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The Jewish Community of Herta

Herta 

In Ukrainian: Герца / Hertsa; in Russian: Gertsa
A town in Chernovtsy oblast, Ukraine. Until 1940 in Romania.

The locality was founded by Jews in the first quarter of the 18th century, when the local landowner invited a number of Polish Jews to found a settlement. Its first institution was a Talmud Torah of which a minute-book dating from 1764 has been preserved.

The oldest tombstone in the cemetery dates from 1766. The community had four synagogues, of which the oldest was built at the end of the 18th century; a "mikveh" was found in 1820, and a mixed school was established in the early 20th century. The community numbered 1,200 in 1803, 1,554 (56.4% of the total population) in c. 1859, 1,939 in 1899 (66.1%) 1,876 in 1910, and 1,801 in 1930 (25%). During the peasants' Revolt in 1907 the Jews in Herta prevented attacks and pillaging by organizing self-defense. After the conferment of Romanian nationality in 1919, Jews were elected to the municipal council, and at one time a Jew served as vice-mayor. In 1927 the Romanian governing party appointed a communal board from its own adherents, but the Jews boycotted it and two years later ensured its resignation.

During World War II the Jews in Hertsa were deported to Transnistria.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
164734
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:
Political scientist

Born in Herta, he was taken to England as a child and studied at the London School of Economics, then teaching there from 1920 to 1942. He was involved in Labor and London municipal politics and was a member of group of academics around Sydney and Beatrice Webb and Harold Laski. From 1946 to 1963 he was professor of political science at the University of Chicago. He pioneered the teaching of comparative politics and public administration as academic disciplines. His works included Theory and Practice of Modern Government, The Road to Reaction, and Dulles over Suez.

HERTANU, HERTZANO

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This family name is derived from Herta (Hertsa, in Ukrainian), the Romanian name of a town in Chernovtsy oblast, Ukraine. Until 1940 it was part of Romania. Jewish presence in Herta is documented from the first quarter of the 18th century.

Places, regions and countries of origin or residence are some of the sources of Jewish family names. But, unless the family has reliable records, names based on toponymics cannot prove the exact origin of the family.

Hertanu is documented as a Jewish family name with Mihael Hertanu, a tailor born in Mihaileni, Romania in 1886 who perished in the Holocaust after having been deported to ghettos and concentration camps in Transnistria.

Political scientist

Born in Herta, he was taken to England as a child and studied at the London School of Economics, then teaching there from 1920 to 1942. He was involved in Labor and London municipal politics and was a member of group of academics around Sydney and Beatrice Webb and Harold Laski. From 1946 to 1963 he was professor of political science at the University of Chicago. He pioneered the teaching of comparative politics and public administration as academic disciplines. His works included Theory and Practice of Modern Government, The Road to Reaction, and Dulles over Suez.

Liviu Beris (1928), scientist, Holocaust survivor, born in Herta, Romania (now Hertza, in Ukraine). During the Holocaust he was deported to Transnistria. After the war, he graduated from the Faculty of Zootechnics in 1953. Since 1957, he worked as a senior scientific researcher at the Corn Culture Research Station - Saftica, and, after turning this resort into the Experimental Base of the Institute of Zootechnics Research in 1962. He served as head of service and engineer zootehnist. He is the author of numerous scientific papers and co-author of many books on genetics and animal breeding.

Beris was the president of the Association of Romanian Jews Victims of the Holocaust. In his book Holocaust sub guvernul Antonescu: întrebări și răspunsuri (“Holocaust under the Antonescu government: questions and answers”, 2013) he states that in Romania and Romanian-occupied territories there was a real Holocaust perpetrated by the Antonescu government and dismisses myths describing Antonescu as a "Romanian patriot" and a "savior of Jews". Beris was a member of the Scientific Council of the Elie Wiesel National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania (INSHR).

Drânceni

Former name: Branza

A small town on the river Prut in the Vaslui County, Romania, formerly in the district of Falciu. 

Dranceni is the last one in a long chain of villages founded by Jews in Moldova according to a special charter granted by the Romanian princes. The landowners of whose land the villages were built needed the Jewish settlers, traders and craftsmen in order to develop the region. The contract between the landowners and the Jews was ratified in writing by the prince in a charter called Hrisov and the Jews were therefore called Hrisoveliti.

Already in the first quarter of the 18th century one of these villages, Herta, was built in northern Moldavia and the last one Dranceni (in the beginning called Branza) was founded in 1862 on the land of the historian and prime minister of Romania in those days, Mihai Kogalniceanu. The charter does not exist anymore, but it can be assumed that it included the same privileges granted to Jews in similar circumstances. The charter of 1856 with the village of Ivesti in southern Moldova may be cited as an example; it included remission of taxes for three years, grants of land for the erection of a synagogue, a ritual bath and a cemetery and an undertaking to participate in their building.

The Jews of Dranceni were traders and craftsmen, and according to a census in 1910 the socio-economic structure was as follows: 29 merchants, 20 tailors, 3 shoemakers, 2 tinsmiths, 5 carpenters and 8 persons in different trades.

In 1930 there were 140 Jews in Dranceni (25.2% of the inhabitants).



The Holocaust Period

According to the pact signed in 1939 between Germany and the USSR two regions in the east and the north-east of Romania, namely Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, were annexed by Russia. the river Prut became the frontier between USSR and Romania, and Dranceni became a frontier town.

In September 1940 General Ion Antonescu rose to power and Romania joined the side of the Germans.

On the 22nd of June 1941 the war against USSR broke out and Rumania took part in it. In accordance with an order published a day before the outbreak of the war, the Jews from the frontier towns and villages were transferred to the district towns. The Jews of Dranceni were relocated in the district town of Husi. there they were taken care of by the local Jewish community.

After World War 2 not one of the deported Jews returned to Dranceni.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Ukraine

Україна / Ukrayina

A country in eastern Europe, until 1991 part of the Soviet Union.

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 50,000 out of 42,000,000 (0.1%). Main Jewish organizations:

Єврейська Конфедерація України - Jewish Confederation of Ukraine
Phone: 044 584 49 53
Email: jcu.org.ua@gmail.com
Website: http://jcu.org.ua/en

Ваад (Ассоциация еврейских организаций и общин) Украины (VAAD – Asssociation of Jewish Organizations & Communities of Ukraine)
Voloska St, 8/5
Kyiv, Kyivs’ka
Ukraine 04070
Phone/Fax: 38 (044) 248-36-70, 38 (044) 425-97-57/-58/-59/-60
Email: vaadua.office@gmail.com
Website: http://www.vaadua.org/

Noua Sulita

In Ukrainian: Новоселиця / Novoseltsa

A city in northern Bessarabia, on the river Prut, in Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine. Until World War II in the district of Hotin, Romania.

