Search
Print
Share
Your Selected Item:
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions

The Jewish Community of Muehringen

Mühringen 

A village in the Horb-am-Neckar district in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1570; peak Jewish population: 512 in 1846; Jewish population in 1933: 45

Muehringen was one of the main Jewish communities in southwest Germany during the early 1700s. In 1728, the community inaugurated a synagogue and appointed a rabbi. Nathanael Weil, author of an important Talmudic commentary, was associated with the Muehringen community. In 1810, local Jews inaugurated a new synagogue with a seating capacity of 500. Other communal institutions included a school (1825-1914) and a cemetery, the latter of which—it was the largest in Wuerttemberg—was consecrated on Totenhau in the mid-16th century In 1933, several Jewish associations, mainly charitable ones, and a children’s sanatorium were operating in Muehringen.

On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), SA men destroyed the synagogue’s interior and burned Torah scrolls and ritual objects; windows in Jewish homes and businesses were smashed, and several local Jews were sent to Dachau. The community was disbanded in March 1939. Sixteen local Jews emigrated, 16 died in Muehringen and 11 (all of whom had previously been moved into one house) were deported in 1942. At least 36 Muehringen Jews perished in the Shoah. In 1943, the synagogue was rented out to the Mauser armaments factory. Later damaged by artillery, the dilapidated building was demolished in 1960. The site, now a parking lot and a public garden, contains a memorial stone (unveiled in 1983). The cemetery houses a memorial monument.

-------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Place Type:
Village
ID Number:
16742905
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:

Abraham Ris (aka Abraham Ries) (c.1763-1834), rabbi, born in Hagenthal-le-Bas, Alsace, France, the son of Rabbi Raphael Ris (1728-1813). He served as rabbi of the Jewish community of Mühringen in Wuerttemberg, Germany, from 1793, and then as regional rabbi of a number of communities in the Black Forest region. In 1812 he moved to Switzerland, where he first became assistant rabbi in Lengnau, and then, following his father death, he was appointed rabbi of the Jewish communities of Lengnau and Endingen, a post he held until his death. From 1819 he was chief rabbi in Endingen.

Horb am Neckar

Horb am Neckar is a town on the Neckar River, about 50 km southwest of Stuttgart in the Freudenstadt county, in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

The town was established in the Middle Ages by the Pfalzgraf of Tübingen - A count who presided in the domestic court, and had the superintendence of a royal household in Germany.

There were persecutions of Jews in the area in the 14th century having been blamed for the Black Death plague. Still Jews continued to live in Horb am Neckar until the middle of the 15th century, when they were expelled from the town. From then on Jews in Wuerttemberg lived in the rural areas until early 19th century, since they were not permitted to settle in the towns.

Horb am Neckar came under the jurisdiction of the state of Württemberg in 1806 and restrictions regarding Jewish residence were eliminated. The first Jews returned after the emancipation of the Jews in the middle of the 19th century. Most moved into the town from the surrounding villages of Dettensee, Mühlen am Neckar, Nordstetten and Rexingen. This resulted in the loss of a large part of the Jewish communities of these villages.

In 1864, only six Jews lived in Horb am Neckar, among them the industrialist Liepmann Stern. He was the founder of the new Jewish community in the town and its chairman until 1899. In the following thirty years the Jewish population of the town grew steadily until it reached its peak in 1910 when there were 135 Jewish residents. The Jewish community of Horb became independent in 1903 from the one in Nordstetten. Jews then began to emigrate to other areas and the population in Horb declined to about one hundred by 1933.

The community did not have a synagogue of its own. Services were held in a large rented room in a home that was used as a prayer hall. Several attempts were made to build a synagogue ever since the community came into existence, but it never came about.

From 1914 the rabbinate of the area was in Horb (before it was in the nearby village of Mühringen). It supervised the Jewish communities in the nearby towns of Baisingen, Mühringen, Nordstetten, Rexingen, Rottweil, Tübingen. Its rabbi, Dr. Abraham Schweizer (born 1875), officiated there until his retirement in 1936. After that the position was vacant. In 1942 Dr. Abraham Schweizer was deported to Theresienstadt and murdered in Maly Trostinec in the same year.

Until 1904 the Jewish community of Horb buried its members on the cemetery of Mühringen. The community then established its own cemetery outside the town. The cemetery hall probably was destroyed in the “Kristallnacht” in November 1938. Since 1999 a memorial stone on the cemetery is a reminder of the Jewish community of Horb am Neckar.

