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קהילת יהודי בלגראד

בלגראד Beograd

בירת סרביה ויוגוסלביה, בעבר בירת יוגוסלביה רבתי.

יהודים מאיטליה והונגריה התיישבו בבלגראד במאות 14-13, ואחרי הכיבוש הטורקי (1521) נוספו עליהם יהודים ספרדים. רובם התגוררו בתנאים נוחים ברובע היהודי ליד המצודה, והיו ביניהם רופאים, חרשי נשק, בורסקאים וסוחרים. ליהודים הייתה אוטונומיה שיפוטית מוגבלת וזכות לרכוש קרקעות. במחצית השנייה של המאה ה- 17 נתפרסמה הישיבה המקומית בהנהגת הרבנים יהודה לירמא, שמחה הכהן ויוסף אלמושנינו. עם הכיבוש האוסטרי בשנת 1688, ובמצור שקדם לו, נהרגו יהודים רבים. הקהילה נתרחבה והנותרים בחיים נלקחו בשבי והובלו לאוסטריה; לימים נפדו על-ידי קהילת ניקולסבורג.

חילופי השלטון בבלגראד במאות 19-17 נתנו את אותותיהם בחיי הקהילה. היהודים היו נתונים לגירושים ולהגבלות. מצבם השתפר רק לאחר שהוענק ליהודים שוויון-זכויות בעקבות החלטות קונגרס ברלין ב-1878.

עוד ב-1837 התחיל הדפוס הממשלתי הסרבי להדפיס ספרי-קודש בלאדינו, או בעברית עם תרגום בלאדינו, ומשנת 1888 עד סוף שנות ה-90 הופיע בבלגראד כתב-עת בלאדינו בשם "אל אמיגו דל פואבלו" ("ידיד העם"). השכבות העשירות בציבור היהודי נטמעו בתרבות הסרבית. בני הקהילה הוסיפו להתגורר ברובע היהודי, שניזוק קשה במלחמת-העולם הראשונה, ורק אחרי המלחמה התחילה יציאת הנוער מהרובע לקראת השתלבות במקצועות חופשיים, בבנקאות ותעשיית הבגדים. בית-ספר עברי פעל ברובע משנות ה-50 של המאה ה- 19.

בימי מלחמת העולם השנייה, עם כניסת הגרמנים לבלגראד באפריל 1941, ישבו בעיר כ-12,000 יהודים. ביזמת גרמנים תושבי המקום נשדדו חנויות יהודים ובתיהם. את בניין בית הכנסת האשכנזי הפכו הגרמנים לבית בושת ובית-הכנסת הספרדי החדש "בית ישראל" נעשה מחסן לרכוש שגזלו מהיהודים, ופוצץ ערב נסיגת הגרמנים.

הגרמנים הקימו "נציגות יהודית" אחראית לביצוע הצווים שנגזרו על יהודי המקום. הנציגות טיפלה גם בהקמת מטבחים ציבוריים ושירותי רפואה ליהודי בלגראד ול-2,500 היהודים שהובאו לעיר מחבל באנאט שבצפון המדינה. גברים בני 60-14 ונשים בנות 40-14 הועסקו בעבודות מפרכות בעיר.

עם התגברות פעולות המחתרת היהודית, הוציאו הגרמנים להורג יהודים כבני-הערובה. ב-19 ביולי 1941 נורו למוות "קומוניסטים ויהודים".

"הפתרון הסופי" ביהודי בלגראד התחיל באוגוסט-ספטמבר. 5,000 גברים יהודים נאספו כביכול לשם עבודה באוסטריה, ובדרך לשם נורו בידי חיילי הצבא הגרמני הסדיר. 6,000 נשים וילדים שנותרו בבלגראד הועברו בדצמבר למחנה סיאמישטה, ובחודשים פברואר-מרס 1942 נרצחו בקרונות-גאזים. באותו הזמן חוסלו גם אחרוני המאושפזים בבית-החולים ביבודי בבלגראד.

עם שחרור העיר בידי הצבא האדום, באוקטובר 1944, חידשה הקהילה היהודית את פעולותיה, ובשלבים הראשונים נתנה לחוזרים סיוע במזון ובשירותים רפואיים.