The area was part of the Moldavian principality, a vassal of Turkey since the beginning of the 16th century. In 1774, with the annexation of Bukovina by Austria, the western part of the village fell within the borders of the Austrian empire while the eastern part came under Russian rule when Bessarabia was annexed by Russia in 1812. The Russians did not encroach upon the rights of the Moldavian boyars and let them keep their lands. Before World War I the border line between Russia and Austria crossed the village, dividing the Russian from the Austrian part. Between the two world wars Novoselitsa was within the Romanian borders.

Tombstones from the 15th century of Jews from Novoselitsa were found in the Jewish cemetery of a neighboring hamlet, Cliscauti. An actual Jewish community was consolidated in the village in the second half of the 17th century when many Jews, refugees from Chmelnitzky's pogroms of 1665-8, fled the Ukraine and Poland to settle in Moldova.

At the end of the 18th century, Romanian noblemen who wanted to develop their lands, prince Sturza for instance, invited Jews and Bulgarians to settle on their estates, accorded them special rights and gave them small plots of land. That was probably when the Slavic name of Novoselitsa became current, meaning "a new settlement".

After the annexation of Bessarabia by Russia many Jews of the czarist empire settled in its fertile areas including Novoselitsa. The Jewish settlers concentrated, at first, near the Austrian border. In this quarter the first communal institutions, such as a prayer-house, a bath house and a "mikve" were built.

In time newcomers settled around a cattle market and built a new quarter there. The two places existed separately for some time, united in times of danger and slowly coalesced into one village.

Austrian Novoselitsa, which absorbed many settlers coming from Austria, was separated from Russian Novoselitsa by a small stream, the Rakytna, and connected by a bridge. Notwithstanding the marked physical difference of the two villages, the Austrian side being well developed and cared for whilst the Russian part was muddy, with dirt roads and crowded wooden hovels the economic, social and cultural ties between the two places were strong. A monthly pass, easily obtainable, made it possible to cross the border.

In the last two decades of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th, when great numbers of Jews emigrated overseas from Russia, Novoselitsa became a center through which illegal immigrants were smuggled across the border into Austria.

At the time of the violent disturbances of "the black hundreds", in 1905, there were rumors that a train full of rioters was moving towards the village. Jewish Novoselitsa organized for self defense but the local commander did not allow the rioters to enter the village. He even permitted women and children to be evacuated to the Austrian side for the duration.

During the first World War (1914-1918) Novoselitsa was on the front line and changed hands several times. At the beginning of the war the Russians occupied Austrian Novoselitsa and destroyed it almost completely. Some of the Jews fled towards Austria and others moved to the Russian side. Immediately after World War I there were no Jews in Austrian Novoselitsa. The Romanians rebuilt the place, named it Selistea and attached it administratively to the district of Cernauti. A separate community with its own rabbi, ritual slaughterer and cemetery developed there, but in fact the strong family, social and economic ties continued between the two parts of the village.

When the Russian revolution of 1917 broke out the spirit of rebellion reached the village, government authority collapsed; in February 1918 it was occupied by the Austrians and the Romanians entered it after only a few months. The international border between the eastern and western parts of the village was cancelled and Novoselitsa remained under Romanian rule until 1940.

As a border village between Russia, Austria (Bukovina) and Romania (Moldova) Novoselitsa was an important center in the import export trade in which Jews played a central part except for the government controlled liquor sales monopoly, which was in the hands of a few gentile families, Jewish merchants dealt in all branches of the export- import trade, especially in pelts and grain.

There were customs stations on both sides of the border; the ferry on the river Prut, active since the middle of the 19th century, linked Novoselitsa to Moldova. Logs from the Carpathian Mountains were floated down the river in rafts and Jewish timber traders stored them on the river banks. They developed wood working industries and trade. A Ukrainian Jew, Pinchas Weissberg, who built a quarter named after himself, set up a saw-mill employing hundreds of workers and clerks. A wood shavings plant followed, huge quantities of shavings being then used for packing eggs, exported to Austria and providing an important source of income for many Jewish families.

The railway line, completed around the end of the century became a major transportation link between Russia and Austria. Through Novoselitsa Russia exported agricultural products to Austria and imported industrial goods. The rapid trade development attracted many trades people and artisans to Novoselitsa and its population grew.

A special group were the smugglers, active illegally on the borders. They rented out their houses to hide smuggled goods. They were well regarded by the populace though.

Under Romanian dominance heavy taxation and lack of credit brought on a marked economic stagnation and many found in emigration to South America a solution to their problems. Nevertheless Jews kept initiating economic activities. They built the first electricity plant in the village, electric power contributing to some extent to economic growth, they organized bus lines to connect the village to centers in Bessarabia and Bukovina.

There were also Jewish doctors, lawyers and other academic professionals in the village.

Among the economic institutions in the village the "loan and savings fund", founded in 1908, was active between the two World Wars. Through Jewish initiative and direction the "commercial bank" was organized at the beginning of the 1920's and a branch of the "Bank of Bessarabia" functioned under Jewish direction too.

For many generations the community was led by a long established family named after its head, Moshe Koifman. He and his successors rented the "taxa" (meat tax), directed the communal institutions and paid the rabbi's and ritual slaughterers salaries. This tradition was observed after World War I as well, despite the changes in government. Only at the beginning of the 1930's a temporary council was nominated by the district governor, regulations promulgated and elections held.

From across the border nominated the rabbis and ritual slaughterers. There were also people who adhered to the houses of the "Zaddiks" of Sadigura and Boyan in Bukovina as well as to that of Stfanesti in Romania. With the support of the Sadigura chassidic sect rabbi Israel Pesach officiated in the village. He was renowned for his Talmudic erudition and his advice was widely sought after.

Amongst the rabbis of Novoselitsa there were some outstanding personalities. Rabbi Moshe Gershenson was economically independent. He founded a brick kiln and soap and pasta factories. His son-in-law and successor to the rabbinic chair, rabbi Abraham Yacob, was close to the Zionist movement, wrote for the "Hatzefira", and directed the first Hebrew school in the village. In 1913 he was a delegate to the Zionist congress in Vienna.

After world war I rabbi Haim Rachman officiated and he was respected even by the Romanian intelligentsia. The local civil magistrate referred to him in disputes arising between Jews and gentiles.

There were 14 synagogues in the village, the oldest being "the ancient synagogue", built in 1780. It deteriorated and was renovated again after World War I , fell apart and was rebuilt again and given the name "Alt-Nije Shull" (old new synagogue). It was the only synagogue which remained standing after the Holocaust. At the start of the 19th century the "cloiz" of the Sadigura chassidim was constructed and towards the end of that century that of the Boyan chassidim. The Stefanesti adherents had a synagogue of their own, too. In the middle of the 19th century the "great synagogue" was built; crowds prayed there and in its great hall public meetings were held. It also served as center for the Hevra Kadisha established in 1841. Artisan guilds (furriers, carpenters) had their own synagogues.

