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The Jewish Community of Apolda

Apolda

A town and the capital of the Weimarer Land district in Thuringia, Germany.

It was not until 1850 that Jewish life was established in Apolda. Around 1900, a religious association "Israelite Religious Community of Apolda" was constituted. In 1880 there lived twelve Jews in Apolda, in 1885 there were 39, in 1895 47 and in 1905 their number increased to 62.

The Jewish community in Apolda held their services in a prayer hall on the upper floor of the "Civic Association".  However, by mid-1920s, there seemed that any  organized Jewish life in Apolda ceased to exist. The prayer hall was used for a different purpose and there was only one school-age child who was taught by the teacher of the Arnstadt Jewish community. In Apolda there was no cemetery, the dead were buried in the cemetery of the Jewish community in Erfurt.

Despite the fact that there was no organized Jewish community in Apolda, at the 1933 census, 80 people still claimed their affiliation with Judaism. They were persecuted by the Nazis. During the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938),  the Jewish shops in Apolda were destroyed and later demolished. The Jewish inhabitants who remained in Apolda were deported from May 1942 to Nazi concentration camps. The building containing the community's prayer room was demolished in 1993. The residential and commercial building of the fur trader Bernhard Prager is reminiscent of the Apolda Jewish life. It serves as a place of commemoration and remembrance.

