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הפריט שבחרת:
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רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות

קהילת יהודי שמיהיים

SCHMIEHEIM 

A village n the district of Ortenau in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: 1624; peak Jewish population: 580 in 1864; Jewish population in 1933: 120

Schmieheim’s regional Jewish cemetery, consecrated in 1682, became the largest in South Baden. Although the town’s Jewish community had established a synagogue in 1720, a new one was opened on Schlossstrasse in 1814: it accommodated 62 men, and was renovated in 1846, 1875 and 1910. By 1855, 120 students attended Schmieheim’s Jewish school (opened in the 1830s and closed in 1876). In 1933, a teacher from Kuppenheim instructed the town’s Jewish schoolchildren. A Jewish women’s association was active in Schmieheim that year. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), Jewish homes were vandalized, a Jew was assaulted and the synagogue’s interior was demolished. The mayor not only prevented the synagogue building being burned down, but arranged for the protection of Jewish businesses. Twenty-eight men, however, were sent to Dachau. Thirty-two local Jews emigrated, 61 relocated in Germany, 17 died in the town and 14 were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. Eight elderly Jews remained after the deportations: one died in the town, and the others were deported to the Nazi concentration camps in Eastern Europe from different locations in 1941/1942. At least 45 Schmieheim Jews died in the Shoah. In 2001, a geniza (storeroom for holy books) was found in the residential building now standing on the former synagogue site. The cemetery was renovated in 1959.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

סוג מקום:
כפר
מספר פריט:
16743014
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:

ALTDORF

A municipality in the district of Böblingen in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: approx. 1570; peak Jewish population: 313 in 1855; Jewish population in 1933: 51

The Jewish community of Altdorf was founded in the early 18th century. By that century’s end, the community had hired a rabbi and consecrated a synagogue and mikveh. A new synagogue of Moorish design was inaugurated in Altdorf in 1868. Altdorf ’s Jewish school, established in 1835, was shut down, as were all confessional schools in Baden, in 1876. Jewish burials were conducted in Schmieheim. In 1933, the 51 Jews of Altdorf still maintained a chevra kadisha and a Bikur Cholim; a teacher from Kippenheim instructed three children in religion. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), SA men broke into the synagogue, smashed windows and doors and destroyed the furniture and ritual objects. Jewish homes were heavily damaged, and eight Jewish men were sent to Dachau. In total, 15 local Jews emigrated, 20 relocated within Germany and four died in Altdorf. The remaining 12 Jews were deported to the camp in Gurs (France) on October 22, 1940. At least 22 Altdorf Jews perished in the Shoah. The synagogue was used as a factory after 1945. In 1962, the Jewish community of Karlsruhe suggested that a memorial plaque be affixed to the building, but the town council turned down the request. It was not until 1998, in fact, that a plaque was unveiled there. The building is now a cultural center.

----------------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

ETTENHEIM

A town in the Ortenau district in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 13th century; peak Jewish population: 92 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 31

Ettenheim’s first Jewish community was destroyed in the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. A new community was established there during the 1660s, and although a decree initially forbade Jews from building a synagogue, they were permitted to establish prayer rooms in private residences. They also built a mikveh, but townspeople destroyed it in 1778. The first reference to a synagogue is dated 1816, and we also know that a new house of worship was inaugurated on Alleestrasse in 1881.

By the mid-1920s, as a result of Jewish emigration, the synagogue was no longer in use. In 1933, a teacher from Schmieheim instructed two children in religion. Later, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s interior was destroyed and its contents burned; Jewish homes and businesses were heavily damaged during the pogrom. The synagogue was later sold to a tannery. Five surviving Torah scrolls were transferred to Freiburg im Breisgau in 1947. Although many Jews fled Ettenheim, seven actually moved there after 1933. In all, 25 local Jews emigrated, 12 relocated within Germany and three died in Ettenheim. On October 22, 1940, the town’s last Jewish family was deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. At least four Ettenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. A plaque was unveiled at the town hall in 1969.

