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The Jewish Community of Napoli

Napoli

In English: Naples

A city and former kingdom in south Italy.

The first Jewish settlement in Naples probably dates to the first century C.E. By the fourth century C.E. the community was of considerable size and economically important. In 536 the Jewish population helped the Goths, although unsuccessfully, to defend the city when it was besieged by the Byzantines. 11TH and 12th century documents show that the Naples community had a synagogue and a school. Jews enjoyed the right to own real estate and to dispose of it as they wished. Benjamin of Tudela, who visited the town in c. 1159, found 500 Jews living there. From 1288, under Charles II, anti-Jewish disorders incited by Dominican preachers occurred; they reached their height in 1290 when serious outrages were committed and a synagogue was converted into a church. However, in 1330 Robert of Anjou invited Jews from the balearic islands to settle in Naples and in the rest of his kingdom, promising them protection against annoyance and the same taxation rights as those enjoyed by
Christians. From 1442, under the rule of Aragon, conditions for the Jews in Naples and its surroundings were favorable, and attracted Jews from various parts of Europe.

At the end of 1492 and the beginning of 1493, a large influx of refugees from Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain found temporary asylum in Naples. The Spanish refugees, undernourished and sick, probably introduced the pestilence in 1492 that struck down 20,000 persons in Naples alone.

Among the Spanish refugees who landed in Naples in 1492 was Don Isaac Abrabanel, who became fiscal adviser to King Ferdinand I and Alfonso II. In 1495 the kingdom of Naples was conquered by the Spanish and in 1496 a decree for the expulsion of the Jews was issued, although not implemented. The expulsion of the Jews was definitively for 200 wealthy Jewish families who undertook to pay an annual tax of 300 ducats to the crown. In 1515 the new Christians were also expelled from the kingdom. The 200 wealthy families, who had been joined by others in 1520, had increased to 600 within the following decade. Although a new decree of expulsion was issued in 1533, permission was granted to the Jews in November 1535 to reside in Naples for a further ten years against the payment of 10,000 ducats. However, the agreement was not respected by emperor Charles V, and in 1541 he ordered the total expulsion of the Jews; this coincided with the establishment of a Christian loan bank (monte di Pieta) in Naples. It was not until 1735, when the kingdom passed to the Bourbons, that Jews were readmitted into Naples and the vicinity by an edict signed by Charles IV on Feb. 3, 1740. However, following pressure by Jesuits and the church, the few Jews who had accepted the invitation were again expelled (Sept. 18, 1746). At the beginning of the 19th century, several Jewish families were residing in Naples, among them the banker Karl Mayer Von Rothschild of Frankfort on the Main. Religious services began to be held in Naples in 1831, but a synagogue was not opened until June 1864.

In 1931 there were 998 Jews in the community of Naples, whose authority extended to all southern Italy.

Persecutions during World War II had minor consequences as the allied landing led to a speedy liberation of southern Italy. Nevertheless, 11 Jews were taken to extermination camps from Naples and other were killed elsewhere. After the war 534 Jews remained in the community. In 1969 there were 450 Jews in Naples.

Place Type:
City
ID Number:
157518
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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DI NOLA

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birthplace, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This family name is derived from Nola, the name of a town in the Metropolitan City of Naples in the region of Campania, southern Italy.

Places, regions and countries of origin or residence are some of the sources of Jewish family names. But, unless the family has reliable records, names based on toponymics cannot prove the exact origin of the family.

Di Nola is documented as a Jewish family name with Silvia Di Nola nee Di Segni who was born in Rome, Italy, in 1907 and perished in the Holocaust.

Jewish families vacationing at 'Villa Weiss' Castermare di Stabia, near Napoli.
Italy, 1927.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Valeria Krzywanowski, Tel Aviv)
Elazar Lazaro Laide Tedesco, Rabbi of Napoli.
Napoliת Italy, 1910
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
Courtesy of Sonino Tulio)
The Vivanti family and their friends,
Naples, Italy 1912.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Valeria Krzywanowski, Tel Aviv)
PRINTED PAGE FROM THE OPENING
OF BAHAY'S (?) COMMENTARY ON
THE BIBLE, (GENESIS 1), NAPLES, 1492.
BORDER BY MOSES IBN ISAAC.
FROM: "JEWISH ART" BY CECIL ROTH,
REVISED EDITION, 1971, FIG. 205.
Grandfather with two grand-daughters.
Napoli, Italy, 1905.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Valeria Krzywanowski, Tel Aviv)

Kalman Carl Mayer Rothschild  (1788-1855), banker in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the founder of the Rothschild banking family of Naples, who had been born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was the fourth of the five sons of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Wanting to expand the family business across Europe, Amschel, the eldest Rothschild's son remained in Frankfurt, while each of the other sons were sent to different European cities to establish a banking branch.