-------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Place Type:
Town
ID Number:
148250
Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People
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Musicologist. Born in Apolda, Germany, he became assistant to August Kretzschmar at the Berlin Institute of Musicology and, from 1918 until 1933, critic of a daily in Leipzig. Aber settled in London in 1936 and joined the publishing house Novello.
Among Aber’s writings are studies to J.S.Bach’s piano concertos (1913), Handbook of Music Literature (1922), Music Instruments and their Language (1924), Music at the Theater – History and Aesthetics (1926), short biographies of Bach, Beethoven and Brahms and numerous articles. Died in London, England.
Composer, musician and actor. Born in Koenigsberg, then Germany, named Horst Ladendorf, he first studied piano with his mother, and later the violin. He studied music theory, history and composition with some of Koenigsberg’s most famous teachers before discovering acting, which prompted him to move to Danzig for a year to perform at the newly-established Kammertheater,where, he composed his first music for the stage. On his return to Koenigsberg he devoted himself full-time to acting and in 1928 joined the Schauspielhaus, Koenigsberg’s professional theater company. He also appeared on radio. In 1930 he married the promising young Koenigsberg violinist Henrietta Cohn and as a result converted to Judaism.
In 1932, Max Reinhardt, the world-renowned director and impresario invited Avdori to Berlin to act in stage plays and in radio broadcasts. Between his engagements in Berlin and Koenigsberg he set to music poems by Tucholsky, Kaestner and Kesser. In 1933 Avdori’s daughter Ruth was born. The same year, however, as a result of new Nazi laws he was dismissed from his post in the Schauspielhaus in Koenigsberg. After a short while he fled Germany with his family for Eretz Israel and settled in Jerusalem.
Avdori’s musical talents helped him master Hebrew in a very short period. Times were hard and, although he auditioned at the Habimah National Theater, he was not accepted and was forced to work as a gardener in Tel Aviv. In 1935, he moved to Haifa and co-founded the Haifa Hebrew Theater, where he acted and directed. But more bad luck befell him and the outbreak of the 1936 Arab uprising forced the theater to close. Avdori took odd jobs, and at night played the violin and drums in a jazz band.
Hard times had not, however, dimmed Avdori’s creative abilities. In 1937, he composed the music for the pantomime MEGILATH RUTH (RUTH SCROLL), which was performed nationwide several times. The music was composed for his daughter Ruth and was entitled the RUTH BALLET SUITE. It was destined to be his most enduring work and had the distinction of being broadcast on Kol Israel every Shavuot until 1950, and thereafter periodically until 1963.
The end of the War saw Avdori move to Tel Aviv where he took acting parts in the Ohel Theater and the Cameri Theater. Sadly, despite his undoubted and multi-faceted talents, he won fewer and fewer parts, and had to support himself as a part-time musician and waiter. Finally, he took a job with an insurance company, and had to give up acting. In 1954, he remarried and moved to Givat Ada, where he made a great contribution to the cultural life of the settlement through music and acting. There he produced childrens’ theater plays, including THE MAGIC FLUTE. Unfortunately, a lack of funds brought an end to these projects.
In 1962, the director Joseph Milo brought Avdori to Haifa to join the newly-founded Haifa Municipal Theater and in 1965, he took part in their production of FIDDLER ON THE ROOF. Tragically, two days before the premiere he suffered a heart attack and died a few months later.
Avdori left a rich legacy of music, which includes CONCERTO in E minor for violin and string orchestra; HIRHURIM (THOUGHTS) for piano; CORONATION MARCH for orchestra; FIVE SONGS for alto and orchestra; SEVEN OLD ITALIAN ARIAS for mezzo-soprano, alto and chamber orchestra; SONGS IN FRENCH for piano, and much incidental music.
Composer, musician and actor. Born in Koenigsberg, then Germany, named Horst Ladendorf, he first studied piano with his mother, and later the violin. He studied music theory, history and composition with some of Koenigsberg’s most famous teachers before discovering acting, which prompted him to move to Danzig for a year to perform at the newly-established Kammertheater,where, he composed his first music for the stage. On his return to Koenigsberg he devoted himself full-time to acting and in 1928 joined the Schauspielhaus, Koenigsberg’s professional theater company. He also appeared on radio. In 1930 he married the promising young Koenigsberg violinist Henrietta Cohn and as a result converted to Judaism.
In 1932, Max Reinhardt, the world-renowned director and impresario invited Avdori to Berlin to act in stage plays and in radio broadcasts. Between his engagements in Berlin and Koenigsberg he set to music poems by Tucholsky, Kaestner and Kesser. In 1933 Avdori’s daughter Ruth was born. The same year, however, as a result of new Nazi laws he was dismissed from his post in the Schauspielhaus in Koenigsberg. After a short while he fled Germany with his family for Eretz Israel and settled in Jerusalem.
Avdori’s musical talents helped him master Hebrew in a very short period. Times were hard and, although he auditioned at the Habimah National Theater, he was not accepted and was forced to work as a gardener in Tel Aviv. In 1935, he moved to Haifa and co-founded the Haifa Hebrew Theater, where he acted and directed. But more bad luck befell him and the outbreak of the 1936 Arab uprising forced the theater to close. Avdori took odd jobs, and at night played the violin and drums in a jazz band.
Hard times had not, however, dimmed Avdori’s creative abilities. In 1937, he composed the music for the pantomime MEGILATH RUTH (RUTH SCROLL), which was performed nationwide several times. The music was composed for his daughter Ruth and was entitled the RUTH BALLET SUITE. It was destined to be his most enduring work and had the distinction of being broadcast on Kol Israel every Shavuot until 1950, and thereafter periodically until 1963.
The end of the War saw Avdori move to Tel Aviv where he took acting parts in the Ohel Theater and the Cameri Theater. Sadly, despite his undoubted and multi-faceted talents, he won fewer and fewer parts, and had to support himself as a part-time musician and waiter. Finally, he took a job with an insurance company, and had to give up acting. In 1954, he remarried and moved to Givat Ada, where he made a great contribution to the cultural life of the settlement through music and acting. There he produced childrens’ theater plays, including THE MAGIC FLUTE. Unfortunately, a lack of funds brought an end to these projects.
In 1962, the director Joseph Milo brought Avdori to Haifa to join the newly-founded Haifa Municipal Theater and in 1965, he took part in their production of FIDDLER ON THE ROOF. Tragically, two days before the premiere he suffered a heart attack and died a few months later.
Avdori left a rich legacy of music, which includes CONCERTO in E minor for violin and string orchestra; HIRHURIM (THOUGHTS) for piano; CORONATION MARCH for orchestra; FIVE SONGS for alto and orchestra; SEVEN OLD ITALIAN ARIAS for mezzo-soprano, alto and chamber orchestra; SONGS IN FRENCH for piano, and much incidental music.
Musicologist. Born in Apolda, Germany, he became assistant to August Kretzschmar at the Berlin Institute of Musicology and, from 1918 until 1933, critic of a daily in Leipzig. Aber settled in London in 1936 and joined the publishing house Novello.
Among Aber’s writings are studies to J.S.Bach’s piano concertos (1913), Handbook of Music Literature (1922), Music Instruments and their Language (1924), Music at the Theater – History and Aesthetics (1926), short biographies of Bach, Beethoven and Brahms and numerous articles. Died in London, England.