-----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

 

FRIESENHEIM 

A municipality in the Ortenau district in western Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1452; peak Jewish population: 135 in 1880; Jewish population in 1933: 33

The Jewish community of Friesenheim dates back to the 17th century. Prayers were initially conducted in a private residence, but in the 1820s a proper synagogue was established in the town. Local Jews conducted burials at the Schmieheim cemetery, and we also know that the community maintained a mikveh. By the 1920s, because it had become difficult to find the 10 men necessary for a minyan, services were sometimes conducted together with the Diersburg community. In 1933, the 33 Jews of Friesenheim maintained a chevra kadisha and a bikur cholim (a society for visiting the sick). The synagogue building was not damaged on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), but its Torah scrolls and ritual objects were destroyed; several Jews were sent to Dachau. Thirteen Friesenheim Jews emigrated, five relocated within Germany and three died in Friesenheim. On October 22, 1940, nine local Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. One Jewish couple remained in the town after the deportation: the husband committed suicide in April 1942, and his wife was deported to Izbica Nazi death camp. At least 22 Friesenheim Jews perished during the Shoah. The synagogue, bought in 1940 for a fraction of its actual cost by the municipality, was sold in 1944. The building was demolished in 1990. In 1995, the road leading to it was renamed Synagogengasse (“Synagogue Alley”); a plaque has been unveiled at the site.

--------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

KIPPENHEIM 

A town in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1654; peak Jewish population: 323 in 1871; Jewish population in 1933: 144

This community established a prayer room in or around 1750, a synagogue in 1794, a new synagogue at Poststrasse in 1852 and a school in the 1830s, the last of which was presided over by a teacher who also served as the chazzan. Burials were conducted in the Schmieheim community’s cemetery, with which Kippenheim also shared a mikveh. Stef Wertheimer, the Israeli industrialist, was born in Kippenheim in 1926. Several Jewish associations were active in Kippenheim in 1933, and the teacher instructed 10 schoolchildren that year.The community continued to offer activities and lectures well into the Nazi period. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), furniture and ritual objects from the synagogue were destroyed, as were its doors and windows. The building was set on fire, but residents extinguished the blaze out of fear for the safety of their own houses. Eleven Jewish men were sent to Dachau. Ninety-three Kippenheim Jews emigrated, seven died in Kippenheim, one committed suicide and 31, the last, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. At least 31 Kippenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. The Jewish Restitution Successor Organization sold the synagogue after the war. In 1981, the town of Kippenheim acquired the building and declared it a national cultural monument. It has been used as a memorial and social hall since 2003.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

LAHR

A city in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: unknown; peak Jewish population: 143 in 1905; Jewish population in 1933: 96

The Jewish community of Lahr was destroyed during the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. It was not until 1862 that Jews were allowed to return to Lahr; in 1888, they established a community and inaugurated a prayer hall on Bismarckstrasse. Although local Jews were able to maintain a school—the teacher also served as the shochet and chazzan— they conducted burials in nearby Schmieheim. Prominent local Jews included the Weil family, whose steel plant was one of the largest in Europe. The prayer hall was sold in September 1938, after which prayers were conducted in a private residence. Later on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), rioters ravaged Jewish-owned homes and businesses, demolished the former prayer hall and threw out its ritual objects. Jews were dragged from their homes, and the men were sent to Dachau. The following morning, the remaining Jews were marched through the town. In 1939, those Jews who still lived in Lahr were forcibly moved into so-called “Jews’ houses.” Thirty-nine Lahr Jews emigrated, 30 relocated within Germany, nine died in Lahr and 21 were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France in October 1940. Three Jews who were married to Christians managed to remain in Lahr, but a fourth was deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1945. At least 61 local Jews perished in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was later affixed to the Bismarckstrasse building.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

RUST

A town in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1676; peak Jewish population: 219 in 1864; Jewish population in 1933: 26

The Jewish community of Rust established a prayer room in 1746, a synagogue on Ritterstrasse in 1857 and an elementary school in 1835. As was the case with all of Baden’s confessional schools, Rust’s Jewish school was closed in 1876, after which the community employed a teacher who also served as a chazzan and shochet. Burials were conducted at the Schmieheim cemetery. By the early 1930s it had become impossible to find enough men for a minyan; accordingly, the town’s remaining Jews prayed in Altdorf. In 1933, a teacher from Emmendingen instructed Rust’s schoolchildren in religion. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), SA men broke into the synagogue and demolished the interior. Jewish homes were damaged, and three men were sent to Dachau. Seventeen local Jews emigrated, one moved to Berlin and nine, the last, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. Seven were released from the camp, and emigrated from Germany. At least 26 local Jews were murdered in the Shoah. The synagogue building was heavily damaged by French artillery in 1940. In 1941, the municipality bought the site; and in 1965, a bank purchased the building and pulled it down. A memorial plaque has been affixed to the warehouse constructed on the site where the synagogue once stood.

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This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

במאגרי המידע הפתוחים
גניאולוגיה יהודית
שמות משפחה
קהילות יהודיות
תיעוד חזותי
מרכז המוזיקה היהודית
מקום
אA
אA
אA
רוצה לעזור לנו לשפר את התוכן? אפשר לשלוח הצעות
קהילת יהודי שמיהיים

SCHMIEHEIM 

A village n the district of Ortenau in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany. 

