Search
Print
Share
Your Selected Item:
Family Name
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions

NAHUM Origin of surname

NAHUM

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a patronymic, derived from a male ancestor's personal name, in this case of biblical origin.

Nahum/Nachum is a Hebrew biblical male personal name, mentioned in the Bible only once (Nahum 1.1) as the 7th century BCE prophet of Judah. The meaning of the name is "consoler/comforter". Other names carrying the same meaning include Nehemiah, which means "God the consoler/comforter" or "God shall console/comfort". The biblical Nachum was a 7th century BCE prophet of Judah. The biblical Nechemia was a 5th century BCE governor of Judah. Related variants: Nahmias is recorded as a Jewish family name in 1112 in Toledo, Spain. Nochem and Nachmann are documented in 1784 in Alsace. Ben Nahmias is mentioned in 1928. In the mid 20th century a French Nehamia family changed its name to Namiere.

Variants of Nahum, many of which coincide with those of Nahmias, range from Nochem, Nacher and Nahm to Nochim, Nache and Naum. Forms closely linked to Nahmias include Nihamiach, Namiech, Hamiach, Amieche and Amiache.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Nahum include rabbi Eliezer Ben Jacob Nahum (circa 1653-1746), who was active in Turkey and Eretz Israel; theiraqi educator and communal worker, Aaron Sasson Ben Elijah Nahum (1872-1962), who settled in Israel in 1935; and the 20th century Greek-born French financier Gaston Nahum.
ID Number:
157608
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:
Related items:
Rabbi Haim Nachum (1879-1960), Cuief Rabbi of Istanbul
and Cairo, member of the Egyptian Academy of Science
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot)

Chaim (Haim) Nahum (Nahoum) (1872-1960), rabbi, born in Manissa (Magnesia), Turkey (then part of the Ottoman Empire). He was educated in Tiberias, before going back to Smyrna (now Izmir, in Turkey), where he attended high school, and Istanbul where he studied law. From 1893-97 he studied in Paris, France, where he was ordained at the rabbinical seminary. Back in Istanbul, Nahum worked for the community and was deputy director of the rabbinical seminary as well as teaching history at the Military Academy. A supporter of the Young Turk movement, he was appointed Hacham Bashi - Chief Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire after the Young Turks came to power in 1908. When they lost power in 1920, he moved to Paris and five years later was elected Chief Rabbi of Cairo, Egypt, where he remained until his death. In 1931, the king of Egypt appointed him to the senate and in 1933 Nahum became a member of the Arabic Language Academy in Cairo. He published works of historical research.

Seadya Nahum (1905-1973), rabbi, teacher and cantor, born in Shagadra, Yemen, into a family of rabbis and cantors. He immigrated to Israel in 1931, and lived for the first time in Shaarayim neighborhood of Rehovot. He started working as a teacher in Rehovot, Nahliel in Hadera and Jerusalem.

Nahum soon gained a reputation as a cantor with a special voice, as well as a rabbi, shochet and examiner. Because of his style and special voice, he was invited to appear on Kol Israel brodcasts of songs and piyyutim in the style of the Yemenite Jews. In late 1940s he was elected to serve as the local rabbi of Tirat Shalom near Ness Ziona, Israel. The people of the place received him warmly and enthusiastically and he served in this position until the end of his life, and at the same time he was also in great demand in other places in the country.   

Shagadra


A small town in the district of Al-Mihwit, about 60 km west of San’a, north Yemen.


History

In the Middle Ages there was a dense group of Jewish settlements in the district, which spread to the north, beyond the border with Saudi Arabia of our time.

The standing of the Al-Mihwit Jews was stronger than that of the Jews in the center and south of Yemen and they were allowed to carry arms. They were under protection of the tribes and took part in their raids.

According to a popular tradition, Jews had lived in Yemen from the time of the destruction of the First Temple, although archeological evidence of Jews in Yemen exists only from around the time of the destruction of the Second Temple. In spite of the physical separation, the Jews of Yemen kept contact with other Jewish cultural centers.

In the years 1678-1679 most of the Jews in the Jewish settlements of Yemen were exiled to Mawza on the southern shore of the Red Sea (Tihamah) by a decree of the Imam Al-Mahdi, the ruler of Yemen. A year later the expellees were allowed to return to their places but most of them were obliged to build for themselves new quarters as their former homes were either ruined or occupied by Moslems. Some demographic changes followed the year of exile. There were exiles who returned to other than their original places, while other returnees came to their place.