Horb did not have a Jewish school. Jewish children attended the public school in the town.

The Jews in Horb played an important role in the economical life in the town until 1933. They owned several industrial works, craft and trade businesses like the Bankhaus Weil (bank), Textilhaus Augsburger (textiles), the soap factory Gideon, the Stern clothing factory, the colonial trade company of Adolph Landauer, a butcher by a man named Liebmann, the dressmaker Levi and others.

Before the Nazis came into power the relations between Jews and Christians in Horb am Neckar were good. Jews took part in the communal life and were members of several associations, like The Association of the Veterans from World War I and others. Jewish inhabitants also sat in the local town council.

Thirty Jewish residents of Horb fought in the German army in the World War I, of the three were killed in action. Rabbi Dr. Abraham Schweizer volunteered for the Red Cross and worked in army hospitals.


The Nazi period

In 1933 the vibrant Jewish community of Horb am Neckar numbered about one hundred people. Among them six from Calw, five from Herrenalb, six from Freudenstadt, twelve from Nordstetten and five from Wildbad, all nearby villages and towns. The chairman of the community was Siegfried Stern and vice chairman was Jakob Wolfsheimer. They supervised the Jewish prayer hall and the cemetery. The town had several Jewish institutions, such as the women’s society, the family society, the association of soldiers and a Jewish youth association. Twenty children took part in religion lessons taught by Rabbi Schweizer.

The Nazi party in the area of Horb am Neckar had grown quite large by the beginning of the 1930s. In 1933 when the Nazi regime came into power the atmosphere in the town changed quickly to highly anti-Semitic. The racist Nazi ideology had dreadful influence on the daily life of the Jews in Horb am Neckar. Jewish shops were avoided. The Gestapo arrested the owner of the soap factory Gideon in 1934 and held him for a number of days. In the morning after the “Kristallnacht” on the 10th of November 1938, Hitlerjungen demolished the prayer hall. Most of its interior was destroyed. A teacher was thought to have led them to this. In the evening of the “Kristallnacht” the windows of Jewish shops were broken and shops were looted. Jewish men were arrested. Some of them were held in the concentration camps of Welzheim and Dachau until January 1939.

In 1941 the last Jews had to leave the town and were forced to move to the nearby village of Rexingen. From there 25 Jews from Horb am Neckar were deported to Riga and Theresienstadt. Only one woman survived and came back to Horb in 1945. She died in Stuttgart in 1952 because of what she had endured in the camps.

Baisingen

Baisingen is an old village about 45 km southwest of Stuttgart in the county of Tuebingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, currently included within the jurisdiction of the city of Rottenburg am Neckar.

Baisingen came under the authority of Wuerttemberg in 1805. Until then it was part of the territories of varying landowners. From 1660 on it was the property of the landlord of Werdenau. In 1696 it fell into the properties of the landholders of Schenk von Stauffenberg.

It is likely that Jews first came to Baisingen in 1348. At the start of the 17th century most Jews were expelled from the cities in Wuerttemberg and forced to settle in rural areas. In 1640 two Jewish families were allowed to settle down in Baisingen as Schutzjuden (protected Jews). They paid a high yearly tax to the landowner for permission to live on his territory. Jews paid taxes that sometimes were as much as four times the amount paid by their Christian neighbors.

The first Schutzjuden lived in houses designated by the owner. Most Jews of Baisingen lived in the same streets and neighborhood. One street still carries the name Judengasse (Jewish Lane), which is where the synagogue stood. The houses in which the Jews lived were called Schutzhäuser (protected houses) signifying the “protection” that was supplied by the proprietors. Only after 1806 were the Jews of Baisingen allowed to buy houses from Christians and live outside the Jewish area. Before that it was forbidden for them to own land.

In 1765 it is thought there were 15 Jewish families living Baisingen as Schutzjuden. They increased up to 21 families by 1771 and 24 in the start of the 19th century. It is not clear from were the Jews of Baisingen originally came. Some families came from Vienna in 1670, when Kaiser Leopold expelled them. The Jewish population of Baisingen continued to grow until the middle of the 19th century when it then started to decline. The Emancipation beginning in the middle of the 19th century, which started the process of equalizing the legal status of Jews and Christians, ended the prohibitions relating to Jewish residence. This resulted in many Jews moving into the cities, while many other Jews also decided to immigrate to the United States.