First Jewish presence: 1624; peak Jewish population: 580 in 1864; Jewish population in 1933: 120

Schmieheim’s regional Jewish cemetery, consecrated in 1682, became the largest in South Baden. Although the town’s Jewish community had established a synagogue in 1720, a new one was opened on Schlossstrasse in 1814: it accommodated 62 men, and was renovated in 1846, 1875 and 1910. By 1855, 120 students attended Schmieheim’s Jewish school (opened in the 1830s and closed in 1876). In 1933, a teacher from Kuppenheim instructed the town’s Jewish schoolchildren. A Jewish women’s association was active in Schmieheim that year. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), Jewish homes were vandalized, a Jew was assaulted and the synagogue’s interior was demolished. The mayor not only prevented the synagogue building being burned down, but arranged for the protection of Jewish businesses. Twenty-eight men, however, were sent to Dachau. Thirty-two local Jews emigrated, 61 relocated in Germany, 17 died in the town and 14 were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. Eight elderly Jews remained after the deportations: one died in the town, and the others were deported to the Nazi concentration camps in Eastern Europe from different locations in 1941/1942. At least 45 Schmieheim Jews died in the Shoah. In 2001, a geniza (storeroom for holy books) was found in the residential building now standing on the former synagogue site. The cemetery was renovated in 1959.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי

אלטדורף

ALTDORF

A municipality in the district of Böblingen in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: approx. 1570; peak Jewish population: 313 in 1855; Jewish population in 1933: 51

The Jewish community of Altdorf was founded in the early 18th century. By that century’s end, the community had hired a rabbi and consecrated a synagogue and mikveh. A new synagogue of Moorish design was inaugurated in Altdorf in 1868. Altdorf ’s Jewish school, established in 1835, was shut down, as were all confessional schools in Baden, in 1876. Jewish burials were conducted in Schmieheim. In 1933, the 51 Jews of Altdorf still maintained a chevra kadisha and a Bikur Cholim; a teacher from Kippenheim instructed three children in religion. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), SA men broke into the synagogue, smashed windows and doors and destroyed the furniture and ritual objects. Jewish homes were heavily damaged, and eight Jewish men were sent to Dachau. In total, 15 local Jews emigrated, 20 relocated within Germany and four died in Altdorf. The remaining 12 Jews were deported to the camp in Gurs (France) on October 22, 1940. At least 22 Altdorf Jews perished in the Shoah. The synagogue was used as a factory after 1945. In 1962, the Jewish community of Karlsruhe suggested that a memorial plaque be affixed to the building, but the town council turned down the request. It was not until 1998, in fact, that a plaque was unveiled there. The building is now a cultural center.

----------------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

אטנהיים

ETTENHEIM

A town in the Ortenau district in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 13th century; peak Jewish population: 92 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 31

Ettenheim’s first Jewish community was destroyed in the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. A new community was established there during the 1660s, and although a decree initially forbade Jews from building a synagogue, they were permitted to establish prayer rooms in private residences. They also built a mikveh, but townspeople destroyed it in 1778. The first reference to a synagogue is dated 1816, and we also know that a new house of worship was inaugurated on Alleestrasse in 1881.

By the mid-1920s, as a result of Jewish emigration, the synagogue was no longer in use. In 1933, a teacher from Schmieheim instructed two children in religion. Later, on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), the synagogue’s interior was destroyed and its contents burned; Jewish homes and businesses were heavily damaged during the pogrom. The synagogue was later sold to a tannery. Five surviving Torah scrolls were transferred to Freiburg im Breisgau in 1947. Although many Jews fled Ettenheim, seven actually moved there after 1933. In all, 25 local Jews emigrated, 12 relocated within Germany and three died in Ettenheim. On October 22, 1940, the town’s last Jewish family was deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. At least four Ettenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. A plaque was unveiled at the town hall in 1969.