Erfurt

A city in Thuringia, Germany. Until World War II within Sachsen province.

21st Century

In 1998, the ancient synagogue was reconstructed and Jewish classes are held there. In 2003 the community numbered about 550 people, most of them immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The head of the community is Reinhard Sharm and the rabbi of the community is Consentin Pal. There is a community cultural center where Jewish and social classes are held, such as concerts, radio programs and meetings on a cup of coffee. The old Jewish cemetery was closed and a new cemetery was opened. There is a room for ritual purity, and eulogies are said in a special style. Tours of the museum, the ancient synagogue and the ancient mikveh are available.

History

Jews are first mentioned there in the 12th century. At first under the protection of the king, by the second half of the 12th century they had passed to the jurisdiction of the archbishop of Mainz, who composed an oath formula for them in German. In 1209 the king also relinquished his right to collect taxes from the Jews, which in 1212 was explicitly granted to the archbishop. In 1221 anti-Jewish riots broke out. Jews were murdered while some, preferring martyrdom, threw themselves into the flames. Among the martyrs was the paytan and cantor Samuel B. Kalonymus. Nevertheless, the Jewish community of Erfurt continued to exist and even to expand. After some time a new synagogue was built and well-known rabbis chose Erfurt as their seat. Between 1286 and 1293 Asher B. Jehiel probably lived there, and at about the same time Kalonymus B. Eliezer ha-Nakdan composed his Masorah Ketannah, still preserved in manuscript in Erfurt. During the middle ages the Jews of Erfurt followed the Saxony prayer rite. The community's book of ritual is preserved at Jews' college, London (ms. 104, 4).

At the beginning of the 14th century protection over the Jews passed to the municipality; however, in early March 1349, over 100 Jews were murdered by the populace, and many set fire to their homes and perished in the flames. Those who survived were driven from the city. Among the martyrs was Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen, author of Sefer ha-Aguddah. Israel B. Joel Susslin mentions the Erfurt martyrs in an elegy (Sefer ha-Dema'ot, 2, 126-7). The city council again permitted the Jews to settle within the city walls and build a new synagogue in 1357. In 1391 the king canceled all the debts owed by Christians to the Erfurt Jews and handed them over to the municipality for 2,000 gulden; the municipality claimed this sum from the Jews, but promised them to return part of the debts. Subsequently the Jews had to pay a special tax to the king's treasury.

In 1418 they were compelled to declare the amount of their property on oath, in the synagogue, and the king collected new taxes from them on this basis. In 1458 they were again expelled from Erfurt.

During the following century the Erfurt community became one of the largest and most important in Germany, some of the most celebrated rabbis officiating there. Meir B. Baruch ha-Levi served there for some time; a disciple of his was Hillel of Erfurt. In the middle of the 15th century Jacob B. Judah Weil taught there. During this period, Erfurt Jews played an important role in banking in Thuringia.

Around 1820 the Prussian authorities used the tombstones in the Jewish cemetery for the fortification of the city. At that time Jews again began to settle in Erfurt, numbering some 144 in 1840 when a new synagogue was dedicated. The community numbered 546 in 1880 (1.03% of the total population); 795 in 1910 (0.72%); and 831 in 1933 (0.6%).

After the advent of the Nazis the majority of the Jews left Erfurt, 263 remaining in 1939. The synagogue was burned down on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938). The community was compelled to pay for the petrol used for igniting the synagogue and for clearing the ruins. The men were detained in the local school, where they were mistreated, and subsequently deported to Buchenwald. The 173 Jews remaining in Erfurt were deported in February 1945 to Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp.

