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קהילת יהודי טרזיינשטאט - טרזין

עיר המבצר טוזין (בגרמנית - טרזיינשטאדט) שבצפון-מערב צ'כיה הוקמה בימי הקיסר יוזף השני ונקראה על שם אמו מריה-תרזה. ב-1941 תכננו הנאצים לרכז בטרזין את רוב יהודי הפרוטקטוראט של בוהמיה ומורביה וכן יהודים קשישים, ידועי שם ובעלי זכויות מיוחדות, ומשם להעבירם בהדרגה למחנות ההשמדה. ואכן, הם הפכו את העיר לגטו, ובין 4 לנובמבר 1941 ל-20 באפריל 1945 גירשו אליו כ-140,000 יהודים. בספטמבר 1942 הגיעה אוכלוסיית הגטו לשיא (53,000 נפש). מתוך היהודים שעברו בגטו מתו בו כ-33,000 ו-80,000 גורשו למחנות ההשמדה. בסתיו 1944 נותרו בטרזין 11,000 נפש בלבד.

רוב היהודים בטרזין היו מתבוללים, רבים מהם אמנים, סופרים ומלומדים, ובעזרתם התארגנו חיי תרבות אינטנסיביים: תזמורות, להקת אופרה, תיאטרון ובימות בידור וסאטירה. בהקמת הגטו ובהפעלתו ביקשו הגרמנים להסוות את השמדת יהודי אירופה מפני דעת הקהל בעולם, וזאת על ידי הצגת טרזין כיישוב יהודי לדוגמא.

סוג מקום:
עיירה
מספר פריט:
135330
חובר ע"י חוקרים של אנו מוזיאון העם היהודי
מקומות קרובים:

פריטים קשורים:
Gruenbaum, Simon (1864-1942), jurist, born in 1864 at Riesenburg then in the German province of West Prussia ( now Prabuty, northern Poland). A successful lawyer, he reached the rank of Justizrat (senior legal advisor) in Weimar Germany. He regarded himself totally as a German of Jewish faith. During the First World War he served as an officer of the Mounted Artillery and was awarded the Iron Cross.

His office represented a number of important commercial companies. His personal Jewish tragedy began with the emigration of his two sons - Hans Gruenbaum and Ernst Gruenbaum - from Germany to what was then Palestine. In order to visit his sons he himself travelled to Palestine twice: in 1936 and in 1939. He returned to Germany because he could not imagine that even older Jews would not be allowed to live out the rest of their lives in peace. On September 8, 1942, already an old man he was deported to Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp, where he died after two days.
Kann, Henricus Jacobus (1872-1945), banker, founder of Zionist movement in Holland and in 1909 original purchaser of the land on which Tel Aviv was founded. Kann, a direct descendant of Rabbi Moses Kann, head of the Frankfurt on Main yeshiva in the 18th century, was born in The Hague, Netherlands, to a wealthy assimilated Jewish family. The family mingled freely with non-Jews, among whom were also members of the Dutch Parliament and government ministers. His personal views were progressive in terms of equality and human rights.

Kann was the owner of Lissa & Kann, an important private bank which served, among others, the Dutch Royal family. Zionism probably saved them from further assimilation. It offered them a positive Jewish identity in a highly idealistic setting that was very similar to their other fields of activity. He came to devote most of his time to Zionist affairs, to board memberships in the Jewish community and educational matters in The Hague.

Kann, along with his brother Eduard, attended the first Zionist congress in 1897, and he became the driving force behind the foundation of the Dutch Zionist Federation in 1899. Kann visited Eretz‫ ‬Israel for the first time in 1907, while it was still part of the Ottoman Empire. Kann documented his journey in his book “Eretz Israel, the Jewish Land”, which was published in 1908. Included in the book was a proposal to establish “Jewish autonomous home rule” in Eretz Israel, an unprecedented and daring political plan that even caused some unrest in the Zionist Movement itself.