About 115 Jews lived in Baisingen in 1807. The Jewish population reached its peak in 1843 when there were 235 Jews in the village. By June 1933 their number declined to 86.

The first synagogue was built in the village in 1782. It was enlarged in 1837. Jewish communities in the surrounding villages contributed money to help in the building of the synagogue and enable them to use it. The design of the synagogue was typical of village synagogues in the rural areas in Wuerttemberg, a very simple, almost square building with a pointed roof. The village also had its own Mikveh (ritual bath).

The Jewish community of Baisingen used the Jewish cemetery of the nearby village of Mühringen. In 1778 they rented a field outside the village to be used for their own cemetery. A Chevra Kadisha (Jewish burial society) was founded in 1815. In 1857 the Jewish community purchased the area of the cemetery.

There is evidence of a private Jewish teacher in Baisingen in 1776. A Jewish school was established in 1827 and functioned until 1933. In 1890 it had 56 pupils, but by 1926 their number had dropped to twelve. There were only eight when it closed in 1933 at the time Nazis came into power.

The living conditions of the Jews in Baisingen were poor until the 18th century. They worked with cattle, wool, iron, leather and other small goods. From the start of the 19th century the authorities pushed Jews to work in crafts and agriculture by limiting Jewish trade. In 1861, 25 Jews of Baisingen acknowledged that they earned their livelihood from agriculture. During this time their living conditions improved. Later, until the beginning of the Nazi Period, Jews still usually worked in the cattle trade, but also as butchers, tailors and in a few other trades.

The usually good relationships between Jews and Christians in Baisingen were tarnished once in the 1848. Young men from the village, encouraged by revolutionary riots against Jews in Alsace, destroyed the windows of Jewish homes. They extorted money from a prosperous Jew named Wolf Kiefe. Some of the wealthy Jewish inhabitants left the village the next morning going to Stuttgart in fear of more riots. The Catholic priest of the village was able to obtain the money taken and insured that it was returned.

Twenty-three members of the Jewish community of Baisingen fought for Germany in the First World War, of them three were killed in action. Their names are engraved into the memorial stone of the fallen soldiers of the village.

Following World War I, a Jewish youth group was founded in the village. In 1920 the members took part in a meeting of Jewish youth groups of the Back Forrest. Among other activities the young people there had the opportunity to learn Hebrew.

In 1928 a Jewish women’s group was established in Baisingen. In the same year the Jewish cemetery was desecrated and two years later, in 1930, the Catholic youth group of the village set up a football pitch next to the cemetery despite the protest of the community.


The Nazi Period

In 1933 when the Nazi Regime came into power there were 86 Jews living in the village. The head of the community was Hermann Kahn. He managed the synagogue, the cemetery, the mikveh and the small private school with its eight pupils. About 60 Jewish inhabitants of Baisingen emigrated in the years between 1933 and 1941.

On the day after “Kristallnacht,” November 10th 1938, SA men from the nearby village of Horb an Neckar and other villages of the area demolished the synagogue of Baisingen. It was not set on fire though because it stood too close to the houses of Christian neighbors. SA men destroyed doors, windows and the furniture of Jewish houses in the village.

After the start of World War II, Jews from Stuttgart and other cities in the region were forced to move to Baisingen. In 1941 and 1942 more than 60 Jews were deported, mostly to Riga. Among them were about 30 people that had been forced to move to Baisingen. Only four of the Jews that once lived in the village survived until the end of the war.

After its demolition in November 1938 the synagogue was no longer in use by the Jewish community. In 1940 it was sold to a farmer of the village who used the building as a barn and pigsty. The windows were closed and a larger entrance was installed.


After the Holocaust

In the year 1948, ten years after the Pogrom Night, fourteen people, former NSDAP party members, SA men and mayors were put on trial for taking part in the demolition of the synagogue and other houses in Baisingen and villages in the area. Eleven men were sentenced to prison of between three and eleven months. The other three were set free.

