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The Jewish Community of Malchin

Malchin

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Jews sporadically lived in Malchin prior to the Black Death persecutions of 1348/49. Jewish presence in the town was again documented in 1378. However, further evidence of Jews in Malchin stems only from the end of the 17th century. A Judenstrasse (Jews' Street) apparently existed around 1700 (later: Strelitzer Strasse). The Jewish community was probably founded in 1816. At the same time, a Jewish cemetery was opened not far from Muehlentor, outside of the town. The establishment of a new burial ground, purchased in 1850, was never realized. In 1764, a prayer room had already been furnished in the former home of the widow Ahnsehl at 316 Judenstrasse. It was later replaced by a new synagogue in 1837. A small tower adorned the building. A garden led from the street to the synagogue. The Jewish community sporadically hired a teacher who provided religious instruction to Jewish children. He also served as chazzan (cantor). A mikvah (ritual bath) existed in a rented rear house.

Siegfried Samuel Marcus, born in Malchin in 1831, is known as the inventor of the 'First Marcus Car', the first documented gasoline-powered vehicle. A plaque affixed to the house of his birth commemorates him. He died in Vienna in 1898.

In 1830, 128 Jews lived in Malchin. After 1860 many Jewish families left the town. Hence the number of Jewish inhabitants declined to 75 in 1865 and to 13 in 1925. The very low membership led the community to the decision to sell the synagogue building in 1923. Henceforth, the building was used by Malchin's Catholic community. A bit later, in 1925, the Jewish congregation was officially dissolved. The remaining local Jews reluctantly joined the Jewish community of Stavenhagen.

On Pogrom Night on November 9, 1938, police sergeant Bruno Watzke apparently prevented the intended arson of the synagogue building in order to protect the neighboring houses. In spring 1945, the former synagogue building was set on fire and destroyed by Soviet soldiers - along with many streets and buildings in the town. The fate of Malchin's Jewish local residents during the Nazi era is widely unknown to us. In the early 1950s, the Jewish cemetery was leveled to the ground. It was reconstructed in 2005.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
145176
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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Stavenhagen

A village in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish population: mid-1700s; peak Jewish population: 32 in 1910; Jewish population in 1933: 10

Jews might have lived in Stavenhagen before the 18th century, but the first record of their presence there is from the mid- 1700s. In the early 1800s, the community built a modest synagogue, a community center (alongside the synagogue) and a small cemetery. When the synagogue in nearby Malchin was closed down due to inadequate membership, the two communities merged. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the Stavenhagen synagogue and the town’s two remaining Jewish-owned businesses were destroyed. Due to its proximity to other homes, the synagogue was not set on fire. Instead, the SS headed for the cemetery, where they burned down the chapel and desecrated headstones. In early 1939, the synagogue building was appropriated by a furniture manufacturer who used it as a warehouse; it was, however, later abandoned when it became severely dilapidated. As of this writing, a memorial plaque has never been unveiled at the site, now an empty lot. The municipality of Stavenhagen, however, is planning a proper memorial.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Neustrelitz

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: approx. 1700; peak Jewish population: 600 in 1802; Jewish population in 1933: 62

During the 1800s, the city of Alt-Strelitz was the most important Jewish community in Mecklenburg, home to the largest Jewish population, the largest synagogue and the most prestigious and respected rabbi in the region. This was made possible by a local duke who welcomed the Jews and allowed them to establish prayer rooms, a cemetery and an elementary school. When the Jewish community outgrew the prayer rooms, Duke Adolf Friedrich IV not only approved the decision to purchase land for a synagogue, but gave of his own money and helped arrange financing for the endeavor. The synagogue—a massive building—was completed in 1763; the inauguration ceremony was attended by local landowners and politicians. Nearly a century later, in 1847, the synagogue was completely renovated, after which it was inaugurated once again. Rabbi Jacob Hamburger served as rabbi for nearly fifty years until his death in 1911. He apparently kept the community together, for it was after his death that many Jews left Alt-Strelitz. Jews and Gentiles coexisted peacefully in Alt-Strelitz until 1935. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), three young Nazis broke into the synagogue, smashed all the windows and set it on fire. Shortly afterwards, the Jewish community was forced to pay for the building’s demolition. In 1988, a memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Teterow