The community had its usual welfare system. "Gmilat-hessed" established by community members and artisans provided loans at low interest to the needy. The "Malbish Arumim" offered clothing for children. Wood, donated to the community by the wood merchants, was distributed to the poor. Many of the ladies' voluntary organizations, supported by the community, by the joint and by Novoselitsa "landsmanschaft" groups in America, functioned in the village. They supplied food and clothing for the Talmud Torah pupils. A group of women opened a soup kitchen in 1933 providing hot meals for students. Another women's organization supplied food, heating and clothing to the inmates of the old-age home.

In the years 1930-1940 a sick fund established by the community and the artisan organizations was active. The fire fighting volunteer society was assisted by the community.

Traditional education was given in the different "heders" (religious elementary schools) and "Talmud Torah" (higher religious school). Enlightenment influenced the creation of general schooling establishments. Children of affluent families studied in schools outside the village or with private tutors and were examined in other cities. Girls were taught by a teacher who came from Austrian Novoselitsa. Before World War I a Hebrew elementary school was opened in the village and closed at the outbreak of the war. In the 1920's, under the Romanians, the school was opened again and at the beginning of the 1930's a Hebrew secondary school was added to it; both Hebrew schools were affiliated to the "Tarbut" net. Hebrew and Romanian were taught. The two schools were founded and directed by Dr. Naftali Rabinovitz. During the secondary school's 18 years existence 1,000 pupils graduated from it. In time Rabinovitz came to Israel and wrote a book about his life and the history of Novoselitsa. He died in Israel in 1977.

There was a kindergarten supported by the parents. Jewish pupils went to non-Jewish schools too, such as the Romanian elementary and secondary "commercial" schools. Cultural life was enriched by a Jewish theater, established before World War I by the local magnate, Pinchas Weissberg. It was called the "Weissberg theater", and pieces in Yiddish and in Russian were produced with famous actors appearing.

Zionist activity in Novoselitsa began towards the end of the 19th century. The idea of "Hibat Zion" took root early in the village. The elderly organized in a "Zionists of Zion" group and the younger people in "Pirhei Zion". A national library, with books in Hebrew, Russian and Yiddish was founded and a national choir was active. Nationalistic activities were forbidden in czarist Russia so most of the group gatherings were held in the Austrian side of the village. The strongest parties were "Zeirei Zion" (young Zionists ) and the "General Zionists". Novoselitsa sent two delegates to the 11th Zionist congress in Vienna.

Zionist activity was curtailed because of World War I, but renewed at the outbreak of the liberal revolution of February 1917 in Russia. A group named "Magen Abraham" for self defense was organized and a Zionist club opened. Activities gathered strength after the Balfour Declaration and the elections to the Russian constituent assembly and to the Jewish general assembly; the majority of the Jewish voters returned Zionist candidates. Towards the end of the war, during the revolutionary disturbances and the dissolution of governmental power, Zeire Zion and the General Zionists initiated a "Jewish self-defense force". A local municipal committee was organized which took over the defense of the village, it was renamed the "Soviet of the Workers and Toilers" and obtained arms legally. Farmers from the neighboring villages, hurt by repeated plundering raids asked for help from the Jewish self-defense organization.

After the war the Zionist groups reorganized and "Poalei Zion" and the revisionist Zionists opened branches. Zionist women were active in "WIZO".

Among the first pioneer youth organizations in the village were "Hashomer Hazair" and "Gordonia". In the 1930's "Beitar" and "Dror" were active too.

There was a "Maccabi" branch in the village having at first only a soccer team, but in time developed other sports activities. Maccabi members were active in cultural fields too and were among the initiators of the pioneer training ("Hachshara") movement in Romania. The first group of pioneers went to Palestine in 1921.

Activists from all Zionist groups participated in the branch of the "Jewish National Party".

Before World War I there were non Zionist political groups in the community but their influence was less then that of the Zionists. There was the "Bund", its members coming mostly from labor circles. The "Bund" library stocked books in Yiddish. After the war the "cultural league" was founded, for the Bundist youth.

In the city council Jews had a 50% representation and of 8 Jewish members four were artisans.

Jews functioned as city mayors, elected by the Romanian political parties.

In 1930 there were 4,853 (63.93%) Jews living in Novoselitsa out of a total population of 7,602 citizens.


The Holocaust Period
Following the German-Soviet union agreement (the Ribbentrop Molotov pact) signed in August 1939, Bessarabia including Novoselitsa, was annexed by the Soviet Union in June 1940.

The Soviets nationalized all economic enterprises, dismantled all Jewish institutions. Zionist activity was forbidden and Zionist activists and their dependents (about 100 persons) were deported to Siberia. Following the German attack on the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 the Romanians returned to Novoselitsa on July 5th, and there began a pogrom lasting 3 days, during which 975 Jews were murdered. The village was plundered and half its Jewish houses were burned down. Survivors were locked up for 3 days in "Austrian" Novoselitsa and 37 men were shot on July 31 1941 without trial on suspicion of communism. They were buried in a common grave. After the imprisoned people were allowed to return to their homes, the pogrom victims were buried. Meanwhile refugees from neighboring villages, survivors of pogroms too were driven into Novoselitsa.

Three streets in the village were fenced off and designated as ghetto, but after a short while, on July 27, the order to deport the Jews to Transnistria arrived. Within two days all Jews were assembled on the main road, the old, the sick and the young children were put into carts and the rest of the populace walked. The village rabbi, Haim Rachman, took two Torah scrolls with him. On the road peasant cart drivers pushed their passengers off the carts and returned to their homes. Due only to the humane comportment of the column commander the Jews reached Ataki, the staging point before crossing the Dniester. The Germans, who were on the eastern bank of the river, forbade its crossing. The Jews were driven back to the road to Edineti and in one of the camping stations, in the forest of Codreni, many died of hunger and cold. On their march, they were robbed by the peasants.

When the column reached Edineti the Jews were not allowed into the place and camped outside the village. Meanwhile many more deportees joined the column, Jews driven out of their homes from other places. The camp numbered now some 20,000 people they had no water, food or shelter. Epidemics broke out and there were daily victims. After a week's time the Jews were permitted to enter the village and a hospital, a bath house, a bakery and a synagogue were set up.

In October 1941, the month of the actual deportation to Transnistria, 36 Jews from amongst those hospitalized were shot to death. Once more on the deportation road, in the forest of Cosauti many people died as a result of the cold, and attacks by peasants.

Those who reached Transnistria were dispersed in Chechelnik and Kosharnitza. Most of the exiles died during the terrible winter of 1941-42 from cold, hunger and diseases. The remainder were sent to forced labor camps in Tulchin, Balta, Nicolaev and others.

