue on Kelsweilerstrasse; the synagogue, which seated 84 men and 52 women, was renovated in 1932. The community also maintained a cemetery (consecrated in 1871), a school and a mikveh. After the Saarland region was returned to the German Reich in March 1935, most Jews left: 19 Jews lived in Sankt Wendel in 1937, nine in 1938. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s interior was demolished, after which the building was burned down. The municipality purchased the site, which had already been cleared, in 1942. On October 22, 1940, Sankt Wendel’s last four Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. At least 32 Sankt Wendel Jews perished in the Shoah. The former synagogue, sold in 1951 to a private individual, was converted into a residential building, to which a memorial plaque was affixed in 1981. Earlier, in 1972, a memorial stone was unveiled at the cemetery.

-------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Kaiserslautern

A city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

The first documentary evidence for the existence of a Jewish community dates from 1242, but it is probably somewhat older. The community suffered during the Black Death persecution of 1348-1349.

The Jews lived on a Judengasse and the community possessed both a cemetery and a synagogue, built by those who returned after the Black Death persecutions. Between 1383 and 1388 the Jews were expelled "forever", but during the 17th and 18th centuries a few Schutzjuden ("protected Jews") were tolerated. The community was reestablished after emancipation was granted during French rule (1797-1814). From 1828 it had a rabbi. A synagogue, built in 1823, was rebuilt in 1848, and a Reform synagogue was dedicated in 1886 (the massive Neo-Gothic structure was sold and dismantled before November 1938). A cemetery was consecrated in 1858. In 1840 the community totaled 118 persons, and 716 (2.72% of the total) in 1880. The number remained stable until Nazi persecution reduced it to 395 in 1937 and 85 in 1939.

Dr. Solly Baron was rabbi, and the community ran four Jewish associations and a branch of the B’nai B’rith organization. Local Jews were forced to give up their synagogue in August 1938, after which they were permitted to establish a prayer room in a former prison. The synagogue building was demolished in September or October of 1938, and the site was used as a parade ground after 1939. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), 110 Jewish homes and many Jewish-owned businesses were ransacked. Torah scrolls were burned, and approximately 50 Jewish men were sent to Dachau Nazi concentration camp. In 1939, 90 Jews lived in Kaiserslautern. On October 22, 1940, 48 local Jews were deported to the concentration camp in Gurs, France. Deportations from Kaiserslautern continued until March 1945, and more than 200 Jews originally from Kaiserslautern perished in the Shoah. 

The new Jewish community, founded after 1945, inaugurated a synagogue in 1965. In 1980, the site on which the destroyed synagogue once stood was renamed Synagogenplatz (“synagogue square”); a plaque and a memorial were unveiled there in 1980 and 2003, respectively.

---------------------------------------

This entry contains material originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Neuenkirchen

A town and a municipality in the Neuenkirchen district in Saarland, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1776; peak Jewish population: 234 in 1925; Jewish population in 1933: 211

The Jewish community of Neunkirchen established its communal institutions during the 19th century: a cemetery in 1831 (enlarged in 1880); a community center with a prayer room in 1847; a synagogue, built on the ruins of a Renaissance castle, in 1865 (renovated in 1921/22); and a school, presided over by a teacher who also served as chazzan and shochet, at some point during the 19th century. In 1933, a total 211 Jews lived in Neunkirchen and in the affiliated communities of Elversberg, Spiesen, Schiffweiler and Wiebelskirchen. A chevra kadisha, a Jewish women’s association and a youth group were active in the community. Most Jews left Neunkirchen after the Saarland was returned to the German Reich in March 1935. Local Jews were assaulted and arrested on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), and the synagogue was burned down. Cleared in 1939, the synagogue site was sold to the municipality in 1942. Neunkirchen’s Jewish cemetery, desecrated in 1938/39, was later bought by a local brewer. One hundred and ten Neunkirchen Jews emigrated; 59 relocated within Germany; and seven, the last, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France, on October 22, 1940, and to the Drancy camp, also in France, in February 1944. At least 60 Neunkirchen Jews perished in the Shoah. In 1945, a combined residential and commercial building was built on the former synagogue site (present-day address: Oberer Markt/Irrgartenstrasse); in 1978, a commemorative plaque was erected there. A memorial has also been unveiled at the cemetery, which, since its reopening in 1955, has been repeatedly vandalized. The new, small Jewish community of Neunkirchen was founded in 1970.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

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The Jewish Community of Homburg / Saar

Homburg / Saar

A town and the administrative seat of the Saarpfalz district in Saarland, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1686; peak Jewish population: 281 in 1824; Jewish population in 1933: 163