A town in the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1492; peak Jewish population: 116 in 1845; Jewish population in 1933: 17

The earliest record of the Jews of Teterow is dated 1492, the same year in which five Jews were burned at the stake and the rest were banished. Records do not mention another Jewish presence in Teterow until 1762, when a Jewish community was founded there. Although troops were posted in Teterow to enforce the anti-Jewish ordinances of 1933, the local population ignored them. Eventually, however, the situation deteriorated to such an extent that by 1935, the Jewish community was forced to disband. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the abandoned synagogue was ransacked and the roof trusses were torn down. A few weeks later, the city declared the building unsafe and a danger to pedestrians, after which it was torn down. The Jewish cemetery was left unharmed, as it was located outside the city. A memorial plaque was later unveiled at the site where the synagogue once stood. Another plaque has been placed at the cemetery, which is considered one of the best-preserved Jewish cemeteries in the area.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Neukalen

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

The Jewish community had its prime in the first half of the 19th century, but then decreased in number due to emigration to such an extent that it was dissolved in 1900 at its own will. The synagogue, inaugurated in 1843, was sold in 1899 to the innkeeper Köhler, who had it demolished because it was in a bad condition. The community did not have a Jewish school, but had a mikveh and its own Jewish cemetery in the "Judentannen" of which remains are preserved. After 1900 only three Jewish families lived in Neukalen: the Bragenheim, Löwi and Salender families, in 1935 only the two unmarried sisters Amalie and Bertha Salender. Bertha Salender died in 1937 at the age of 92, Amalie Salender is said to have hanged herself on March 19, 1938 because she could no longer bear the loneliness and abuse.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

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The Jewish Community of Malchin

Malchin

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

Jews sporadically lived in Malchin prior to the Black Death persecutions of 1348/49. Jewish presence in the town was again documented in 1378. However, further evidence of Jews in Malchin stems only from the end of the 17th century. A Judenstrasse (Jews' Street) apparently existed around 1700 (later: Strelitzer Strasse). The Jewish community was probably founded in 1816. At the same time, a Jewish cemetery was opened not far from Muehlentor, outside of the town. The establishment of a new burial ground, purchased in 1850, was never realized. In 1764, a prayer room had already been furnished in the former home of the widow Ahnsehl at 316 Judenstrasse. It was later replaced by a new synagogue in 1837. A small tower adorned the building. A garden led from the street to the synagogue. The Jewish community sporadically hired a teacher who provided religious instruction to Jewish children. He also served as chazzan (cantor). A mikvah (ritual bath) existed in a rented rear house.

Siegfried Samuel Marcus, born in Malchin in 1831, is known as the inventor of the 'First Marcus Car', the first documented gasoline-powered vehicle. A plaque affixed to the house of his birth commemorates him. He died in Vienna in 1898.

In 1830, 128 Jews lived in Malchin. After 1860 many Jewish families left the town. Hence the number of Jewish inhabitants declined to 75 in 1865 and to 13 in 1925. The very low membership led the community to the decision to sell the synagogue building in 1923. Henceforth, the building was used by Malchin's Catholic community. A bit later, in 1925, the Jewish congregation was officially dissolved. The remaining local Jews reluctantly joined the Jewish community of Stavenhagen.