 

The Jewish community after the Holocaust 

The community was renewed after the Holocaust. In 1952 a new synagogue and mikveh were built. In 1961, 120 Jews lived in the city. A memorial book was issued for Holocaust victims. The communal archives from 1855 to 1936 have been transferred to the Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People in Jerusalem. One of the famous manuscripts of the Tosefta was found in Erfurt after which it is named. According to Saul Lieberman in his Introduction to his edition of the Tosefta Bi-Feshuto , the manuscript was created sometime during the 12th century in Germany. 

Merseburg

A town and capital of the Saalekreis district.  in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

Merseburg is situated near the city of Leipzig. The Jewish community of Merseburg was one of the oldest in Germany. As early as 973 Emperor Otto II granted bishop Gisiler authority over "the Jews, the merchants, and the mint in the town”. King Henry II renewed this privilege in 1004. In 1234 three Jews lent 80 silver marks to the burgrave of Merseburg. In 1269 the convent of Pegau sold properties to repay debts to Merseburg Jews. In this period Rabbi Ezekiel of Merseburg addressed a number of halakhic queries to Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg. Another scholar of the period was Rabbi Samuel of Merseburg. The cemetery of the community dated at least from 1362. The assertion that there was a persecution in 1349-1350 rests on a confusion between similar names of localities. In a Hebrew source Menahem of Merseburg, author of Nimmukim, was a leading German rabbi in the second half of the 14th century. In 1434 the Jews of the Merseburg bishopric paid 100 gilders
coronation tax to King Sigismund II, in 1438 a 3 income tax to King Albert II, and in 1440 a coronation tax again. At an unknown time thereafter the Jews left the town which underwent economic decline and internal tension. In 1556 the Saxon historian Ernst Brotuff wrote, "formerly many Jews lived in Merseburg who had their own synagogue with a courtyard in the small street west of the cathedral chapter." In 1565 Merseburg came under the rule of Saxony, where no Jews were tolerated, and in 1815 under Prussia, which lifted the restrictions in the new territories only in 1847. By 1849, 34 Jews lived in Merseburg; there were 23 in 1871, 16 in 1880, 20 in 1903, 29 in 1905, 20 in 1913 (five families), and 40 in 1925. They were affiliated with the Jewish community in Weissenfels. Records for the years 1933-1945 are missing. No Jews settled in Merseburg after 1945.

Jena

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

Around 1400 there was a small Jewish community in Jena. In 1431 a synagogue that was located on Jüdengasse and Leutragasse is mentioned. From the middle of the 16th century to 1850 Jews were forbidden to settle in Jena. It was not until the second half of the 19th century that a small Jewish community formed again, but it never received the status of a religious community. The newly founded "Israelite Religious Community" endeavored to provide regular religious instruction for school-age children and worship service. Both took place in the private rooms of community members. The buildings in Scheidlerstrasse 3 and in the former Schützenstrasse 52 are now privately owned and used as residential buildings. The number of members of the Jena community developed as follows: In 1880 there were 30 Jewish residents in Jena, in 1890 there were 64, in 1895 already 85, in 1900 the number fell to 61 and in 1905 there were 145 Jews in Jena. The deceased of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery of the Erfurt community. Although the Jena congregation was given the opportunity to set up a burial place in a separate section of the Catholic cemetery, the predominantly conservative congregation refused.

In 1925 there were 277 Jewish residents in Jena. In 1933 it was less than half with 111. By the end of 1938 all Jewish businesses were "Aryanized" or closed, the Jews living in Jena at that time were crammed into so-called "Jewish houses". From 1942 the deportations to the to the Nazi concentration camps began. After the end of the war eleven survivors of Jena Jews returned from Theresienstadt, and they again founded a small community which only existed for a very short time.

It was only after 1990 when the USSR collapsed, that Jewish emigrants came to Jena and formed a new community.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

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The Jewish Community of Apolda

Apolda

A town and the capital of the Weimarer Land district in Thuringia, Germany.