In the 1970s public interest was given to the building that housed the former synagogue. In 1984 it was listed as a national treasure. The city of Rottenburg am Neckar bought the building in 1988 and began its refurbishing. They kept, however, both the signs of the demolition of 1938 and its use as a barn. Since 2002 the former synagogue serves as a memorial and contains a museum on the history of the Jews of Baisingen.

our Open Databases
Jewish Genealogy
Family Names
Jewish Communities
Visual Documentation
Jewish Music Center
Place
אA
אA
אA
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions
The Jewish Community of Muehringen

Mühringen 

A village in the Horb-am-Neckar district in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1570; peak Jewish population: 512 in 1846; Jewish population in 1933: 45

Muehringen was one of the main Jewish communities in southwest Germany during the early 1700s. In 1728, the community inaugurated a synagogue and appointed a rabbi. Nathanael Weil, author of an important Talmudic commentary, was associated with the Muehringen community. In 1810, local Jews inaugurated a new synagogue with a seating capacity of 500. Other communal institutions included a school (1825-1914) and a cemetery, the latter of which—it was the largest in Wuerttemberg—was consecrated on Totenhau in the mid-16th century In 1933, several Jewish associations, mainly charitable ones, and a children’s sanatorium were operating in Muehringen.

On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), SA men destroyed the synagogue’s interior and burned Torah scrolls and ritual objects; windows in Jewish homes and businesses were smashed, and several local Jews were sent to Dachau. The community was disbanded in March 1939. Sixteen local Jews emigrated, 16 died in Muehringen and 11 (all of whom had previously been moved into one house) were deported in 1942. At least 36 Muehringen Jews perished in the Shoah. In 1943, the synagogue was rented out to the Mauser armaments factory. Later damaged by artillery, the dilapidated building was demolished in 1960. The site, now a parking lot and a public garden, contains a memorial stone (unveiled in 1983). The cemetery houses a memorial monument.

-------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Abraham Ris

Abraham Ris (aka Abraham Ries) (c.1763-1834), rabbi, born in Hagenthal-le-Bas, Alsace, France, the son of Rabbi Raphael Ris (1728-1813). He served as rabbi of the Jewish community of Mühringen in Wuerttemberg, Germany, from 1793, and then as regional rabbi of a number of communities in the Black Forest region. In 1812 he moved to Switzerland, where he first became assistant rabbi in Lengnau, and then, following his father death, he was appointed rabbi of the Jewish communities of Lengnau and Endingen, a post he held until his death. From 1819 he was chief rabbi in Endingen.

Horb am Neckar

Horb am Neckar

Horb am Neckar is a town on the Neckar River, about 50 km southwest of Stuttgart in the Freudenstadt county, in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

The town was established in the Middle Ages by the Pfalzgraf of Tübingen - A count who presided in the domestic court, and had the superintendence of a royal household in Germany.

There were persecutions of Jews in the area in the 14th century having been blamed for the Black Death plague. Still Jews continued to live in Horb am Neckar until the middle of the 15th century, when they were expelled from the town. From then on Jews in Wuerttemberg lived in the rural areas until early 19th century, since they were not permitted to settle in the towns.

Horb am Neckar came under the jurisdiction of the state of Württemberg in 1806 and restrictions regarding Jewish residence were eliminated. The first Jews returned after the emancipation of the Jews in the middle of the 19th century. Most moved into the town from the surrounding villages of Dettensee, Mühlen am Neckar, Nordstetten and Rexingen. This resulted in the loss of a large part of the Jewish communities of these villages.

In 1864, only six Jews lived in Horb am Neckar, among them the industrialist Liepmann Stern. He was the founder of the new Jewish community in the town and its chairman until 1899. In the following thirty years the Jewish population of the town grew steadily until it reached its peak in 1910 when there were 135 Jewish residents. The Jewish community of Horb became independent in 1903 from the one in Nordstetten. Jews then began to emigrate to other areas and the population in Horb declined to about one hundred by 1933.

The community did not have a synagogue of its own. Services were held in a large rented room in a home that was used as a prayer hall. Several attempts were made to build a synagogue ever since the community came into existence, but it never came about.

From 1914 the rabbinate of the area was in Horb (before it was in the nearby village of Mühringen). It supervised the Jewish communities in the nearby towns of Baisingen, Mühringen, Nordstetten, Rexingen, Rottweil, Tübingen. Its rabbi, Dr. Abraham Schweizer (born 1875), officiated there until his retirement in 1936. After that the position was vacant. In 1942 Dr. Abraham Schweizer was deported to Theresienstadt and murdered in Maly Trostinec in the same year.

Until 1904 the Jewish community of Horb buried its members on the cemetery of Mühringen. The community then established its own cemetery outside the town. The cemetery hall probably was destroyed in the “Kristallnacht” in November 1938. Since 1999 a memorial stone on the cemetery is a reminder of the Jewish community of Horb am Neckar.