האשכנזים והספרדים התמזגו לקהילה מאוחדת, ב-1947 מנתה הקהילה 2,271 נפש; מחציתם עלו לישראל בשנת 1948 עם הקמת המדינה.

בבית-הקברות המרכזי בבלגראד הוקמה יד זכרון ללוחמי המחתרת היהודיים ולחללי הפאשיזם.

ב-1969 התגוררו בבלגראד 1,600 יהודים. התקיים מרכז קהילתי ולידו מקהלה מצויינת, מועדון-נוער וגן-ילדים.

במוזיאון ההיסטורי היהודי בבלגראד שמור חומר תעודי על כל קהילות יגוסלאביה.

לפי רשומי מכון הקונגרס היהודי העולמי, בשנת 1997 ישבו כ- 2,000 יהודים בבלגראד.
סוג מקום:
עיר
מספר פריט:
174993
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:
Karaite scholar and poet

He lived most of his life in a village near Constantinople where he headed the Karaite community but in his later years spent some time in Cetatea Alba (Belgorod-Dnestrovski) and eventually in Belgrade where he died. He had a knowledge of science and philosophy and also several modern languages. Afendopolo wrote at least 24 works as well as liturgical poems, most of them still in manuscript. They often collect citations from other scholars and provide valuable information about works that have been lost. He wrote on religious law, philosophy, scientific books, and poetry.

אלברט וייס (1905 -1964), משפטן ומנהיג קהילה שנולד בזמון, סרביה (אז חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה). הוא למד פילוסופיה וכלכלה בברלין ובפריז וקיבל דוקטורט במשפטים בשנת 1929 מאוניברסיטת זגרב בקרואטיה (שהייתה אז חלק מיוגוסלביה). במהלך מלחמת העולם השנייה הוא היה שבוי מלחמה בגרמניה.

בתום המלחמה וייס היה חבר בוועדה הממלכתית היוגוסלבית לחקר הפשעים שביצעו הכובשים ושותפיהם. בנוסף, הוא היה חבר במשלחת היוגוסלבית במשפטי נירנברג של פושעי המלחמה הנאצים.

וייס עבד כפרופסור למשפטים בבלגרד, סרביה, והרצה על תולדות המשפט והיסטוריה של הציוויליזציה משנת 1947 עד 1964 במחלקה להיסטוריה של המכון למדעי החברה בבלגרד. וייס כיהן כנשיא איחוד הקהילות היהודיות הדתיות ביוגוסלביה בין השנים 1948 עד 1964.

מסיבת נשים -"מותר לעשן ולשתות!"
בלגראד, סרביה, 1890 בקירוב.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות ד"ר רפאל פיאזה, ישראל)
ועידה של פדרציית הקהילות היהודיות,
בלגרד, יוגוסלביה, שנות ה-1960
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות ארגון הקהילות היהודיות של יוגוסלביה, בלגראד)
צעירות מחופשות לחיילים סרבים במסיבת פורים.
בלגרד, סרביה, ראשית המאה ה-20.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות ד"ר רפאל פיאזה, ישראל)
בני הזוג אשרוביץ ביום כלולותיהם עם בני משפחותיהם.
בלגרד, יוגוסלביה, 1937.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות גברא מנדיל, תל אביב)
קרובת משפחה של משפחת פיאזה,
בלבוש מסורתי יהודי-ספרדי מהבלקן.
בלגרד, סרביה, 1890.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות דר' רפאל פיאזה, ישראל)
הילדה גבריאלה-אלה, בתו של גברא קונפינו,
בלגרד, יוגוסלביה, 1925
גבריאלה נישאה למשה מנדיל והיא אמו של גברא מנדיל.
צילום: גברא קונפינו?
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות גברא מנדיל, תל-אביב)
הרב יהודה אלקלעי (1878-1798),
בלגרד, 1862
(מתוך תערוכת בית התפוצות: "ארצה עלינו: מאה שנות עליה ציונית" 1981)
רבקה פיאזה בשמלה ספרדית מסורתית,
בלגראד, סרביה, 1909.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות דר' רפאל פיאזה, ישראל)
משפחת פיאזה.
בלגרד, סרביה, 1904.
(משמאל) שרה דה-מיו.
(המרכז לתיעוד חזותי ע"ש אוסטר, בית התפוצות,
באדיבות דר' רפאל פיאזה, ישראל)

אלברט וייס (1905 -1964), משפטן ומנהיג קהילה שנולד בזמון, סרביה (אז חלק מאוסטריה-הונגריה). הוא למד פילוסופיה וכלכלה בברלין ובפריז וקיבל דוקטורט במשפטים בשנת 1929 מאוניברסיטת זגרב בקרואטיה (שהייתה אז חלק מיוגוסלביה). במהלך מלחמת העולם השנייה הוא היה שבוי מלחמה בגרמניה.