The 1821 occupation of Naples by the Austrian army provided the opportunity for the Rothschilds to set up business in the Kingdom. As such, Carl Rothschild was sent to Naples where he established C M de Rothschild & Figli to operate as a satellite office to the Rothschild banking family.

He proved himself in Naples as a strong financial manager and someone very capable at developing all-important business connections. He established a good working relationship with Luigi de Medici, the Direttore della Segreteria di Azienda del Regno di Napoli (Finance Minister), and his operation became the dominant banking house in Naples. During the winter of 1826, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, future King of the Belgians was a guest of Carl von Rothschild at his villa in Naples. In 1829, Carl was appointed consul-general of Sicily at Frankfurt and in January 1832 the Jewish banker was given a ribbon and star of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George at a ceremony with the new Roman Catholic Pope, Gregory XVI.

Carl von Rothschild maintained homes in Frankfurt am Main and in Naples. In 1837 he built the Villa Günthersburg on a large country property outside Frankfurt am Main owned by his father at what is now Günthersburg Park. In 1841, he bought the Villa Pignatelli at Riviera di Chiaia with a spectacular view of the Mediterranean sea and Vesuvio Volcano.

Abraham Brun (1909-1998), cantor, born in Lodz, Poland (then part of the Russian Empire). Brun received his formal musical education in Vienna and furthered his studies with Bellini in Naples, Italy. Brun left for Budapest and then returned to Poland where he sang in almost all the major synagogues. He survived World War II and soon afterwards immigrated to Israel where he officiated as cantor in Haifa for two years. In 1948 Brun was appointed cantor of the Beit El Temple in Long Beach, New York, a position he held until his retirement in 1986.

László Roth (aka Ladislau Roth, Roth Laci) (b.1920), conductor and composer, born in Satu Mare, Romania. After August 1940, the region was incorporated into Hungary and the family suffered the anti-Semitic persecutions that culminated with their detention in the ghetto of Oradea and their subsequent deportation to the Auschwitz Nazi death camp in May 1944. Roth was sent the forced labor camps at Melk and Ebensee, both subcamps of the Mauthausen Nazi concentration camp in Austria. Roth, along with another seven prisoners, chosen to serve as the camp orchestra. He was freed from Ebensee camp by the US Army.

After WW2 he continued his musical studies at the Ferenc Liszt Music Academy in Budapest, Hungary, that he started in 1941. He returned to Romania and settled in Timisoara. As of 1947 he started working at the Timisoara Opera House becoming it principal conductor, a position that he held until 1958, when he was fired following his request to emigrate to Israel.

Roth immigrated to Israel in 1960 settling in Bat Yam. He started working as conductor of the Israeli Opera, Tel Aviv chamber choir, the Jerusalem Radio Symphony Orchestra, and the Israeli Broadcasting Choir and Orchestra. From 1965 to late 1970s he served as conductor of the Tzadikov choir in Jaffa, and then he was conductor of the Israeli folklore ensemble "Anahnu Kan" ("We are here"), composed of new Jewish immigrants from the Soviet Union. Roth was a guest conductor of the Scarlatti Orchestra of Naples, Italy, in 1965. He conducted at the Opera House of Pretoria, South Africa, during 1967-1968, then he was a guest conductor at Radio Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1968, and a guest conductor at Landestheater of Salzburg, Austria, in 1970. During 1980-1984 he conducted various symphony orchestras as well as the Opera House in Mexico City, and during 1985-1987 he was active in the United States. After the fall of the Communist regime in Romania, Roth renewed his activities in that country and collaborated with the opera houses in Timisoara, Brasov, and Bucharest. For years he conducted concerts of the Dinu Lipatti Philharmonic in Satu Mare, his hometown. On June 2, 2013, he conducted a concert for the former Jewish residents of Timisoara who arrived from all corners of the world for a meeting at the Sinagoga din Cetate in Timisoara. In October 2013 Roth was invited to conduct the Kiev Philharmonic.

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The Jewish Community of Napoli

Napoli

In English: Naples

A city and former kingdom in south Italy.