Horb did not have a Jewish school. Jewish children attended the public school in the town.

The Jews in Horb played an important role in the economical life in the town until 1933. They owned several industrial works, craft and trade businesses like the Bankhaus Weil (bank), Textilhaus Augsburger (textiles), the soap factory Gideon, the Stern clothing factory, the colonial trade company of Adolph Landauer, a butcher by a man named Liebmann, the dressmaker Levi and others.

Before the Nazis came into power the relations between Jews and Christians in Horb am Neckar were good. Jews took part in the communal life and were members of several associations, like The Association of the Veterans from World War I and others. Jewish inhabitants also sat in the local town council.

Thirty Jewish residents of Horb fought in the German army in the World War I, of the three were killed in action. Rabbi Dr. Abraham Schweizer volunteered for the Red Cross and worked in army hospitals.


The Nazi period

In 1933 the vibrant Jewish community of Horb am Neckar numbered about one hundred people. Among them six from Calw, five from Herrenalb, six from Freudenstadt, twelve from Nordstetten and five from Wildbad, all nearby villages and towns. The chairman of the community was Siegfried Stern and vice chairman was Jakob Wolfsheimer. They supervised the Jewish prayer hall and the cemetery. The town had several Jewish institutions, such as the women’s society, the family society, the association of soldiers and a Jewish youth association. Twenty children took part in religion lessons taught by Rabbi Schweizer.

The Nazi party in the area of Horb am Neckar had grown quite large by the beginning of the 1930s. In 1933 when the Nazi regime came into power the atmosphere in the town changed quickly to highly anti-Semitic. The racist Nazi ideology had dreadful influence on the daily life of the Jews in Horb am Neckar. Jewish shops were avoided. The Gestapo arrested the owner of the soap factory Gideon in 1934 and held him for a number of days. In the morning after the “Kristallnacht” on the 10th of November 1938, Hitlerjungen demolished the prayer hall. Most of its interior was destroyed. A teacher was thought to have led them to this. In the evening of the “Kristallnacht” the windows of Jewish shops were broken and shops were looted. Jewish men were arrested. Some of them were held in the concentration camps of Welzheim and Dachau until January 1939.

In 1941 the last Jews had to leave the town and were forced to move to the nearby village of Rexingen. From there 25 Jews from Horb am Neckar were deported to Riga and Theresienstadt. Only one woman survived and came back to Horb in 1945. She died in Stuttgart in 1952 because of what she had endured in the camps.

Baisingen

Baisingen

Baisingen is an old village about 45 km southwest of Stuttgart in the county of Tuebingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, currently included within the jurisdiction of the city of Rottenburg am Neckar.

Baisingen came under the authority of Wuerttemberg in 1805. Until then it was part of the territories of varying landowners. From 1660 on it was the property of the landlord of Werdenau. In 1696 it fell into the properties of the landholders of Schenk von Stauffenberg.

It is likely that Jews first came to Baisingen in 1348. At the start of the 17th century most Jews were expelled from the cities in Wuerttemberg and forced to settle in rural areas. In 1640 two Jewish families were allowed to settle down in Baisingen as Schutzjuden (protected Jews). They paid a high yearly tax to the landowner for permission to live on his territory. Jews paid taxes that sometimes were as much as four times the amount paid by their Christian neighbors.

The first Schutzjuden lived in houses designated by the owner. Most Jews of Baisingen lived in the same streets and neighborhood. One street still carries the name Judengasse (Jewish Lane), which is where the synagogue stood. The houses in which the Jews lived were called Schutzhäuser (protected houses) signifying the “protection” that was supplied by the proprietors. Only after 1806 were the Jews of Baisingen allowed to buy houses from Christians and live outside the Jewish area. Before that it was forbidden for them to own land.

In 1765 it is thought there were 15 Jewish families living Baisingen as Schutzjuden. They increased up to 21 families by 1771 and 24 in the start of the 19th century. It is not clear from were the Jews of Baisingen originally came. Some families came from Vienna in 1670, when Kaiser Leopold expelled them. The Jewish population of Baisingen continued to grow until the middle of the 19th century when it then started to decline. The Emancipation beginning in the middle of the 19th century, which started the process of equalizing the legal status of Jews and Christians, ended the prohibitions relating to Jewish residence. This resulted in many Jews moving into the cities, while many other Jews also decided to immigrate to the United States.