בתום המלחמה וייס היה חבר בוועדה הממלכתית היוגוסלבית לחקר הפשעים שביצעו הכובשים ושותפיהם. בנוסף, הוא היה חבר במשלחת היוגוסלבית במשפטי נירנברג של פושעי המלחמה הנאצים.

וייס עבד כפרופסור למשפטים בבלגרד, סרביה, והרצה על תולדות המשפט והיסטוריה של הציוויליזציה משנת 1947 עד 1964 במחלקה להיסטוריה של המכון למדעי החברה בבלגרד. וייס כיהן כנשיא איחוד הקהילות היהודיות הדתיות ביוגוסלביה בין השנים 1948 עד 1964.

Karaite scholar and poet

He lived most of his life in a village near Constantinople where he headed the Karaite community but in his later years spent some time in Cetatea Alba (Belgorod-Dnestrovski) and eventually in Belgrade where he died. He had a knowledge of science and philosophy and also several modern languages. Afendopolo wrote at least 24 works as well as liturgical poems, most of them still in manuscript. They often collect citations from other scholars and provide valuable information about works that have been lost. He wrote on religious law, philosophy, scientific books, and poetry.
Glid, Nandor (1924-1997), sculptor, born in Subotica, Yugoslavia (now Serbia). During the Nazi occupation he was in a forced labour camp while his family was murdered at Auschwitz in 1944. He later fought with the Yugoslav partisans.

Glid was awarded the Order of the National Merit in 1972, became a professor at the Academy of Applied Arts in Belgrade in 1975, and elected as chairman (1979), and then rector (1985) of Belgrade University of Arts. He began as a portrait scultor but then concentrated on memorials of concentration camp victims. Among his works are the Mauthausen monument in Zavala (Bosnia, 1958), The Ballad of the Hanged (Subotica, 1967), Dachau monument (1968), Yad Vashem monument (Jerusalem, 1979), and the Monument of the Jewish victims of the genocide in Belgrade, on the banks of the River Danube river (1990). This last monument has served as the model for the monument in Thessaloniki, erected in 1997, and whose Jewish population was destroyed by the Nazis.

Rudolf (Rudy) Wetzer (1901-1993), footballer, who played in the National Football Team of Romania at the World Football Championship in Uruguay, in 1930, born in Temesvar, Hungary (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Timisoara in Romania). He played at various clubs, including Chinezul Timișoara, Unirea Timișoara and Juventus București, with which he was three times champion of Romania. He played 17 times in the national team of Romania, scoring 12 goals. His last match with the national team, while playing at Ripensia Timișoara, was in a 2-0 defeat against Bulgaria in Belgrade in 1932.

Wetzer also played in Yugoslavia at BSK Belgrade, where he was known as Rudolf Večer, in Hungary at Újpest FC, where he was known as Rudolf Veder, in France at Hyères FC, and at ILSA Timișoara and Craiovan Craiova clubs in Romania. He is one of the three brothers - the others being Stefan and Ioan - who were all active footballers in teams of the time. He became a coach after his retirement from playing.

In 1958, during the period of repression against opponents and minorities of the Romanian socialist government, Wetzer was prohibited from working, on the grounds of revisionist and bourgeois ideology, indiscipline and anarchism. Wetzer immigrated to Israel and died in Haifa.

