Search
Print
Share
Your Selected Item:
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions

The Jewish Community of EINBECK

Einbeck

Town in lower Saxony (formerly in Hanover), Germany.

Several Jews were burned there at the stake about the year 1298. A Jewish street and synagogue in Einbeck are first mentioned in 1355. An "old" Jewish cemetery is referred to in 1454. The Jews were expelled from Einbeck around 1579 at the instance of a pastor, Johann Velius. They made several attempts to return, and are again mentioned in Einbeck in 1667. They were granted letters of protection in 1673 and 1678, and although these were opposed by the local inhabitants the duke refused to withdraw them. In 1718 the elector of Hanover, George I of England, restricted further Jewish settlement in Einbeck and few Jews were authorized to reside there in the 18th century.

The number of Jewish families increased from nine in 1806-1813 to 16 in 1816, and 139 persons in 1880 (2.04% of the total population). A new synagogue was dedicated in 1896. It was destroyed by the Nazis in 1938. Only 58 Jews remained in Einbeck in 1932, and nine in 1939. Only one survived the war. In 1968 there were two Jewish residents.
Place Type:
City
ID Number:
148898
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
Nearby places:

Related items:
Geologist

Born in Einbeck, he became professor of petrography in Strasbourg in 1873. From 1878 to his death he was professor of mineralogy and geology at Heidelberg. One of the great pioneers of petrographic research, the period from the 1870s to his death were known in the profession as 'the Rosenbusch period'. He wrote the standard text book on rock identification.
The Synagogue in Einbeck, Germany, 20th century.
Geologist

Born in Einbeck, he became professor of petrography in Strasbourg in 1873. From 1878 to his death he was professor of mineralogy and geology at Heidelberg. One of the great pioneers of petrographic research, the period from the 1870s to his death were known in the profession as 'the Rosenbusch period'. He wrote the standard text book on rock identification.

Seesen

Yiddish: סייסן (Seesen)

Town1 and municipality in Lower Saxony, Germany.

21ST CENTURY

A liberal Jewish community was founded in 1997 in the town of Seesen. In 2005 it numbered 43 Jews. All the members were immigrants from the former Soviet Union. For communal purposes they use a room in the original Israel Jacobson school. The community is a member of the Union of Progressive Jews in Germany.

A memorial stone commemorating the former Jewish community and its leader was unveiled in the town of Seesen.

This is where Israel Jacobson established a mixed school in 1801 with 40 Jewish and 20 Christian children which were educated together. The Jacobson school gained a “reputation far and wide and was in existence for 100 years. To this day you will still find the Jacobson school standing in the heart of little Seesen…the Nazis either did not know who Jacobson was or did not dare wipe his existence completely away… Today Seesen celebrates the history of the Jacobson school and attempts to celebrate the Jewish lives that once thrived there.”

“Reform Judaism was launched on… [17 July] in 1810 with the opening of the first Reform “temple” in Seesen, Germany.” This was a further activity of Israel Jacobson from Seesen, a philanthropist and learned Jew. He wanted to ensure Judaism would survive on the backdrop of the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the Enlightenment (17th and 18th centuries), at a time when conversion to Christianity swept Western Europe’s Jewish life. Half a century later Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise brought Reform Judaism to the USA and in time it became the dominant stream in the country.

The Reform movement born in Seesen is also discussed in Gender, Judaism, and Bourgeois Culture in Germany, 1800–1870 by Benjamin Maria Baader, published by Indiana University Press, 2006 (pg. 44). The July 1810 inauguration of Germany’s first Jewish Reform temple in Seesen catered only to men, as well as the adjacent school, which was only for boys. The dedication ceremony was set on a political background of great symbolic value rather than as a communal festivity. “The purpose of the dedication ceremony of the Seesen temple was to evince the dignity of the country’s Jewish citizens and the worthiness of the Jewish religion in light of the emancipation that the Jews of Westphalia had gained in the Napoleonic kingdom”.

“Three years earlier in the newly established Kingdom of Westphalia, the French ruler Jerome Bonaparte had granted his Jewish subjects full civil equality and religious freedom… Jacobson was deeply committed to the politial and cultural integration of German Jewry and wished to adapt the Jewish religion to contemporary sensibilities. As president of the [Jewish] consistory, he was able to play a leading role in the Jewish Reform movement that had begun to take shape. After the demise of the Kingdom of Westphalia Jacobson relocated to Berlin and spearheaded the reform of Jewish worship in the Prussian capital… The construction of the Reform temple in Seesen…was in itself a statement of how emancipated Jews worshiped.”