The Jewish communities of Yemen were of two types. There were district communities in the district and larger towns, which served also the neighboring villages, and there were small rural communities. The Jewish community in Yemen had no real organizational structure. Until the second half of the 19th century, the organization of the bigger communities had been based on a limited number of institutions and functionaries. When the protection tax (jiziya) was abolished, the former system came apart and only certain officials remained, mainly in the bigger communities.

The head of the community was an appointment of the authorities. The bet-din (court of justice) in Yemen formed the spiritual leadership of the community and its authority was absolute also in secular matters, although without the sanction of the authorities.

The head of the bet- din was the rabbi, called “Mori”. The “Akel” was the head of a committee of representatives of the public and he represented the community toward the authorities. In the smaller communities the Mori alone was the head of the community and the Akel was the representative toward the authorities. However, there is no information about a bet-din at the community of Shagadra.

The information concerning synagogues in the Jewish communities is limited and partial , as the Jews of Yemen worshipped mainly in private houses. Public institutions and public buildings hardly existed. Ritual purification was carried out in natural pools of water in the area and ritual slaughter took place in private courtyards. A tax on slaughter was collected by the community for the purpose of social aid. Schools existed in the houses in which a prayer place was available. A bet-midrash existed only in the bigger communities, attached to the synagogue. All the Jewish men could read, and most of them could also write. The knowledge of Hebrew was fairly widespread among the Jews of Yemen.

The relations with the authorities and the Moslem environment were based on the payment of tax in return for protection. In the towns protection was given by the local governor and in the villages by the heads of the tribes.

The Jews of Shagadra engaged in weaving, embroidering, and spinning. Some families were cobblers and tanners and there were also traders and peddlers who went round the surrounding villages. A few Jews were land owners who engaged in farming.

In the period between 1881-1887 one Jewish family of six persons from Shagadra emigrated to Eretz Israel. Rabbi Yihya Nahum, a well-known emissary of the bet-din of San’a, was active at Shagadra from the 1920’s until the mass emigration to Israel in 1949.

 

Postwar

In 1954 there was still s small Jewish community at Shagadra.

More Jews from Shagadra emigrated to Israel in 1959 and 1962 and they were probably the last to leave the place.

our Open Databases
Jewish Genealogy
Family Names
Jewish Communities
Visual Documentation
Jewish Music Center
Family Name
אA
אA
אA
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions
NAHUM Origin of surname
NAHUM

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a patronymic, derived from a male ancestor's personal name, in this case of biblical origin.

Nahum/Nachum is a Hebrew biblical male personal name, mentioned in the Bible only once (Nahum 1.1) as the 7th century BCE prophet of Judah. The meaning of the name is "consoler/comforter". Other names carrying the same meaning include Nehemiah, which means "God the consoler/comforter" or "God shall console/comfort". The biblical Nachum was a 7th century BCE prophet of Judah. The biblical Nechemia was a 5th century BCE governor of Judah. Related variants: Nahmias is recorded as a Jewish family name in 1112 in Toledo, Spain. Nochem and Nachmann are documented in 1784 in Alsace. Ben Nahmias is mentioned in 1928. In the mid 20th century a French Nehamia family changed its name to Namiere.

Variants of Nahum, many of which coincide with those of Nahmias, range from Nochem, Nacher and Nahm to Nochim, Nache and Naum. Forms closely linked to Nahmias include Nihamiach, Namiech, Hamiach, Amieche and Amiache.

Distinguished bearers of the Jewish family name Nahum include rabbi Eliezer Ben Jacob Nahum (circa 1653-1746), who was active in Turkey and Eretz Israel; theiraqi educator and communal worker, Aaron Sasson Ben Elijah Nahum (1872-1962), who settled in Israel in 1935; and the 20th century Greek-born French financier Gaston Nahum.
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Rabbi Haim Nachum (1879-1960), Cuief Rabbi of Istanbu and Cairo, member of the Egyptian Academy of Science
Rabbi Haim Nachum (1879-1960), Cuief Rabbi of Istanbul
and Cairo, member of the Egyptian Academy of Science
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot)
Rabbi Chaim Nahum Effendi

Chaim (Haim) Nahum (Nahoum) (1872-1960), rabbi, born in Manissa (Magnesia), Turkey (then part of the Ottoman Empire). He was educated in Tiberias, before going back to Smyrna (now Izmir, in Turkey), where he attended high school, and Istanbul where he studied law. From 1893-97 he studied in Paris, France, where he was ordained at the rabbinical seminary. Back in Istanbul, Nahum worked for the community and was deputy director of the rabbinical seminary as well as teaching history at the Military Academy. A supporter of the Young Turk movement, he was appointed Hacham Bashi - Chief Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire after the Young Turks came to power in 1908. When they lost power in 1920, he moved to Paris and five years later was elected Chief Rabbi of Cairo, Egypt, where he remained until his death. In 1931, the king of Egypt appointed him to the senate and in 1933 Nahum became a member of the Arabic Language Academy in Cairo. He published works of historical research.