Rahela Ferari (born Bella Rochelle Fraynd)(1911-1994), actress, born in Zemun, Serbia (then part of Austria-Hungary). Between 1930 and 1940 she performed at the Serbian National Theater in Novisad, and from 1940 until the German invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941, at the Art Theater in Belgrade. She again performed at the Serbian National Theater in Novisad from 1945 to 1947, and then she was one of the first members of the Yugoslav Drama Theater founded in 1947. In addition, from 1951 until 1993 Ferari appeared in about 90 films, among them Arsenik i stare cipke (1967), Ivanov (1987) and Tako je ako vam se tako cini (1968). Recognized as one of the best Yugoslav actresses after the Second World War, during her lifetime Ferrari was awarded the most prestigious prizes, including Sterija, Sedmojulska and the Dobričin prsten – a prize granted to top actors for their life's achievements. She died in Belgrade

Daniel Ozmo (1912-1942), painter, sculptor and printmaker, born in Olovo, Bosnia and Hercegovina (then part of Austria-Hungary). He grew up in Sarajevo, Bosnia. In 1934 he graduated from the Art School in Belgrade. During his studies in Belgrade he became a member of the Communist progressive youth movement. After his return to Sarajevo, he worked briefly as a professor at the First Gymnasium. He was one of the founders of Mladost (“Youth”), a group of young painters.  

His themes were focused on the life of the working class. Most of his compositions depict the various phases of a work process, the workers and their work sites, factories and sawmills. He accompanied the workers and lived with them in the forests painting their huts where they slept on wooden benches, observed and recorded the work in sawmills. In 1939 he published From Bosnian Forests, a collection of his graphic works unanimously acclaimed as the crowning achievement of his oeuvre. His works were displayed in a number of exhibitions in Sarajevo during 1932-1940 and in Belgrade in 1937.

After Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany and its allies in 1941, Ozmo was arrested and imprisoned in the Jasenovac concentration camp. In Jasenovac he drew camp inmates. In September 1942 he was executed for “spreading disturbing news."

Olga Alkalaj (1907-1942), lawyer and partisan, born in Belgrade, Serbia. She adhered to the Communist movement while attending the high school and then she joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPY) in 1923 while she was a student at the Law School of the University of Belgrade. During the 1930s she was active in Women’s Movement in Belgrade and a member of the Commission for Work with Women at the Provincial Committee of the KPY for Serbia. She became secretary of the Communist party of the Fifth District of the city of Belgrade and a member of the editorial office of the newspaper Žena danas (“Today’s Woman”). At the same time, as a lawyer she defended fellow members of the illegal Communist party in court.

After Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany and its allies in 1941, Alkalaj continued her activities under false identities. In September 1941 she was appointed a member of the Provisional Local Committee of the Yugoslav Communist Party in Belgrade. She was arrested by the Gestapo in November 1941 and tortured in order to obtain information on other members of the Yugoslav resistance. Since she did not disclose any details, she was transferred to the Banjica camp and the to Sajmište concentration camp for Jews. Because of the severe injures suffered during interrogation in Banjica, she was hospitalized in the Jewish hospital. The Communist party organized her escape, but Alkalaj refused to be rescued since her escape would trigger reprisals against the other patients in the hospital. On March 15, 1942, she was taken from the hospital in a Gaswagen (a truck equipped as a mobile gas chamber) and along with other Jews she was murdered by gassing in Jajinci.   

Oskar Danon (1913-2009), composer and conductor, born in Sarajevo, Bosnia (then part of Austria-Hungary). He studied music in his native Yugoslavia, then in Prague, Czech Republic, earning a PhD in musicology from Charles University. He was a conductor in Sarajevo until Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany and its allies in 1941.

During the war, Danon joined the partisan forces led by Josip Broz Tito. He served as deputy commander in a number of partisan battalions and reached the rank of major. In 1944 he was transferred to the Cultural Department of the Partisan General Staff and was one of the founders of the partisan theater and choir. He composed several songs, including Uz Maršala Tita ("Together with Marshal Tito"), the Yugoslav partisan anthem which became popular in German occupied Yugoslavia.

After the war he served as the musical director of the Belgrade Opera between 1944-1965. He was director of Slovenian Philharmonic Orchestra in Ljubljana from 1970 to 1974, of the Radio Zagreb Symphony Orchestra, and of the Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra. Danon conducted the festive concert celebrating 400-year of Sarajevo Jewry held on October 14, 1966 in Sarajevo, attended by representatives of the local government and representatives from Israel.