On the liberation of the Ukraine, in March 1944, able men joined the Red Army. Many fell fighting the Germans.


After the war Jews returned to Novoselitsa. In 1945 there were 500 Jews in the village. Later they crossed the border into Romania and most of them went to Israel.

The Russians erected a memorial in the village to commemorate the victims of the Holocaust but without mentioning the fact of their being Jews. In Israel the memory of the victims is being perpetuated in a synagogue bearing the name of the "Martyrs of Novoselitsa" and in its courtyard stands a memorial commemorating the 37 men shot by the Romanians at the outbreak of the war. The synagogue and memorial are in the "Pecker Quarter of the Novoselitsa Olim" in northern Ramat Hasharon. They were built with donations of Novoselitsa community members from all over the world and on the initiative of a committee in Israel headed by former Knesset Member Hana Lamdan, a daughter of Sulitsa herself.

In 1983 a memorial tome "Novoselitsa Bessarabia" was published by the Organization of Israelis from Novoselitsa.

בוצ'צ'יה

Bucecea

במקורות היהודים: בוטשעטש

עיירה במחוז בוטושאן, חבל מולדובה, צפון מזרח רומניה.

כתב מלכותי של הנסיך יואן סטורדזה אישר בשנת 1828 את יסוד העיירה על אדמת בעל אחוזה דימיטריה ראלט, בעזרת מתיישבים חדשים שהגיעו מעבר לגבול, להם הובטח פטור ממיסים למשך חמש שנים.

כדי למשוך מתיישבים יהודים לבוצ'ציה, בעל האחוזה הזמין למקום את הרב אליעזר זאב מבוטשעטש (1800 – 1851) ילדי העיירה הרצה, שהיה האדמו"ר הראשון ומייסד שושלת חסידות בוטשעטש-בוטושאן, ומראשוני מנהיגי החסידות ברומניה.

היהודים, ראשוני המתיישבים ומייסדי העיירה, היוו ב- 1831 86.7% מכלל האוכלוסייה והם המשיכו להיות רוב עד שנת 1941. הם תרמו רבות להתפתחות היישוב ולכן בשנת 1894 בוטלה פקודת גירוש נגד 200 מתוך 400 יהודי העיירה.

עשרות מקרב יהודי העיירה הצטרפו ב-1900 לתנועת ה"פוסגעייר" ("הולכי הרגל"), תנועת הגירה המונית שקמה על  רקע מצב כלכלי קשה ורדיפות אנטישמיות והקיפה את כל ישובי היהודים ברומניה ופניהם לאמריקה. הם מכונים "הולכ רגל" משום שאת הדרך אל המבורג וערי נמל אחרים בגרמניה ומערב אירופה עשו ברגל, וזאת משום שלא יכלו לרכוש כרטיסי נסיעה ברכבת.

היהודים עסקו בגידול בהמות, מסחר ומלאכות שונות. היו ביניהם גם בעלי מסבאת. בימי מרד האיכרים ב-1907 (פרץ על רקע תביעות האיכרים לאדמה ונוצל למטרות אנטישמיות) נשדדו חנויות ודירות של יהודים על ידי איכרי הסביבה, ומשפחות רבות נותרו בחוסר כל.

השפעת החסידות היתה חזקה ולכן סמכות הרב המקומי הקיפה גם את ישובי הסביבה. הקהילה התארגנה ב-1900  והיא דאגה להחזקת המוסדות ולתמיכה בנצרכים. החינוך המסורתי ניתן במסגרת ה"חדר". הקהילה החזיקה גם בית ספר בו לימדו שני מורים. הבניין הופקע ב-1941. קברו של הרב אליעזר זאב מבוטשעטש ושל האדמו"רים האחרים היו עד מחצית המאה ה-20 מוקד עליה לרגל של אלפי חסידים מרומניה ומחוצה לה.  

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בבוצ'ציה 848 יהודים. ערב מלחמת העולם השניה היו במקום חמישה בתי כנסת, מקווה טהרה ובית עלמין שהיה קיים מראשית ההתיישבות היהודית במקום. בשנת 1941 התגורו בעיירה 758 יהודים אשר היוו 59.5% מכלל התושבי המקום.

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם.

עם הצטרפותה של רומניה למלחמה נגד ברית המועצות ביוני 1941 גורשו כל יהודי בוצ'צ'יה לעיר המחוז בוטושאן, שם גוייסו כל הגברים לעבודת כפייה ורבים נשלחו לבסאראביה לעבוד במחצבות.

אחרי המלחמה חזר חלק מהמגורשים לעיירה וב-1947 היו במקום 300 יהודים. אבל בגלל הגירה, בשנים שלאחר מכן היישוב היהודי הפסיק להתקיים. המצבות האחרונות בבית הקברות המקומי הן משנת 1956 ו-1975. בית הקברות ממוקם כ-1 ק"ם אחד מזרחית לעיירה בצמוד לדרך אל העיר בוטושאן.

Terebleche

Тереблече / Terebleche

In Romanian: Tereblecea; in German: Tereblestie, Triwlescht, Between 1946 and 1995 the village was called Porubna.

A commune in the Chernivtsi Oblast in the historical region of Bukovina, Ukraine. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. It became part of Romania from 1918 to 1940, when it was annexed by the USSR. It was again under Romanian control from 1941 to 1944, when again it was annexed by the Soviet Union and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It comprised two villages: Tereblecea and Tereblecea Noua ("New Tereblecea”) – this second village was inhabitated mainly by Germans.

During the first half of the 20th century, the majority of the inhabitants were Romanians with a minority of Germans (27%) and one of Poles (10%). The census of 1930 recorded 53 Jews living in Tereblecea that constituted 1,27% of the genearl population. Of them 19 lived in Tereblecea and 39 in Tereblecea Noua.

Following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of August 1939 between Nazi Germany and the USSR, the northern region of Bukovina, which also included the town, was annexed to the USSR on 28 June 1940.  In June 1941 Romania joined the war against the Soviet Union. The village was captured by the German and Romanian forces.

16 Jews of Tereblecea perished in the Holocaust according to the List of murdered Jews of Tereblecea during 1941-1944 compiled by the Extraordinary State Commission to Investigate German-Fascist Crimes Committed on Soviet Territory after WW2.  

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The Jewish Community of Herta

Herta 

In Ukrainian: Герца / Hertsa; in Russian: Gertsa
A town in Chernovtsy oblast, Ukraine. Until 1940 in Romania.

The locality was founded by Jews in the first quarter of the 18th century, when the local landowner invited a number of Polish Jews to found a settlement. Its first institution was a Talmud Torah of which a minute-book dating from 1764 has been preserved.

