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קהילת יהודי מארגיטה

מארגיטה Marghita

(במקורות היהודיים מארגארעטען)

עיר בטראנסילבאניה הצפונית, רומניה. עד סוף מלחמת-העולם הראשונה ובשנים 1940-45 חלק מהונגריה.


ראשית היישוב היהודי במארגיטה במאה ה-18; היהודים היו כנראה מהעיירה הסמוכה פטרה. בסוף המאה התארגנה קהילה ורב בראשה. בית-כנסת הוקם ב- 1862. ב-1900 מנתה הקהילה 944 יהודים (%18 מכלל האוכלוסייה), ב- 1930 - 1,623 (%26.7).

הקהילה הייתה אורתודוכסית מתחילתה והורגשה בה השפעה חסידית. השפעת החסידות התחזקה בתקופה שבין שתי מלחמות-העולם.

בניו של בעל השו"ת ר' יהושע אהרן צבי ויינברגר כיהנו כרבנים וכראשי הישיבה במקום ברציפות עד למלחמת העולם השנייה, להוציא תקופה קצרה אחרי 1850, כאשר הרב הלל ליכטנשטיין היה רב העיר.

בין שתי מלחמות-העולם פעל במארגיטה בית-דפוס יהודי.


בימי מלחמת העולם השנייה, בקיץ 1941, נלקחו יהודי מארגיטה לגיטו בעיר אוראדיה, ומשם שולחו למחנה ההשמדה אושוויץ.


אחרי המלחמה חזרו למארגיטה כמה יהודים, וב-1947 התאספו בעיר 500 יהודים; מקצתם עלו לישראל ומקצתם היגרו למקומות אחרים.

ב-1970 התגוררו במארגיטה 10 משפחות יהודיות בתוך אוכלוסייה של 12,000.
סוג מקום:
עיירה
מספר פריט:
151658
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:

Hillel Ben Barukh Lichtenstein (1815-1891) Rabbi.

He was born at Vecs and was elected rabbi of Marghita in 1850. He was invited to serve as rabbi in Cluj in 1852 but, owing to the objection of another rabbi, was only appointed deputy rabbi and eventually returned to Marghita. In 1865 he became rabbi in Szikszo and two years later in Kolomyya, Galicia, where he remained until his death. He was the outspoken leader of the Orthodox extremists in Hungary, not only resisting the slightest deviation from modern ritual but denouncing the acquisition of modern social manners and secular education. He also opposed any moves for political Emancipation. Lichtenstein was a powerful preacher and popular writer, author of many rabbinic works.

Violeta Friedman (1930-2000), Holocaust survivor and author, born in Marghita, Romania. She was deported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp along with her family in 1944. Except for her sister Eva, her entire family – parents, grandparents and a 93-year-old great-grandmother – were murdered at Auschwitz. She was liberated from Auschwitz by the Soviet Army in January 1945. After WW II, she settled in Canada, and then moved to Caracas, Venezuela. In 1965 she immigrated to Spain along with one of her daughters.

In 1985 she took legal action against Leon Degrelle, a former SS officer sentenced to death in absentia by a Belgian court who found asylum in Spain. In an interview with the Tiempo magazine, Degrelle, one of the founding fathers of Holocaust denial, again denied the Holocaust and expressed anti-Semitic opinions. Friedman’s legal battle continued until 1991, when the Spanish Constitutional Court (TC) ruled that Degrelle had offended the Holocaust victims’ memory. This ruling served as a basis for a reform of the Spanish Penal Code. In 1995 she published Mis Memorias (“My Memories”), a book about her tragic story since, at the age of 14, she was taken from her home with her family and deported to Auschwitz until her life in Madrid. Friedman died in Madrid.

Romania

România

A country in eastern Europe, member of the European Union (EU)

21st Century

Estimated Jewish population in 2018: 9,000 out of 19,500,000.  Before the Holocaust Romania was home to the second largest Jewish community in Europe, and the fourth largest in the world, after USSR, USA, and Poland. Main Jewish organization:

Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti Din România - Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania
Str. Sf. Vineri nr. 9-11 sector 3, Bucuresti, Romania
Phone: 021-315.50.90
Fax: 021-313.10.28
Email: secretariat@fcer.ro
Website: www.jewishfed.ro

Ciucea

In Hungarian: Csucsa; in German: Tschötsch

A commune in the Cluj County in the historical region of Transylvania, Romania. Until 1918 it was part of Austria-Hungary, between 1940-1944 was annexed by Hungary.

Jews started to settle in Ciucea during the first half of the 19th century. In 1857 there were 17 Jewish inhabitants in the village. The 1930 census recorded 134 Jews out of the general population of 1,777

The rise to power of the Goga-Cuza government in December 1937 led to the enactment and implementation of official anti-Semitic policies in Romania. After his dismissal as Prime Minister of Romania in February 1938, Octavian Goga, a notorious anti-Semite, spent his last month of life at his estate in Ciucea. 

In August 1940 Northern Transylvania, including Ciucea, was annexed by Hungary. The anti-Semitic policy of the Hungarian government was implemented immediately. In May 1944 the Jews of Ciucea were arrested and taken to the ghetto in Cluj, and from there were deported to the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz in early June 1944.

Ther Jewish cemetery in Ciucea is located on Crasnei Str., at the exit from the village towards Vanatori village.

Ciucea is the birth place of Dezső David Friedmann (1880-1939), the father of the war photographer and journalist Robert Capa (born Endre Ernő Friedmann) (1913-1954).