When Kann heard that Theodor Herzl was planning to set up a Zionist bank, he offered his professional skills, and Herzl came in person to meet with him in The Hague. Kann became a main player in the foundation of the Jewish Colonial Trust (1899) and served on its board until 1929. When the Anglo-Palestine Company (APC) – the banking subsidiary of the Jewish Colonial Trust – was incorporated, Kann was involved in the launching of its first branch in Yafo (Jaffa), in 1903. He also served on the Anglo-Palestine Company’s Board of Directors. Kann, together with David Wolffsohn and Otto Warburg, constituted the Inner Action Committee that ruled over the Zionist Movement after Herzl’s death. He held that position from 1905 till 1911, and it is during this period that Kann purchased the ‘Kerem Jabali’, north of Yafo. The purchased land stayed in Kann’s possession until he sold it to the members of the ‘Ahuzat Bayit’ association.In 1909, he met a young accountant, Eliezer Siegfried Hoofien, who had only just established himself in Amsterdam. Hoofien was to became vice-director of the Anglo-Palestine Company in Yafo, under Zalman Levontin and eventually became Director of the Bank Leumi, as the APC was now known, until 1957. In 1910, Kann founded the first hachshara organization in the Netherlands. That same year he also engaged the services of a civil engineer of the Dutch government, A.A. Meijers, who was engaged to design an irrigation project for the development of the Audja plain, situated along the banks of the Yarkon river between Yafo and Petah Tikva. The area’s proximity to Yafo made it ideal for orange plantations for export purposes. Betzalel Yaffe, one of the members of ‘Ahuzat Bayit’, was involved through his activities with an irrigation company. Kann further instructed Meijers to design development plans for Jerusalem, not only in connection with its water supply, but also with electrical street lighting and an electrical tramway. Kann estimated that millions of Jews would eventually immigrate to Palestine. This, he felt, could only be realized by providing the scarcely populated and undeveloped Holy Land with viable workplaces and an appropriate western-style infrastructure.

A typical practical Dutchman, Kann disapproved of wastage and he expected projects to become self-sufficient and profitable as soon as possible. He therefore strongly criticized the idealistic development projects in Kineret, Merhavia, Degania and other places. But his strong involvement also took a heavy toll on his health. In 1911 Kann suffered a heart attack and left the Inner Action Committee together.

Kann became once again very active during the First World War, when the Jewish National Fund was relocated to neutral The Hague. With the help of Dutch diplomatic channels, rescue money for the suffering Jews in Palestine was transferred to the Yafo branch of the Anglo-Palestine Bank, whose manager, Hoofien, had been appointed Dutch Consul. After the war, from 1918 until 1922, Kann served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Anglo-Palestine Bank. It was then that he paid his second visit to Palestine, in 1919. During this second journey to Palestine, Kann attended several sessions of the Zionist Commission. On one occasion, he tried to convince Dr. Chaim Weizmann of the need to change the Zionist Movement’s approach towards the Arabs. Arabs, he believed, would form an integrated minority with full civil rights in a Homeland, in which the Jews would achieve an overall majority by mass immigration. Kann expressed his views on the Zionist Commission’s tasks in particular in the area of education. Kann advised the Commission to start a public school system in which Jews and Arabs, the Jewish Homeland’s future inhabitants, would learn together in both Hebrew and Arabic. He opposed the development of two separate nationalistic educational systems.

Kann arrived to Israel for a third time in 1924 to live there. He had been looking for a suitable way to make aliya, and was nominated by the Dutch authorities as Consul of the Netherlands in Jerusalem. However, in 1927, after spending three years in Palestine, the Kanns were forced to return to the Netherlands due to serious health problems. After the bloody Arab riots of 1929, Kann fiercely criticized the British administration for building up an exclusively Arab police force, while leaving the Jews unprotected and even disarming them. But at the same time he once again condemned the “chauvinistic elements in Zionism”, and he voiced his endorsement of the ideas of Judah Magnes, the first president of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who was a follower of Ahad Ha’Am and an ardent pacifist. Kann continued to strive for peaceful Jewish-Arab coexistence in a bi-national state.