Although the Jewish community of Homburg was founded in 1823, a prayer hall had existed there since the second half of the 18th century. The community consecrated a cemetery in 1823; a synagogue in 1862 (6 Kosterstrasse); a mikveh (unknown date of construction); and a school in 1864. The school, which was presided over by a teacher who also performed the duties of chazzan and shochet, closed in 1911. A new cemetery was consecrated in Homburg in 1934, but it was seldom used. In 1933, eight children studied religion in Homburg. A welfare society, a women’s association, a society for Jewish literature and history, and a youth society were active in the community, with which the Jews of Waldmohr were affiliated. The community was dissolved in 1935, when only four or five Jewish families lived in Homburg. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), SS men demolished the synagogue’s interior and removed the Star of David from the north gable; five Jewish men were sent to Dachau. In 1939, the municipality appropriated the partially burned synagogue building, which was later damaged during a wartime bombing. One hundred and thirty-five Jews left Homburg/Saar. On October 22, 1940, the remaining 17 Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. Twenty-nine local Jews were murdered in the Shoah. In 2003, a section of the former synagogue—part of the structure was demolished in 1992—was opened as a memorial site.

-----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Neuenkirchen, Saarland
Kaiserslautern
Sankt Wendel
Saarbruecken
Gurs

Neuenkirchen

A town and a municipality in the Neuenkirchen district in Saarland, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1776; peak Jewish population: 234 in 1925; Jewish population in 1933: 211

The Jewish community of Neunkirchen established its communal institutions during the 19th century: a cemetery in 1831 (enlarged in 1880); a community center with a prayer room in 1847; a synagogue, built on the ruins of a Renaissance castle, in 1865 (renovated in 1921/22); and a school, presided over by a teacher who also served as chazzan and shochet, at some point during the 19th century. In 1933, a total 211 Jews lived in Neunkirchen and in the affiliated communities of Elversberg, Spiesen, Schiffweiler and Wiebelskirchen. A chevra kadisha, a Jewish women’s association and a youth group were active in the community. Most Jews left Neunkirchen after the Saarland was returned to the German Reich in March 1935. Local Jews were assaulted and arrested on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), and the synagogue was burned down. Cleared in 1939, the synagogue site was sold to the municipality in 1942. Neunkirchen’s Jewish cemetery, desecrated in 1938/39, was later bought by a local brewer. One hundred and ten Neunkirchen Jews emigrated; 59 relocated within Germany; and seven, the last, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France, on October 22, 1940, and to the Drancy camp, also in France, in February 1944. At least 60 Neunkirchen Jews perished in the Shoah. In 1945, a combined residential and commercial building was built on the former synagogue site (present-day address: Oberer Markt/Irrgartenstrasse); in 1978, a commemorative plaque was erected there. A memorial has also been unveiled at the cemetery, which, since its reopening in 1955, has been repeatedly vandalized. The new, small Jewish community of Neunkirchen was founded in 1970.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Kaiserslautern

A city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

The first documentary evidence for the existence of a Jewish community dates from 1242, but it is probably somewhat older. The community suffered during the Black Death persecution of 1348-1349.

The Jews lived on a Judengasse and the community possessed both a cemetery and a synagogue, built by those who returned after the Black Death persecutions. Between 1383 and 1388 the Jews were expelled "forever", but during the 17th and 18th centuries a few Schutzjuden ("protected Jews") were tolerated. The community was reestablished after emancipation was granted during French rule (1797-1814). From 1828 it had a rabbi. A synagogue, built in 1823, was rebuilt in 1848, and a Reform synagogue was dedicated in 1886 (the massive Neo-Gothic structure was sold and dismantled before November 1938). A cemetery was consecrated in 1858. In 1840 the community totaled 118 persons, and 716 (2.72% of the total) in 1880. The number remained stable until Nazi persecution reduced it to 395 in 1937 and 85 in 1939.

Dr. Solly Baron was rabbi, and the community ran four Jewish associations and a branch of the B’nai B’rith organization. Local Jews were forced to give up their synagogue in August 1938, after which they were permitted to establish a prayer room in a former prison. The synagogue building was demolished in September or October of 1938, and the site was used as a parade ground after 1939. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), 110 Jewish homes and many Jewish-owned businesses were ransacked. Torah scrolls were burned, and approximately 50 Jewish men were sent to Dachau Nazi concentration camp. In 1939, 90 Jews lived in Kaiserslautern. On October 22, 1940, 48 local Jews were deported to the concentration camp in Gurs, France. Deportations from Kaiserslautern continued until March 1945, and more than 200 Jews originally from Kaiserslautern perished in the Shoah. 