The first Jewish settlement in Naples probably dates to the first century C.E. By the fourth century C.E. the community was of considerable size and economically important. In 536 the Jewish population helped the Goths, although unsuccessfully, to defend the city when it was besieged by the Byzantines. 11TH and 12th century documents show that the Naples community had a synagogue and a school. Jews enjoyed the right to own real estate and to dispose of it as they wished. Benjamin of Tudela, who visited the town in c. 1159, found 500 Jews living there. From 1288, under Charles II, anti-Jewish disorders incited by Dominican preachers occurred; they reached their height in 1290 when serious outrages were committed and a synagogue was converted into a church. However, in 1330 Robert of Anjou invited Jews from the balearic islands to settle in Naples and in the rest of his kingdom, promising them protection against annoyance and the same taxation rights as those enjoyed by
Christians. From 1442, under the rule of Aragon, conditions for the Jews in Naples and its surroundings were favorable, and attracted Jews from various parts of Europe.

At the end of 1492 and the beginning of 1493, a large influx of refugees from Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain found temporary asylum in Naples. The Spanish refugees, undernourished and sick, probably introduced the pestilence in 1492 that struck down 20,000 persons in Naples alone.

Among the Spanish refugees who landed in Naples in 1492 was Don Isaac Abrabanel, who became fiscal adviser to King Ferdinand I and Alfonso II. In 1495 the kingdom of Naples was conquered by the Spanish and in 1496 a decree for the expulsion of the Jews was issued, although not implemented. The expulsion of the Jews was definitively for 200 wealthy Jewish families who undertook to pay an annual tax of 300 ducats to the crown. In 1515 the new Christians were also expelled from the kingdom. The 200 wealthy families, who had been joined by others in 1520, had increased to 600 within the following decade. Although a new decree of expulsion was issued in 1533, permission was granted to the Jews in November 1535 to reside in Naples for a further ten years against the payment of 10,000 ducats. However, the agreement was not respected by emperor Charles V, and in 1541 he ordered the total expulsion of the Jews; this coincided with the establishment of a Christian loan bank (monte di Pieta) in Naples. It was not until 1735, when the kingdom passed to the Bourbons, that Jews were readmitted into Naples and the vicinity by an edict signed by Charles IV on Feb. 3, 1740. However, following pressure by Jesuits and the church, the few Jews who had accepted the invitation were again expelled (Sept. 18, 1746). At the beginning of the 19th century, several Jewish families were residing in Naples, among them the banker Karl Mayer Von Rothschild of Frankfort on the Main. Religious services began to be held in Naples in 1831, but a synagogue was not opened until June 1864.

In 1931 there were 998 Jews in the community of Naples, whose authority extended to all southern Italy.

Persecutions during World War II had minor consequences as the allied landing led to a speedy liberation of southern Italy. Nevertheless, 11 Jews were taken to extermination camps from Naples and other were killed elsewhere. After the war 534 Jews remained in the community. In 1969 there were 450 Jews in Naples.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
DI NOLA

DI NOLA

Surnames derive from one of many different origins. Sometimes there may be more than one explanation for the same name. This family name is a toponymic (derived from a geographic name of a town, city, region or country). Surnames that are based on place names do not always testify to direct origin from that place, but may indicate an indirect relation between the name-bearer or his ancestors and the place, such as birthplace, temporary residence, trade, or family-relatives.

This family name is derived from Nola, the name of a town in the Metropolitan City of Naples in the region of Campania, southern Italy.

Places, regions and countries of origin or residence are some of the sources of Jewish family names. But, unless the family has reliable records, names based on toponymics cannot prove the exact origin of the family.

Di Nola is documented as a Jewish family name with Silvia Di Nola nee Di Segni who was born in Rome, Italy, in 1907 and perished in the Holocaust.

Jewish Families on Vacation near Napoli, Italy, 1927
Jewish families vacationing at 'Villa Weiss' Castermare di Stabia, near Napoli.
Italy, 1927.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Valeria Krzywanowski, Tel Aviv)
Elazar Lazaro Laide Tedesco, Rabbi of Napoli, Italy, 1910
Elazar Lazaro Laide Tedesco, Rabbi of Napoli.
Napoliת Italy, 1910
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
Courtesy of Sonino Tulio)
The Vivanti family and their friends, Naples, Italy 1912
The Vivanti family and their friends,
Naples, Italy 1912.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Valeria Krzywanowski, Tel Aviv)
Printed Page from Bahay's Commentary of the Bible, Naples, 1492
PRINTED PAGE FROM THE OPENING
OF BAHAY'S (?) COMMENTARY ON
THE BIBLE, (GENESIS 1), NAPLES, 1492.
BORDER BY MOSES IBN ISAAC.
FROM: "JEWISH ART" BY CECIL ROTH,
REVISED EDITION, 1971, FIG. 205.
Grandfather with two Grand-daughters, Napoli, Italy, 1905
Grandfather with two grand-daughters.
Napoli, Italy, 1905.
(The Oster Visual Documentation Center, Beit Hatfutsot,
courtesy of Valeria Krzywanowski, Tel Aviv)
Kalman Carl Mayer Rothschild

Kalman Carl Mayer Rothschild  (1788-1855), banker in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the founder of the Rothschild banking family of Naples, who had been born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was the fourth of the five sons of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Wanting to expand the family business across Europe, Amschel, the eldest Rothschild's son remained in Frankfurt, while each of the other sons were sent to different European cities to establish a banking branch.