“What may strike us at first is the proximity of the seventeenth to the fourteenth of July, the day commemorated for the storming of the Bastille. And indeed the dedication ceremony of the Seesen Temple bore the imprint of the ideals of the Enlightenment and the political changes that had occurred in the wake of the French Revolution.” thus in the words of Klaus Herrmann “Translating Cultures and Texts in Reform Judaism: The Philippson Bible” in Jewish Studies Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (2007), p. 164

Israel Jacobson was a follower of Moses Mendelsohn (1729-1786) and his philosophy of the Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment). This is described in Jews and the Renaissance of Synagogue Architecture, 1450-1730 by Barry L. Stiefel, published by Taylor & Francis in 2016

The Savannah Jewish News (2010) writes about the two centenial (July 17, 1810) unfolding milestone in Seesen: in the presence of the mayors of Berlin and Seesen, a plaque was dedicated on the site of Israel Jacobson’s Berlin residence, the first location where Berlin’s Reform services were held. The two politicians eloquently paid tribute. Historic pride was too expressed in Seesen itself proclaimed on billboards and banners. While the original 1810 Temple was destroyed on Kristallnacht (November 9-10, 1938), at the location of the 1810 Temple the Mayor, other civic and religious men and women along with Seesen citizens came together and partook in a deeply moving ceremony. Newspaper passages from the year 1810 were read out sharing the events that had taken place 200 years earlier at that exact location.

Israel Jacobson the nominal Reform Judaism father is also credited with the creation of the Confirmation ceremony. “Confirmation is a Reform-originated ceremony for boys and girls that is tied to the Jewish holiday of Shavuot. It constitutes an individual and group affirmation of commitment to the Jewish people… In 1831, Rabbi Samuel Egers of Brunswick, Germany, determined to hold confirmation on Shavuot, the festival of the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai, also the widely accepted practice today…”.

An entry about Jewish Seesen features in the book Platforms and Prayer Books: Theological and Liturgical Perspectives on Reform Judaism by Dana Evan Rabbi Kaplan (Author), Ellen Umansky (Foreword), Judith Z. Abrams (Contributor), published by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers in 2002 (p. 237).

The Bezalel Narkiss Index of Jewish Art has several items about Jewish Seesen in their catalogue. The Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People Jerusalem also has documents refering to Jewish Seesen.

 

HISTORY   

The first Jewish presence in Seesen was in the 15th century CE. Throughout its history, the Jewish community of Seesen was small, its numbers barely topping 200. In 1801, the financier and Court Jew Israel Jacobson founded and richly endowed the Jacobson Schule in Seesen as a means of implementing his humanistic and reform ideals. Modern subjects and vocational instruction were emphasized. The school began to accept Christian pupils in 1805 and later in the 19th century, lost its Jewish character.

In 1810, the Seesen synagogue (the controversial Jacobsontempel), featuring for the first time in Germany an organ, choir, and sermons in German, was consecrated as an offshoot of the school.

The Jewish community established a cemetery on Dehnestrasse in 1805; a mikveh in 1827; and a separate school for religious studies — the teacher also served as the shochet and chazzan — in 1819. Several Jewish associations (including a branch of the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith) were active in the community.

In 1852, a nonsectarian orphanage was founded by Jacobson's son, Mayer. It was closed in 1923 and reopened in 1929 as a Jewish youth sanatorium.

There were 54 Jews in Seesen in 1819; and 178 in 1871. In 1895, when this Jewish community recorded its peak population figure (209), most Seesen Jews were cattle traders, textile merchants and butchers.

In 1933, when Jewish teachers and pupils were expelled from the school and its foundation funds confiscated, only 44 Jews lived in Seesen, of whom 60% subsequently left the town.

The orphanage and, later, the cemetery were sold.

 

HOLOCAUST

During the Pogrom Night (Nov 9, 1938 – Nov 10, 1938), the synagogue and a Jewish-owned department store were burned down; Jewish homes were searched by members of the SS. Male Jews were arrested, and the head of the community was killed.

In 1944, the state appropriated the synagogue site. At least ten Jews from Seesen died in the Holocaust (1939-1945).

 

POST-WAR

Between 60 and 80 Jewish displaced persons lived in Seesen after the war, and the re-established Jewish community was compensated for the loss of the synagogue. However, by 1952, only nine Jews remained in the town.