Danon directed various orchestras in the world, among them the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London (1962-1963), Vienna State Opera (1964), the Verdi Theatre in Trieste, Italy. He recorded a large number of works by Smetana, Enescu, Dvořák, Rimsky-Korsakov, Prokofiev, Stravinsky Saint-Saëns, Wagner, Verdi, Mussorgsky, Puccini, Kalman, Stravinsky, Cesar Franck and others.

Danon was a professor at the Belgrade Music Academy. He was a member and president of the Association of Music Artists of Serbia. Danon was awarded the October Award of the City of Belgrade. He died in Belgrade, Serbia.

Estreja Ovadija Mara (1922-1944), partisan, National Hero of Yugoslavia, born in Bitola (Monastir), North Macedonia (then part of Yugoslavia). She was active in the WIZO organization and then in the League of Communist Youth of Yugoslavia. A textile worked, she worked in Belgrade after 1938 until March 1941, when she returned to Bitola.

After the invasion of Yugoslavia by Germany and its allies in April 1941 she joined the anti-fascist movement that immediately started preparing the armed resistance. Bitola, as part of Yugoslav Macedonia, was occupied by Bulgaria, a German ally. The Bulgarian occupation forces started persecuting the Jews and limiting their movement. In 1942 Ovadija became a member of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. She lived illegally under the assumed name of Mara. Her missions included encouraging Jews to join the partisan units. In March 1943, she managed to escape the deportation of about 3,000 Jews from Bitola to Treblinka Nazi death camp. Along with another seven Jewish girls, including her friend Jamila Angela Isaac Colonomus, she found shelter in the house of Stojan-Bogoja Siljanovski, a tobacconist of Bitola, who hid them during the raid against the Jews conducted by the Bulgarian and German forces. On November 28, 1989, Yad Vashem recognized Stojan-Bogoja Siljanovski as Righteous Among the Nations.  

In April 1943 she joined the Goce Delcev partisan unit taking part in all the battles fought by this unit at Fuštan, Tušin and Kožuf against Bulgarian and German military. Ovadija served as deputy political commissar of her company within the Third Macedonian Brigade of partisans and on August 22, 1944, she was appointed political commissar of a battalion of the Seventh Macedonian Brigade. Four days later, on August 26, 1944, she was killed in action during a battle with Bulgarian border guards on Kajmakcalan summit.

On October 11, 1953, by order of the President of Yugoslavia, Iosip Broz Tito, Estreja Ovadija Mara was proclaimed a National Hero of Yugoslavia – the highest medal for wartime bravery in Yugoslavia. She was the only Jewish woman ever to receive this designation.  

Rosa Papo (1914-1984), physician, Major General of the Yugoslav Army, born in Sarajevo, Bosnia (then part of Austria-Hungary). She studied medecine at the University of Zagreb and before WW 2 she worked as a physician in various hospitals in Sarajevo, Begov Han and Olovo in Bosnia, then part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After Yugoslavia was invaded by Germany and its allies in April 1941, Papo joined the partisans led by Josip Broz Tito in December 1941 and became commander of a field hospital of the Ozren unit of partisans. In 1942 she became a member of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. Papo was in charge of the recruitment system for the health service of the partisan forces and was appointed commander of the field hospitals operated by the partisans. In 1942 she was wounded during an enemy air raid and lost one eye. Papo was advanced to the rank of captain in 1943 and a major in 1945. Most of her family, including the parents and two siblings, were killed in concentration camps. 

After WW2, Papo continued her professional medical career in the Yugoslav Army. She completed her specialization in epidemiology and was the first head of the newly formed Infectious Diseases Clinic (1961) at the Military Medical Academy (VMA). From 1965 to 1970 she was a member of the newly formed Clinic for Infectious Diseases. Author of over 50 research papers, she became a professor at the Military Medical Academy and served as president of the Central Military Medical Commission.

In 1973 Papo was advanced to the rank of Major General, the first woman to reach the rank of general not only in the Yugoslav Army, but in any other army of the Balkan countries.

Paulina Lebl-Albala (1891-1967), writer, translator and professor of literature, feminist activist, born in Belgrade, Serbia. She attended high school in Nis, Serbia, and then the Teachers' School and the First Women's Gymnasium in Belgrade, from 1905 to 1909. She continued her studies at Faculty of Philology of the University of Belgrade, graduating in Serbian and French literature in 1913.