The oldest tombstone in the cemetery dates from 1766. The community had four synagogues, of which the oldest was built at the end of the 18th century; a "mikveh" was found in 1820, and a mixed school was established in the early 20th century. The community numbered 1,200 in 1803, 1,554 (56.4% of the total population) in c. 1859, 1,939 in 1899 (66.1%) 1,876 in 1910, and 1,801 in 1930 (25%). During the peasants' Revolt in 1907 the Jews in Herta prevented attacks and pillaging by organizing self-defense. After the conferment of Romanian nationality in 1919, Jews were elected to the municipal council, and at one time a Jew served as vice-mayor. In 1927 the Romanian governing party appointed a communal board from its own adherents, but the Jews boycotted it and two years later ensured its resignation.

During World War II the Jews in Hertsa were deported to Transnistria.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Terebleche
Bucecea
Noua Sulita
Ukraine
Romania
Dranceni

Terebleche

Тереблече / Terebleche

In Romanian: Tereblecea; in German: Tereblestie, Triwlescht, Between 1946 and 1995 the village was called Porubna.

A commune in the Chernivtsi Oblast in the historical region of Bukovina, Ukraine. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary. It became part of Romania from 1918 to 1940, when it was annexed by the USSR. It was again under Romanian control from 1941 to 1944, when again it was annexed by the Soviet Union and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It comprised two villages: Tereblecea and Tereblecea Noua ("New Tereblecea”) – this second village was inhabitated mainly by Germans.

During the first half of the 20th century, the majority of the inhabitants were Romanians with a minority of Germans (27%) and one of Poles (10%). The census of 1930 recorded 53 Jews living in Tereblecea that constituted 1,27% of the genearl population. Of them 19 lived in Tereblecea and 39 in Tereblecea Noua.

Following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of August 1939 between Nazi Germany and the USSR, the northern region of Bukovina, which also included the town, was annexed to the USSR on 28 June 1940.  In June 1941 Romania joined the war against the Soviet Union. The village was captured by the German and Romanian forces.

16 Jews of Tereblecea perished in the Holocaust according to the List of murdered Jews of Tereblecea during 1941-1944 compiled by the Extraordinary State Commission to Investigate German-Fascist Crimes Committed on Soviet Territory after WW2.  

בוצ'צ'יה

Bucecea

במקורות היהודים: בוטשעטש

עיירה במחוז בוטושאן, חבל מולדובה, צפון מזרח רומניה.

כתב מלכותי של הנסיך יואן סטורדזה אישר בשנת 1828 את יסוד העיירה על אדמת בעל אחוזה דימיטריה ראלט, בעזרת מתיישבים חדשים שהגיעו מעבר לגבול, להם הובטח פטור ממיסים למשך חמש שנים.

כדי למשוך מתיישבים יהודים לבוצ'ציה, בעל האחוזה הזמין למקום את הרב אליעזר זאב מבוטשעטש (1800 – 1851) ילדי העיירה הרצה, שהיה האדמו"ר הראשון ומייסד שושלת חסידות בוטשעטש-בוטושאן, ומראשוני מנהיגי החסידות ברומניה.

היהודים, ראשוני המתיישבים ומייסדי העיירה, היוו ב- 1831 86.7% מכלל האוכלוסייה והם המשיכו להיות רוב עד שנת 1941. הם תרמו רבות להתפתחות היישוב ולכן בשנת 1894 בוטלה פקודת גירוש נגד 200 מתוך 400 יהודי העיירה.

עשרות מקרב יהודי העיירה הצטרפו ב-1900 לתנועת ה"פוסגעייר" ("הולכי הרגל"), תנועת הגירה המונית שקמה על  רקע מצב כלכלי קשה ורדיפות אנטישמיות והקיפה את כל ישובי היהודים ברומניה ופניהם לאמריקה. הם מכונים "הולכ רגל" משום שאת הדרך אל המבורג וערי נמל אחרים בגרמניה ומערב אירופה עשו ברגל, וזאת משום שלא יכלו לרכוש כרטיסי נסיעה ברכבת.

היהודים עסקו בגידול בהמות, מסחר ומלאכות שונות. היו ביניהם גם בעלי מסבאת. בימי מרד האיכרים ב-1907 (פרץ על רקע תביעות האיכרים לאדמה ונוצל למטרות אנטישמיות) נשדדו חנויות ודירות של יהודים על ידי איכרי הסביבה, ומשפחות רבות נותרו בחוסר כל.

השפעת החסידות היתה חזקה ולכן סמכות הרב המקומי הקיפה גם את ישובי הסביבה. הקהילה התארגנה ב-1900  והיא דאגה להחזקת המוסדות ולתמיכה בנצרכים. החינוך המסורתי ניתן במסגרת ה"חדר". הקהילה החזיקה גם בית ספר בו לימדו שני מורים. הבניין הופקע ב-1941. קברו של הרב אליעזר זאב מבוטשעטש ושל האדמו"רים האחרים היו עד מחצית המאה ה-20 מוקד עליה לרגל של אלפי חסידים מרומניה ומחוצה לה.  

במפקד האוכלוסין של שנת 1930 נרשמו בבוצ'ציה 848 יהודים. ערב מלחמת העולם השניה היו במקום חמישה בתי כנסת, מקווה טהרה ובית עלמין שהיה קיים מראשית ההתיישבות היהודית במקום. בשנת 1941 התגורו בעיירה 758 יהודים אשר היוו 59.5% מכלל התושבי המקום.

 

תקופת השואה

העליה לשלטון של ממשלת גוגה-קוזה בדצמבר 1937 הובילה לחקיקה ויישום של מדיניות אנטישמית רשמית ברומניה

בספטמבר 1940 הוקמה ברומניה ממשלה בראשותו של הגנרל יון אנטונסקו. ממשלה זאת כללה את מפלגת "משמר הברזל" - מפלגה לאומנית שדגלה באנטישמיות אלימה. הממשלה של יון אנטונסקו שינתה את מדיניות החוץ של רומניה וצירפה את המדינה אל הברית בין גרמניה הנאצית ואיטליה הפשיסטית. הממשלה הזאת הגבירה את רדיפת היהודים והנהגה משטר של טרור נגדם.

עם הצטרפותה של רומניה למלחמה נגד ברית המועצות ביוני 1941 גורשו כל יהודי בוצ'צ'יה לעיר המחוז בוטושאן, שם גוייסו כל הגברים לעבודת כפייה ורבים נשלחו לבסאראביה לעבוד במחצבות.

אחרי המלחמה חזר חלק מהמגורשים לעיירה וב-1947 היו במקום 300 יהודים. אבל בגלל הגירה, בשנים שלאחר מכן היישוב היהודי הפסיק להתקיים. המצבות האחרונות בבית הקברות המקומי הן משנת 1956 ו-1975. בית הקברות ממוקם כ-1 ק"ם אחד מזרחית לעיירה בצמוד לדרך אל העיר בוטושאן.