Both Jacobus and Anna Kann were murdered by the Nazis in Theresienstadt, he in 1944 and she in early 1945. Their three children were all murdered in concentration camps.
Chodziesner, Ludwig (1860-1943), jurist, born into a family of very modest means in Woldenberg, then in Pomerania, Germany (now Dobiegniew, in Poland). Determined to improve themselves, three out of the four brothers worked their way through university and became lawyers.

In 1892 Chodziesner qualified as an assessor and had become a partner in an important law office in Berlin, Germany. The same year he married Elise Schenflies. To attest to his professional success, by 1899 he had purchased a mansion in a fashionable part of Berlin and had four children. The family attended (infrequently) the small synagogue in the Schulstrasse.

In 1903 he became well known when he successfully defended a countess from the Polish nobility who had been accused of fraudulently passing off a child as her heir. In another case he helped to defend Price Philipp zu Eulenberg, a close friend of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, against accusations that he was a homosexual. In 1910 Chodziesner was the counsel of Count Friedrich-Werner, later to be German ambassador to Moscow, in his divorce proceedings. He had become something of a celebrity lawyer for the social elite although, his political views, like those of most German Jews of the time, were decidedly liberal.

Chodziesner was loyal to the German Empire and to the Emperor. As far as he was concerned equality before the law permitted social advancement and integration into German society "as far as that was possible for a Jew". He was reticent when it came to talking about his religion. He considered himself to be a “German citizen of Jewish religion”. He did not take too seriously the fact that anti-Ssemitism was tolerated in the Empire and that this anti-Semitism became more and more racist. He was very upset by the defeat of Germany in the First World War. The resulting economic disruptions caused the family serious financial losses and he was forced to sell the mansion, but he was able to buy another smaller residence in a new suburb of Berlin where they lived until 1938.

In 1936 his name was “removed “ from the list of lawyers after 45 years of activity. In the pogrom of 1938 he was arrested for four days and he was subsequently forced to sell his house for a laughable price. He bought a small apartment in Berlin. The family was by this time dispersed throughout the world; it is known that Ludwig himself considered emigration but decided against it. In 1941 the couple were forced to live in only one room when the authorities instructed several other families to move into their apartment. In September 1942 he was deported to Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp. He died there in February 1943.

Chodziesner’s daugfhter (known as Gertrud Kolmar) became a well-known author.
זינגר, קורט )1886-1944) , מוסיקולוג ונוירולוג. נולד בקובלנץ (Koblenz), גרמניה, כבנו של רב שהיגר עם משפחתו מברנט (Berent), פולין. למד בברלין – מוסיקלוגיה אצל מקס פרידלנדר ורפואה באוניברסיטה. התמחה בנוירולוגיה. פעל כמבקר המוסיקה של העיתון הסוציאליסטי Vorwaerts, ייסד בברלין מקהלת רופאים וניצח עליה. בשנים 1931-1926 פעל כבימאי במסגרת האופרה הגרמנית בברלין. בעקבות פיטוריו ב-1933 בהתאם לחוק שחוקקו הנאצים, נמנה עם מייסדיו של איגוד התרבות היהודי (Juedischer Kulturbund) וכיהן כנשיאו במסגרת זאת ניצח על תזמורת האיגוד. ב-1938 הוזמן להרצות באוניברסיטת הארווארד. כעבור שנה נאלץ לשוב לאירופה, כי לא הייתה בידו אשרת שהייה בארצות-הברית, והתכוון לשוב לגרמניה. בגבול הולנד-גרמניה פגש אותו ורנר לוי, ידידו וממלא מקומו באיגוד התרבות, ויעץ לו לשוב על עקבותיו. זינגר נמלט אפוא להולנד (ב-1939), והסתתר באמסטרדם בבית ידידים – הזוג פאולה לינדברג (זמרת סופרן) ובעלה, פרופ' סלומון. ב-20 באפריל 1943 נעצר על-ידי הגרמנים ונשלח למחנה הריכוז טרזיינשטט.
בין כתביו "ריכרד ווגנר" (1931), "המוסיקה למקהלה של ברוקנר" (1924), "תחלואים של מקצוע המוסיקה" (1927) ו"השפעתה המרפאת של מוסיקה". נפטר ממחלת-לב בטרזיינשטט.
Herzfeld, Gustav (1861-1942), lawyer, born in New York, USA, but brought up and educated in Germany. In 1908 he converted to Protestantism. He opened a legal office in Potsdam, Germany, in 1909. Herzfeld’s son Joachim, born in Boston, MA., USA, was an officer in the German army in World War I and was killed in action.