She started her literary career as a member of the literary society Nada. Upon graduation she translated a number of works into Serbian and at the same time was employed as a teacher at the Women's High School in Belgrade. In 1920 she married Dr. David Albala (1886-1942).

In parallel she became a feminist activist. Lebl-Albala was a member of Drustvo za prosvećivanje žene i zaštitu njenih prava ("Society for Women's Enlightenment and Protection of their Rights") and in 1925 she was a co-founder of the Udruženje univerzitetski obrazovanih žena (UUOZ; Association of University-Educated Women; 1927), and served as the organization's president.

In 1940, along with her husband, she travelled to United States settling in Washington, DC, where she campaigned for Yugoslav and Jewish issues and worked for several film companies. After her husband’s death in 1942, she moved to New York. She returned to Yugoslavia after WW2. In 1948 she immigrated to Israel, but left for Rome, Italy, staying there from 1951 to 1953, then she moved to Windsor, ON, in Canada, before settling in Los Angeles, California.             

Lebl-Albala published dozens of books, articles and various translations throughout her career, including Razvoj universitetskog obrazovanja naših žena (“Development of university education of our women”, 1930), Teorija književnosti i analiza pismenih sastava za srednje i stručne škole (“Theory of Literature and Analysis of Written Compositions for Secondary and Vocational Schools”, 1923, 1930 – co-authored with Katarina Bogdanović), Deset godina rada Udruženja univerzitetski obrazovanih žena u Jugoslaviji: 1928-1938 (“Ten years of work of the Association of University Educated Women in Yugoslavia: 1928-1938”, 1939), Yugoslav women fight for freedom (1943), Dr. Albala as a Jewish National Worker (1943), Izabrana proza (“Selected Prose”, 1951), and Tako je nekad bilo ("That's how it once was", 2005) – a compilation of her memoirs.

She contributed with essays, literary discussions, criticism, reviews, stories, travel articles about women and youth, to numerous newspapers and periodicals, including Moderna žena ("Modern Women"), Misao, Ženski pokret, Prilozi, Strani pregled, Politika, Javnost, Naša stvarnost, and Krug.

Nisim Albahari (1916-1991), partisan and politician, born in Tešanj, Bosnia (then part of Austria-Hungary). His family moved to Sarajevo, where he attended high school. Albahari joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia in 1935. Since Communist activities and organizations were illegal in Yugoslavia during the 1930s, he was arrested and sentenced to one year in prison, but after he was freed, Albahari continued to be active in the Communist party and the affiliated trade unions. Having been imprisoned for a second time in 1940 and sent to a concentration camp in Ivanjica. He managed to get out of the prison after Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany and its allies in April 1941.

Albahari joined the partisan forces led by Josip Broz Tito and was instrumental in organizing the resistance against the Axis occupation. He worked on gathering weapons and medical supplies, strengthening party organizations, and the formation of the first partisan detachments in the region of Sarajevo. He was caught and tortured by the Ustasa Croatian Fascist forces in Sarajevo. He managed to escape from prison with the help of the underground resistance and returned to the partisans. He advanced from the rank of political commissar of a partisan battalion to that of intelligence commander of the 3rd Army of the Yugoslav Partisans that liberated large Yugoslav territories in Slavonia, Croatia, and Slovenia.

After the war, Albahari served as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was president of the Federation of Trade Unions of Sarajevo, member of parliament and Minister of Labor of the Yugoslav Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He was also the President of the Organizational and Political Council of the Assembly of Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and member of the Federation Council of Yugoslavia.

In November 1953, Albahari was proclaimed a National Hero of Yugoslavia – the highest medal for wartime bravery in Yugoslavia.

His two younger brothers, David and Chaim Albahari, joined the partisan forces and were killed in action.

Julia Batino (1914-1942), women's rights activist, community leader and antifascist, born in Bitola (Monastir), North Macedonia (then part of Serbia). Batino was involved with the Jewish community of Bitola and its Zionist organizations. In 1934, when she was only 20 years old, Batino became President of the Bitola branch of WIZO in 1934. Her efforts were directed to the emancipation of Jewish women. With the help of the Jewish community of Belgrade, she managed to arrange for a number of Jewish girls of Bitola to study or work in the Yugoslav capital. Estreja Ovadija Mara, later a partisan commander, was one of those that Batino helped to travel to Belgrade. After Yugoslavia was invaded by Germany and its allies, Batino was arrested and sent to Jasenovac concentration camp where she died.  