On Pogrom Night on November 9, 1938, police sergeant Bruno Watzke apparently prevented the intended arson of the synagogue building in order to protect the neighboring houses. In spring 1945, the former synagogue building was set on fire and destroyed by Soviet soldiers - along with many streets and buildings in the town. The fate of Malchin's Jewish local residents during the Nazi era is widely unknown to us. In the early 1950s, the Jewish cemetery was leveled to the ground. It was reconstructed in 2005.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Neukalen
Teterow
Neustrelitz
Stavenhagen

Neukalen

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

The Jewish community had its prime in the first half of the 19th century, but then decreased in number due to emigration to such an extent that it was dissolved in 1900 at its own will. The synagogue, inaugurated in 1843, was sold in 1899 to the innkeeper Köhler, who had it demolished because it was in a bad condition. The community did not have a Jewish school, but had a mikveh and its own Jewish cemetery in the "Judentannen" of which remains are preserved. After 1900 only three Jewish families lived in Neukalen: the Bragenheim, Löwi and Salender families, in 1935 only the two unmarried sisters Amalie and Bertha Salender. Bertha Salender died in 1937 at the age of 92, Amalie Salender is said to have hanged herself on March 19, 1938 because she could no longer bear the loneliness and abuse.

-------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Teterow

A town in the Rostock district in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1492; peak Jewish population: 116 in 1845; Jewish population in 1933: 17

The earliest record of the Jews of Teterow is dated 1492, the same year in which five Jews were burned at the stake and the rest were banished. Records do not mention another Jewish presence in Teterow until 1762, when a Jewish community was founded there. Although troops were posted in Teterow to enforce the anti-Jewish ordinances of 1933, the local population ignored them. Eventually, however, the situation deteriorated to such an extent that by 1935, the Jewish community was forced to disband. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the abandoned synagogue was ransacked and the roof trusses were torn down. A few weeks later, the city declared the building unsafe and a danger to pedestrians, after which it was torn down. The Jewish cemetery was left unharmed, as it was located outside the city. A memorial plaque was later unveiled at the site where the synagogue once stood. Another plaque has been placed at the cemetery, which is considered one of the best-preserved Jewish cemeteries in the area.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Neustrelitz

A town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: approx. 1700; peak Jewish population: 600 in 1802; Jewish population in 1933: 62

During the 1800s, the city of Alt-Strelitz was the most important Jewish community in Mecklenburg, home to the largest Jewish population, the largest synagogue and the most prestigious and respected rabbi in the region. This was made possible by a local duke who welcomed the Jews and allowed them to establish prayer rooms, a cemetery and an elementary school. When the Jewish community outgrew the prayer rooms, Duke Adolf Friedrich IV not only approved the decision to purchase land for a synagogue, but gave of his own money and helped arrange financing for the endeavor. The synagogue—a massive building—was completed in 1763; the inauguration ceremony was attended by local landowners and politicians. Nearly a century later, in 1847, the synagogue was completely renovated, after which it was inaugurated once again. Rabbi Jacob Hamburger served as rabbi for nearly fifty years until his death in 1911. He apparently kept the community together, for it was after his death that many Jews left Alt-Strelitz. Jews and Gentiles coexisted peacefully in Alt-Strelitz until 1935. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), three young Nazis broke into the synagogue, smashed all the windows and set it on fire. Shortly afterwards, the Jewish community was forced to pay for the building’s demolition. In 1988, a memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Stavenhagen

A village in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

First Jewish population: mid-1700s; peak Jewish population: 32 in 1910; Jewish population in 1933: 10

Jews might have lived in Stavenhagen before the 18th century, but the first record of their presence there is from the mid- 1700s. In the early 1800s, the community built a modest synagogue, a community center (alongside the synagogue) and a small cemetery. When the synagogue in nearby Malchin was closed down due to inadequate membership, the two communities merged. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the Stavenhagen synagogue and the town’s two remaining Jewish-owned businesses were destroyed. Due to its proximity to other homes, the synagogue was not set on fire. Instead, the SS headed for the cemetery, where they burned down the chapel and desecrated headstones. In early 1939, the synagogue building was appropriated by a furniture manufacturer who used it as a warehouse; it was, however, later abandoned when it became severely dilapidated. As of this writing, a memorial plaque has never been unveiled at the site, now an empty lot. The municipality of Stavenhagen, however, is planning a proper memorial.

--------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.