During the hard economic times of the 1920s, Herzfeld was known as a socially conscious lawyer who often gave his services for poor people without charge. When the Nazis came to power he was considered to be a Jew despite his conversion, but since he had started to practice law before 1914 he was permitted to continue to work until 1938.

Deprived of an income he was forced to sell his house, but was allowed to live in a small attic room. In 1941 he was obliged to move to a Jewish old age home in the Bergstrasse in Babelsberg neighbourhood of Berlin, where he tried to commit suicide. He deported to Theresienstadt in October 1942 where he died after 2 weeks.
Magnus, Julius (1867-1944), lawyer, born in Berlin, Germany. He practiced in Berlin as a notary and advocate from 1898. Magnus wrote articles for legal journals on the laws of competition, on the protection of industrial property, copyright and patent law. For almost twenty years he was the editor of the "Juristische Wochenschrift" ("Weekly Law Review") published by the German Bar Association. The magazine was a forum for legal debate in the years of the Weimar Republic and so contributed greatly to the development of German law in that time.

In 1933 he was forced to give up editorship of the journal and could not longer act as a notary but on account of his age he was permitted to practice as a lawyer until 1938. In 1939 he fled to Holland but the Gestapo found him and he was imprisoned in the infamous Westerbork camp. In 1944 he was taken to Theresienstadt where he died of starvation.
Elte, Harry (1880-1945), architect, born in Amsterdam, Netherlands. In 1914 he won the international competition for designing a stadium in Amsterdam. He also designed several Dutch synagogues and the Jewish war veterans home in Amsterdam. In 1927 he renovated the Amersfoort synagogue first built in 1727. During the German occupation of Holland in World War 2 he was deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp where he was killed.

Alfred Grotte (1872-1943), professor, historian, conservator, and architect, born in Prague., Czech Republic (then part of Austria-Hungary).  Grotte researched synagogal and cemetery architecture of the Jews, especially in Biala and Brzeg, Silesia. He resided in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, in Poland) and was a member of the educational council of the state architectural school. He planned a number of public and private buildings in Germany, including synagogues and Jewish welfare  institutions, and rendered special services by his numerous drawings of Jewish monuments through which he made valuable material accessible to historians of Jewish art. His publications in this field include: Synagogentypen vom elften bis neunzehnten Jahrhundert (1915); Biedermeier-Grabmaaler und ihre Beschriftung in der Ostmark (1916); Alte schlesische Judenfriedhoefe (1927). Grotte died in 1943 at the Theresienstadt) Nazi concentration camp.

משך:
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הקלטה מקורית מדיסק "כעופרת הרקיע". פורסם על ידי בית התפוצות בשנת 1999.

שיר הערש הארצישראלי הנודע הושר גם בגולה, והיה חלק מרפרטואר הזמרה של היהודים בטרזין. גדעון קליין עיבד אותו לקול ולפסנתר ב-6 בפברואר 1943. השיר הושר שם בעברית. מקורו של השיר ב-1930 בהצגת תיאטרון "המטאטא". עמנואל הרוסי (1979-1903) כתב את מילותיו כהד להתנכלויות ליישובים היהודיים, והלחן מיוחס לר' שלום חריטונוב, שוחט ובודק מחסידי חב"ד מן העיר ניקולאייב ברוסיה.