The new Jewish community, founded after 1945, inaugurated a synagogue in 1965. In 1980, the site on which the destroyed synagogue once stood was renamed Synagogenplatz (“synagogue square”); a plaque and a memorial were unveiled there in 1980 and 2003, respectively.

---------------------------------------

This entry contains material originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Sankt Wendel

St. Wendel

A town in northeastern Saarland, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1358 (perhaps earlier); peak Jewish population: 143 in 1923; Jewish population in 1933: unknown (130 in 1932)

The earliest available record of a Jewish presence in Sankt Wendel is from 1358. We do not know when or why Jews left the area, but records do tell us that it was not until 1862 that a Jewish presence was re-established in Sankt Wendel. The Jewish community of Sankt Wendel was officially recognized in 1920. Jews conducted services in a prayer room, established in a private home in 1869, until 1902, when the community inaugurated a synagogue on Kelsweilerstrasse; the synagogue, which seated 84 men and 52 women, was renovated in 1932. The community also maintained a cemetery (consecrated in 1871), a school and a mikveh. After the Saarland region was returned to the German Reich in March 1935, most Jews left: 19 Jews lived in Sankt Wendel in 1937, nine in 1938. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s interior was demolished, after which the building was burned down. The municipality purchased the site, which had already been cleared, in 1942. On October 22, 1940, Sankt Wendel’s last four Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. At least 32 Sankt Wendel Jews perished in the Shoah. The former synagogue, sold in 1951 to a private individual, was converted into a residential building, to which a memorial plaque was affixed in 1981. Earlier, in 1972, a memorial stone was unveiled at the cemetery.

-------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Saarbruecken
Saarbrücken
 
Capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.

Jews were probably present in the city in 1321 when Duke John I granted the city its charter and reserved jurisdiction over the Jews. It is certain, however, that there were Jews in the adjacent villages of St. Wendel, Sarrebourg, and Sarreguemines at the time. There are no further sources mentioning the presence of Jews until 1732 when a Judenordnung ("Jewry regulation") was issued for the Saarbrucken community by the count of Usingen-Nassau.
During the French occupation (1792--1813) equality was granted and a Saarbrucken arrondissement was established with a Jewish population of 71. The Saarbrucken community grew from 10 families in 1837 to 376 persons in 1885 and 1,103 in 1910. Between 1920 and 1935 the Saar region was administered by the League of Nations. The Saarbrucken community grew to 2,650, with another 1,700 Jews were dispersed in 23 rural communities. At the time of the 1935 plebiscite on the future of the region the Jews were accused of disloyalty and subjected to intensive harassment. Large numbers of Jews chose French and Belgian citizenship and many emigrated with special "Nansen" passports. The Saarbrucken synagogue was burned down on the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938) and by the summer of 1939 only 177 Jews were left. The Jews of the Saar were deported, together with the Jews of Baden, to Gurs concentration camp in 1940.
After WW2 a new community was founded which grew from 60 in 1945-19466 to 224 in 1948 and 350 in January 1970. A new synagogue was built in 1951.

Gurs internment camp

The Gurs camp was an internment camp built in France at Gurs near Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Basses-Pyrénées (currently Pyrénées-Atlantiques) department by the French government of Édouard Daladier between March 15 and April 25 1939 to intern people fleeing Spain after the victory of the Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War. 

Following the armistice of June 22, 1940 , signed with Germany by the French government of Pétain , the camp was used as a mixed internment camp to accommodate Jews of all nationalities - except French - captured and deported by the Nazi regime in countries under its control (Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands). Nearly 4,000 Jews were transferred from Gurs to the Drancy camp between August 6, 1942 and March 3, 1943. They were subsequently deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz and almost all were murdered there.

HOMBURGER
HOMBURG
HOMBURGER

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

The Jewish family name Homburger, in which the German ending "-er" means "of/from", is associated with the towns of Homburg and Homberg in Hesse, Germany, where Jews lived since the 14th century. In some cases, the surnames Homburg and Homberg can also be linked with the city and state of Hamburg, Germany, where Jews settled in the 16th century.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Homburger include the German psychiatrist, August Homburger (1873-1930), and the 20th century German-born South African surgeon, Fritz Homburger.
HOMBERG, HOMBURG

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

The Jewish family name Homberg is associated with the towns of Homburg and Homberg in Hesse, Germany, where Jews lived since the 14th century. In some cases, the surnames Homburg and Homberg can also be linked with the city and state of Hamburg, Germany, where Jews settled in the 16th century.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Homberg include the Bohemian-born Austrian pioneer of Jewish Enlightenment Naphtali Herz Homberg (1749-1841). Isidor Louis Homberg was a German soldier who died in World War I.