It was not until 1850 that Jewish life was established in Apolda. Around 1900, a religious association "Israelite Religious Community of Apolda" was constituted. In 1880 there lived twelve Jews in Apolda, in 1885 there were 39, in 1895 47 and in 1905 their number increased to 62.

The Jewish community in Apolda held their services in a prayer hall on the upper floor of the "Civic Association".  However, by mid-1920s, there seemed that any  organized Jewish life in Apolda ceased to exist. The prayer hall was used for a different purpose and there was only one school-age child who was taught by the teacher of the Arnstadt Jewish community. In Apolda there was no cemetery, the dead were buried in the cemetery of the Jewish community in Erfurt.

Despite the fact that there was no organized Jewish community in Apolda, at the 1933 census, 80 people still claimed their affiliation with Judaism. They were persecuted by the Nazis. During the Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938),  the Jewish shops in Apolda were destroyed and later demolished. The Jewish inhabitants who remained in Apolda were deported from May 1942 to Nazi concentration camps. The building containing the community's prayer room was demolished in 1993. The residential and commercial building of the fur trader Bernhard Prager is reminiscent of the Apolda Jewish life. It serves as a place of commemoration and remembrance.

-------------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz.

Written by researchers of ANU Museum of the Jewish People

Jena
Merseburg
Erfurt

Jena

A city in Thuringia, Germany.

Around 1400 there was a small Jewish community in Jena. In 1431 a synagogue that was located on Jüdengasse and Leutragasse is mentioned. From the middle of the 16th century to 1850 Jews were forbidden to settle in Jena. It was not until the second half of the 19th century that a small Jewish community formed again, but it never received the status of a religious community. The newly founded "Israelite Religious Community" endeavored to provide regular religious instruction for school-age children and worship service. Both took place in the private rooms of community members. The buildings in Scheidlerstrasse 3 and in the former Schützenstrasse 52 are now privately owned and used as residential buildings. The number of members of the Jena community developed as follows: In 1880 there were 30 Jewish residents in Jena, in 1890 there were 64, in 1895 already 85, in 1900 the number fell to 61 and in 1905 there were 145 Jews in Jena. The deceased of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery of the Erfurt community. Although the Jena congregation was given the opportunity to set up a burial place in a separate section of the Catholic cemetery, the predominantly conservative congregation refused.

In 1925 there were 277 Jewish residents in Jena. In 1933 it was less than half with 111. By the end of 1938 all Jewish businesses were "Aryanized" or closed, the Jews living in Jena at that time were crammed into so-called "Jewish houses". From 1942 the deportations to the to the Nazi concentration camps began. After the end of the war eleven survivors of Jena Jews returned from Theresienstadt, and they again founded a small community which only existed for a very short time.

It was only after 1990 when the USSR collapsed, that Jewish emigrants came to Jena and formed a new community.

----------------------------------------

This entry was originally published on Beit Ashkenaz - Destroyed German Synagogues and Communities website and contributed to the Database of the Museum of the Jewish People courtesy of Beit Ashkenaz. 

Merseburg

A town and capital of the Saalekreis district.  in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

Merseburg is situated near the city of Leipzig. The Jewish community of Merseburg was one of the oldest in Germany. As early as 973 Emperor Otto II granted bishop Gisiler authority over "the Jews, the merchants, and the mint in the town”. King Henry II renewed this privilege in 1004. In 1234 three Jews lent 80 silver marks to the burgrave of Merseburg. In 1269 the convent of Pegau sold properties to repay debts to Merseburg Jews. In this period Rabbi Ezekiel of Merseburg addressed a number of halakhic queries to Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg. Another scholar of the period was Rabbi Samuel of Merseburg. The cemetery of the community dated at least from 1362. The assertion that there was a persecution in 1349-1350 rests on a confusion between similar names of localities. In a Hebrew source Menahem of Merseburg, author of Nimmukim, was a leading German rabbi in the second half of the 14th century. In 1434 the Jews of the Merseburg bishopric paid 100 gilders
coronation tax to King Sigismund II, in 1438 a 3 income tax to King Albert II, and in 1440 a coronation tax again. At an unknown time thereafter the Jews left the town which underwent economic decline and internal tension. In 1556 the Saxon historian Ernst Brotuff wrote, "formerly many Jews lived in Merseburg who had their own synagogue with a courtyard in the small street west of the cathedral chapter." In 1565 Merseburg came under the rule of Saxony, where no Jews were tolerated, and in 1815 under Prussia, which lifted the restrictions in the new territories only in 1847. By 1849, 34 Jews lived in Merseburg; there were 23 in 1871, 16 in 1880, 20 in 1903, 29 in 1905, 20 in 1913 (five families), and 40 in 1925. They were affiliated with the Jewish community in Weissenfels. Records for the years 1933-1945 are missing. No Jews settled in Merseburg after 1945.