Noua Sulita

In Ukrainian: Новоселиця / Novoseltsa

A city in northern Bessarabia, on the river Prut, in Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine. Until World War II in the district of Hotin, Romania.

The area was part of the Moldavian principality, a vassal of Turkey since the beginning of the 16th century. In 1774, with the annexation of Bukovina by Austria, the western part of the village fell within the borders of the Austrian empire while the eastern part came under Russian rule when Bessarabia was annexed by Russia in 1812. The Russians did not encroach upon the rights of the Moldavian boyars and let them keep their lands. Before World War I the border line between Russia and Austria crossed the village, dividing the Russian from the Austrian part. Between the two world wars Novoselitsa was within the Romanian borders.

Tombstones from the 15th century of Jews from Novoselitsa were found in the Jewish cemetery of a neighboring hamlet, Cliscauti. An actual Jewish community was consolidated in the village in the second half of the 17th century when many Jews, refugees from Chmelnitzky's pogroms of 1665-8, fled the Ukraine and Poland to settle in Moldova.

At the end of the 18th century, Romanian noblemen who wanted to develop their lands, prince Sturza for instance, invited Jews and Bulgarians to settle on their estates, accorded them special rights and gave them small plots of land. That was probably when the Slavic name of Novoselitsa became current, meaning "a new settlement".

After the annexation of Bessarabia by Russia many Jews of the czarist empire settled in its fertile areas including Novoselitsa. The Jewish settlers concentrated, at first, near the Austrian border. In this quarter the first communal institutions, such as a prayer-house, a bath house and a "mikve" were built.

In time newcomers settled around a cattle market and built a new quarter there. The two places existed separately for some time, united in times of danger and slowly coalesced into one village.

Austrian Novoselitsa, which absorbed many settlers coming from Austria, was separated from Russian Novoselitsa by a small stream, the Rakytna, and connected by a bridge. Notwithstanding the marked physical difference of the two villages, the Austrian side being well developed and cared for whilst the Russian part was muddy, with dirt roads and crowded wooden hovels the economic, social and cultural ties between the two places were strong. A monthly pass, easily obtainable, made it possible to cross the border.

In the last two decades of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th, when great numbers of Jews emigrated overseas from Russia, Novoselitsa became a center through which illegal immigrants were smuggled across the border into Austria.

At the time of the violent disturbances of "the black hundreds", in 1905, there were rumors that a train full of rioters was moving towards the village. Jewish Novoselitsa organized for self defense but the local commander did not allow the rioters to enter the village. He even permitted women and children to be evacuated to the Austrian side for the duration.

During the first World War (1914-1918) Novoselitsa was on the front line and changed hands several times. At the beginning of the war the Russians occupied Austrian Novoselitsa and destroyed it almost completely. Some of the Jews fled towards Austria and others moved to the Russian side. Immediately after World War I there were no Jews in Austrian Novoselitsa. The Romanians rebuilt the place, named it Selistea and attached it administratively to the district of Cernauti. A separate community with its own rabbi, ritual slaughterer and cemetery developed there, but in fact the strong family, social and economic ties continued between the two parts of the village.

When the Russian revolution of 1917 broke out the spirit of rebellion reached the village, government authority collapsed; in February 1918 it was occupied by the Austrians and the Romanians entered it after only a few months. The international border between the eastern and western parts of the village was cancelled and Novoselitsa remained under Romanian rule until 1940.

As a border village between Russia, Austria (Bukovina) and Romania (Moldova) Novoselitsa was an important center in the import export trade in which Jews played a central part except for the government controlled liquor sales monopoly, which was in the hands of a few gentile families, Jewish merchants dealt in all branches of the export- import trade, especially in pelts and grain.

There were customs stations on both sides of the border; the ferry on the river Prut, active since the middle of the 19th century, linked Novoselitsa to Moldova. Logs from the Carpathian Mountains were floated down the river in rafts and Jewish timber traders stored them on the river banks. They developed wood working industries and trade. A Ukrainian Jew, Pinchas Weissberg, who built a quarter named after himself, set up a saw-mill employing hundreds of workers and clerks. A wood shavings plant followed, huge quantities of shavings being then used for packing eggs, exported to Austria and providing an important source of income for many Jewish families.

The railway line, completed around the end of the century became a major transportation link between Russia and Austria. Through Novoselitsa Russia exported agricultural products to Austria and imported industrial goods. The rapid trade development attracted many trades people and artisans to Novoselitsa and its population grew.

A special group were the smugglers, active illegally on the borders. They rented out their houses to hide smuggled goods. They were well regarded by the populace though.

Under Romanian dominance heavy taxation and lack of credit brought on a marked economic stagnation and many found in emigration to South America a solution to their problems. Nevertheless Jews kept initiating economic activities. They built the first electricity plant in the village, electric power contributing to some extent to economic growth, they organized bus lines to connect the village to centers in Bessarabia and Bukovina.

There were also Jewish doctors, lawyers and other academic professionals in the village.

Among the economic institutions in the village the "loan and savings fund", founded in 1908, was active between the two World Wars. Through Jewish initiative and direction the "commercial bank" was organized at the beginning of the 1920's and a branch of the "Bank of Bessarabia" functioned under Jewish direction too.

For many generations the community was led by a long established family named after its head, Moshe Koifman. He and his successors rented the "taxa" (meat tax), directed the communal institutions and paid the rabbi's and ritual slaughterers salaries. This tradition was observed after World War I as well, despite the changes in government. Only at the beginning of the 1930's a temporary council was nominated by the district governor, regulations promulgated and elections held.

From across the border nominated the rabbis and ritual slaughterers. There were also people who adhered to the houses of the "Zaddiks" of Sadigura and Boyan in Bukovina as well as to that of Stfanesti in Romania. With the support of the Sadigura chassidic sect rabbi Israel Pesach officiated in the village. He was renowned for his Talmudic erudition and his advice was widely sought after.

Amongst the rabbis of Novoselitsa there were some outstanding personalities. Rabbi Moshe Gershenson was economically independent. He founded a brick kiln and soap and pasta factories. His son-in-law and successor to the rabbinic chair, rabbi Abraham Yacob, was close to the Zionist movement, wrote for the "Hatzefira", and directed the first Hebrew school in the village. In 1913 he was a delegate to the Zionist congress in Vienna.

After world war I rabbi Haim Rachman officiated and he was respected even by the Romanian intelligentsia. The local civil magistrate referred to him in disputes arising between Jews and gentiles.