About 115 Jews lived in Baisingen in 1807. The Jewish population reached its peak in 1843 when there were 235 Jews in the village. By June 1933 their number declined to 86.

The first synagogue was built in the village in 1782. It was enlarged in 1837. Jewish communities in the surrounding villages contributed money to help in the building of the synagogue and enable them to use it. The design of the synagogue was typical of village synagogues in the rural areas in Wuerttemberg, a very simple, almost square building with a pointed roof. The village also had its own Mikveh (ritual bath).

The Jewish community of Baisingen used the Jewish cemetery of the nearby village of Mühringen. In 1778 they rented a field outside the village to be used for their own cemetery. A Chevra Kadisha (Jewish burial society) was founded in 1815. In 1857 the Jewish community purchased the area of the cemetery.

There is evidence of a private Jewish teacher in Baisingen in 1776. A Jewish school was established in 1827 and functioned until 1933. In 1890 it had 56 pupils, but by 1926 their number had dropped to twelve. There were only eight when it closed in 1933 at the time Nazis came into power.

The living conditions of the Jews in Baisingen were poor until the 18th century. They worked with cattle, wool, iron, leather and other small goods. From the start of the 19th century the authorities pushed Jews to work in crafts and agriculture by limiting Jewish trade. In 1861, 25 Jews of Baisingen acknowledged that they earned their livelihood from agriculture. During this time their living conditions improved. Later, until the beginning of the Nazi Period, Jews still usually worked in the cattle trade, but also as butchers, tailors and in a few other trades.

The usually good relationships between Jews and Christians in Baisingen were tarnished once in the 1848. Young men from the village, encouraged by revolutionary riots against Jews in Alsace, destroyed the windows of Jewish homes. They extorted money from a prosperous Jew named Wolf Kiefe. Some of the wealthy Jewish inhabitants left the village the next morning going to Stuttgart in fear of more riots. The Catholic priest of the village was able to obtain the money taken and insured that it was returned.

Twenty-three members of the Jewish community of Baisingen fought for Germany in the First World War, of them three were killed in action. Their names are engraved into the memorial stone of the fallen soldiers of the village.

Following World War I, a Jewish youth group was founded in the village. In 1920 the members took part in a meeting of Jewish youth groups of the Back Forrest. Among other activities the young people there had the opportunity to learn Hebrew.

In 1928 a Jewish women’s group was established in Baisingen. In the same year the Jewish cemetery was desecrated and two years later, in 1930, the Catholic youth group of the village set up a football pitch next to the cemetery despite the protest of the community.


The Nazi Period

In 1933 when the Nazi Regime came into power there were 86 Jews living in the village. The head of the community was Hermann Kahn. He managed the synagogue, the cemetery, the mikveh and the small private school with its eight pupils. About 60 Jewish inhabitants of Baisingen emigrated in the years between 1933 and 1941.

On the day after “Kristallnacht,” November 10th 1938, SA men from the nearby village of Horb an Neckar and other villages of the area demolished the synagogue of Baisingen. It was not set on fire though because it stood too close to the houses of Christian neighbors. SA men destroyed doors, windows and the furniture of Jewish houses in the village.

After the start of World War II, Jews from Stuttgart and other cities in the region were forced to move to Baisingen. In 1941 and 1942 more than 60 Jews were deported, mostly to Riga. Among them were about 30 people that had been forced to move to Baisingen. Only four of the Jews that once lived in the village survived until the end of the war.

After its demolition in November 1938 the synagogue was no longer in use by the Jewish community. In 1940 it was sold to a farmer of the village who used the building as a barn and pigsty. The windows were closed and a larger entrance was installed.


After the Holocaust

In the year 1948, ten years after the Pogrom Night, fourteen people, former NSDAP party members, SA men and mayors were put on trial for taking part in the demolition of the synagogue and other houses in Baisingen and villages in the area. Eleven men were sentenced to prison of between three and eleven months. The other three were set free.

In the 1970s public interest was given to the building that housed the former synagogue. In 1984 it was listed as a national treasure. The city of Rottenburg am Neckar bought the building in 1988 and began its refurbishing. They kept, however, both the signs of the demolition of 1938 and its use as a barn. Since 2002 the former synagogue serves as a memorial and contains a museum on the history of the Jews of Baisingen.