Erfurt

A city in Thuringia, Germany. Until World War II within Sachsen province.

21st Century

In 1998, the ancient synagogue was reconstructed and Jewish classes are held there. In 2003 the community numbered about 550 people, most of them immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The head of the community is Reinhard Sharm and the rabbi of the community is Consentin Pal. There is a community cultural center where Jewish and social classes are held, such as concerts, radio programs and meetings on a cup of coffee. The old Jewish cemetery was closed and a new cemetery was opened. There is a room for ritual purity, and eulogies are said in a special style. Tours of the museum, the ancient synagogue and the ancient mikveh are available.

History

Jews are first mentioned there in the 12th century. At first under the protection of the king, by the second half of the 12th century they had passed to the jurisdiction of the archbishop of Mainz, who composed an oath formula for them in German. In 1209 the king also relinquished his right to collect taxes from the Jews, which in 1212 was explicitly granted to the archbishop. In 1221 anti-Jewish riots broke out. Jews were murdered while some, preferring martyrdom, threw themselves into the flames. Among the martyrs was the paytan and cantor Samuel B. Kalonymus. Nevertheless, the Jewish community of Erfurt continued to exist and even to expand. After some time a new synagogue was built and well-known rabbis chose Erfurt as their seat. Between 1286 and 1293 Asher B. Jehiel probably lived there, and at about the same time Kalonymus B. Eliezer ha-Nakdan composed his Masorah Ketannah, still preserved in manuscript in Erfurt. During the middle ages the Jews of Erfurt followed the Saxony prayer rite. The community's book of ritual is preserved at Jews' college, London (ms. 104, 4).

At the beginning of the 14th century protection over the Jews passed to the municipality; however, in early March 1349, over 100 Jews were murdered by the populace, and many set fire to their homes and perished in the flames. Those who survived were driven from the city. Among the martyrs was Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen, author of Sefer ha-Aguddah. Israel B. Joel Susslin mentions the Erfurt martyrs in an elegy (Sefer ha-Dema'ot, 2, 126-7). The city council again permitted the Jews to settle within the city walls and build a new synagogue in 1357. In 1391 the king canceled all the debts owed by Christians to the Erfurt Jews and handed them over to the municipality for 2,000 gulden; the municipality claimed this sum from the Jews, but promised them to return part of the debts. Subsequently the Jews had to pay a special tax to the king's treasury.

In 1418 they were compelled to declare the amount of their property on oath, in the synagogue, and the king collected new taxes from them on this basis. In 1458 they were again expelled from Erfurt.

During the following century the Erfurt community became one of the largest and most important in Germany, some of the most celebrated rabbis officiating there. Meir B. Baruch ha-Levi served there for some time; a disciple of his was Hillel of Erfurt. In the middle of the 15th century Jacob B. Judah Weil taught there. During this period, Erfurt Jews played an important role in banking in Thuringia.

Around 1820 the Prussian authorities used the tombstones in the Jewish cemetery for the fortification of the city. At that time Jews again began to settle in Erfurt, numbering some 144 in 1840 when a new synagogue was dedicated. The community numbered 546 in 1880 (1.03% of the total population); 795 in 1910 (0.72%); and 831 in 1933 (0.6%).