There were 14 synagogues in the village, the oldest being "the ancient synagogue", built in 1780. It deteriorated and was renovated again after World War I , fell apart and was rebuilt again and given the name "Alt-Nije Shull" (old new synagogue). It was the only synagogue which remained standing after the Holocaust. At the start of the 19th century the "cloiz" of the Sadigura chassidim was constructed and towards the end of that century that of the Boyan chassidim. The Stefanesti adherents had a synagogue of their own, too. In the middle of the 19th century the "great synagogue" was built; crowds prayed there and in its great hall public meetings were held. It also served as center for the Hevra Kadisha established in 1841. Artisan guilds (furriers, carpenters) had their own synagogues.

The community had its usual welfare system. "Gmilat-hessed" established by community members and artisans provided loans at low interest to the needy. The "Malbish Arumim" offered clothing for children. Wood, donated to the community by the wood merchants, was distributed to the poor. Many of the ladies' voluntary organizations, supported by the community, by the joint and by Novoselitsa "landsmanschaft" groups in America, functioned in the village. They supplied food and clothing for the Talmud Torah pupils. A group of women opened a soup kitchen in 1933 providing hot meals for students. Another women's organization supplied food, heating and clothing to the inmates of the old-age home.

In the years 1930-1940 a sick fund established by the community and the artisan organizations was active. The fire fighting volunteer society was assisted by the community.

Traditional education was given in the different "heders" (religious elementary schools) and "Talmud Torah" (higher religious school). Enlightenment influenced the creation of general schooling establishments. Children of affluent families studied in schools outside the village or with private tutors and were examined in other cities. Girls were taught by a teacher who came from Austrian Novoselitsa. Before World War I a Hebrew elementary school was opened in the village and closed at the outbreak of the war. In the 1920's, under the Romanians, the school was opened again and at the beginning of the 1930's a Hebrew secondary school was added to it; both Hebrew schools were affiliated to the "Tarbut" net. Hebrew and Romanian were taught. The two schools were founded and directed by Dr. Naftali Rabinovitz. During the secondary school's 18 years existence 1,000 pupils graduated from it. In time Rabinovitz came to Israel and wrote a book about his life and the history of Novoselitsa. He died in Israel in 1977.

There was a kindergarten supported by the parents. Jewish pupils went to non-Jewish schools too, such as the Romanian elementary and secondary "commercial" schools. Cultural life was enriched by a Jewish theater, established before World War I by the local magnate, Pinchas Weissberg. It was called the "Weissberg theater", and pieces in Yiddish and in Russian were produced with famous actors appearing.

Zionist activity in Novoselitsa began towards the end of the 19th century. The idea of "Hibat Zion" took root early in the village. The elderly organized in a "Zionists of Zion" group and the younger people in "Pirhei Zion". A national library, with books in Hebrew, Russian and Yiddish was founded and a national choir was active. Nationalistic activities were forbidden in czarist Russia so most of the group gatherings were held in the Austrian side of the village. The strongest parties were "Zeirei Zion" (young Zionists ) and the "General Zionists". Novoselitsa sent two delegates to the 11th Zionist congress in Vienna.

Zionist activity was curtailed because of World War I, but renewed at the outbreak of the liberal revolution of February 1917 in Russia. A group named "Magen Abraham" for self defense was organized and a Zionist club opened. Activities gathered strength after the Balfour Declaration and the elections to the Russian constituent assembly and to the Jewish general assembly; the majority of the Jewish voters returned Zionist candidates. Towards the end of the war, during the revolutionary disturbances and the dissolution of governmental power, Zeire Zion and the General Zionists initiated a "Jewish self-defense force". A local municipal committee was organized which took over the defense of the village, it was renamed the "Soviet of the Workers and Toilers" and obtained arms legally. Farmers from the neighboring villages, hurt by repeated plundering raids asked for help from the Jewish self-defense organization.

After the war the Zionist groups reorganized and "Poalei Zion" and the revisionist Zionists opened branches. Zionist women were active in "WIZO".

Among the first pioneer youth organizations in the village were "Hashomer Hazair" and "Gordonia". In the 1930's "Beitar" and "Dror" were active too.

There was a "Maccabi" branch in the village having at first only a soccer team, but in time developed other sports activities. Maccabi members were active in cultural fields too and were among the initiators of the pioneer training ("Hachshara") movement in Romania. The first group of pioneers went to Palestine in 1921.

Activists from all Zionist groups participated in the branch of the "Jewish National Party".

Before World War I there were non Zionist political groups in the community but their influence was less then that of the Zionists. There was the "Bund", its members coming mostly from labor circles. The "Bund" library stocked books in Yiddish. After the war the "cultural league" was founded, for the Bundist youth.

In the city council Jews had a 50% representation and of 8 Jewish members four were artisans.

Jews functioned as city mayors, elected by the Romanian political parties.

In 1930 there were 4,853 (63.93%) Jews living in Novoselitsa out of a total population of 7,602 citizens.


The Holocaust Period
Following the German-Soviet union agreement (the Ribbentrop Molotov pact) signed in August 1939, Bessarabia including Novoselitsa, was annexed by the Soviet Union in June 1940.

The Soviets nationalized all economic enterprises, dismantled all Jewish institutions. Zionist activity was forbidden and Zionist activists and their dependents (about 100 persons) were deported to Siberia. Following the German attack on the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 the Romanians returned to Novoselitsa on July 5th, and there began a pogrom lasting 3 days, during which 975 Jews were murdered. The village was plundered and half its Jewish houses were burned down. Survivors were locked up for 3 days in "Austrian" Novoselitsa and 37 men were shot on July 31 1941 without trial on suspicion of communism. They were buried in a common grave. After the imprisoned people were allowed to return to their homes, the pogrom victims were buried. Meanwhile refugees from neighboring villages, survivors of pogroms too were driven into Novoselitsa.

Three streets in the village were fenced off and designated as ghetto, but after a short while, on July 27, the order to deport the Jews to Transnistria arrived. Within two days all Jews were assembled on the main road, the old, the sick and the young children were put into carts and the rest of the populace walked. The village rabbi, Haim Rachman, took two Torah scrolls with him. On the road peasant cart drivers pushed their passengers off the carts and returned to their homes. Due only to the humane comportment of the column commander the Jews reached Ataki, the staging point before crossing the Dniester. The Germans, who were on the eastern bank of the river, forbade its crossing. The Jews were driven back to the road to Edineti and in one of the camping stations, in the forest of Codreni, many died of hunger and cold. On their march, they were robbed by the peasants.

When the column reached Edineti the Jews were not allowed into the place and camped outside the village. Meanwhile many more deportees joined the column, Jews driven out of their homes from other places. The camp numbered now some 20,000 people they had no water, food or shelter. Epidemics broke out and there were daily victims. After a week's time the Jews were permitted to enter the village and a hospital, a bath house, a bakery and a synagogue were set up.

In October 1941, the month of the actual deportation to Transnistria, 36 Jews from amongst those hospitalized were shot to death. Once more on the deportation road, in the forest of Cosauti many people died as a result of the cold, and attacks by peasants.