The 1821 occupation of Naples by the Austrian army provided the opportunity for the Rothschilds to set up business in the Kingdom. As such, Carl Rothschild was sent to Naples where he established C M de Rothschild & Figli to operate as a satellite office to the Rothschild banking family.

He proved himself in Naples as a strong financial manager and someone very capable at developing all-important business connections. He established a good working relationship with Luigi de Medici, the Direttore della Segreteria di Azienda del Regno di Napoli (Finance Minister), and his operation became the dominant banking house in Naples. During the winter of 1826, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, future King of the Belgians was a guest of Carl von Rothschild at his villa in Naples. In 1829, Carl was appointed consul-general of Sicily at Frankfurt and in January 1832 the Jewish banker was given a ribbon and star of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George at a ceremony with the new Roman Catholic Pope, Gregory XVI.

Carl von Rothschild maintained homes in Frankfurt am Main and in Naples. In 1837 he built the Villa Günthersburg on a large country property outside Frankfurt am Main owned by his father at what is now Günthersburg Park. In 1841, he bought the Villa Pignatelli at Riviera di Chiaia with a spectacular view of the Mediterranean sea and Vesuvio Volcano.

Abraham Brun

Abraham Brun (1909-1998), cantor, born in Lodz, Poland (then part of the Russian Empire). Brun received his formal musical education in Vienna and furthered his studies with Bellini in Naples, Italy. Brun left for Budapest and then returned to Poland where he sang in almost all the major synagogues. He survived World War II and soon afterwards immigrated to Israel where he officiated as cantor in Haifa for two years. In 1948 Brun was appointed cantor of the Beit El Temple in Long Beach, New York, a position he held until his retirement in 1986.

Laszlo Roth

László Roth (aka Ladislau Roth, Roth Laci) (b.1920), conductor and composer, born in Satu Mare, Romania. After August 1940, the region was incorporated into Hungary and the family suffered the anti-Semitic persecutions that culminated with their detention in the ghetto of Oradea and their subsequent deportation to the Auschwitz Nazi death camp in May 1944. Roth was sent the forced labor camps at Melk and Ebensee, both subcamps of the Mauthausen Nazi concentration camp in Austria. Roth, along with another seven prisoners, chosen to serve as the camp orchestra. He was freed from Ebensee camp by the US Army.

After WW2 he continued his musical studies at the Ferenc Liszt Music Academy in Budapest, Hungary, that he started in 1941. He returned to Romania and settled in Timisoara. As of 1947 he started working at the Timisoara Opera House becoming it principal conductor, a position that he held until 1958, when he was fired following his request to emigrate to Israel.

Roth immigrated to Israel in 1960 settling in Bat Yam. He started working as conductor of the Israeli Opera, Tel Aviv chamber choir, the Jerusalem Radio Symphony Orchestra, and the Israeli Broadcasting Choir and Orchestra. From 1965 to late 1970s he served as conductor of the Tzadikov choir in Jaffa, and then he was conductor of the Israeli folklore ensemble "Anahnu Kan" ("We are here"), composed of new Jewish immigrants from the Soviet Union. Roth was a guest conductor of the Scarlatti Orchestra of Naples, Italy, in 1965. He conducted at the Opera House of Pretoria, South Africa, during 1967-1968, then he was a guest conductor at Radio Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1968, and a guest conductor at Landestheater of Salzburg, Austria, in 1970. During 1980-1984 he conducted various symphony orchestras as well as the Opera House in Mexico City, and during 1985-1987 he was active in the United States. After the fall of the Communist regime in Romania, Roth renewed his activities in that country and collaborated with the opera houses in Timisoara, Brasov, and Bucharest. For years he conducted concerts of the Dinu Lipatti Philharmonic in Satu Mare, his hometown. On June 2, 2013, he conducted a concert for the former Jewish residents of Timisoara who arrived from all corners of the world for a meeting at the Sinagoga din Cetate in Timisoara. In October 2013 Roth was invited to conduct the Kiev Philharmonic.