-----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

 

פריזנהיים

FRIESENHEIM 

A municipality in the Ortenau district in western Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1452; peak Jewish population: 135 in 1880; Jewish population in 1933: 33

The Jewish community of Friesenheim dates back to the 17th century. Prayers were initially conducted in a private residence, but in the 1820s a proper synagogue was established in the town. Local Jews conducted burials at the Schmieheim cemetery, and we also know that the community maintained a mikveh. By the 1920s, because it had become difficult to find the 10 men necessary for a minyan, services were sometimes conducted together with the Diersburg community. In 1933, the 33 Jews of Friesenheim maintained a chevra kadisha and a bikur cholim (a society for visiting the sick). The synagogue building was not damaged on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), but its Torah scrolls and ritual objects were destroyed; several Jews were sent to Dachau. Thirteen Friesenheim Jews emigrated, five relocated within Germany and three died in Friesenheim. On October 22, 1940, nine local Jews were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France. One Jewish couple remained in the town after the deportation: the husband committed suicide in April 1942, and his wife was deported to Izbica Nazi death camp. At least 22 Friesenheim Jews perished during the Shoah. The synagogue, bought in 1940 for a fraction of its actual cost by the municipality, was sold in 1944. The building was demolished in 1990. In 1995, the road leading to it was renamed Synagogengasse (“Synagogue Alley”); a plaque has been unveiled at the site.

--------------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

קיפנהיים

KIPPENHEIM 

A town in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1654; peak Jewish population: 323 in 1871; Jewish population in 1933: 144

This community established a prayer room in or around 1750, a synagogue in 1794, a new synagogue at Poststrasse in 1852 and a school in the 1830s, the last of which was presided over by a teacher who also served as the chazzan. Burials were conducted in the Schmieheim community’s cemetery, with which Kippenheim also shared a mikveh. Stef Wertheimer, the Israeli industrialist, was born in Kippenheim in 1926. Several Jewish associations were active in Kippenheim in 1933, and the teacher instructed 10 schoolchildren that year.The community continued to offer activities and lectures well into the Nazi period. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), furniture and ritual objects from the synagogue were destroyed, as were its doors and windows. The building was set on fire, but residents extinguished the blaze out of fear for the safety of their own houses. Eleven Jewish men were sent to Dachau. Ninety-three Kippenheim Jews emigrated, seven died in Kippenheim, one committed suicide and 31, the last, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. At least 31 Kippenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. The Jewish Restitution Successor Organization sold the synagogue after the war. In 1981, the town of Kippenheim acquired the building and declared it a national cultural monument. It has been used as a memorial and social hall since 2003.

---------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

לאר

LAHR

A city in the Black Forest region in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: unknown; peak Jewish population: 143 in 1905; Jewish population in 1933: 96

The Jewish community of Lahr was destroyed during the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. It was not until 1862 that Jews were allowed to return to Lahr; in 1888, they established a community and inaugurated a prayer hall on Bismarckstrasse. Although local Jews were able to maintain a school—the teacher also served as the shochet and chazzan— they conducted burials in nearby Schmieheim. Prominent local Jews included the Weil family, whose steel plant was one of the largest in Europe. The prayer hall was sold in September 1938, after which prayers were conducted in a private residence. Later on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), rioters ravaged Jewish-owned homes and businesses, demolished the former prayer hall and threw out its ritual objects. Jews were dragged from their homes, and the men were sent to Dachau. The following morning, the remaining Jews were marched through the town. In 1939, those Jews who still lived in Lahr were forcibly moved into so-called “Jews’ houses.” Thirty-nine Lahr Jews emigrated, 30 relocated within Germany, nine died in Lahr and 21 were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France in October 1940. Three Jews who were married to Christians managed to remain in Lahr, but a fourth was deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1945. At least 61 local Jews perished in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was later affixed to the Bismarckstrasse building.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

רוסט

RUST

A town in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

First Jewish presence: 1676; peak Jewish population: 219 in 1864; Jewish population in 1933: 26

The Jewish community of Rust established a prayer room in 1746, a synagogue on Ritterstrasse in 1857 and an elementary school in 1835. As was the case with all of Baden’s confessional schools, Rust’s Jewish school was closed in 1876, after which the community employed a teacher who also served as a chazzan and shochet. Burials were conducted at the Schmieheim cemetery. By the early 1930s it had become impossible to find enough men for a minyan; accordingly, the town’s remaining Jews prayed in Altdorf. In 1933, a teacher from Emmendingen instructed Rust’s schoolchildren in religion. On Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938), SA men broke into the synagogue and demolished the interior. Jewish homes were damaged, and three men were sent to Dachau. Seventeen local Jews emigrated, one moved to Berlin and nine, the last, were deported to Gurs concentration camp in France on October 22, 1940. Seven were released from the camp, and emigrated from Germany. At least 26 local Jews were murdered in the Shoah. The synagogue building was heavily damaged by French artillery in 1940. In 1941, the municipality bought the site; and in 1965, a bank purchased the building and pulled it down. A memorial plaque has been affixed to the warehouse constructed on the site where the synagogue once stood.

----------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.