 

1 Population numbers refer to the town and not the district of Seesen

our Open Databases
Jewish Genealogy
Family Names
Jewish Communities
Visual Documentation
Jewish Music Center
Place
אA
אA
אA
Would you like to help us improving the content? Send us your suggestions
The Jewish Community of EINBECK
Einbeck

Town in lower Saxony (formerly in Hanover), Germany.

Several Jews were burned there at the stake about the year 1298. A Jewish street and synagogue in Einbeck are first mentioned in 1355. An "old" Jewish cemetery is referred to in 1454. The Jews were expelled from Einbeck around 1579 at the instance of a pastor, Johann Velius. They made several attempts to return, and are again mentioned in Einbeck in 1667. They were granted letters of protection in 1673 and 1678, and although these were opposed by the local inhabitants the duke refused to withdraw them. In 1718 the elector of Hanover, George I of England, restricted further Jewish settlement in Einbeck and few Jews were authorized to reside there in the 18th century.

The number of Jewish families increased from nine in 1806-1813 to 16 in 1816, and 139 persons in 1880 (2.04% of the total population). A new synagogue was dedicated in 1896. It was destroyed by the Nazis in 1938. Only 58 Jews remained in Einbeck in 1932, and nine in 1939. Only one survived the war. In 1968 there were two Jewish residents.
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Seesen

Seesen

Yiddish: סייסן (Seesen)

Town1 and municipality in Lower Saxony, Germany.

21ST CENTURY

A liberal Jewish community was founded in 1997 in the town of Seesen. In 2005 it numbered 43 Jews. All the members were immigrants from the former Soviet Union. For communal purposes they use a room in the original Israel Jacobson school. The community is a member of the Union of Progressive Jews in Germany.

A memorial stone commemorating the former Jewish community and its leader was unveiled in the town of Seesen.

This is where Israel Jacobson established a mixed school in 1801 with 40 Jewish and 20 Christian children which were educated together. The Jacobson school gained a “reputation far and wide and was in existence for 100 years. To this day you will still find the Jacobson school standing in the heart of little Seesen…the Nazis either did not know who Jacobson was or did not dare wipe his existence completely away… Today Seesen celebrates the history of the Jacobson school and attempts to celebrate the Jewish lives that once thrived there.”

“Reform Judaism was launched on… [17 July] in 1810 with the opening of the first Reform “temple” in Seesen, Germany.” This was a further activity of Israel Jacobson from Seesen, a philanthropist and learned Jew. He wanted to ensure Judaism would survive on the backdrop of the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the Enlightenment (17th and 18th centuries), at a time when conversion to Christianity swept Western Europe’s Jewish life. Half a century later Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise brought Reform Judaism to the USA and in time it became the dominant stream in the country.

The Reform movement born in Seesen is also discussed in Gender, Judaism, and Bourgeois Culture in Germany, 1800–1870 by Benjamin Maria Baader, published by Indiana University Press, 2006 (pg. 44). The July 1810 inauguration of Germany’s first Jewish Reform temple in Seesen catered only to men, as well as the adjacent school, which was only for boys. The dedication ceremony was set on a political background of great symbolic value rather than as a communal festivity. “The purpose of the dedication ceremony of the Seesen temple was to evince the dignity of the country’s Jewish citizens and the worthiness of the Jewish religion in light of the emancipation that the Jews of Westphalia had gained in the Napoleonic kingdom”.

“Three years earlier in the newly established Kingdom of Westphalia, the French ruler Jerome Bonaparte had granted his Jewish subjects full civil equality and religious freedom… Jacobson was deeply committed to the politial and cultural integration of German Jewry and wished to adapt the Jewish religion to contemporary sensibilities. As president of the [Jewish] consistory, he was able to play a leading role in the Jewish Reform movement that had begun to take shape. After the demise of the Kingdom of Westphalia Jacobson relocated to Berlin and spearheaded the reform of Jewish worship in the Prussian capital… The construction of the Reform temple in Seesen…was in itself a statement of how emancipated Jews worshiped.”

“What may strike us at first is the proximity of the seventeenth to the fourteenth of July, the day commemorated for the storming of the Bastille. And indeed the dedication ceremony of the Seesen Temple bore the imprint of the ideals of the Enlightenment and the political changes that had occurred in the wake of the French Revolution.” thus in the words of Klaus Herrmann “Translating Cultures and Texts in Reform Judaism: The Philippson Bible” in Jewish Studies Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (2007), p. 164

Israel Jacobson was a follower of Moses Mendelsohn (1729-1786) and his philosophy of the Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment). This is described in Jews and the Renaissance of Synagogue Architecture, 1450-1730 by Barry L. Stiefel, published by Taylor & Francis in 2016