After the advent of the Nazis the majority of the Jews left Erfurt, 263 remaining in 1939. The synagogue was burned down on Pogrom Night (Nov. 9, 1938). The community was compelled to pay for the petrol used for igniting the synagogue and for clearing the ruins. The men were detained in the local school, where they were mistreated, and subsequently deported to Buchenwald. The 173 Jews remaining in Erfurt were deported in February 1945 to Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp.

 

The Jewish community after the Holocaust 

The community was renewed after the Holocaust. In 1952 a new synagogue and mikveh were built. In 1961, 120 Jews lived in the city. A memorial book was issued for Holocaust victims. The communal archives from 1855 to 1936 have been transferred to the Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People in Jerusalem. One of the famous manuscripts of the Tosefta was found in Erfurt after which it is named. According to Saul Lieberman in his Introduction to his edition of the Tosefta Bi-Feshuto , the manuscript was created sometime during the 12th century in Germany. 

Avdori, Chanan
Aber, Adolf
Composer, musician and actor. Born in Koenigsberg, then Germany, named Horst Ladendorf, he first studied piano with his mother, and later the violin. He studied music theory, history and composition with some of Koenigsberg’s most famous teachers before discovering acting, which prompted him to move to Danzig for a year to perform at the newly-established Kammertheater,where, he composed his first music for the stage. On his return to Koenigsberg he devoted himself full-time to acting and in 1928 joined the Schauspielhaus, Koenigsberg’s professional theater company. He also appeared on radio. In 1930 he married the promising young Koenigsberg violinist Henrietta Cohn and as a result converted to Judaism.
In 1932, Max Reinhardt, the world-renowned director and impresario invited Avdori to Berlin to act in stage plays and in radio broadcasts. Between his engagements in Berlin and Koenigsberg he set to music poems by Tucholsky, Kaestner and Kesser. In 1933 Avdori’s daughter Ruth was born. The same year, however, as a result of new Nazi laws he was dismissed from his post in the Schauspielhaus in Koenigsberg. After a short while he fled Germany with his family for Eretz Israel and settled in Jerusalem.
Avdori’s musical talents helped him master Hebrew in a very short period. Times were hard and, although he auditioned at the Habimah National Theater, he was not accepted and was forced to work as a gardener in Tel Aviv. In 1935, he moved to Haifa and co-founded the Haifa Hebrew Theater, where he acted and directed. But more bad luck befell him and the outbreak of the 1936 Arab uprising forced the theater to close. Avdori took odd jobs, and at night played the violin and drums in a jazz band.
Hard times had not, however, dimmed Avdori’s creative abilities. In 1937, he composed the music for the pantomime MEGILATH RUTH (RUTH SCROLL), which was performed nationwide several times. The music was composed for his daughter Ruth and was entitled the RUTH BALLET SUITE. It was destined to be his most enduring work and had the distinction of being broadcast on Kol Israel every Shavuot until 1950, and thereafter periodically until 1963.
The end of the War saw Avdori move to Tel Aviv where he took acting parts in the Ohel Theater and the Cameri Theater. Sadly, despite his undoubted and multi-faceted talents, he won fewer and fewer parts, and had to support himself as a part-time musician and waiter. Finally, he took a job with an insurance company, and had to give up acting. In 1954, he remarried and moved to Givat Ada, where he made a great contribution to the cultural life of the settlement through music and acting. There he produced childrens’ theater plays, including THE MAGIC FLUTE. Unfortunately, a lack of funds brought an end to these projects.
In 1962, the director Joseph Milo brought Avdori to Haifa to join the newly-founded Haifa Municipal Theater and in 1965, he took part in their production of FIDDLER ON THE ROOF. Tragically, two days before the premiere he suffered a heart attack and died a few months later.
Avdori left a rich legacy of music, which includes CONCERTO in E minor for violin and string orchestra; HIRHURIM (THOUGHTS) for piano; CORONATION MARCH for orchestra; FIVE SONGS for alto and orchestra; SEVEN OLD ITALIAN ARIAS for mezzo-soprano, alto and chamber orchestra; SONGS IN FRENCH for piano, and much incidental music.