Jankel Adler (born Jakub "Jankiel" Adler) (1895-1949), painter and engraver, born in Tuszyn, Poland (then part of the Russian Empire) into a Hassidic family. In 1912 he moved to Belgrade, Serbia, where he studied engraving with his uncle. Following various trips in the Balcans, he moved to Germany settling in Barmen (now a district of Wuppertal) in 1913. He continued his studies at the Decorative Arts Academy of Düsseldorf with Gustave Wiethüchter until 1914. During WW1, he was drafted in the Russian Army, was captured by the Germans, but he was released after a short time. He returned to Poland in 1918 where he was one of the founders of the Yung-Yiddish literary group in Lodz in 1919. In 1920 he moved to Duesseldorf, Germany, and became a teacher at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. Adler travelled to Mallorca and the Iberian Peninsula during 1929-1930. He participated to exhibitions in Berlin, where he lived during early 1930s.

Following the rise to power of the Nazis in 1933, he left Germany and moved to Paris. In 1933 two of his paintings were displayed by the Nazis at the Mannheimer Arts Center as examples of “degenerate art”. During the 1930s he travelled extensively through Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. At the outbreak of WW2, he volunteered to fight in the Polish Army in France. After the retreat of the Polish units from Continental Europe, he arrived in Scotland. He was released from military service for medical reasons and settled in Kirkcudbright, Scotland, before moving to London in 1943. After the war he learned than none of his nine siblings survived the Holocaust. Adler died in Whitley Cottage, England.

Many of his paintings have Jewish themes, he also painted a few abstract compositions. His works are on display at Pinakothek der Moderne in Munich, Tate museum in London, Jewish Museum in Berlin, and Von der Heydt Museum in Wuppertal. 

Eva Nahir (born Eva Kalman, aka Eva Panić) (1919-2015), activist, born in Čakovec, Croatia (then part of Austria-Hungary). Her father, Bela Kalman, was a wealthy textile merchant and her mother was an accountant who managed the budget of the family business. They lived in a large villa and Eva had a comfortable and happy childhood with private tutors, caregivers and maids. Already at the age of six she went on vacation to Venice followed by tours to the prestigious museums, theaters and opera houses of Budapest and Vienna. She became involved in the activities of the Zionist youth movements in in Čakovec.

She married the Serbian cavalry officer Radoslav (Rada) Panić and moved to Zemun in the outskirts of Belgrade. Through her husband she became involved into left-wing political activities. After the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, she took refuge in the village of Mali Kruševi, where her husband was born. She and her husband joined the partisans led by Iosip Broz Tito. Eva and her husband later moved to the town of Varvarin in Serbia. Their home was a place of refuge and hiding for Serbs who were wanted by the Germans. Eva, who acted as an agent in Tito's partisan service, transferred weapons, money, forged documents, and helped the fugitives escape deportation to concentration camps.

After the establishment of the Communist regime in Yugoslavia, her husband was appointed a senior officer in the cavalry battalion of the Ministry of the Interior, as a sign of appreciation for his contribution to the fight against the Nazis. However, in 1951 he was arrested on charges of being a “Stalinist”, “Soviet spy”, and an “enemy of the people”. While in prison he committed suicide. Eva, the mother of a six-year girl, was asked to sign a statement denouncing her husband. Following her refusal, she was arrested and deported to the Goli Otok women's penitentiary on Sveti Grgur island on the Adriatic coast. She was detained there for 20 months through November 1953.

She immigrated to Israel in 1966 following her daughter Tijana. She settled in the Kibbutz Shaar Haamakim and married Moshe Nahir, one of the founders of the kibbutz. She was active in the Socialist-oriented MAPAM party and in other left-wing organizations, especially those advocating co-operation with the Israeli Arabs and the neighboring Arab countries. She served as the nutritionist of the kibbutz for years, and then moved on to run the kibbutz club. She was also active in the Association of Jews from the former Yugoslavia.