The Savannah Jewish News (2010) writes about the two centenial (July 17, 1810) unfolding milestone in Seesen: in the presence of the mayors of Berlin and Seesen, a plaque was dedicated on the site of Israel Jacobson’s Berlin residence, the first location where Berlin’s Reform services were held. The two politicians eloquently paid tribute. Historic pride was too expressed in Seesen itself proclaimed on billboards and banners. While the original 1810 Temple was destroyed on Kristallnacht (November 9-10, 1938), at the location of the 1810 Temple the Mayor, other civic and religious men and women along with Seesen citizens came together and partook in a deeply moving ceremony. Newspaper passages from the year 1810 were read out sharing the events that had taken place 200 years earlier at that exact location.

Israel Jacobson the nominal Reform Judaism father is also credited with the creation of the Confirmation ceremony. “Confirmation is a Reform-originated ceremony for boys and girls that is tied to the Jewish holiday of Shavuot. It constitutes an individual and group affirmation of commitment to the Jewish people… In 1831, Rabbi Samuel Egers of Brunswick, Germany, determined to hold confirmation on Shavuot, the festival of the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai, also the widely accepted practice today…”.

An entry about Jewish Seesen features in the book Platforms and Prayer Books: Theological and Liturgical Perspectives on Reform Judaism by Dana Evan Rabbi Kaplan (Author), Ellen Umansky (Foreword), Judith Z. Abrams (Contributor), published by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers in 2002 (p. 237).

The Bezalel Narkiss Index of Jewish Art has several items about Jewish Seesen in their catalogue. The Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People Jerusalem also has documents refering to Jewish Seesen.

 

HISTORY   

The first Jewish presence in Seesen was in the 15th century CE. Throughout its history, the Jewish community of Seesen was small, its numbers barely topping 200. In 1801, the financier and Court Jew Israel Jacobson founded and richly endowed the Jacobson Schule in Seesen as a means of implementing his humanistic and reform ideals. Modern subjects and vocational instruction were emphasized. The school began to accept Christian pupils in 1805 and later in the 19th century, lost its Jewish character.

In 1810, the Seesen synagogue (the controversial Jacobsontempel), featuring for the first time in Germany an organ, choir, and sermons in German, was consecrated as an offshoot of the school.

The Jewish community established a cemetery on Dehnestrasse in 1805; a mikveh in 1827; and a separate school for religious studies — the teacher also served as the shochet and chazzan — in 1819. Several Jewish associations (including a branch of the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith) were active in the community.

In 1852, a nonsectarian orphanage was founded by Jacobson's son, Mayer. It was closed in 1923 and reopened in 1929 as a Jewish youth sanatorium.

There were 54 Jews in Seesen in 1819; and 178 in 1871. In 1895, when this Jewish community recorded its peak population figure (209), most Seesen Jews were cattle traders, textile merchants and butchers.

In 1933, when Jewish teachers and pupils were expelled from the school and its foundation funds confiscated, only 44 Jews lived in Seesen, of whom 60% subsequently left the town.

The orphanage and, later, the cemetery were sold.

 

HOLOCAUST

During the Pogrom Night (Nov 9, 1938 – Nov 10, 1938), the synagogue and a Jewish-owned department store were burned down; Jewish homes were searched by members of the SS. Male Jews were arrested, and the head of the community was killed.

In 1944, the state appropriated the synagogue site. At least ten Jews from Seesen died in the Holocaust (1939-1945).

 

POST-WAR

Between 60 and 80 Jewish displaced persons lived in Seesen after the war, and the re-established Jewish community was compensated for the loss of the synagogue. However, by 1952, only nine Jews remained in the town.

 

1 Population numbers refer to the town and not the district of Seesen

The Synagogue in Einbeck, Germany.
The Synagogue in Einbeck, Germany, 20th century.
Rosenbusch, Karl Harry Ferdinand
Geologist

Born in Einbeck, he became professor of petrography in Strasbourg in 1873. From 1878 to his death he was professor of mineralogy and geology at Heidelberg. One of the great pioneers of petrographic research, the period from the 1870s to his death were known in the profession as 'the Rosenbusch period'. He wrote the standard text book on rock identification.
Rosenbusch, Karl Harry Ferdinand
Geologist

Born in Einbeck, he became professor of petrography in Strasbourg in 1873. From 1878 to his death he was professor of mineralogy and geology at Heidelberg. One of the great pioneers of petrographic research, the period from the 1870s to his death were known in the profession as 'the Rosenbusch period'. He wrote the standard text book on rock identification.