Seadya Nahum

Seadya Nahum (1905-1973), rabbi, teacher and cantor, born in Shagadra, Yemen, into a family of rabbis and cantors. He immigrated to Israel in 1931, and lived for the first time in Shaarayim neighborhood of Rehovot. He started working as a teacher in Rehovot, Nahliel in Hadera and Jerusalem.

Nahum soon gained a reputation as a cantor with a special voice, as well as a rabbi, shochet and examiner. Because of his style and special voice, he was invited to appear on Kol Israel brodcasts of songs and piyyutim in the style of the Yemenite Jews. In late 1940s he was elected to serve as the local rabbi of Tirat Shalom near Ness Ziona, Israel. The people of the place received him warmly and enthusiastically and he served in this position until the end of his life, and at the same time he was also in great demand in other places in the country.   

Shagadra

Shagadra


A small town in the district of Al-Mihwit, about 60 km west of San’a, north Yemen.


History

In the Middle Ages there was a dense group of Jewish settlements in the district, which spread to the north, beyond the border with Saudi Arabia of our time.

The standing of the Al-Mihwit Jews was stronger than that of the Jews in the center and south of Yemen and they were allowed to carry arms. They were under protection of the tribes and took part in their raids.

According to a popular tradition, Jews had lived in Yemen from the time of the destruction of the First Temple, although archeological evidence of Jews in Yemen exists only from around the time of the destruction of the Second Temple. In spite of the physical separation, the Jews of Yemen kept contact with other Jewish cultural centers.

In the years 1678-1679 most of the Jews in the Jewish settlements of Yemen were exiled to Mawza on the southern shore of the Red Sea (Tihamah) by a decree of the Imam Al-Mahdi, the ruler of Yemen. A year later the expellees were allowed to return to their places but most of them were obliged to build for themselves new quarters as their former homes were either ruined or occupied by Moslems. Some demographic changes followed the year of exile. There were exiles who returned to other than their original places, while other returnees came to their place.

The Jewish communities of Yemen were of two types. There were district communities in the district and larger towns, which served also the neighboring villages, and there were small rural communities. The Jewish community in Yemen had no real organizational structure. Until the second half of the 19th century, the organization of the bigger communities had been based on a limited number of institutions and functionaries. When the protection tax (jiziya) was abolished, the former system came apart and only certain officials remained, mainly in the bigger communities.

The head of the community was an appointment of the authorities. The bet-din (court of justice) in Yemen formed the spiritual leadership of the community and its authority was absolute also in secular matters, although without the sanction of the authorities.

The head of the bet- din was the rabbi, called “Mori”. The “Akel” was the head of a committee of representatives of the public and he represented the community toward the authorities. In the smaller communities the Mori alone was the head of the community and the Akel was the representative toward the authorities. However, there is no information about a bet-din at the community of Shagadra.

The information concerning synagogues in the Jewish communities is limited and partial , as the Jews of Yemen worshipped mainly in private houses. Public institutions and public buildings hardly existed. Ritual purification was carried out in natural pools of water in the area and ritual slaughter took place in private courtyards. A tax on slaughter was collected by the community for the purpose of social aid. Schools existed in the houses in which a prayer place was available. A bet-midrash existed only in the bigger communities, attached to the synagogue. All the Jewish men could read, and most of them could also write. The knowledge of Hebrew was fairly widespread among the Jews of Yemen.

The relations with the authorities and the Moslem environment were based on the payment of tax in return for protection. In the towns protection was given by the local governor and in the villages by the heads of the tribes.

The Jews of Shagadra engaged in weaving, embroidering, and spinning. Some families were cobblers and tanners and there were also traders and peddlers who went round the surrounding villages. A few Jews were land owners who engaged in farming.

In the period between 1881-1887 one Jewish family of six persons from Shagadra emigrated to Eretz Israel. Rabbi Yihya Nahum, a well-known emissary of the bet-din of San’a, was active at Shagadra from the 1920’s until the mass emigration to Israel in 1949.

 

Postwar

In 1954 there was still s small Jewish community at Shagadra.

More Jews from Shagadra emigrated to Israel in 1959 and 1962 and they were probably the last to leave the place.