Those who reached Transnistria were dispersed in Chechelnik and Kosharnitza. Most of the exiles died during the terrible winter of 1941-42 from cold, hunger and diseases. The remainder were sent to forced labor camps in Tulchin, Balta, Nicolaev and others.

On the liberation of the Ukraine, in March 1944, able men joined the Red Army. Many fell fighting the Germans.


After the war Jews returned to Novoselitsa. In 1945 there were 500 Jews in the village. Later they crossed the border into Romania and most of them went to Israel.

The Russians erected a memorial in the village to commemorate the victims of the Holocaust but without mentioning the fact of their being Jews. In Israel the memory of the victims is being perpetuated in a synagogue bearing the name of the "Martyrs of Novoselitsa" and in its courtyard stands a memorial commemorating the 37 men shot by the Romanians at the outbreak of the war. The synagogue and memorial are in the "Pecker Quarter of the Novoselitsa Olim" in northern Ramat Hasharon. They were built with donations of Novoselitsa community members from all over the world and on the initiative of a committee in Israel headed by former Knesset Member Hana Lamdan, a daughter of Sulitsa herself.

In 1983 a memorial tome "Novoselitsa Bessarabia" was published by the Organization of Israelis from Novoselitsa.

Ukraine

Україна / Ukrayina

A country in eastern Europe, until 1991 part of the Soviet Union.

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 50,000 out of 42,000,000 (0.1%). Main Jewish organizations:

Єврейська Конфедерація України - Jewish Confederation of Ukraine
Phone: 044 584 49 53
Email: jcu.org.ua@gmail.com
Website: http://jcu.org.ua/en

Ваад (Ассоциация еврейских организаций и общин) Украины (VAAD – Asssociation of Jewish Organizations & Communities of Ukraine)
Voloska St, 8/5
Kyiv, Kyivs’ka
Ukraine 04070
Phone/Fax: 38 (044) 248-36-70, 38 (044) 425-97-57/-58/-59/-60
Email: vaadua.office@gmail.com
Website: http://www.vaadua.org/

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Drânceni

Former name: Branza

A small town on the river Prut in the Vaslui County, Romania, formerly in the district of Falciu. 

Dranceni is the last one in a long chain of villages founded by Jews in Moldova according to a special charter granted by the Romanian princes. The landowners of whose land the villages were built needed the Jewish settlers, traders and craftsmen in order to develop the region. The contract between the landowners and the Jews was ratified in writing by the prince in a charter called Hrisov and the Jews were therefore called Hrisoveliti.

Already in the first quarter of the 18th century one of these villages, Herta, was built in northern Moldavia and the last one Dranceni (in the beginning called Branza) was founded in 1862 on the land of the historian and prime minister of Romania in those days, Mihai Kogalniceanu. The charter does not exist anymore, but it can be assumed that it included the same privileges granted to Jews in similar circumstances. The charter of 1856 with the village of Ivesti in southern Moldova may be cited as an example; it included remission of taxes for three years, grants of land for the erection of a synagogue, a ritual bath and a cemetery and an undertaking to participate in their building.

The Jews of Dranceni were traders and craftsmen, and according to a census in 1910 the socio-economic structure was as follows: 29 merchants, 20 tailors, 3 shoemakers, 2 tinsmiths, 5 carpenters and 8 persons in different trades.

In 1930 there were 140 Jews in Dranceni (25.2% of the inhabitants).



The Holocaust Period

According to the pact signed in 1939 between Germany and the USSR two regions in the east and the north-east of Romania, namely Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, were annexed by Russia. the river Prut became the frontier between USSR and Romania, and Dranceni became a frontier town.

In September 1940 General Ion Antonescu rose to power and Romania joined the side of the Germans.

On the 22nd of June 1941 the war against USSR broke out and Rumania took part in it. In accordance with an order published a day before the outbreak of the war, the Jews from the frontier towns and villages were transferred to the district towns. The Jews of Dranceni were relocated in the district town of Husi. there they were taken care of by the local Jewish community.

After World War 2 not one of the deported Jews returned to Dranceni.

Liviu Beris
Finer, Herman

Liviu Beris (1928), scientist, Holocaust survivor, born in Herta, Romania (now Hertza, in Ukraine). During the Holocaust he was deported to Transnistria. After the war, he graduated from the Faculty of Zootechnics in 1953. Since 1957, he worked as a senior scientific researcher at the Corn Culture Research Station - Saftica, and, after turning this resort into the Experimental Base of the Institute of Zootechnics Research in 1962. He served as head of service and engineer zootehnist. He is the author of numerous scientific papers and co-author of many books on genetics and animal breeding.

Beris was the president of the Association of Romanian Jews Victims of the Holocaust. In his book Holocaust sub guvernul Antonescu: întrebări și răspunsuri (“Holocaust under the Antonescu government: questions and answers”, 2013) he states that in Romania and Romanian-occupied territories there was a real Holocaust perpetrated by the Antonescu government and dismisses myths describing Antonescu as a "Romanian patriot" and a "savior of Jews". Beris was a member of the Scientific Council of the Elie Wiesel National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania (INSHR).

Political scientist

Born in Herta, he was taken to England as a child and studied at the London School of Economics, then teaching there from 1920 to 1942. He was involved in Labor and London municipal politics and was a member of group of academics around Sydney and Beatrice Webb and Harold Laski. From 1946 to 1963 he was professor of political science at the University of Chicago. He pioneered the teaching of comparative politics and public administration as academic disciplines. His works included Theory and Practice of Modern Government, The Road to Reaction, and Dulles over Suez.
HERTANU

HERTANU, HERTZANO

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birth place, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This family name is derived from Herta (Hertsa, in Ukrainian), the Romanian name of a town in Chernovtsy oblast, Ukraine. Until 1940 it was part of Romania. Jewish presence in Herta is documented from the first quarter of the 18th century.

Places, regions and countries of origin or residence are some of the sources of Jewish family names. But, unless the family has reliable records, names based on toponymics cannot prove the exact origin of the family.

Hertanu is documented as a Jewish family name with Mihael Hertanu, a tailor born in Mihaileni, Romania in 1886 who perished in the Holocaust after having been deported to ghettos and concentration camps in Transnistria.

Finer, Herman
Political scientist

Born in Herta, he was taken to England as a child and studied at the London School of Economics, then teaching there from 1920 to 1942. He was involved in Labor and London municipal politics and was a member of group of academics around Sydney and Beatrice Webb and Harold Laski. From 1946 to 1963 he was professor of political science at the University of Chicago. He pioneered the teaching of comparative politics and public administration as academic disciplines. His works included Theory and Practice of Modern Government, The Road to Reaction, and Dulles over Suez.