In 1989, the Serbian novelist Danilo Kiš, accompanied by journalist Raoul Teitelbaum, made a documentary about her life for the Yugoslav television. Kiš died before the four-hour film, Naked Life, directed by Alexander Mandic, was screened during four consecutive evenings on TV in Yugoslavia. The film became the talk of the day in Yugoslavia. It was the first direct testimony to what happened in Tito's horrific women's prison at Goli Otok. In 2002 her story was reworked as Eva, a film shown on Israeli television.  

ואלונה

עיר נמל באלבניה.

מסוף המאה ה-15 הצטרפו ליהודי ואלונה פליטים מספרד ומדרום- איטליה ותרמו רבות לפיתוח הסחר עם ונציה וארצות הבאלקאן. דוד מסר ליאון, בעל "תהילה לדוד", היה רבה של ואלונה ב-1512, הוא פרש מכהונתו בגלל מחלוקת שנפלה בין יוצאי ספרד ליוצאי פורטוגאל. ב- 1565 תמכו יהודי המקום בחרם שהטילה על העיר אנקונה דונה גראסיה מנדס. במצור הוונציאני בשנת 1691 ברחו רבים וחזרו אחרי נצחון הטורקים.

במאה ה-18 נידלדלה הקהילה וב-1904 לא מנתה אלא 50 נפש. ב-1961 נמצאו בעיר משפחות יהודיות ספורות.

בשנת 1997 נמצאו באלבניה כולה 25 יהודים.

זמון Zemun

(בגרמנית זמלין)

עיר בסרביה, יוגוסלביה.


ב-1739 נמלטו לזמון 20 משפחות מבלגראד, שנפלה אז לידי הטורקים, והקימו קהילה משגשגת תחת שלטון אוסטריה. הקהילה זכתה להכרה רשמית ב-1746. כעבור שנים מספר היה בזמון "רחוב יהודי", בית-כנסת ובית-ספר יהודי.

בין היהודים היו צורפי-זהב ועובדי זכוכית. במסחר היו היהודים מופלים לרעה; נאסר עליהם לסחור בעורות ובמשקאות חריפים, וגילדת הסוחרים העירונית ביקשה להגביל את פעולתם למסחר בפסולת ברזל בלבד.

ב-1772 הותר ליהודים להתיישב בזמון ללא הגבלה, וזאת כאות הוקרה לתועלת שהביאו לעיר, אך כעבור שנה אחת בלבד הוגבל ההיתר לתושבים המקוריים ולצאצאיהם בלבד.

בסוף המאה ה-18 מנתה קהילת זמון כ-160 נפש.

ב-1804 ייצרו יהודי המקום נשק בשביל המורדים הסרביים בראשות קאקאגיאורגיו וכעבור שנתיים נאלצו לספק נשק לטורקים.

במחצית הראשונה של המאה ה-19 ניתן היתר-מגורים ל-30 משפחות יהודיות נוספות, וב-1862 ביקשה העירייה להכניס יותר יהודים לזמון כדי שתוכל לתפוש את מקומה של בלגראד כמרכז מסחרי באיזור; אולם רק ב-1881 בוטלו ההגבלות על התיישבות יהודים בעיר.

בשנים 1843-1825 הנהיג את קהילת זמון ר' יהודה חי אלקלעי, ממבשרי הציונות. שמעון לב הרצל, סבו של זאב בנימין הרצל, היה מחסידי הרב אלקלעי ובין המשפחות המיוחסות בעיר. הוא נקבר בזמון ואילו בנו יעקב, אביו של הרצל, עבר לבודאפשט.

ערב מלחמת העולם השנייה ישבו בזמון למעלה מ- 500 יהודים.


תקופת השואה

בימי המלחמה, בשנת 1941, נרצחו רוב 500 יהודי זמון בקסרקטין המקומי ששימש מחנה-מעצר ליהודים. בין הנרצחים היה הסופר והמלחין אריך (אלישע) סאמלאיץ'.

Serbia

Република Србија / Republika Srbija - Republic of Serbia

A country in southeastern Europe in the Balkan peninsula, a former Yugoslav republic.

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 1,400 out of 7,000,000 (0.02%). Main umbrella organization of the Jewish communities:

Savez Jevrejskih Opština Srbije (Federation of Jewish Communities of Serbia)
Phone: 381 11 262-1837
Fax: 381 11 262-2674
Email: office@savezjos.org
Website: www.savezjos.org