Musicologist. Born in Apolda, Germany, he became assistant to August Kretzschmar at the Berlin Institute of Musicology and, from 1918 until 1933, critic of a daily in Leipzig. Aber settled in London in 1936 and joined the publishing house Novello.
Among Aber’s writings are studies to J.S.Bach’s piano concertos (1913), Handbook of Music Literature (1922), Music Instruments and their Language (1924), Music at the Theater – History and Aesthetics (1926), short biographies of Bach, Beethoven and Brahms and numerous articles. Died in London, England.
Avdori, Chanan
Aber, Adolf
Composer, musician and actor. Born in Koenigsberg, then Germany, named Horst Ladendorf, he first studied piano with his mother, and later the violin. He studied music theory, history and composition with some of Koenigsberg’s most famous teachers before discovering acting, which prompted him to move to Danzig for a year to perform at the newly-established Kammertheater,where, he composed his first music for the stage. On his return to Koenigsberg he devoted himself full-time to acting and in 1928 joined the Schauspielhaus, Koenigsberg’s professional theater company. He also appeared on radio. In 1930 he married the promising young Koenigsberg violinist Henrietta Cohn and as a result converted to Judaism.
In 1932, Max Reinhardt, the world-renowned director and impresario invited Avdori to Berlin to act in stage plays and in radio broadcasts. Between his engagements in Berlin and Koenigsberg he set to music poems by Tucholsky, Kaestner and Kesser. In 1933 Avdori’s daughter Ruth was born. The same year, however, as a result of new Nazi laws he was dismissed from his post in the Schauspielhaus in Koenigsberg. After a short while he fled Germany with his family for Eretz Israel and settled in Jerusalem.
Avdori’s musical talents helped him master Hebrew in a very short period. Times were hard and, although he auditioned at the Habimah National Theater, he was not accepted and was forced to work as a gardener in Tel Aviv. In 1935, he moved to Haifa and co-founded the Haifa Hebrew Theater, where he acted and directed. But more bad luck befell him and the outbreak of the 1936 Arab uprising forced the theater to close. Avdori took odd jobs, and at night played the violin and drums in a jazz band.
Hard times had not, however, dimmed Avdori’s creative abilities. In 1937, he composed the music for the pantomime MEGILATH RUTH (RUTH SCROLL), which was performed nationwide several times. The music was composed for his daughter Ruth and was entitled the RUTH BALLET SUITE. It was destined to be his most enduring work and had the distinction of being broadcast on Kol Israel every Shavuot until 1950, and thereafter periodically until 1963.
The end of the War saw Avdori move to Tel Aviv where he took acting parts in the Ohel Theater and the Cameri Theater. Sadly, despite his undoubted and multi-faceted talents, he won fewer and fewer parts, and had to support himself as a part-time musician and waiter. Finally, he took a job with an insurance company, and had to give up acting. In 1954, he remarried and moved to Givat Ada, where he made a great contribution to the cultural life of the settlement through music and acting. There he produced childrens’ theater plays, including THE MAGIC FLUTE. Unfortunately, a lack of funds brought an end to these projects.
In 1962, the director Joseph Milo brought Avdori to Haifa to join the newly-founded Haifa Municipal Theater and in 1965, he took part in their production of FIDDLER ON THE ROOF. Tragically, two days before the premiere he suffered a heart attack and died a few months later.
Avdori left a rich legacy of music, which includes CONCERTO in E minor for violin and string orchestra; HIRHURIM (THOUGHTS) for piano; CORONATION MARCH for orchestra; FIVE SONGS for alto and orchestra; SEVEN OLD ITALIAN ARIAS for mezzo-soprano, alto and chamber orchestra; SONGS IN FRENCH for piano, and much incidental music.
Musicologist. Born in Apolda, Germany, he became assistant to August Kretzschmar at the Berlin Institute of Musicology and, from 1918 until 1933, critic of a daily in Leipzig. Aber settled in London in 1936 and joined the publishing house Novello.
Among Aber’s writings are studies to J.S.Bach’s piano concertos (1913), Handbook of Music Literature (1922), Music Instruments and their Language (1924), Music at the Theater – History and Aesthetics (1926), short biographies of Bach, Beethoven and Brahms and numerous articles. Died in London, England.